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U-type Heat Exchangers

Construction
This is the most basic
and the most common
type of heat exchanger
construction.
This type of heat
exchanger consists of a
set of tubes in a container
called a shell.
Tubes are supported in
place by baffles.
The fluid flowing inside
the tubes is called the
tube side fluid and the
fluid flowing on the
outside of the tubes is the
shell side fluid.

SHELL AND TUBE


MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
STANDARD

OPTIONAL

SHELL

Carbon Steel

304 or 316L Stainless

HEAD

Cast Iron

304 or 316L Stainless

TUBES

Stainless Steel

316L Stainless or
Copper

TUBESHEET

Carbon Steel

304 or 316L Stainless

SEPARATOR

Carbon Steel

304 or 316L Stainless

NUTS AND BOLTS

Carbon Steel

Stainless Steel

Drawing Symbol:

Construction
In systems where the two fluids
are at vastly different pressures,
the higher pressure fluid is
typically directed through the
tubes and the lower pressure fluid
is circulated on the shell side. The
support plates also act as baffles
to direct the flow of fluid within
the shell back and forth across the
tubes.

Components

Drain inlet:
Shell side fluid enters heat
exchanger

Tube sheet:
Holds the tubes in place and
distributesDrain
the fluid
to the tubes
outlet:

Feedwater inlet:

Shell side fluid exits heat

Tube side
fluid enters heat
exchanger
exchanger

Shell:
Contains shell side fluid

Support Plates:

Tubes:
Feedwater outlet:
Contains the tube side

Support the tubes and also channel the shell


Tube-side
fluid exits
side water along the designed
path
fluid

Working
The principle of operation is
simple enough: Two fluids of
different temperatures are
brought into close contact but
they are not mixing with each
other.
One fluid runs through the
tubes, and another fluid flows
over the tubes (through the
shell) to transfer heat between
the two fluids.
The temperature of the two
fluids will tend to equalize .
The heat is simply exchanged
from one fluid to the other and
vice versa. No energy is added
or removed.

COIL TUBE TYPE HEAT


EXCHANGER

A coil tube heat exchanger is fabricated by rolling a pair of relatively long strips of
plate around a split mandrel to form a pair of spiral passages Channel spacing is
maintained uniformly along the length of the coil passages by means of spacer studs welded
to the plate strips prior to rolling. It can be made with channels 5-25 mm wide, with or
without studs.

The coil channels are welded shut on their ends in order to contain respective fluids.
An overall gasket is applied to the cover. The covers are attached to the coil element by
means of forged hook bolts and adapters. The hook bolt engages the bevel at the back of the
flange ring and the adapter engages the rim at the edge of the cover.
A header is welded on the outer end of each passage to accommodate the respective
peripheral nozzle.
For most services, both fluid flow channels are closed by alternate channels welded at both
sides of the coil plate. In some applications, one of the channels is left completely open, and
the other closed at both sides of the plate. These two types of construction prevent the fluids
from mixing

Flow Arrangements and Applications

The coil assembly can be fitted with covers to provide three flow pattern
types:

Both fluids in coil flows; this arrangement can accommodate the media in
full counter flow.

General uses are for liquid to liquid, condensers, and gas coolers.
One fluid in coil flow and the other in axial flow across the coil; general
uses are as
condensers, reboilers, and gas coolers and heaters.
One fluid in spiral flow and the other in a combination of axial and spiral
flow; general uses are as condensers (with built-in after coolers) and
vaporizers.

Construction Material
Spiral plate exchangers are fabricated from any material that
can be cold worked and welded.
Typical construction materials include carbon steel, stainless
steels, Hastelloy B and C , nickel and nickel alloys, aluminum
alloys, titanium, and copper alloys.

To protect against corrosion from cooling water, the surface is


given baked phenolic resin coatings, among others. Anodic
elements may also be wound into the assembly to anodic ally
protect surfaces against corrosion

Mechanical Design of Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers


coil exchangers can be furnished in accordance with most pressure vessel
codes. Sizes range from 0.5 to 350 m2 of heat-transfer surface in one single
spiral body. The maximum design pressure is normally limited to 150 psi
due to the following reasons, although for smaller diameters the pressure
may sometimes be higher
1.

