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10/25/2014

OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

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A keyboard shortcut is a way to invoke a function in OS X by pressing a combination of keys on your


keyboard. Learn about common OS X keyboard shortcuts.

Using keyboard shortcuts


To use a keyboard shortcut, press a modifier key at the same time as a character key. For example, pressing the
Command key (it has a

symbol) and then the "c" key copies whatever is currently selected to the Clipboard. This

is also known as the CommandC keyboard shortcut. You can see the keys that map to many shortcuts by looking
in an app's menus.

A modifier key is a part of many keyboard shortcuts. A modifier key alters the way other keystrokes or
mouse/trackpad clicks are interpreted by OS X. Modifier keys include: Command, Shift, Option, Control, Caps
Lock, and the fn key. These keys are represented by special symbols when you see them in menus and other parts
of OS X:

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Command key

Control key

Option key

Shift Key
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OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

Caps Lock

fn

Function Key

When the fn key is used with the top row of keys on your keyboard, it makes them perform a different function.
For example, if a keyboard shortcut is ControlF2, you press fnControlBrightness on your keyboard. If you look
closely at the Brightness key at the top of your keyboard, there is an F2 symbol indicating that this key works as a
function key (F2 or function 2) when you hold fn on the keyboard.
If you use a nonApple keyboard that includes a Windows key, the Alt key is the same thing as pressing Option,
and the Windows key is the same thing as Command. You can change how these keys are interpreted from the
Keyboard pane of System Preferences.
Startup shortcuts
Use these key combinations to change how your computer starts up. Press and hold the key or combination of
keys immediately after starting your Mac until the expected function occurs or appears. For example, press and
hold the Option key during startup until the Startup Manager appears.
Note: If you're using a keyboard manufactured by someone other than Apple, the Alt key is usually the same key
as the Option key. If this modifier doesn't appear to work, try using an Apple keyboard instead.
Key or key combination

What it does

Option or Alt

Display all startup volumes (Startup Manager)

Shift

Start up in Safe Mode

Left Shift

Prevent automatic login

Start from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb


drive)

Start up in Target disk mode

Start from a NetBoot server

Force OS X startup (when nonOS X startup


volumes are available)

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Use Apple Hardware Test

CommandR

Use OS X Recovery (OS X Lion or later)


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OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

CommandV

Start up in Verbose Mode

CommandS

Start up in Single User Mode

CommandOptionPR

Reset NVRAM / parameter RAM

Hold down the Media Eject () key or F12 key, or mouse or

Eject removable discs

trackpad button
Sleep and shut down shortcuts
Use these key combinations after your Mac has started up to sleep, shut down, or restart your computer.
Key or key combination

What it does

Power button

Tap to power on. Once powered on, tap the power button to wake or sleep in
OS X Mavericks.

Hold down the power button

Show the restart / sleep / shutdown dialog in OS X Mavericks

for 1.5 seconds


Hold down the power button

Force the Mac to power off

for 5 seconds
CommandControlpower

Force the Mac to restart

button
ControlMedia Eject ()

Show restart / sleep / shutdown dialog

CommandOptionMedia Eject Put the computer to sleep


()
CommandControlMedia

Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open

Eject ()

documents), then restart the computer

CommandOptionControl

Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open

Media Eject ()

documents), then shut down the computer

ShiftControlMedia Eject ()

Put all displays to sleep

Taking screenshots
Use these shortcuts to take a picture of what you see on your screen. You can also use Grab to take screenshots, an app located in
the Utilities folder.

