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Page 78 Problems 2.8.

Review various references on the subject of freezing and thawing and write a short
report on how they eventually lead to concrete failure.

One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change
(freeze-thaw cycles). The freeze-thaw durability of concrete is of utmost importance in
countries having subzero temperature conditions, such as The Arctic Zone, Russia, Northern
China, and China. Frost damage, a progressive deterioration which starts from the surface
separation or scaling and ends up with complete collapse, is a major concern when concrete
is used in colder regions. The deterioration proceeds as freezing and thawing cycles are
repeated, and the material gradually loses its stiffness and strength.

Problems related to freeze-thaw attack of concrete arise when unbound water in concrete
freezes. Deterioration of concrete from freeze thaw actions may occur when the concrete is
critically saturated, which is when approximately 91% of its pores are filled with water. When
water freezes to ice it occupies 9% more volume than that of water. If there is no space for
this volume expansion in a porous, water containing material like concrete, freezing may
cause distress in the concrete. Over many cycles of freezing and thawing, this pressure
causes tensile forces to build up in the concrete matrix. If these forces exceed the internal
tensile strength of the concrete, it will cause the concrete to deteriorate by way of general
disruption, cracking, scaling or pop outs leaving it exposed to further attack and ultimately
failure.

Page 99 Problems 3.3.


Discuss the uses of the following: pozzolan cement, slag cement, natural cement,
Portland cement.

Pozzolan cement:
Many pozzolans are waste products from industrial processes, thus it is cheaper than
Portland cement. Pozzolan generally used as replacement of cement, fly ash, or used as an
additive in concrete mixture. Direct use of pozzolan is extensively in ancient time but not
very common now. The uses of pozzolan can be described as:

Typically pozzolans are used as cement replacements rather than cement additions.
The benefits of pozzolan utilization in cement and concrete are: first is the economic
gain obtained by replacing a substantial part of the Portland cement by cheaper
natural pozzolans or industrial by-products, second is the lowering of the blended
cement environmental cost associated with the greenhouse gases emitted during

Portland cement production, and third is the durability improvement of the end
product.

Most pozzolans are used individually, but blends of two or more different pozzolans
can be used to take advantage of the characteristics each pozzolan offers. Typical
examples are fly ash and silica fume blends, where the fly ash increases workability
and particle packing and the silica fume helps with early strength and total strength
development.

Pozzolan can be used as mortar admixture. The mortar containing pozzolan less
strength and stiffness but more ductility than typical mortar.

Some type of pozzolan was found to provide a satisfactory substitute for fly ash. The
fineness and chemical and physical properties of those pozzolan is identical to, and
can be substituted for Class C and Class F fly ash.

Slag cement:
Slag cement is most widely used in concrete, either as a separate cementitious component
or as part of blended cement. It works synergistically with portland cement to increase
strength, reduce permeability, improve resistance to chemical attack and inhibit rebar
corrosion. Slag cement is used in virtually all concrete applications:

Concrete pavements

Structures and foundations

Mass concrete applications, such as dams or retaining walls

Precast and prestressed concrete

Pipe and Block

Concrete exposed to harsh environments, such as wastewater treatment and marine


applications

High-performance/high-strength concrete, such as high-rise structures or 100-year


service life bridges

Slag cement is also used in non-concrete applications such as soil-cement and hazardous
waste solidification.

Natural cement:
Natural cement is both technically and historically the material of transition between older
lime technology and modern portland cement. Natural cement was used in the construction
of thousands of historic architectural and engineering structures, such as canals,
monuments, museum, bridges, and government buildings. The period of its primary use was
from 1819-1900, at which point portland cement achieved market dominance. In 2004, after

disappearing from the construction industry for more than 30 years, commercial production
of natural cement was restarted. Designers and builders are rediscovering its benefits in a
number of areas, including restoration work. The usages of natural cement nowadays
include:

Providing the restoration industry with compatible repair and maintenance materials
for historic buildings and structures.

Tanking, a single 10 mm coat of natural cement applied to a correctly prepared


surface will provide a waterproof barrier which necessary to make a fully sealed
tanking system on waterproof underground structures.

Concrete repairs, natural cement can be used to repair damaged surface concrete
caused by the action of expansion due to corrosion of the reinforcement.

