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Date: September 22, 2014

Re: Electrical Circuit Project Lab Report

The purpose of the project was to construct a breadboard with the correct amount of resistors to

achieve the correct voltage per node. The amount of resistors was limited so the amount of calculations

were limited to what I could make of it. I was given a network with a predetermined voltage per node,

therefore I had to calculate the voltage drop to get the required resistance.

The project was built in my dorm room where I did the calculations and put the breadboard together. I

placed the resistors in the correct positions and placed the nodes where needed. After calculations and

the documentation, such as typing up my work on Microsoft Word and drawing my schematic on

Microsoft Visio, I proceeded to the testing period. At the testing period the board will be tested with a

voltmeter and a battery to determine if my calculations were correct.

My results were a success. My board passed on the first attempt and was within the plus or minus five

percent. My calculations were correct based on the test results. The test results being the readings from

the voltmeter. I am pleased with the outcome, but I wish I wouldve spent a little more time to perfect

the project. Overall the project went smooth and as planned.

Sincerely,

1201 Student

and sign

Comment [BH2]:

Comment [BH3]:

Formatted: Tab stops: 5.2", Left

Author: Robert Cody Stiltner

Engineering 1201-008

I have neither given nor received any unauthorized help on this assignment, nor witnessed any violation

of the UNC Charlotte Code of Academic Integrity.

Introduction

The design of electrical circuit project is made up of a bread board, resistors, and a testing

device. The resistors must be placed in a specific combination to receive the correct voltage drop over

each of the five nodes. The resistors must be placed in either series or parallel. Each resistor has a set

amount of resistance based off of the color bands that wrap around the resistor. According to the colors

on the bands given to me I have the following resistors: 220, 330, 2,200, 3,300, and 10,000. I

have five of each of the resistors. All resistors are within5% of the actual value. The voltage will be

tested at each node to determine if the correct resistors were used to determine the set amount of

voltage given. The voltage will decrease until the fifth node equals zero volts. Constraints of the project

would be the limited amount of resistors, which would limit the number of resistor combinations and

the number of alternative designs. The theoretical outcomes should be close to the calculated outcomes

assuming no other unknown variables in the project.

Background Information

For this project I used multiple resources such as books and websites. Ohms Law was my most

used equation in the entire project. Ohms Law governs the relationship between voltage, current and

resistance and states that voltage is proportional to current. I also had to research the colors of the

resistors and find out what the resistance was per resistor. The basic resistance formulas were also

needed for this project. Those formulas are resistors in a series and resistors in a parallel. The equations

used in this project were as follows.

Comment [BH4]: Number each formula and

site it in text

Resistors have a certain power and that power is determined by the color. Therefore we have a color

chart to determine the correct amount of power that each resistor has. Below is a chart that shows the

color interpretations of a four, five, and six color band resistor.

power they have resistance

Figure 1.1

Methods and Procedures

where the picture is from

The equipment involved in the electrical circuit project is a breadboard about the size of the

palm of my hand, twenty-five total resistors. Five resistors of each 220, 330, 2,200, 3,300, and

10,000. Also five copper wires to be used as nodes. I received a half sheet of paper with set amount of

voltage drops for each node and a network number of 12. The network number is unique to my

breadboard and project individually, so that no one received the same project. I calculated the amount

of voltage drop and from that used Ohms Law to determine the amount of resistance needed to acquire

the set amount of voltage at the end of the node. I used a scratch piece of paper and a pencil to do this

step, so that when I miscalculated I could just erase and start again. I did this for each set node. After all

the calculations were complete I continued to write my calculations on Microsoft Word using the

equation tool. The equation tool is located under the insert tab at the top of the screen. After I finished

my calculations on Microsoft Word I proceeded to do my schematic drawing of my circuit. The

schematic drawing must be completed on Microsoft Visio. I did not have Microsoft Visio, so I

downloaded it from the DreamSpark program given to UNCC engineering students. After Visio

downloaded I played around with it to become familiar with the program. After I had learned enough of

the program to do what I needed to do I started drawing my schematic with the electrical template

given in the program. The schematic drawing took the most time and a close second was typing the

equations in Microsoft Word. I completed all the documentation and proceeded to start on the building

of my board. I then began to place the resistors on the board in the order I thought they would go in

according to my calculations. My assumptions were that my project would pass the first test considering

that nothing had gone wrong that I could tell. I was limited to the amount of resistors and what order I

could place them in where it be in series or parallel.

