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Characteristics of an Ideal Op-Amp

Infinite input impedance


Zero output impedance
Zero common-mode gain, or, infinite common-mode
rejection
Infinite open-loop gain A
Infinite bandwidth.

Difference Amplifier

A difference amplifier is one that responds to the difference between the two
signals applied at its input and ideally rejects signals that are common to the two
inputs.

v Id = v I 2 v I1

vIcm

1
= (v I 1 + v I 2 )
2

v Icm
vo = Ad v Id + Acm v Icm
Ad
CMRR = 20 log
Acm

+
-

v Id
v I1 = v Icm
2

v Id
2

v Id
2
v Id
v I 2 = v Icm +
2
2

More Characteristics of Op-Amp


Since the ideal op-amp responds only to the difference between the
two input signals, the ideal op-amp maintains a zero output signal
when the two input signals are equal.
When the two input signals are unequal, there is what is called a
common-mode input signal.
For the ideal op-amp, the common-mode output signal is zero. This
characteristic is referred to as common-mode rejection.
Another characteristic, because op-amp is biased by both positive and
negative power supplies, most op-amps are direct coupled devices (no
coupling capacitors are required on the input). Accordingly, the two
input voltages can be DC.
Because the OP is composed of transistors biased in the active region
by the DC power supply, the output voltage is limited.

Difference Amplifier

R2
vI1
vI2

R1

R3

vo

R4

A Single Difference or Differential Amplifier

vout

R2
(v2 v1 )
=
R1

R2
vout =
v Id
R1

Figure
8.10

R2
Ad =
R1

Instrumentation Amplifier

Input (a) and output (b) stages of


Instrumentation amplifier

Figure
8.14,
8.15

vout
RF 2 R2
1 +

AV =
=
v1 v2
R
R1
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Design Example: Determine the range required for resistor R1 in the


instrumentation amplifier to realize a differential gain adjustable from 5 to
500. Assume RF = 2R, so that the difference amplifier gain is 2.

Assume R1 is a combination of a fixed resistor R1f and a variable resistor R1v.


Assume R1v = 100 k

vout
RF 2 R2
1 +

AV =
=
v1 v2
R
R1

R1f

2R
500 = 21 + 2 and the minimum differential gain is
R1 f

R1v

2 R2

5 = 2 1+
and from the maximum gain expression
R1 f + 100

2 R2 = 249 R1 f
249 R1 f
2 R2
=
1.5 =
R1 f + 100 R1 f + 100
R1 f = 0.606 k and R2 = 75.5 k
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Op-amp Differentiator

dvS (t )
vout (t ) = RF CS
dt
Figure 8.35

Large Signal Operation of Op Amp


Like other amplifiers, op amps operate linearly over a limited range of
output voltages.
Another limitation of the operation of op amps is that their output current
is limited to a specified maximum. For example, the op amp 741 is
specified to have a maximum output current of 20 mA.
Read Example 2.5.
Another phenomenon that can cause nonlinear distortion when large
output signals are present is that of slew-rate limiting. This means there is
a specific maximum rate of change possible at the output of a real op amp.
This maximum is known as the slew rate (SR) of the op amp and is
defined as
dv
SR = o
dt max

Design Example. Design a difference amplifier with a


specified gain and minimum differential input resistance.
Design the circuit such that the differential gain is 30 and the
minimum differential input resistance is Ri = 50 k

Ri = 2 R1 = 50 k
R1 = R3 = 25 k
R2
= 30,
Since the differential gain is
R1
we must have R2 = R4 = 750 k

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Design Example: Calculate the common-mode rejection ratio of a


differential amplifier. Consider the difference amplifier shown in page 2.
Let R2/R1 = 10 and R4/R3 = 11. Determine CMRR (dB)
vo = vo1 + vo 2
R4

R
R
3 v ( R 2 )v
vo = (1 + 2 )
I1
R4 I 2
R1
R1
1+

R
3

11
vo = (1 + 10)(
)v I 2 (10)v I1 = 10.0833v I 2 10v I1
1 + 11
v
v
v +v
vd = v I 2 v I1; vcm = I1 I 2 ; v I1 = vcm d ; v 2 = vcm + d
2
2
2
v
v
vo = 10.0833(vcm + d ) 10(vcm d )
2
2
vo = 10.042vd + 0.0833vcm ; vo = Ad vd + Acm vcm
Ad = 10.042; Acm = 0.0833
10.042
CMRR(dB) = 20log10
= 41.6 dB
0.0833

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Op-amp Circuits Employing Complex Impedances

Vout
ZF
( j ) =
VS
ZS

Figure
8.20

Vout
ZF
( j ) = 1 +
VS
ZS

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Active Low-Pass Filter

Figure 8.21,
8.23

Normalized Response of Active Low-pass Filter

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Active High-Pass Filter

Figure
8.24,
8.25

Normalized Response of Active High-pass Filter

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Active Band-Pass Filter

Figure
8.26,
8.27

Normalized Amplitude Response of Active Band-pass Filter

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Op-amp Integrator

1
vout (t ) =
RS C F

vS (t )dt

Figure
8.30

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Op-amp Differentiator

dvS (t )
vout (t ) = RF CS
dt
Figure 8.35

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