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Multiple Hearth Furnaces

MAIN APPLICATIONS

Carbonisation/production and regeneration of activated carbon.


Roasting of concentrates and metallurgical by-products.
Drying and calcination of magnesium/calcium /manganese carbonates, phosphates, kaolin, sulphates,
dolomite, etc.
Pyrolysis-incineration of industrial/municipal sludges. (see the list here for more products treated in a
multiple hearth furnace)
MAIN ADVANTAGES OF OUR FURNACES

great flexibility in feed size (0.01 to 25 mm)


exact temperature profile
atmosphere control
tailor made products
exact adjustment of activity
exact adjustment of specific area
high fuel efficiency
high availability of more than 95%
FURNACE DESCRIPTION

DESIGN
The FGC Multiple Hearth Furnace consists of a series of circular hearths, placed one above the other and
enclosed in a refractory-lined steel shell. A vertical rotating shaft through the centre of the furnace
carries arms with rabble blades which stir the charge and move it in a spiral path across each hearth.
Material is fed to the top hearth, and rabbled across it to pass through drop holes to the hearth below.
It passes in this way over and across each hearth to the bottom where the product is discharged through

one or more ports. Heated gases flow counter-currently to heat the charge to reaction temperature and
to carry on the desired reaction. In some operation, combustion of charge-elements supplies the heat.
In other cases it is furnished by combustion of auxiliary fuel in burners on certain hearths (direct firing),
or in a separate combustion chamber (indirect firing).
INHERENT ADVANTAGES
The extreme flexibility of the FGC Multiple Hearth Furnace permits a wide range of processing and in
addition allow for many structural variations to accommodate special operations. Temperature and
residence time of treatment can be closely controlled and can be varied within wide limits. Fresh feeds
can be admitted at the top or at any other hearth. Heat can be supplied where it is most effective.
Gases can be withdrawn from the top, bottom or from intermediate hearths, or any combination of
these. Atmosphere can be oxidising, reducing or neutral and can be varied in different parts of the same
furnace.
FURNACE AREA
Furnace area, upon which heat transfer and mass transfer between the solids and gas phases depend, is
provided in the most economical form. The processing of solids in a thin layer improves gas-solid
contact, while temperature difference between the top and the bottom of the material is minimised.
MIXING
Mixing and turning the material by gentle rabbling insure uniformity of product, aid mass transfer, and
contribute to even temperature throughout the bed. Where rapid mixing is desired, four rabble arms
per hearth may be used in place of the usual two.
TIME OF RESIDENCE
Time of residence is accurately controlled because of the mechanical movement of material through the
furnace. Material can be held for any specified time at each temperature level and in
COMPARTMENTING
Compartmenting by hearths permits multiple zoning with variations in flow and volume. Where a
reducing atmosphere is required in one hearth, exhaust gases may be burned in another to utilise their
heating value.
Counter-current, co-current or cross gas flows are possible, and can be combined in the several zones of
a single unit. Process material can be fed to, or withdrawn from, several hearths if desired.

4.2.2 Multiple Hearth


Multiple-hearth furnace terdiri dari sebuah rak baja, tungku berbentuk lingkaran yang disusun seri, satu
di atas yang lainnya dan biasanya berjumlah 5-8 buah, shaft rabble arms beserta rabble teeth-nya

dengan kecepatan berputar 3/4-2 rpm. Temperatur pembakaran 1400-1800 oF (760-980 oC). Umpan
dimasukkan dari atas tungku secara terus menerus dan abu dari proses dikeluarkan melalui silo.

Limbah yang dapat diproses dalam multiple-hearth furnace memiliki kandungan padatan minimum
antara 15-50 %-berat. Limbah yang kandungan padatannya di bawah 15 %-berat padatan mempunyai
sifat seperti cairan daripada padatan. Limbah semacam ini cenderung untuk mengalir di dalam tungku
dan manfaat rabble tidak akan efektif. Jika kandungan padatan di atas 50 % berat, maka lumpur bersifat
sangat viscous dan cenderung untuk menutup rabble teeth. Udara dipasok dari bagian bawah furnace
dan naik melalui tungku demi tungku dengan membawa produk pembakaran dan partikel abu. Sebagian
udara pembakar yang tidak sempat memasuki rabble arms didaur ulang seperti yang terlihat pada
Gambar 10.

Gambar 10. Multiple-hearth furnace

Multiple-heart furnace terdiri dari tiga zona, yaitu:


1. Zona pengeringan
Terletak di bagian atas furnace, gunanya memanaskan dan menguapkan air yang dikandung oleh umpan
sekaligus mendinginkan gas panas yang akan keluar dari furnace.
2. Zona pembakaran
Terletak dibagian tengah furnace. Limbah lumpur yang memasuki zona ini dipanaskan sampai terbakar
(temperatur pembakaran). Jika lumpur terlalu kering (berisi lebih dari 25 %-berat padatan) atau
kandungan minyak dalam limbah tinggi maka sebuah afterburner perlu ditambahkan. Afterburner ini
berguna untuk menjaga kalau ada senyawa volatil yang tidak terbakar yang menyebabkan asap dan bau
emisi. Letak afterburner yang efektif adalah pada aliran sebelum gas keluar dari insinerator.
3. Zona pendinginan
Terletak pada bagian bawah furnace, gunanya untuk mendinginkan abu sisa pembakaran dengan cara
memindahkan panas sensibelnya pada udara pembakar yang diumpankan dari bawah furnace.