Because the turns of the spiral are of relatively large diameter, each turn
must contain its design pressure,

2.

The plate thickness is somewhat restricted.

3.

Limitations of materials of constructions govern design temperature

4.

They are normally designed for the full pressure of each passage.

Advantages of the coil tube Exchangers

coil plate heat exchangers have a number of advantages over conventional shell and tube exchangers.

The coil tube heat exchanger approaches the ideal in heat exchanger design. Media can be arranged in full
counter flow . Flow characteristics are the same for each medium.

The long passages on each side permit close temperature approaches. Radiation losses are negligible.

The exchanger is well suited for heating or cooling viscous fluids because its UD ratio is lower than that of
tubular exchangers

At a velocity that would be marginal and approaching streamline flow in straight tubes,
good turbulence is realized because of the continuously curving passages.
The scrubbing action of the fluids in each side of the passage tends to flush away deposits
as they form and hence permits the use of low fouling resistance values.

Media cannot intermix; they are isolated by the welded closing on one side of each passage.

The spiral exchanger is compact and requires less installation and servicing space than conventional
exchangers of equivalent surface.

They are easily maintainable. By removing the covers of the spiral exchanger, the entire
lengths of the passages are easily accessible for inspection or mechanical cleaning, if
necessary. Similarly, because of the single passage on each side, the spiral heat exchanger
is readily cleaned with cleaning

Limitations
Besides the pressure limitation noted earlier, the coil plate exchanger also
has the following disadvantages

Repairing an coil tube exchanger in the field is difficult; however, the


possibility of leakage in a coil is less because it is generally fabricated from
much thicker plate than tube walls.

coil plate exchangers are not recommended for service in which thermal
cycling is frequent. When used for such services, the unit sometimes must
be designed for higher stresses.

The coil type usually should not be used when a hard deposit forms during
operation, because the spacer studs prevent such deposits from being
easily removed by drilling

18

Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal Pump

Symbol

In Nuclear Reactor, a bulk amount of energy is produced in the fission process and this
energy has to be removed by keeping specific flow rate of reactor coolant. Centrifugal Pumps
are used to provide that specific flow rate.
In the flow of reactor coolant, there is large pressure drop due to Equipment obstacles and
Piping frictional losses hence there is a need of centrifugal pump that will always keep the
reactor coolant in constant dynamic state.
In Nuclear Industry, Centrifugal Pumps that are used, generally deliver high flow rates.

Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pumps are used to transport


liquids by the conversion of the rotational
kinetic energy to the hydro dynamics
energy of the liquid flow.
The rotational energy typically comes
from an engine or electric motor or
turbine.
In the typical simple case, the fluid enters
the pump impeller along or near to the
rotating axis and is accelerated by the
impeller, flowing radially outward into a
diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from
where it exits.

The energy created by the pump


is kinetic energy according the
Bernoulli Equation. The energy
transferred to the liquid
corresponds to the velocity at the
edge or vane tip of the impeller.
The faster the impeller revolves
or the bigger the impeller is, the
higher will the velocity of the
liquid energy transferred to the
liquid be.

Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps----3
A centrifugal pump converts the
input power to kinetic energy in
the liquid by accelerating the
liquid by a revolving device - an
impeller.
The most common type is the
volute pump. Fluid enters the
pump through the eye of the
impeller which rotates at high
speed. The fluid is accelerated
radially outward from the pump
chasing.
A vacuum is created at the
impellers eye that continuously
draws more fluid into the pump.
Function of impeller is described
here.

Centrifugal Pump Impeller

Centrifugal Pumps

A brief description and working phenomena of centrifugal pump is shown in this video

Another video explaining the operation of centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pumps have their fair share of the problems, of course, such as erosion,
corrosion, overheating due to low flow, leakage and overload, they need regular
maintenance.
The energy use of a centrifugal pump can be estimated fairly easily, depending on the
required flow, the height lifted, and the total length of the pipeline.