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Key combination

What it does

CommandShift3

Capture the screen to a file


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CommandShift

Capture the screen to the Clipboard

Control3
CommandShift4

Capture a selection of the screen to a file, or press the spacebar to capture just a
window

CommandShift

Capture a selection of the screen to the Clipboard, , or press the spacebar to capture

Control4

just a window

Application and other OS X shortcuts


These keyboard shortcuts work in most apps.
Key combination

What it does

CommandSpace bar

Show or hide the Spotlight search field


(if multiple languages are being used simultaneously, this shortcut may rotate
through enabled script systems instead)

CommandOptionSpace

Show the Spotlight search results window (if multiple languages are installed, may

bar

rotate through keyboard layouts and input methods within a script)

CommandTab

Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open
applications

CommandShiftTab

Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use)

ShiftTab

Navigate through controls in a reverse direction

ControlTab

Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when
Tab moves to the next cell)

ShiftControlTab

Move focus to the previous grouping of controls

OptionMedia Eject ()

Eject from secondary optical media drive (if one is installed)

CommandF1

Toggle "Mirror Displays" on multimonitor configurations

CommandF2

Toggle Target Display Mode

CommandF3

Show Desktop

CommandF5

Toggle VoiceOver On or Off

OptionF1 or OptionF2

Opens "Displays" System Preference

OptionF3 or OptionF4

Open Mission Control preferences

OptionF10 or F11 or F12 Open Sound preferences


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ShiftControlF6

Move focus to the previous panel

ControlF7

Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs

ControlF8

Move to the status menus in the menu bar

CommandAccent (`)

Activate the next open window in the frontmost application

CommandShiftAccent (`)

Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application

CommandOptionAccent

Move focus to the window drawer

(`)
CommandMinus ()

Decrease the size of the selected item

Command{

Leftalign a selection

Command}

Rightalign a selection

Command|

Centeralign a selection

CommandColon (:)

Display the Spelling and Grammar window

CommandSemicolon (;)

Find misspelled words in the document

CommandComma (,)

Open the front application's preferences window

CommandOptionControl

Decrease screen contrast

Comma (,)
CommandOptionControl

Increase screen contrast

Period (.)
CommandQuestion Mark

Open the application's help in Help Viewer

(?)

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CommandOption/

Turn font smoothing on or off

CommandShift=

Increase the size of the selected item

CommandA

Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field

CommandB

Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off

CommandC

Copy the selected data to the Clipboard

CommandShiftC

Display the Colors window

CommandOptionC

Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard

CommandOptionV

Paste (apply) the formatting settings from the Clipboard to the selected item
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CommandOptionD

Show or hide the Dock

CommandControlD

Display the definition of the selected word

CommandD

Selects the Desktop folder in Open and Save dialogs or selects Don't Save in
dialogs that contain a Don't Save button

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CommandDelete

Selects Don't Save in dialogs that contain a Delete or Don't Save button

CommandE

Use the selection for a find

CommandF

Open a Find window

CommandOptionF

Move to the search field control

CommandG

Find the next occurrence of the selection

CommandShiftG

Find the previous occurrence of the selection

CommandH

Hide the windows of the currently running application

CommandOptionH

Hide the windows of all other running applications

CommandI

Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off

CommandOptionI

Display an inspector window

CommandM

Minimize the active window to the Dock

CommandOptionM

Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock

CommandN

Create a new document in the frontmost application

CommandO

Display a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application

CommandP

Display the Print dialog

CommandShiftP

Display a dialog for specifying document parameters (Page Setup)

CommandQ

Quit the frontmost application

CommandS

Save the active document

CommandShiftS

Display the Save As dialog or duplicate the current document

CommandT

Display the Fonts window

CommandOptionT

Show or hide a toolbar

CommandU

Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or off

CommandV

Paste the Clipboard contents at the insertion point

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CommandOptionV

Apply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style)

CommandShiftOptionV

Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match
Style)

CommandControlV

Apply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler)

CommandW

Close the frontmost window

CommandShiftW

Close a file and its associated windows

CommandOptionW

Close all windows in the application without quitting it

CommandX

Remove the selection and store in the Clipboard

CommandZ

Undo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos)

CommandShiftZ

Redo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos)

