Characteristics of an Ideal OpAmp
Infinite input impedance
Zero output impedance
Zero commonmode gain, or, infinite commonmode
rejection
Infinite openloop gain A
Infinite bandwidth.
Difference Amplifier
A difference amplifier is one that responds to the difference between the two
signals applied at its input and ideally rejects signals that are common to the two
inputs.
v Id = v I 2 v I1
vIcm
1
= (v I 1 + v I 2 )
2
v Icm
vo = Ad v Id + Acm v Icm
Ad
CMRR = 20 log
Acm
+

v Id
v I1 = v Icm
2
v Id
2
v Id
2
v Id
v I 2 = v Icm +
2
2
More Characteristics of OpAmp
Since the ideal opamp responds only to the difference between the
two input signals, the ideal opamp maintains a zero output signal
when the two input signals are equal.
When the two input signals are unequal, there is what is called a
commonmode input signal.
For the ideal opamp, the commonmode output signal is zero. This
characteristic is referred to as commonmode rejection.
Another characteristic, because opamp is biased by both positive and
negative power supplies, most opamps are direct coupled devices (no
coupling capacitors are required on the input). Accordingly, the two
input voltages can be DC.
Because the OP is composed of transistors biased in the active region
by the DC power supply, the output voltage is limited.
Difference Amplifier
R2
vI1
vI2
R1
R3
vo
R4
A Single Difference or Differential Amplifier
vout
R2
(v2 v1 )
=
R1
R2
vout =
v Id
R1
Figure
8.10
R2
Ad =
R1
Instrumentation Amplifier
Input (a) and output (b) stages of
Instrumentation amplifier
Figure
8.14,
8.15
vout
RF 2 R2
1 +
AV =
=
v1 v2
R
R1
6
Design Example: Determine the range required for resistor R1 in the
instrumentation amplifier to realize a differential gain adjustable from 5 to
500. Assume RF = 2R, so that the difference amplifier gain is 2.
Assume R1 is a combination of a fixed resistor R1f and a variable resistor R1v.
Assume R1v = 100 k
vout
RF 2 R2
1 +
AV =
=
v1 v2
R
R1
R1f
2R
500 = 21 + 2 and the minimum differential gain is
R1 f
R1v
2 R2
5 = 2 1+
and from the maximum gain expression
R1 f + 100
2 R2 = 249 R1 f
249 R1 f
2 R2
=
1.5 =
R1 f + 100 R1 f + 100
R1 f = 0.606 k and R2 = 75.5 k
7
Opamp Differentiator
dvS (t )
vout (t ) = RF CS
dt
Figure 8.35
Large Signal Operation of Op Amp
Like other amplifiers, op amps operate linearly over a limited range of
output voltages.
Another limitation of the operation of op amps is that their output current
is limited to a specified maximum. For example, the op amp 741 is
specified to have a maximum output current of 20 mA.
Read Example 2.5.
Another phenomenon that can cause nonlinear distortion when large
output signals are present is that of slewrate limiting. This means there is
a specific maximum rate of change possible at the output of a real op amp.
This maximum is known as the slew rate (SR) of the op amp and is
defined as
dv
SR = o
dt max
Design Example. Design a difference amplifier with a
specified gain and minimum differential input resistance.
Design the circuit such that the differential gain is 30 and the
minimum differential input resistance is Ri = 50 k
Ri = 2 R1 = 50 k
R1 = R3 = 25 k
R2
= 30,
Since the differential gain is
R1
we must have R2 = R4 = 750 k
10
Design Example: Calculate the commonmode rejection ratio of a
differential amplifier. Consider the difference amplifier shown in page 2.
Let R2/R1 = 10 and R4/R3 = 11. Determine CMRR (dB)
vo = vo1 + vo 2
R4
R
R
3 v ( R 2 )v
vo = (1 + 2 )
I1
R4 I 2
R1
R1
1+
R
3
11
vo = (1 + 10)(
)v I 2 (10)v I1 = 10.0833v I 2 10v I1
1 + 11
v
v
v +v
vd = v I 2 v I1; vcm = I1 I 2 ; v I1 = vcm d ; v 2 = vcm + d
2
2
2
v
v
vo = 10.0833(vcm + d ) 10(vcm d )
2
2
vo = 10.042vd + 0.0833vcm ; vo = Ad vd + Acm vcm
Ad = 10.042; Acm = 0.0833
10.042
CMRR(dB) = 20log10
= 41.6 dB
0.0833
11
Opamp Circuits Employing Complex Impedances
Vout
ZF
( j ) =
VS
ZS
Figure
8.20
Vout
ZF
( j ) = 1 +
VS
ZS
12
Active LowPass Filter
Figure 8.21,
8.23
Normalized Response of Active Lowpass Filter
13
Active HighPass Filter
Figure
8.24,
8.25
Normalized Response of Active Highpass Filter
14
Active BandPass Filter
Figure
8.26,
8.27
Normalized Amplitude Response of Active Bandpass Filter
15
Opamp Integrator
1
vout (t ) =
RS C F
vS (t )dt
Figure
8.30
16
Opamp Differentiator
dvS (t )
vout (t ) = RF CS
dt
Figure 8.35
17