Positive Displacement Pump


Positive Displacement Pumps are "constant flow machines. A positive displacement
pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it and then forcing
(displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Some positive displacement
pumps work using an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on
the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side
expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume
is constant throughout each cycle of operation.
Positive Displacement Pumps, unlike a Centrifugal or Roto-dynamic Pumps, will
produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter the discharge pressure.

Positive Displacement Pump


Positive Displacement Pumps are "constant flow machines.
A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it
and then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe.
Some positive displacement pumps work using an expanding cavity on the suction
side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side.
Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid
flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.
The volume is constant throughout each cycle of operation.
Positive Displacement Pumps, unlike a Centrifugal or Roto-dynamic Pumps, will
produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter the discharge pressure.

Types of Positive Displacement Pump


The positive displacement pumps can be divided in two main classes:

Reciprocating Pump

Rotary Pump
It can be shown in the chart below

Types of Positive Displacement Pump

Reciprocating Pump:
A reciprocating pump is a positive
plunger pump. It is often used where
relatively small quantity of liquid is to be
handled and where delivery pressure is
quite large. Its animation can be shown
in the figure.
Rotary Pump:
Rotary vane pump is a positivedisplacement pump that consists of vanes
mounted to a rotor that rotates inside of
a cavity. In some cases these vanes can be
variable length and/or tensioned to
maintain contact with the walls as the
pump rotates. It was invented by Charles
C. Barnes of Sackville, New Brunswick
who patented it on June 16, 1874.

Working of Positive Displacement Pump

Positive Displacement Pumps has an expanding


cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on
the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pumps as
the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid
flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.
The volume is constant given each cycle of
operation.

A Positive Displacement Pump must not be operated


against a closed valve on the discharge side of the
pump
because
it
has
no
shut-off
head like Centrifugal Pumps. A Positive
Displacement Pump operating against a closed
discharge valve, will continue to produce flow until
the pressure in the discharge line are increased until
the line bursts or the pump is severely damaged - or
both.

31

What is Centrifugal Blower


A centrifugal blower is a fan designed to move
air or gases in a confined area.
Whenever you need a continuous flow of air
or gas, centrifugal blowers can help.
They belong to a class of machines called
turbo machines

Construction
Main parts of a centrifugal fan are
i.

Fan Housing

ii.

Impellers

iii.

Inlet and Outlet ducts

iv.

Drive Shaft

v.

Drive Mechanism

The centrifugal blower has a number of blades mounted


around the hub, which turns on a shaft that passes
through the housing

Working

It works just like a fan with a motor encased in


a housing with an air outlet.
The gas enters the side of the fan wheel and
by use of centrifugal force(hence the name)
accelerates over the fan blades.
These fans increase the speed of air stream
with the rotating impellers.

Applications
Centrifugal blowers are
used in
Nuclear Power Plants
Thermal Power Plants
Road Tunnels

Wind Tunnels
Mining
Bullet Train cars

36

NPP AXIAL BLOWER


The axial-flow fans have blades that
force air to move parallel to the shaft
about which the blades rotate.

Axial fans blow air along the axis of


the fan, linearly, hence their name.

NPP AXIAL BLOWER


This type of fan is used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from small
cooling fans for electronics to the giant fans used in wind tunnels.

NPP AXIAL BLOWER


Axial flow fans are applied for
air conditioning and industrial
process applications
Standard axial flow fans have
diameters from 300400 mm or
1800 to 2000 mm and work
under pressures up to 800 Pa.

40

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
Reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement
compressor that deliver gases at high pressure.
In a reciprocating compressor, a volume of gas is drawn into a
cylinder, it is trapped, and compressed by piston and then
discharged into the discharge line. The cylinder valves control
the flow of gas through the cylinder.

R-C COMPONENTRS

Different parts of double acting compressor are listed below.

