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Cooling Tower

Group A | Team 5

Mike Lynch | Finn Hobson | Blake Dube | Nathan Safran


Brendan Scanlon | Brandon Keck

Table of Contents

I.

Nomenclature

II.

Introduction

III.

Background

IV.

Experimental Methodology

i.

Equipment and Apparatus

ii.

Experimental Procedures

V.

Results

VI.

Analysis

14

VII.

Summary

15

VIII.

Conclusions

15

IX.

Future Work

17

X.

Appendix 1

18

XI.

Appendix 2

31

Nomenclature
Symbol
A
a
ATWB
Cp
Cs
CH
H
Hi
Hy
ky
mair
mwater
MWair
P
P
TDB
TWB
T
b
V
Vb
Vab
X
Z

Term
Cross sectional area of
tower
Area of mass or heat
transfer
Approach to Wet Bulb
Heat capacity of water
Humid Heat
Tower characteristic
Enthalpy
Enthalpy of air at
air/water interface
Enthalpy of bulk air
Mass transfer
coefficient
Mass flow rate of air
Mass flow rate of water
Molecular weight of air
Pressure
Differential Pressure
Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Temperature
Specific Humidity
Volume of Column
Specific volume of
exiting air
Specific volume of
exiting air
Orifice Differential
Column Height

Units
m2
m2
C
J/mol*K
J/kg*K
Dimensionless
J/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kg/m2 *s
kg/s
kg/s
g/mole
mm H20
mm H20
C
C
C
kg vapor/kg air
m3
m3/kg
m3/kg
mm H2O
m

II.

Introduction and Background


Cooling towers are a form of evaporative cooling equipment utilized for cooling water
process streams in many chemical plants. The primary purpose of a water cooling tower is to
eject unwanted heat to the atmosphere. In doing so, the cooled water may be recycled for
utilization in the system or emptied into the environment in a condition that would not disrupt a
standard fresh water ecosystem. These structures are prominent in the engineering world
because they are economical and reliable. The most common unit is a counter-current cooling
tower, which utilizes atmospheric air circulation to decrease the temperature of a stream of water
[2]. Specifically, the water stream is pumped to the top of the tower while unsaturated air is
pushed upward from the bottom of the tower, so that they flow parallel to each other in opposite
directions.
A cooling tower consists of some basic components that enable the evaporative effects of
water to take place. A standard cooling tower contains a casing and frame, sets of packing
material, and various other apparatuses based on the industrial application of the tower. The
packing material functions to separate the falling water. This is because maximum evaporation
takes place when water is exposed to maximum airflow for the longest possible time [1]. In
addition, the packing material contains many devices necessary for the measurement of
thermodynamic qualities. These devices include thermocouples for the measurement of water
temperature and the dry and wet bulb air temperatures as well as a manometer for the
measurement of air pressure. With this information, additional thermodynamic properties of the
air can be determined with a psychrometric chart [2]. All of these properties will be useful in
analyzing water cooling tower performance.
Several factors affect the performance of water cooling towers. The cooling tower in this
lab is an extremely useful model of these factors, however it varies in some aspects from an
industrial-sized cooling tower. One important factor to consider is the lack of an overall system
for which water cooling is required. This lab requires an additional heater so the process water
can be reheated before in enters the top of the tower with each cycle. It must also be considered
that the water stream loses mass as water evaporates into the flowing air. Therefore, the water
tank must be constantly replenished with more water, which could cause variations in the
temperature of the water in the tank. For this reason, extensive measures must be taken to ensure

the system is operating at steady-state before measurements can begin and the water-cooling
process can be accurately examined.
The main process that was analyzed in this lab is humidification of the water as a means
of cooling liquid. Humidification occurs when the temperature of the water is decreased through
heat loss in the form of latent heat of evaporation and sensible heat transfer. Its efficiency relies
on several variables. There are many methods by which humidification can occur in a cooling
tower. The first is by liquid cooling with gas heating. This is a process in which the air exits the
column at a higher temperature than when it entered, thereby cooling the water. The next
process by which humidification can occur in a cooling tower is liquid cooling by gas cooling
and humidification. In this process, the air entering the column is already at a higher temperature
than the water, however the water is still cooled by humidification due to the latent heat of
evaporation. Both of these processes have been analyzed in this report. An alternative process
that is often utilized in industry is gas humidification with adiabatic cooling. This is a process in
which water is continuously cycled through the column without being heated or cooled. This
process was not tested [2].
The cooling efficiency of humidification relies on several variables. This experiment
focused on the rate of water evaporation, the air flow rate, the cooling load, and the heat lost
through the walls of the tower. These variables are primarily related by the specifications of the
water tank and the thermodynamic properties of the water and air flowing through the system.