Chemical resistance, the natural properties of natural cement materials ensure that in
most cases its materials are resistant to chemical attack. The protection and repair of
concrete affected by seawater or air bourn salts can be effectively carried out using
natural cement based products.

Rendering, natural cement can be used as one of render material which applied as
coating for walls and ceilings, decoration, or may be used to cover less visually
appealing construction materials such as concrete, cinder block, or clay brick.

Floor Screed, natural cement when used for floor screeds require no bonding agents
or additives. It is fast setting and curing; have very fast strength gain enabling the job
to be completed very quickly.

Grouting,

Many other requirement that need the unique properties of natural cement (fast set
and chemical resistance) such as:

potable water reservoirs and storage tanks

sea defence

shaft repairs and ground support related to mining operations

railways

Portland cement:
Considered to be the most common type of cement in use today, Portland cement is used
for all sorts of structural concrete whether reinforced or not. It is an ingredient in materials
used for sidewalks, buildings, bridges, tunnels, subways and as a binder between other
substances, such as stone or brick. Portland cement has found its way as being the basic
ingredient for ready-mix concrete. This adoption has been undertaken only after having
successfully tested and recognized the fact that it creates a strong bond as compared to the

early techniques of concrete production. Portland cement, especially the one which forms a
part of the ready-mix concrete, may be put to the following uses:

The most important use of Portland cement is the production of concrete. It plays a
pivotal role in setting and hardening the concrete. On being mixed with other
aggregates, Portland cement begins to serve a dual purpose. One, it provides for the
concrete products to be workable when wet and Two, it provides them to be durable
when dry.

It is extensively used by the retaining walls and the precast concrete block walls as a
major component to build a strong foundation of concrete.

By mixing it with water, Portland cement literally turns into a plastic stone and thereby
it can be used for purposes and in places where stone was to be used and that too
by keeping within the financial limits.

It may be molded to obtain a hard and fire-proof material which may further be
employed in designing buildings, shop floors, reservoirs and other foundations.

Any kind of iron or timber structure is exposed to corrosion either by air or water. But
with a concrete casing, made by utilizing Portland cement, they can be effectively
protected.

Any structure that is meant to support huge amounts of weight will bring Portland
cement into use. These structures range from ground floors of multi-storey buildings
to bridge floors and from bridge spans to dams.

Due to its ability to prevent corrosion, it is also put to use in ships, tanks and bunkers.

A blaze or a devastating fire may leave a structure completely burnt but with the use
of Portland cement, this can be prevented.

It is also brought into usage in mortars, plasters, screeds and grouts as a material
which can be squeezed into gaps to consolidate the structures.

Problem 3
Describe how to make curve gradation from fine and coarse aggregate.

The evaluation of the distribution of particle sizes or gradation is a very important step in the
process of developing mix design for concrete. Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle
size distribution of the coarse and fine aggregate. In a sieve analysis, a sample of dry
aggregate of known weight is separated through a series of sieves with progressively
smaller openings. Once separated, the weight of particles retained on each sieve is
measured and compared to the total sample weight. Particle size distribution is then

expressed as a percent retained by weight on each sieve size. Results are usually
expressed in tabular or graphical format.

Coarse and fine aggregates are generally sieved separately. That portion of an aggregate
passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve and predominantly retained on the 75 m (No. 200) sieve
is called fine aggregate or sand, and larger aggregate is called coarse aggregate.
Coarse aggregate may be available in several different size groups, such as 19 to 4.75 mm
(3/4 in. to No. 4), or 37.5 to 19 mm (1-1/2 to 3/4 in.). Based on ASTM E 11, sieve sizes
commonly used for concrete aggregates are detailed in table 1.

Grading charts are often used to show the results of a sieve analysis graphically. The
percent passing is usually plotted on the vertical axis, while the sieve sizes are plotted on
the horizontal axis. Upper and lower limits specified for the allowable percentage of
material passing each sieve may also be included on the grading chart. To evaluate
consistency of the grading the individual size fractions of a coarse aggregate, fine
aggregate (or the calculated proposed combined aggregate grading in concrete) is
sometimes plotted separately to identify any gaps or excess amounts in particular sizes.