Sample Calculations

The first calculation that has to be done is the calculation for the voltage drop.

After calculating the voltage drop you can use Ohms Law to determine the amount of resistance

needed.

The total resistance needed is R, and to get the resistance I did the following calculation

Since the 5,000 is not exactly what I need I had to calculate the plus or minus five percent into my

calculations. The plus or minus five percent comes from the last color band on the resistor.

Comment [BH8]: Include units( ohms)

Table1.1

Voltage Divider Node

Required Node to

Ground Resistance

Calculated Node

Resistance

Node 1

4777.77

5000

4910

Node 2

6888.96

6886.96

6640

Node 3

7405.56

7370

7370

Node 4

367.89

385

390

Node 5

558.11

550

540

series 1?

Percent Difference

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 4

Node 5

Series 1

Graph 1.1

Discussion

The results of my electrical circuit was a success on the first attempt. As my calculations and the

tested values above show that my work was within the five percent difference I did not have to attempt

the testing twice. As I stated above that some restrictions would be the availability of resistors. Since I

had a limited amount of resistors my project was not perfect. Since some of my percent difference

calculations approach close to the five percent I have reason to believe it was because of the constraints

I had. My results show that I did my work correctly and proved that my calculations were correct and

within the five percent.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Overall the project was a success. My breadboard passed on its first try and I did not have to

repeat it. Using almost all of my materials given I received what I was expecting to get. A passing project.

My percent difference was a little high for each node and I recommend that other students in the future

spend a little more time trying to find the lowest possible percent difference. With my high percent

difference I was on the borderline of having to redo my project. If more time is spent trying to find the

best possible way of placing the resistors on the board then the students will not stress as much about

their calculations and project as a whole. Engineering assumptions and constraints are useful because

future engineers can come up with new innovative ways to do something with what they have to work

with. Also being able to learn from what the earlier engineers came up with based off of their laboratory

reports.

Summary

The purpose of the electrical circuit project is to place resistors on a breadboard, in a specific order, to

achieve the correct amount of resistance and voltage drop in a given network. I placed the resistors in

series or parallel along the breadboard. There are five nodes and each node has a specific amount of

voltage drop and after the fifth node the voltage must be zero. I must calculate the voltage drop and

then proceed to calculate the amount of resistance required to reach the correct amount of voltage. The

breadboard will then be tested with a voltmeter and battery to determine if the project was done

correctly. The calculations were written on Microsoft Word using the equation software. I also produced

a schematic of my circuit on Microsoft Visio. I did not know how to operate Microsoft Visio, so I spent a

little extra time making myself familiar with the program. The project itself is a challenging task. This

project expanded my knowledge in the electrical design and gave me a glimpse the electrical

engineering field. I took multiple hours of my day, spread out over two to three days, and researched

exactly how one might build a breadboard. I calculated the amount of resistance I had in each resistor

based on the color of the bands that wrap around the resistor. I then proceeded to calculate the amount

of resistance I needed for each node based off of Ohms Law. I did this process for each node. After I had

done all of my calculations I proceeded to put the resistors on the breadboard in either series or parallel.

The results of my breadboard were a success, although we had to test the breadboard off of resistance

rather than voltage which was the original plan. In this specific project I learned that electrical

engineering is not for me. I also learned that more research is required to do this type of project rather

than the basic research. I recommend that future students spend a little more time on the calculations

and research rather than trying to put the board together. I also recommend that students become

familiar with Ohms Law and the basic series and parallel formulas.

References

"Basic Electrical Circuits Explained." Electrical Information Resource. January 1, 2013.

Electrical Theory Pre-Class Reading. Electrical Theory. August 15, 2014.

Dorf, Richard C., and James A. Svoboda. Introduction to Electric Circuits. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley &

Sons, 2006.

Smith, K. C. A., and R. E. Alley. Electrical Circuits: An Introduction. Cambridge [England: Cambridge

University Press, 1992.

"Circuits." In The Electrical Engineering Handbook, edited by Richard C. Dorf. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC

Press, 1993.

Appendix

work to the appendix

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