The equation we used for the rate of water evaporation is:


Rate of Evaporation =
(1)
The equation we used for the air flow rate is given as:
Air Mass Flow Rate =
(2)

For the cooling load, an enthalpy calculation was used as follows where
rate of water,

is the temperature change in Celsius, and

is the mass flow

is the heat capacity of water:

(3)
Finally, the equation used for the heat lost through the walls was derived from the energy
balance on the overall system (where each represents a mass flow rate and each represents a
corresponding specific enthalpy):

(4)
This lab is designed to help analyze the performance of a counter-current water cooling
tower under different conditions. The first objective was to inspect the effect of air flow rate and
air inlet temperature on evaporation rate and cooling load of the tower. Another goal of this
experiment was to establish a relationship between temperature (and enthalpy) of the liquid
water and its location in the tower. The same was done for the moist air flowing through the
system. Finally, the approximate rate of heat transfer through the walls of the cooling tower was
determined. These rates were also measured at various conditions and compared. The data
collected from these trials allowed for an intricate assessment of the counter-current water
cooling tower as a whole.

2.0 Experimental Methodology


Equipment and Apparatus:

G
B

F
C
H

Figure 1. Sketch of Cooling


Figure 2. Picture of Cooling
Tower adapted from Cooling
Tower adapted from Cooling
Tower Lab Manual revised by
Tower Lab Manual revised by
Michael J. Baird and
Michael J. Baird and
Schohn Shannon
Schohn Shannon
A flowmeter (A) controls the rate at which water is pumped from the load tank up to the

distribution cap (B) where the temperature is taken and the water is evenly distributed over the
packing[2]. The water flows over the plates, increasing the surface area of the water exposed to the
air stream. The water is cooled by evaporation into the air stream. The temperature of the water can
be recorded at various points along the length of the column using the attached thermocouples. At the
bottom of the column the water flows by one last thermometer (C) and into the load tank where it can
be reheated and recirculated through the column [2].
The water make-up tank (D) has a float operated needle valve that will open and transfer
water into the load tank as required. This happens as a result of the evaporation of water across the
column [2]. When the column is operating at steady state conditions, the rate of the water being
evaporated is the same as the rate at which water is being transferred into the load tank. The wattage
of the heater (E) should correspond to the sensible heat change of the water because the more energy
added to the system corresponds to more heat added to the system [2].

Air, that can be pre-heated using a hair dryer, is pulled from the atmosphere and passes
through a fan into the column. A damper (F) can be adjusted to increase or decrease the flow rate of
the air. The wet and dry bulb temperatures of the air and the temperatures of water are taken at
various points of elevation in the column shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Identification of Thermometers and Thermocouples as a function of Column
Height adapted from Cooling Tower Lab Manual revised by Michael J. Baird and Schohn
Shannon
Thermocouple
Number
---1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
----

Column Height Z

Reading For

Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

wet-bulb of the air


dry-bulb of the air
temperature of the water
wet-bulb of the air
dry-bulb of the air
temperature of the water
wet-bulb of the air
dry-bulb of the air
temperature of the water
wet-bulb of the air
dry-bulb of the air
temperature of the water
wet-bulb of the air
dry-bulb of the air
temperature of the water

The air then passes through a droplet arrestor, and the temperatures are taken again before
exiting to the atmosphere through an orifice (G) [2]. The pressure drop through the orifice is
measured with a manometer (H) and is used to estimate the air flow rate [2].
Experimental Procedures:
The first step in the procedure was to turn on the water pump, water heaters, and fan. Next,
the damper was set to the open position. Then, the cooling tower was run for five to ten minutes
until temperatures readings became stabilized or steady state. Conditions were said to be steady state
when the temperatures were no longer rising or falling rapidly, but were rather consistent. After
everything is stabilized, we allowed the cooling tower to run for five minute intervals. Each time we
recorded initial and final conditions of all thermocouples (1-9), pressures from manometer readings,
water levels in load tank, and wet bulb/dry bulb temperatures at the top and bottom of the tower.
This process was repeated six times, with each run slightly altered. The first three runs involved no
heated air with the damper at approximate locations open, 1/3 closed, and two thirds closed. The next
three runs included heated air with the damper at locations open, 1/3 closed, and 2/3 closed. The air
flow rates in kilograms of air per second respectively were .045, .047, .053, .047, .048, .057. Thus
far, we have done this set of 6 runs, 3 times, combining to 18 total runs. Each run's results were

recorded into an organized manner, shown in Appendix A-1.