Suction valve.
Suction gas jacket.
Piston.
Cylinder.
Discharge valve.
Discharge gas jacket

Types :
Single-stage ( 70 psig to 100 psig)
Two-stage (100 psig to 250 psig)

R-C WORKING
It uses the reciprocating action of
piston inside a cylinder to compress
refrigerant.
The piston moves downward, a
vacuum is created inside the cylinder
and the pressure above the intake
valve is greater than the pressure
below it, the intake valve is forced
open and refrigerant is sucked inside.
After the piston reaches the bottom,
it begins to move upward and the
intake valve closes.

R-C WORKING (cont) AND


APPLICATIONS
As the piston continues to move upward it compresses the refrigerant,
increasing its pressure.
At a certain point the pressure exerted by the refrigerant forces the
exhaust valve to open and the compressed refrigerant flows out of the
cylinder.
Applications: Oil refineries, gas pipelines, chemical plants, natural gas
processing plants and refrigeration plants.

45

Eductor
Eductor uses a motive fluid
to pump another Fluid. Also
referred to as ejectors,
exhausters or siphons.

Principle Of Operation
Principle Of Operation of the
eductor is straightforward
(see Figure ).

Symbol

Principle Of Operation
The motive fluid (gas or liquid)
enters the eductor with high
initial velocity. As the highspeed jet passes through the
nozzle, its pressure decreases in
accordance with Bernoulli's
theorem.
The reduced pressure space
pulls a gas, liquid or solid
material through the suction
port. After mixing, everything
exits through the discharge port
Animatio
n

Applications
Installed near the bottom of a tank and fed
with recirculated fluid from the tank, they
effectively keep solids suspended.
They can blend liquids.
Fed with steam, an eductor can be used for
heating fluids.

3 common
connection

eductor

Real world application

Performance
An eductor's performance can be controlled by
modulating the motive fluid.
Given a fixed suction pressure and suitable downstream
measurement and feedback, the eductor can provide a
stable vacuum or motive-to-suction flow rate ratio,
which is useful for proportional feeding of two fluids.

Advantages
Low installation and maintenance cost.
They can be fabricated or molded from any metal that's
compatible with the fluids being moved.
It is a self-priming design and can be used in hazardous
areas.

50

What is a Strainer?
A strainer is a device that provides means of
mechanically removing solids from flowing
fluids. This is accomplished by utilizing a
perforated metal, mesh or wedge wire
straining element.
Strainers are employed in pipelines to protect
downstream mechanical equipment such as
condensers, heat
exchangers,
pumps,
compressors, spray nozzles, turbines and
steam traps from detrimental effect of
sediment, rust, pipe scale or other extraneous
debris.
A typical strainer is shown on the right top,
whereas the bottom one is the cross section
of another strainer.

What is the difference between filters


and strainers?
If the particle to be removed is not visible to the
naked eye, the unit is filtering, and if the particle is
visible, the unit is straining. Generally, if the
screening device is coarser than 200 mesh, it is a
strainer and if it is finer than 200 mesh it is a filter.
Strainers and filters also differ in resistance, they
offer to the flow. Strainers normally present low
resistance to liquid flow. The pressure drop across
most strainers is relatively small as compared to the
pressure drop across thick media filters or
membrane filters.
Another difference is in their respective functions. A
strainer is used to protect other downstream
equipment (e.g., pumps, instrumentation) from
damage by rogue junk. A filter is employed to
separate particles from the fluid.

Filter

Strainer

TYPES
FLUSH TYPE

NON FLUSH TYPE

In a flush type (also known as self cleaning)


strainer, the straining element can be cleaned
by flushing out the accumulated debris, by
opening and closing (an additionally mounted)
blow down valve.

In a non flush type strainer, no such self


cleaning option is available.

This can be accomplished without flow


stoppage or disassembling any piping.

A typical non-flush type strainer is shown below:

ANIMATION

01

Here, the piping must be disassembled or flow


must be stopped to clean the strainer.

