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Taking a developmental approach is
important for a number of reasons.

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Firstly, allows us to spot and interpret
different patterns of behavior.

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Secondly, we can think about development
in

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terms of processes, but also developmental
outcomes. RESULTADOS

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One kind of developmental outcome is often
referred

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to as a milestone HITOS, developmental
milestone, and in typical

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development we can plot a range of
milestones that

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children usually proceed through as part
of their development.

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And this allows us also to see when
development is atypical.

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When a child is maybe not following the

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typical patterns of development and this
is important

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because it will then allow us to support

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that child in the ways they need
supporting.

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In this week we're going to cover three
core things.

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In the rest of this video we're going to
be

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having a look at developmental approaches
to understanding children adolescence.

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In the second video we're going to look at


influences on development.

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And then in the third and final video for
this week we're going

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to be turning to approaches which try and
explain well-being and mental health.

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These are often referred to as
Developmental Psycho Pathology Theories.

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Psychologists define development as the
process by which an

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organism, human or animal, grows and
changes through its life-span.

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And developmental psychology is the
discipline that attempts

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to describe and explain the changes that
occur over

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time in thought, behaviour, reasoning, and
functioning of

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a person due to biological, individual,
and environmental influences.

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Children are qualitatively different from
adults.

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They're not born as mini adults and
they're not born as empty vessels VASOS.

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They, they're complex in their
development.

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And sometimes development is easy to
observe such

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as development of walking or development
of language.

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Other areas of development are much more
difficult to observe

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for example changes in thought processes

or changes in emotions.

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Some developments occur slowly and
gradually over long periods of time.

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Where as other times of development see
rapid

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change which we often refer to as growth
spurts. CHORROS DE CRECIMIENTO

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And this is particularly true early in
development and in adolescence.

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In order to understand development,
psychologists

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break it down into manageable chunks PEDAZOS.

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One of the ways psychologists break
development down

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is by thinking about development as
occurring in phases.

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I'm using the term phases, not stages,
because

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stages has kind of a particular
theoretical connotation.

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The phases that we usually break

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development down into are firstly before
birth.

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So the development now happens between
conception and a child being born.

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Then the first two years of life we'll
refer to as Infancy and this

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is a time when there is rapid growth and
in every aspect of development.

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By the age of about two and a

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half, children are half their adult height


on average.

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So it's, it's a really important phase of
development.

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The next phase is from about three to

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about 10, and we refer to this as
childhood.

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It's often broken down into

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early childhood, mid-childhood and later
childhood.

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And it's a time when you see refinement of

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physical skills, motor skills, but also
huge cognitive changes.

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The third and final phase in terms

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of child and adolescent development is
adolescence.

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We usually refer to this as the second

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decade of life, from around about 11 to
20.

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And again this is often broken down into
early adolescence, a time when young

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people go through puberty, change school
systems

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and begin to form strong peer group
relationships.

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And then they move into mid-adolescence,

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and then later adolescence is
characterized

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often by moving more away from the family
and moving into independent adulthood.

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A second way of breaking down development
into manageable

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parts is by thinking about different
aspects of development.

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One aspect of development is physical
development.

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This includes motor coordination, fine
motor

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coordination, growth in terms of height
but

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also brain development and physical
development can

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be quite easily observable but not
necessarily.

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Another area of development is social and
emotional development.

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This includes the friendships we make, the
relationships we have with our parents,

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how we feel about the social world we're
in, how we manage our emotions.

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These are all parts of social and

emotional development.

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The third aspect of development is
cognition, cognitive development.

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This includes our thought processes such
as memory, reasoning, attention.

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Some of it's unobservable so it can be
difficult to detect.

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However, while there might be three main
aspects of development,

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we've got to remember that the child
develops as a whole.

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The different aspects of development don't
occur

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in isolation, they all interact with one
another.

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And act, or acted out at the same time.

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So imagine a situation where a child comes
to play in a play park like this one.

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First of all, they have to think about
what they might like to play on.

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They have to remember what they've enjoyed

before, they have

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to look around the environment and see
what opportunities are there.

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And they have to make a decision about
what they're going to play on.

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Those are all cognitive activities.