Results
Technical Objective #1
For the experiment, 3 trials were conducted, each of which included 6 different runs at
different conditions. The 3 data for the three trials was averaged into 1 Average Trial shown in
Appendix 1.A. The results of Technical Objective #1 are seen in Tables III.1, III.2, and III.3.
Technical Objective #1 was to evaluate the effect of air flow rate and air inlet temperature on the
steady-state evaporation rate and cooling load of the cooling tower.
Table III.1- Rate of Water Evaporation (g/s) and Volumetric Flow Rate of Air (in3/min)

Table III.2- Air Flow Rate (kg/s) and Air Inlet Temperature (C)

Table III.3- Cooling Load (kW)

Table III.1 shows the volumetric flow rate of air on a dry air basis. Table III.2 shows the
airflow rate for each run, calculated using the data for pressure (mmH2O), Specific Volume of
Exiting Air (m3/kg), Specific Humidity of Exiting Air (kg/kg dry air), and Air Inlet Temperature
(C) listed in the Table III.2. Table III.3 shows the Cooling Load of the tower, or the amount of
heat removed from the water. These values were calculated using the values for Mass Flow Rate
of Water (kg/s) and Change in Temperature of Water (C), as well as the Specific Heat of Water,
which was a constant (4.1813 J/g/K).
In evaluating the effect of air flow rate on steady-state evaporation rate, it can be seen
that as air flow rate decreases from Run 1 to Run 3 (the unheated air runs) in Table III.2, the
steady-state evaporation rate also decreases from Run 1 to Run 3 in Table III.1. This relationship
can be deduced using these two tables because they each involve data from all six runs. This
trend (an direct relationship between air flow rate and evaporation rate) is also observed for Run
4 to Run 6 (the heated air runs), but the evaporation rates for Runs 4-6 are all higher than the
evaporation rates for Runs 1-3. The airflow rates for Runs 4-6 are of similar magnitude as the
airflow rates of Runs 1-3.
For the relationship between air flow rate and cooling load of the tower, as the air flow
rate increases in Table III.2, the values for cooling load increase from Run 1 to Run 2, and then
decrease from Run 2 to Run 3 in Table III.3. This same trend is observed for Run 4 to Run 6,
and both the airflow rates and cooling load values are of similar for Runs 1-3 and Runs 4-6.
Technical Objective #1 also includes the determination of the relationship between air
inlet temperature and evaporation rate/cooling load. The inlet temperature of air increases
slightly from Run 1 to Run 3 as seen in Table II.2, and the evaporation rate decreases from Run
1- Run 3 in Table III.1. The values of inlet temperature for Run 4-Run 6 are altogether higher
than the values from Run 1 to Run 3, but the temperatures within each set of runs vary by similar
intervals (between .1C and .4C). However, the temperatures do not increase consistently over
Runs 4-6. Instead, the temperature increases from Run 4 to Run 5, and then decreases from Run
5 to Run 6. The evaporation rates decrease steadily from Run 4 to Run 6, despite the rise and fall
of the air inlet temperatures.

The relationship between air inlet temperature and cooling load can be commutatively
deduced from previous relationships. Explicitly stated, as temperature increases from Run 1 to
Run 3 in Table III.2, the cooling load increases and then decreases in Table III.3, yielding no
obvious relationship. As temperature rises from Run 4 to Run 5 and then decreases from Run 5
to Run 6 in table III.2, the cooling load increases and decreases as well in Table III.3, yielding a
direct relationship between air inlet temperature and cooling load for Run 4-Run 6.
Technical Objective #2
Technical Objective #2 required the generation of plots showing changes in temperature
and enthalpy of liquid water and moist air as a function of location in the cooling tower, and the
comparison of the plots for the different conditions used for Technical Objective #1.
The first relationship observed was the temperature of water versus the height of the
column. This is shown graphically in Figure III.1.

Figure III.1- Temperature of Water vs Height of Column


For Runs 1-3 in Figure III.1 as the height of the column increased, the temperature the water
increased. For Runs 4-6 the same direct relationship was observed, but the temperature of the
water was slightly higher in Runs 4-6.