EXAMPLE 1: Calculations for sieve analysis of fine aggregate

A sample of fine aggregate with a mass of 510.5 g is passed through sieves shown in
the following and the masses retained on each sieve are as shown.

Note that the total of masses retained may differ slightly from the original sample mass
due to loss or gain in the sieving process or due to round-off error. The total mass of the
material after sieving should check closely with the original mass of the sample placed
on the sieves. If the difference had been too great, a check would have been made for
possible errors in mass determination, calculation, accidental loss due to spillage, or
material stuck in the sieve openings.

Individual percent retained is the percentage of material contained between


successive sieves, recorded to the nearest whole percent. It is calculated by dividing the
mass retained on each sieve (and passing the sieve above) by the sum of the masses
retained on each sieve and the pan and multiplying by 100.
% =

()
%
()

Example:
Sieve size 4.75 mm (No. 4)
% =

9.2
100% = 1.8% 2%
508.5

Cumulative retained is sum of the individual percentages retained on the sieve and on
all coarser sieves.
% = % + %
Example:
Sieve size 2.36 mm (No. 8)
% = % . 4 + % 3/8" . 4

% = 13 + (2 + 0) = 15

Cumulative passing is the percentage of material passing each sieves, calculate by


subtracting the cumulative retained (%) from 100%.
% = % %
Example:
Sieve size 2.36 mm (No. 8)
% = 100% 15% = 85%

EXAMPLE 2: Calculations for sieve analysis of coarse aggregate

A sample of coarse aggregate with a mass of 8145 g is passed through the sieves and
the masses retained on each sieve are as shown.

Note again that the total of masses retained differs from the original sample mass.

All calculations are carried out as in Example 1.

Individual percent retained


Example:
Sieve size 12.5 mm (1/2 in.)
% =

2850
100% = 35.06% 35%
8130

Cumulative retained
Example:
Sieve size 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
% = 30 + (35 + 5 + 0) = 70

Cumulative passing
Example:
Sieve size 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
% = 100% 70% = 30%

EXAMPLE 3: Grading chart of coarse and fine aggregate

Grading charts are often used to show the results of a sieve analysis graphically.

The percent passing is usually plotted on the vertical axis, while the sieve sizes are
plotted on the horizontal axis.

Upper and lower limits specified for the allowable percentage of material passing each
sieve may also be included on the grading chart.

Figure below shows a typical grading chart for coarse and fine aggregates having
grading calculated in the following two examples. Dashed lines indicate limits specified in
ASTM C 33 for fine aggregates and for 25.0 mm (1 in.) coarse aggregate.

ADVANCED MATERIAL ENGINEERING

By:
Rizki A. T. Cahyani

The test consists of dividing up and separating, by means of series of sieves, a material into
several particle size classification of decreasing sizes. The aperture sizes and the number of
sieves are selected in accordance with the nature of the sample and the accuracy required.
The mass of the particles retained on the various sieves is related to the initial mass of the
material. The cumulative percentages passing each sieve are reported in numerical form or
in graphical form.

Pozzolan cement:
The general definition of a pozzolan embraces a large number of materials which vary widely
in terms of origin, composition and properties. Both natural and artificial (man-made)
materials show pozzolanic activity and are used as supplementary cementitious materials.
Many pozzolans are waste products from industrial processes. Fly ash comes from coal-fired
power plants, and silica fume and slag comes from some steel refineries. As such the color,
quality, gradation and properties can vary and are not controlled. Pozzolan generally used
as replacement of cement, fly ash, or used as an additive in concrete mixture. Direct use of
pozzolan is extensively in ancient time but not very common now.

Typically pozzolans are used as cement replacements rather than cement additions. Adding
pozzolans to an existing concrete mix without removing an equivalent amount of cement
increases the paste content and decreases the water/cement ratio. In other words, adding
more pozzolans to a mix changes the mix proportions. Replacing some of the cement with
pozzolans preserves the mix proportions. Depending upon the particle size, chemical
composition and dosage, different pozzolans will affect the concrete strength differently and
at different times during curing.

Most pozzolans are used individually, but blends of two or more different pozzolans can be
used to take advantage of the characteristics each pozzolan offers. Typical examples are fly
ash and silica fume blends, where the fly ash increases workability and particle packing and
the silica fume helps with early strength and total strength development.