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The next thing is they have to physically
get

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there, they have to use their gross
locomotive skills

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to move over to the equipment and then
coordinate

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their body to make the piece of equipment
work.

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That's physical development.

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If they were the friends they may be
discussing what they're

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going to play or negotiating which piece
of equipment to play on.

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They may be joking and laughing and

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enjoying themselves and that's social and
emotional development.

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So all aspects of development are involved
in the simple act of coming to

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a play park and deciding what to play on
and enjoying playing on it.

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When we thing about development, as well
as and phases of development

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and aspects of development, psychologists
are

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also interested in patterns of


development.

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One of the key things to recognize is that
develop

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isn't always progressive it doesn't mean a
positive change necessarily.

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It's just a change.

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Change can be continuous and it

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can continuous improvement or continuous
decline.

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For example, at around about the age of

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18 months, children begin to engage in
pretend play.

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For them any object can become something
different and fascinating.

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Like a banana can become a telephone, for
example.

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As they develop pretend play increases.

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But around middle childhood it begins to
decline

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as other forms of play become more
prominent.

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This pattern of continuous development is
often known as an inverted

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U function, where you can see that
development increases and then declines.

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You can also get U-shaped continuous
change, where you see an

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apparent decline, but actually, it leads
to an improvement in development.

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And often this is true of cognitive


element,

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where a child's behavior may look like,
the

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behavior is becoming more difficult or
they're not,

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they're not managing suc, to succeed in a
task.

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But actually cognitively, they're
re-evaluating how to perform

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the task, and then their, their
performance improves.

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And that's a U-Shaped function.

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So there are various patterns of
continuous change.

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Sometimes change is very rapid and
sometimes change is slow and gradual.

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As well as continuous change, another
pattern of

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change that psychologists supported is
stage changes and

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this is where you have changes in ability


which seem to take quite a dramatic shift.

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A classic stage theory of development is
Piaget theory.

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He outlined four stages of development.

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The first between birth and two is the
sensory motor period.

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The second stage is between around about 3
and 7.

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Which is the pre operational stage of
development.

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Concrete operations is between around 7
and 11.

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From the age of around 11 to 15, children

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move on to the formal operational stage of
thinking.

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And Piaget said that each of these stages
of development

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is typified by new range of cognitive
abilities or operations.

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That allow children to cognitively perform

at a different level.

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So in his research, you can see in his
particular

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experiments and tasks how certain stages
of development, children will

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fail a task, and when they move to the
next

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stage of development, they'll be able to
succeed in a task.

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These different patterns of development
highlights the complexity of development.

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We've looked at a range of different

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psychological ideas about children and
adolescence development.

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So how do we come up with these ideas?

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Well we use research methods.

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And one of the key research methods we use
is observation.

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We observe children in everyday natural
settings and

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also in settings that we've created for
them.

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And we may look at that play for

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example or have them interact with other,
other children.

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And we can do this even in a play park.

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Another very simple method is to look at
children's drawings.

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In these drawings here, we can see

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children of different ages have created
them.

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This drawing was by a very young child.

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Who wasn't able to hold a pen or pencil
yet, but

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was able to make a drawing by using paint,
and palm prints.

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[BLANK_AUDIO]

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This picture is by a slightly older child,
who's able to grip a pencil.

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So, their, their fine motor development is
coming along.

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And they've been able to choose what
colors they want to use and I'm sure they

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will know exactly what this is a picture
of but I'm not completely sure I know.

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This picture is by a child who's about
three years old and

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they've got lots of detail here, we've got
a sun and a sky.

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We've got three people, and we've got a
flower and a house.

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What they haven't got really is, is scale
or perspective.

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So the flower and the person are the

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same height and they're both bigger than
the house.

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And the arms are half way down the legs.

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But nevertheless it's a happy picture.

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There's lots of bright colors and you can
tell what the child is trying to convey.

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In this final picture, this is a picture
drawn by a four to five year old.

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And this shows a happy child in a, in

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a garden scene with flowers and trees and
blue sky.

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And it conveys happiness, because the
character

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within the picture is smiling and happy.

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And it's full of bright colors.

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We use drawings systematically as well,
where we present children with drawings.