The relationship between the enthalpy of the water and the height of the column is shown
graphically in Figure III.2.

Figure II.2- Enthalpy of Liquid Water vs Height of Column


It can be seen in Figure II.2 that as the height of the column increased, the enthalpy of the liquid
water also increased for all runs. Run 1 and Run 6 appear different from the other runs on the
graph, but the values are not very far off at all. Because the enthalpy of the water was very
similar among all runs and varied by small increments, any change in enthalpy appears drastic.
The relationship between the enthalpy of moist air and the height of the column can be
observed graphically in Figure III.3.

Figure III.3- Enthalpy of Moist Air vs Height of Column


It can be seen in Figure III.3 that the enthalpy generally increased from the bottom of the column
to the top for all runs. Runs 4, 5, and 6 experienced a higher enthalpy that Runs 1, 2, and 3.
Technical Objective #3
Technical Objective #3 involve the determination and comparison of the approximate
rate of heat transfer through the walls of the cooling tower for the different conditions used for
Technical Objective #1.
Table III.4 shows the values of the rate of heat loss through the walls of the column for
each run. The other data in the table was used in an energy balance to calculate the heat loss
values.

H(dot)air,in(kJ/kg) M(dot)w,in(kg/s) H(dot)w,in(kJ/kg) M(dot)air,out(kg/s) H(dot)air,out(kJ/kg) M(dot)w,out(kg/s) H(dot)w,out(kJ/kg) Q(dot) (kJ/s)


59
0.03
2560
0.045
81
0.029071
2540
1.96966
57
0.03
2570
0.047
83
0.029093
2540
1.98178
59
0.03
2570
0.053
86
0.029308
2540
1.22668
77
0.03
2570
0.047
96
0.028944
2550
2.3998
75
0.03
2570
0.048
97
0.028954
2550
2.2113
75
0.03
2570
0.057
101
0.028962
2550
1.7649

Table III.4- Heat Lost Through Walls of Column


The rate of heat loss increased from Run 1 to Run 3. The rate of heat loss decreased from Run 4
to Run 6, but started at a higher value and fell to a lower value than any heat loss rate in Run 1 to
Run 3.

Discussion and Analysis


Technical Objective #1
Run 1 was conducted using no air heater with the fan completely open. Run 2 also used
no air heater, but the fan was only 2/3 open. Run 3 used no air heater and the fan was only 1/3
open. Runs 4, 5, and 6 used an air heater and the fan was completely open, 2/3 open, and 1/3
open, respectively. As the amount of air allowed into the column decreased from Run 1-Run 3
due to the closing of the fan, the evaporation rate also decreased, due to the decreased airflow
rate.
The relationship between the airflow rate and the cooling load of the tower can be
deduced from Table III.2 and III.3. As the airflow rate increases, the cooling load increases.
This is expected because more air through the system means that the water (which is fed at a
constant rate) can be cooled more. In other words, there are more air molecules to absorb energy
from the water molecules. This can be connected to the trend of the evaporation rate. As the
evaporation rate increases, the water loses more heat, thereby increasing the cooling load of the
column. The cooling load is the rate of energy loss by the water stream between the inlet and the
outlet.
Runs 4-6 were conducted with a higher air inlet temperature due to the heater that was
not present in Runs 1-3. This increased inlet air temperature resulted in a higher evaporation rate
for Runs 4-6 compared to Runs 1-3. This is to be expected, because the hotter air has a greater
kinetic energy, meaning that the air can excite the water molecules more and cause a greater rate
of evaporation. Although the air temperatures are higher in Runs 4-6, the change in temperature
is the same in both sets of runs. Therefore, the cooling load is relatively constant between the
two sets of runs.
Technical Objective 2:
The heated water enters through the top of the column, and as it falls through the column
(the height decreases) it is being cooled by the air flowing upwards because of the heat transfer
that causes evaporation of the water. Therefore, as the water flows down the column, the
temperature of the water decreases, which is the point of a cooling tower. This was true for our