ControlSpace bar

Toggle between the current and previous input sources

OptionControlSpace bar

Toggle through all enabled input sources

CommandOptionesc

choose an application to Force Quit

CommandShiftOptionEsc Force Quit the frontmost application


(hold for three seconds)
CommandLeft Bracket ([)

Previous browser webpage

CommandRight Bracket (])

Next browser webpage

Text selection shortcuts


Use these key combinations when editing text in a field or document.
fnDelete

Forward Delete (on a portable Mac's builtin keyboard)

fnUp Arrow

Scroll up one page (same as Page Up key)

fnDown Arrow

Scroll down one page (same as Page Down key)

fnLeft Arrow

Scroll to the beginning of a document (same as Home key)

fnRight Arrow

Scroll to the end of a document (same as End key)

CommandRight

Move the text insertion point to the end of the current line

Arrow
CommandLeft
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Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line
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Arrow
CommandDown

Move the text insertion point to the end of the document

Arrow
CommandUp

Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the document

Arrow
OptionRight Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the next word
OptionLeft Arrow

Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the previous word

OptionDelete

Delete the word that is left of the cursor, as well as any spaces or punctuation after the
word

CommandShift

Select text between the insertion point and the end of the current line (*)

Right Arrow
CommandShift

Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line (*)

Left Arrow
CommandShiftUp Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document (*)
Arrow
CommandShift

Select text between the insertion point and the end of the document (*)

Down Arrow
ShiftLeft Arrow

Extend text selection one character to the left (*)

ShiftRight Arrow

Extend text selection one character to the right (*)

ShiftUp Arrow

Extend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same
horizontal location (*)

ShiftDown Arrow

Extend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same
horizontal location (*)

ShiftOptionRight

Extend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the following word

Arrow

if pressed again (*)

ShiftOptionLeft

Extend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the

Arrow

following word if pressed again (*)

ShiftOptionDown Extend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the following

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Arrow

paragraph if pressed again (*)

ShiftOptionUp

Extend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of
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OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

Arrow

the following paragraph if pressed again (*)

ControlA

Move to beginning of line or paragraph

ControlB

Move one character backward

ControlD

Delete the character in front of the cursor

ControlE

Move to the beginning of a line or paragraph

ControlF

Move one character forward

ControlH

Delete the character behind the cursor

ControlK

Delete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line or paragraph

ControlL

Center the cursor or selection in the visible area

ControlN

Move down one line

ControlO

Insert a new line after the cursor

ControlP

Move up one line

ControlT

Transpose the character behind the cursor and the character in front of the cursor

ControlV

Move down

*Note: If no text is selected, the extension begins at the insertion point. If text is selected by dragging, then the extension begins at
the selection boundary. Reversing the direction of the selection deselects the appropriate unit.

Accessibility
These keyboard shortcuts help you control your Mac with your keyboard or assistive devices.
Accessibility and VoiceOver keyboard commands

http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1343

Key combination

What it does

CommandOptionF5

Display Accessibility Options

CommandF5 or fnCommandF5

Turn VoiceOver on or off

OptionControlF8 or fnOptionControlF8

Open VoiceOver Utility (if VoiceOver is on)

OptionControlF7 or fnOptionControlF7

Display VoiceOver menu (if VoiceOver is on)

OptionControlSemicolon (;)

Enable or disable VoiceOver

CommandOption8

Turn Zoom on or off

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CommandOptionPlus (+)

Zoom In

CommandOptionMinus ()

Zoom Out

CommandOptionControl8

Invert/revert the screen colors (OS X Lion or earlier)

CommandOptionControlComma (,)

Reduce contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)

CommandOptionControlPeriod (.)