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This is an example of research on
bullying,

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where we draw really simple stick men
doing different

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behaviors, and we ask children for their
definition

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of the behavior and their interpretation

of what's happening.

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You can use this kind of research

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across different cultures and different
ages of children.

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To reveal something about the development
of understanding bullying.

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And also whether that's consistent or
different, across different cultures.

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As well as drawing's we can interview
children and find

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out how they feel about things, and their
understanding of things.

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And how this changes with age.

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So interview techniques are really an
important part of the repertoire

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of research methods when we're working
with children and young people.

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When children get a little bit older, we
can also use very simple questionnaires.

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This is a psychological measure of
anxiety.

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There are, there are many others, which
look at anxiety as well.

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And it asks very simple questions in
age-appropriate language.

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And the children have to read them and
then give

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a response, to how often they may feel
like this.

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So for example the first item is, I worry
about things.

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Later down, I am good at sports.

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By filling out this kind of simple
questionnaire, we can

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tell something about whether that child is
experience anxiety or not.

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We also use experimental methods in
Psychology.

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Experiments sound a little bit
frightening, but actually often what

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we do is that of very play like activities
with

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children's toys or things that look like
toys and engage

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with children in tasks that they will find
really interesting.

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Hugh, who is a lecturer in psychology,
will now tell

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us a little bit about the psychology and
development lab.

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In the psychology department.

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And he'll demonstrate some of the


experimental techniques

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that they use with children in their
research.

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>> So, in this study we're assessing how
young

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children understand langauge, and how they
learn to integrate

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words together to create more complex
meanings, and then

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learn to integrate sentences to create
more complex discourse understanding.

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Pretty complicated task.

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And in particular we're interested in how
they do

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this on a sort of millisecond by a
millisecond basis.

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So how words entering the ear can rapidly
change their behavior and how that can be

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affected by this sort of top down that
prior knowledge of the task to be done.

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And we do it using a really simple game.

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So in this one, we have a bunch of little
toys the kids get

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to play with, and we play them

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some instructions that they just have to
follow.

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And as they follow these instructions we
monitor

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what they do, we record what they do.

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And we also have a camera that's built


into the stage and is able to track where

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they're looking over time to see how their

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gaze behavior changes as they hear these
different sentences.

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Which gives us a really sort of

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nice, implicit, accurate measure of what
they're thinking.

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As they're hearing these different
sentences.

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And the task is as simple as follows.

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They hear a bunch of instructions, like
tickle the squirrel with the feather.

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So there's two things you could ave done
there, you

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could have picked up the big feather to
tickle the

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squirrel or you could have just used your
hand to

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go and tickle the squirrel who is holding
a feather here.

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So tickle the squirrel with the feather is
ambiguous.

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So the type of interpretation you give to
it.

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You know, we can easily figure that out
from your eye movement.

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So, long before you raise your hands up to

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pick up that feather, you started looking
at it.

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So we know within like a couple of

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milliseconds, you will decided on a
particular interpretation.

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>> Okay.

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>> And now, we can vary different things
in

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the instructions, to see whether you're
sensitive to it.

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So for instance, if I'd said, tickle, the
squirrel with the feather,

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that would have meant something different
from tickle the squirrel with the feather.

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So we can test kids as young as sort of 3,

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4 years of age are sensitive to these
sorts of cues.

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>> We've just considered research methods
and spoken

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to Hugh about the developmental lab in
psychology.

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But it's important to remember that we all
work with children in

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one form or another and we use these
skills in our everyday practice.

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We observe children and we learn something
about how

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they're developing and their wellbeing
from our observations of them.

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We speak to children and learn about their
development directly from them.

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And we sometimes use little tasks during
and even short questionnaires with them

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in our everyday practice, especially if
we're

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working in education or in clinical
practice.

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In this week we've focused on three main
things.

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The first thing we discussed was how we

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define children's development, and we've
defined development with psychology.

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Then we went on to look at how we
characterize children's development.

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And we thought about phases, aspects, and
patterns of development.

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And finally, we looked at how
psychologists study child development.

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In the next video, we'll look at
influences on development.

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[BLANK_AUDIO]