experiment. Runs 4, 5, and 6 experienced a greater decrease in the temperature of the water due
to the air heater that increased the rate of evaporation.
The specific enthalpy of the liquid water and the column height had a similar
relationship. As the liquid water traveled down the column and the height of the column
decreased, the specific enthalpy of the water also decreased. This follows the previous
conclusion, because the temperature of the water also decreased, meaning the water had less
thermal energy.
The moist air absorbs heat from the water as it flows up through the column. Therefore,
as the height of the column increases, the specific enthalpy of the moist air also increases. This
follows the conclusions of the relationships between liquid water specific enthalpy and column
height. Since the water and air are flowing in opposite directions, they should have similar
relationships between specific enthalpy and height because they are undergoing opposite
enthalpy changes.
Technical Objective #3
The heat loss through the column walls experienced a general decrease through Run 1 to
Run 3 and Run 4 to Run 6. This decreased because the amount of air let in the system was
decreased, which decreased evaporation. Heat loss was calculated using an energy balance on
the column. A greater difference between the energy leaving the column and the energy entering
the column would result in a greater heat loss value. The fan being covered up with successive
runs decreased the heat loss by decreasing the change in temperature of the water and air,
thereby decreasing the enthalpy change, which would create a smaller difference between inlet
an outlet energy values. This makes the heat lost smaller.
Summary and Conclusion
In this experiment, several aspects of the performance of a cooling tower were analyzed
as different conditions were tested for the cooling tower. During each run, a single variable was
changed to test the performance of the cooling tower in different configurations. The three
technical objectives given were to evaluate the effect of air flow rate and air inlet temperature on
the steady-state evaporation rate and cooling load of the cooling tower; to generate plots showing
changes in temperature and enthalpy of liquid water and moist air as a function of location in the

cooling tower, and compare the plots for the different conditions used for Technical Objective
#1; and to determine and compare the approximate rate of heat transfer through the walls of the
cooling tower for the different conditions used for Technical Objective #1. Some of the
conclusions reached in this experiment with a bench top cooling tower can be applied to real
cooling towers.
For Technical Objective #1, the effect of the air flow rate and the air inlet temperature on
the cooling load and evaporation rate was analyzed. Table III.1 shows that as the air flow rate
decreased, the rate of evaporation also decreased. This is true for both runs with and without the
heater, and this shows that in a cooling tower, more air flowing against the water means a higher
evaporation rate. The effect of air inlet temperature was also tested. In Table III.1, the runs 1-3
have a lower rate of evaporation than runs 4-6. This shows that for the two air inlet temperatures
tested, approximately 25 C and 39 C for runs 1-3 and runs 4-6 respectively, the higher
temperature air has a greater evaporation rate. For the cooling load, in Table III.3 and Table III.1
when comparing the runs, it can be seen that as the air flow rate increases, the cooling load
decreases. The effect of temperature on the cooling load can be seen in Table III.3. From runs 13 to runs 4-6, the cooling load decreased, indicating that heated air is less effective at pulling
heat from the water as it falls through the cooling tower.
For Technical Objective #2, the changes in temperature and enthalpy of liquid water and
moist air in relation to the location in the cooling tower were analyzed. As the water moved
down the cooling tower, the temperature of the water decreased. Runs 4-6 experienced a greater
decrease in temperature because of the increased evaporation rate. This can be seen in Figure
III.1. As seen in Figure III.3, the enthalpy of the moist air increases as it moves up the column.
The enthalpy of liquid water also increases the higher in the tower it is, as seen in Figure II.2.
The heat lost through the walls as calculated for Technical Objective #3 decreased as the
rate of airflow decreased during the runs. The heat lost through the walls for the runs with heated
air was higher than the runs without heated air. This can be seen in Table III.4.
The performance of the lab cooling tower can be related to real full-size cooling towers.
As the air flow rate increases, the amount of evaporated water increases, but the cooling load of
the tower decreases. With higher air temperatures, the rate of evaporation increases, but the rate
of cooling decreases. As the water falls a longer distance, the temperature decreases from the

previous height. In a cooling tower, a higher tower will cool the water more than a shorter one.
For the best cooling load performance, a lower air flow rate with cool air should be used, but for
the most evaporation, a high air flow rate and a high temperature should be used. To have the
cooling tower operate most effectively, cool air should be used to avoid heating the water with
the warm air. The cool air ensures the water is cooled by evaporation but the water flowing the
tower is not heated by the warm air. These relationships can be applied to full-sized cooling
towers in practical applications.