Increase contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)

Note: You may need to enable "Use all F1, F2, etc. keys as standard keys" in Keyboard preferences for the
VoiceOver menu and utility to work.
Full keyboard access
Full keyboard access lets you use your keyboard to navigate and interact with items on the screen. Use these
shortcuts to select and adjust controls such as text fields and sliders. This setting can be toggled by pressing
ControlF7, or by selecting Full Keyboard Access from the Shortcuts pane of Keyboard preferences in System
Preferences.
Key combination

What it does

Tab

Move to the next control

ShiftTab

Move to the previous control

ControlTab

Move to the next control when a text field is selected

Arrow keys

Move to the adjacent item in a list, tab group, or menu or


Move sliders and adjusters (vertical up and down arrows used to increase and decrease
values)

ControlArrow

Move to a control adjacent to the text field

keys
Space bar

Select the highlighted menu item

Return or Enter

Click the default button or perform the default action

Esc

Click the Cancel button or


Close a menu without choosing an item

You can navigate the menus in the menu bar without using a mouse or trackpad. To put the focus in the menu
bar, press ControlF2 (fnControlF2 on portable keyboards). Then use the key combinations listed below.
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OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

Key combination

What it does

Left Arrow and Right Arrow

Move from menu to menu

Return

Open a selected menu

Up Arrow and Down Arrow

Move to menu items in the selected menu

Type the menu items name

Jump to a menu item in the selected menu

Return

Select a menu item

Accessibility Mouse Keys


When Mouse Keys is turned on in Accessibility preferences, you can use the keyboard or numeric keypad keys to
move the mouse pointer.
Key combination

What it does

8 or numeric keypad 8

Move Up

K or numeric keypad 2

Move Down

U or numeric keypad 4

Move Left

O or numeric keypad 6

Move Right

J or numeric keypad 1

Move Diagonally Bottom Left

L or numeric keypad 3

Move Diagonally Bottom Right

7 or numeric keypad 7

Move Diagonally Top Left

9 or numeric keypad 9

Move Diagonally Top Right

I or numeric keypad 5

Press Mouse Button

M or numeric keypad 0

Hold Mouse Button

. (period key)

Release Hold Mouse Button

Finder shortcuts
Key combination

What it does

CommandA

Select all items in the front Finder window (or


desktop if no window is open)

CommandOptionA
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Deselect all items


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CommandShiftA

Open the Applications folder

CommandC

Copy selected item or text to the Clipboard

CommandShiftC

Open the Computer window

CommandD

Duplicate selected item

CommandShiftD

Open desktop folder

CommandE

Eject

CommandF

Find any matching Spotlight attribute

CommandShiftF

Find Spotlight file name matches

CommandOptionF

Navigate to the search field in an alreadyopen


Spotlight window

CommandShiftG

Go to Folder

CommandShiftH

Open the Home folder of the currently loggedin


user account

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CommandControlT

Add to Sidebar (OS X Mavericks)

CommandI

Get Info

CommandOptionI

Show Inspector

CommandControlI

Get Summary Info

CommandShiftI

Open iDisk

CommandJ

Show View Options

CommandK

Connect to Server

CommandShiftK

Open Network window

CommandL

Make alias of the selected item

CommandM

Minimize window

CommandOptionM

Minimize all windows

CommandN

New Finder window

CommandShiftN

New folder

CommandOptionN

New Smart Folder

CommandO

Open selected item


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CommandShiftQ

Log Out

CommandShiftOptionQ

Log Out immediately

CommandR

Show original (of alias)

CommandT

Add Finder tab (OS X Mavericks)

CommandShiftT

Show or hide Finder tab (OS X Mavericks)

CommandOptionT

Hide or Show Toolbar in Finder windows

CommandShiftU

Open Utilities folder

CommandV

Paste

CommandW

Close window

CommandOptionW

Close all windows

CommandX

Cut

CommandOptionY

Slideshow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)

CommandZ

Undo

Command1

View as Icon

Command2

View as List

Command3

View as Columns

Command4

View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)

CommandComma (,)

Open Finder preferences

CommandAccent (`) (the Accent key above Tab key on a

Cycle through open Finder windows

US English keyboard layout)


CommandShiftQuestion Mark (?)

Open Mac Help

CommandLeft Bracket ([)

Go to the previous folder

CommandRight Bracket (])

Go to the next folder

CommandUp Arrow

Open the folder that contains the current folder

CommandControlUp Arrow

Open the folder that contains the current folder in a


new window

CommandDown Arrow
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Open highlighted item


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CommandShiftUp Arrow

Make the desktop active

Right Arrow (in List view)

Open the selected folder

Left Arrow (in List view)

Close the selected folder

Optionclick the disclosure triangle (in List view)

Open all folders within the selected folder

Optiondoubleclick

Open a folder in a separate window, closing the


current window

Commanddoubleclick

Open a folder in a separate window

Commandclick the window title

See the folders that contain the current window

CommandTab

Switch applicationcycle forward

CommandShiftTab

Switch applicationcycle backward

CommandDelete

Move to Trash

CommandShiftDelete

Empty Trash

CommandShiftOptionDelete

Empty Trash without confirmation dialog

Space bar (or CommandY)

Quick Look (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)

Command key while dragging

Move the dragged item to another volume or


location
(the pointer changes while key is held)

Option key while dragging

Copy dragged item


(the pointer changes while key is held)

CommandOption key combination while dragging

Make alias of dragged item


(the pointer changes while key is held)

Learn more
To learn more about this feature of OS X, search the Help menu for "keyboard shortcuts". The following articles
also provide information about keyboard shortcuts.
Creating your own keyboard shortcuts for applications
If a keyboard shortcut doesnt work
Resolving VoiceOver key command conflicts
How to Add a Spoken Command for a Keyboard Shortcut

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Important: Information about products not manufactured by Apple is provided for information purposes only and does not constitute Apples recommendation
or endorsement. Please contact the vendor for additional information.

Last Modified: Sep 22, 2014

Helpful?

Yes

No

Related
Mac OS X: How to change the behavior of
function keys

OS X: How to use multiple displays with


your Mac in Mountain Lion and earlier

OS X: Using multiple displays in Mavericks

If your Mac's keyboard has icons printed on some

Learn more To troubleshoot issues with your

Additional information For additional information

of the keys on the top row of the keyboard , those

external display, see Apple computers:

about using external displays, see Apple

keys can be used to perform the special features

Troubleshooting issues with video on internal or

computers: Troubleshooting issues with video on

shown in each icon, or they can be used as

external displays . For information about Target

internal or external displays . For information

standard function keys (F1 F12). The action

Display Mode, see Target Display Mode:

about using your Mac as a display in Target

performed by standard function keys will vary

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Quick key

Display Mode, see Target Display Mode:

depending on the application you are currently

commands for video controls:

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Quick key

Key
Command to Get Vertical Ruler in Pages '09
Preferences.

Trying to learn keyboard shortcuts, can't find the

How do I revert back to Logic Pro Orginal Key

4G MacBook Pro 15 in. (late 2008), Mac OS X

on the keyboard MacBook, Mac OS X (10.5.1)

Commands? MBP C2D 17": 2.66GHz 8GB RAM/

Key Command
to Get
Vertical
Ruler
in
using,
or depending
on the
keyboard
shortcuts
Pagesin'09
listed
the Keyboard & Mouse pane of System

Trying to learn keyboard shortcuts, can't


find the &

How do I revert
back
to Logic Pro Orginal
commands
for video
controls:
Key Commands?

(10.6.3), 250G and 500G Ext HDs; FCE HD 4.0.1;

LogicPro 9.2 / Apogee Duet / iPhone 3GS, Mac OS

CS 1

X (10.6.2), Sharing knowledge is the key to


immortality

Additional Product Support Information

OS X Mavericks

http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1343

OS X Mountain Lion

Mac OS X 10.6

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OS X: Keyboard shortcuts

OS X Lion

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