Future Work
Due to the relative simplicity of the Cooling Tower process, enough data was collected to
make a full analysis, and the only work left in the future is to fully understand the raw data
presented in front of us. Reproducibility has been proven as we have done three separate trials of
the process, with similar results each time. If any question of reproducibility arises we can
simply perform each run again. The graphs constructed from the data provide ample data
regarding the effect of the temperature and flow rate of inlet air on the cooling load, as well as
the enthalpy of the liquid water and air in relation to their position in the tower. That
information satisfies the first two technical objectives and eliminates the need for any future
work other than additional trials to ensure our data is not only precise but also accurate.
Predicting the enthalpies and then running the tower in order to compare the experimental versus
expected data would be a very effective way to prove the experiments validity and eliminate
error. The third objective, determining heat loss through the walls of the tower, was also
satisfied as the position of the fan indirectly determined how much heat was lost. This is because
the position of the fan determines the air flow, which in turn affects the evaporation rate, which
directly affects the energy transfer between liquid water, vapor, and the walls of the tower. In
order to more explicitly prove reproducibility and confirm the conclusion made about Objective

3, we will run the cooling tower multiple times with smaller increments of change in position of
the fan. This will provide a graph with more data points to ensure the increase in heat loss is
more accurately tracked as the fan opens and allows higher flow rates of inlet air as the trials
proceed.

References
[1] Holloway, Michael, Nwaoha, Chikezie, and Onyewuenyi, Oliver A., eds. Process Plant
Equipment : Operation, Control, and Reliability. Somerset, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
ProQuest ebrary. Web. 7 October 2014.
[2] Baird, Michael J., and Schohn Shannon. Cooling Tower Lab Manual. Department of
Chemical Engineering University Of Pittsburgh, 2013. 10-11. Print.

Appendix A-1: Experimental Data


Table A-1.1- Trial 1, Trial 2, Trial 3, Averages Trial.
This table shows the raw data for all 3 trials of the
experiment, all of which had 6 runs each. The average
trial contains data averaged over the first 3 trials.
TRIAL 1
RUN 1 (Open Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5

Initial Water Height


17.25

Final Water Height


16.1875

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
25.2
26.2
32.6
25.3
24.5
27.7
21.2
21.3
23.9
20.4
20.6
21.6
20
25
21.5

25.9
26.9
33.6
26
25.5
28.6
22
22.1
24.7
21.1
21.3
22.3
20.5
25.5
22

RUN 2 (2/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


16.1875
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

RUN 3 (1/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Final Water Height


15.1875
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
25.9
26.9
33.6
26
25.5
28.6
22
22.1
24.7
21.1
21.3
22.3
20.5
25.5
22

26.2
27.2
34
26.5
25.9
29
22.3
22.4
25
21.4
21.6
22.6
20.5
25.5
22.5

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


15.1875
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


14.5
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
6

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.2
27.2
34
26.5
25.9
29
22.3
22.4
25
21.4
21.6
22.6
20.5
25.5
22.5

27.5
28.5
34.8
28.2
27.2
30.1
23.4
23.4
26
22.4
22.4
23.3
21
26
23

RUN 4 (Open Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


13.75
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


12.75
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
28.1
29.2
35.5
28.5
27.8
30.7
24.8
25.1
26.9
24
24.4
25
25
37
25

29.4
30.4
37.1
29.6
29.1
31.7
25.6
26.2
27.7
24.9
25.1
25.7
25.5
38.5
25.5

RUN 5 (2/3 Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


12.75
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


11.5
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29.4
30.4
37.1
29.6
29.1
31.7
25.6
26.2
27.7
24.9
25.1
25.7
25.5
38.5
25.5

30
31
37.8
30.1
29.6
32.3
26.1
26.8
28.3
25.2
25.6
26.1
25.5
39
26

RUN 6 (1/3 FAN)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


11.5
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00

Final Water Height


10.3125
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB

P
(mmH2O)
5.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
30
31
37.8
30.1
29.6
32.3
26.1
26.8
28.3
25.2
25.6
26.1
25.5
39

31.1
32.1
38.3
31.6
30.6
33.4
26.9
27.7
29.1
25.9
26.2
26.9
25.5
38.5

Exiting 0.00

WATER

26

26.5

TRIAL 2
RUN 1 (Open Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


17.875
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


16.4375
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
24.9
25.6
32.6
24.2
23.6
27.3
20.3
20.4
23.1
19.4
19.2
20.7
19.8
24.9
21.9

25.8
26.7
33.2
25.7
24.8
28.2
21.1
21.5
23.9
20.2
20.1
21.2
19.8
25.3
21.5

RUN 2 (2/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Initial Water Height


16.4375
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25

Final Water Height


14.8125
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB

P
(mmH2O)
-0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.5
27
33.8
25.8
25
28.4
21.2
21.6
24
20.3
20.2

26.2
26.9
34
25.5
25.1
28.4
21.4
21.7
24.2
20.5
20.5

9
-

Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

0.25 WATER
WB
DB
WATER

21.3
19.9
25.2
21.4

21.7
20
25.5
21.5

RUN 3 (1/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


14.375
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


13.5
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.2
26.9
33
26
25.9
28.7
21.8
22.1
24.6
20.8
20.8
21.9
20
25.5
22

26.9
27.5
33.6
26.2
25.8
29
22
22.3
24.7
20.9
20.9
22.1
20
26
22

RUN 4 (Open Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Initial Water Height


18.625
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5

Final Water Height


17.3125
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
27.9
28.7
34.5
26.7
26.6
29.6
23.5
24.3
25.9

29.1
30
36.1
28.1
28.1
30.8
24.6
25.9
26.9

7
8
9
-

Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

0.25 WB
0.25 DB
0.25 WATER
WB
DB
WATER

22.6
22.9
23.9
23.5
36
24

23.9
24.1
24.7
24.5
38.5
25

P
(mmH2O)
0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

RUN 5 (2/3 Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


17.3125
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


16
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29.1
30
36.1
28.1
28.1
30.8
24.6
25.9
26.9
23.9
24.1
24.7
24.5
38.5
25

29.4
30.2
36.6
28.4
28.7
31.5
25
26.1
27.2
24.2
24.4
24.9
24.5
38.5
25

RUN 6 (1/3 FAN)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4

Initial Water Height


16
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5

Final Water Height


14.875
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB

P
(mmH2O)
6

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29.4
30.2
36.6
28.4
28.7
31.5
25

30.2
31
36.9
29
29.4
32.4
25.4

5
6
7
8
9
-

0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

26.1
27.2
24.2
24.4
24.9
24.5
38.5
25

26.7
27.8
24.3
24.6
25.3
24
38
25.5

TRIAL 3
RUN 1 (Open Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


(in)
17.5
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


(in)
16.8125
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
23.8
25.2
28.8
23.4
23.6
25.5
21.1
21.5
23
20.6
20.7
21.4
20.5
26
21

26
27.1
33.7
26.4
25.4
28.6
22
22.3
24.5
21.1
21.2
22.2
21
26
22

RUN 2 (2/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
-

Initial Water Height


16.8125

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
1
0.75

Final Water Height


15.875
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB

P
(mmH2O)
0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26
27.1
33.7
26.4

26.5
27.5
34.8
26.8

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

25.4
28.6
22
22.3
24.5
21.1
21.2
22.2
21
26
22

26
29.1
22.3
22.6
24.8
21.4
21.4
22.4
20.5
26
22

RUN 3 (1/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


15.875
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


15.0625
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
4

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.5
27.5
34.8
26.8
26
29.1
22.3
22.6
24.8
21.4
21.4
22.4
20.5
26
22

27.2
28.2
35
27.4
26.6
29.9
22.7
23
25.2
21.7
21.6
22.7
20.5
26
22.5

RUN 4 (Open Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
-

Initial Water Height


14.75
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00

Final Water Height


13.4375
Reading For
WB
DB

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
27.6
28.7

29
30

Entering 1.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

35.3
27.5
27.2
30.3
24.2
24.7
26.3
23.3
23.7
24.4
24.5
36.5
24.5

36.9
28.6
28.5
31.4
25.1
25.9
27.2
24.2
24.5
25.1
25
38.5
25

P
(mmH2O)
0.5

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

RUN 5 (2/3 Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


13.4375
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


12.25
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29
30
36.9
28.6
28.5
31.4
25.1
25.9
27.2
24.2
24.5
25.1
25
38.5
25

29.3
30.4
37.6
29.2
29.1
31.8
25.4
26.6
27.4
24.5
24.9
25.4
25
38.5
25.5

RUN 6 (1/3 FAN)(WITH AIR HEATER)

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number

Initial Water Height


12.25
Column Height Z

Final Water Height


11
Reading For

P
(mmH2O)
6
Temp (C)

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03
Temp (C)

Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

29.3
30.4
37.6
29.2
29.1
31.8
25.4
26.6
27.4
24.5
24.9
25.4
25
38.5
25.5

30.6
31.7
37.6
31.3
30.3
33.1
26.5
27.4
28.6
25.3
25.4
26.2
25
38.5
26

TRIAL AVERAGES
RUN 1 (Open Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)
Change Water Height
(in)
1.0625

Heater Wattage (kW)


1.5
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Initial Water Height


n/a
Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Final Water Height


n/a
Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

P
(mmH2O)
0

Flow Rate(kg/s)
0.03

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
24.63333333
25.9
25.66666667
26.9
31.33333333
33.5
24.3
26.03333333
23.9
25.23333333
26.83333333
28.46666667
20.86666667
21.7
21.06666667
21.96666667
23.33333333
24.36666667
20.13333333
20.8
20.16666667
20.86666667
21.23333333
21.9
20.1
20.43333333
25.3
25.6
21.46666667
21.83333333

RUN 2 (2/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)


Change Water Height
(in)
1.104166667
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.13333333
26.3
27
27.2
33.7
34.26666667
26.06666667
26.26666667
25.3
25.66666667
28.53333333
28.83333333
21.73333333
22
22
22.23333333
24.4
24.66666667
20.83333333
21.1
20.9
21.16666667
21.93333333
22.23333333
20.46666667
20.33333333
25.56666667
25.66666667
21.8
22

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
26.3
27.2
27.2
28.06666667
33.93333333
34.46666667
26.43333333
27.26666667
25.93333333
26.53333333
28.93333333
29.66666667
22.13333333
22.7
22.36666667
22.9
24.8
25.3
21.2
21.66666667
21.26666667
21.63333333
22.3
22.7
20.33333333
20.5

RUN 3 (1/3 Fan)(NO AIR HEATER)


Change Water Height
(in)
0.791666667
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00

Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

DB
WATER

25.66666667
22.16666667

26
22.5

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
27.86666667
29.16666667
28.86666667
30.13333333
35.1
36.7
27.56666667
28.76666667
27.2
28.56666667
30.2
31.3
24.16666667
25.1
24.7
26
26.36666667
27.26666667
23.3
24.33333333
23.66666667
24.56666667
24.43333333
25.16666667
24.33333333
25
36.5
38.5
24.5
25.16666667

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29.16666667
29.56666667
30.13333333
30.53333333
36.7
37.33333333
28.76666667
29.23333333
28.56666667
29.13333333
31.3
31.86666667
25.1
25.5
26
26.5
27.26666667
27.63333333
24.33333333
24.63333333
24.56666667
24.96666667

RUN 4 (Open Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)


Change Water Height
(in)
1.208333333
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

RUN 5 (2/3 Fan)(WITH AIR HEATER)


Change Water Height
(in)
1.25
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25

9
-

Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

0.25 WATER
WB
DB
WATER

25.16666667
25
38.5
25.16666667

25.46666667
25
38.66666667
25.5

RUN 6 (1/3 FAN)(WITH AIR HEATER)


Change Water Height
(in)
1.1875
Thermocouple Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-

Change in Humidity (g/kg dry air)


6

Column Height Z
Exiting 1.00
Exiting 1.00
Entering 1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.25
Entering 0.00
Entering 0.00
Exiting 0.00

Reading For
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER
WB
DB
WATER

Temp (C)
Temp (C)
29.56666667
30.63333333
30.53333333
31.6
37.33333333
37.6
29.23333333
30.63333333
29.13333333
30.1
31.86666667
32.96666667
25.5
26.26666667
26.5
27.26666667
27.63333333
28.5
24.63333333
25.16666667
24.96666667
25.4
25.46666667
26.13333333
25
24.83333333
38.66666667
38.33333333
25.5
26

Table A-1.2- Enthalpy of Air and Water as a Function of Column Height. These values
were looked up on a psychometric chart using the values for temperature and pressure listed
below. The Enthalpy of Air comes from the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures at each location,
found in figure A-1.1.

Appendix A-1: Example Calculations


1. Rate of Water Evaporation for 1.5 kW Run | TRIAL 1 |NO HEAT |OPEN FAN |
Rate of Water Evaporation =
=
X

= 0.929 g/s

2. Air Flow Rate Using Orifice Equation Eqn. for 1.5 kW Run | TRIAL 1 |NO HEAT |OPEN FAN |

3.

Energy Balance (Cooling Load) for 1.5 kW Run | TRIAL 1 |NO HEAT |OPEN FAN |

4. Energy Balance on Tower (heat lost through walls) for 1.5 kW Run | TRIAL 1 |NO HEAT |OPEN FAN