Working (of a typical Flush type Strainer)

The dirty fluid enters the strainer where the fluid


velocity gets reduced. Flow continues to pass through
the straining element.
Unwanted materials are trapped on the inside of the
straining element. The fluid keeps getting strained and
comes out clean through the outlet nozzle. As the
straining element gets loaded with dirt, the differential
pressure keeps raising.
When the differential pressure crosses the pre-set
limits. The backwash valve opens the system to
atmosphere causing a high velocity reverse flow across
the isolated section of the element. Dirt and debris are
flushed out from this segment of the element.
During the flushing cycle the main flow is
uninterrupted and continues to be strained in the
normal manner. The control system would
automatically close the backwash valve after the
element is cleaned.

Applications

Power Plants : Treatment of Industrial Water for cooling


generators and filtration of sealing water to increase the
service life of the Turbine Shaft sliding-ring seals in HydroElectric Power Stations.

Heat Transfer / Heat Supply : Protects heat Exchangers


from clogging & wear

Steel Industry: Protection of nozzles and pumps during


high-pressure descaling, water treatment for blast furnaces,
rolling mills, cleaning, quenching applications.

Sewage Treatment Plants : During Production of industrial


water, filtration of a take off of the clear run can be used to
save valuable drinking or well water.

Environmental Technology: Used as pre-filters before waste


water treatment plants, UV Treatment, Reverse Osmosis,
membrane filtration etc.

02

56

HEPA FILTER
HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air.

symbol

HEPA filters can remove at least 99.97% of airborne


particles 0.3 micrometers (m) in diameter.
Particles of this size are the most difficult to filter
and are thus considered the most penetrating
particle size (MPPS).
Particles that are larger or smaller are filtered with
even higher efficiency.
HEPA Filters were developed by the Atomic Energy
Commission during World War II to filter radioactive
dust from nuclear plant exhaust.
HEPA filtration is 40% more efficient than the
highest efficiency rated filter.

HEPA Filter

Construction

HEPA filters are composed of a mat of


randomly arranged fibres.

Key metrics affecting function are


i.
ii.
iii.

Fibre density
Diameter
Filter thickness.

The air space between HEPA filter fibres


is much greater than 0.3 m.

The common assumption that a HEPA filter


acts sieve where particles smaller than largest
opening can pass through is incorrect. Just
as for membrane filters, particles so large that
they are as wide as the largest opening or
distance between fibres.

Working

HEPA filters are designed to target much


smaller pollutants and particles are mainly
trapped (they stick to a fibre) by one of the
following three mechanisms:

Interception, where particles following a


line of flow in the air stream come within
one radius of a fibre and adhere to it.

Impaction, where larger particles are


unable to avoid fibres by following the
curving contours of the air stream and
are forced to embed in one of them
directly; this effect increases with
diminishing fibre separation and higher
air flow velocity.

Diffusion, an enhancing mechanism is a


result of the collision with gas molecules by
the smallest particles, especially those
below 0.1 m in diameter, which are thereby
impeded and delayed in their path through
the filter;

Uses

HEPA are used where maximum reduction or removal


of sub micron particulate is required.
Users:
Microelectronics (eg. semiconductor cleanrooms)
Pharmaceutical
Bio and gene technology
Chemical industry
Nuclear air ventilation
Waste incinerators
Hospital operating rooms
Emergency burn centers
Cosmetics
Medical industry
Food industry
Optical industry

61

Activated Charcoal

Charcoal is carbon.

Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been treated with


oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon
atoms.

The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly


porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000
square meters per gram.
These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely
used to adsorb odorous or colored substances from gases or
liquids.

The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs


something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction.
The huge surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless
bonding sites. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon
surface, they attach to the surface and are trapped.
Activated charcoal is good at trapping other carbon-based
impurities ("organic" chemicals), as well as things like chlorine.
Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all e.g.
sodium, nitrates, etc. So they pass right through.
This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain
impurities while ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the
bonding sites are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working.

Activated Charcoal Filter for Water


Purification

Activated Carbon Filters are used for purification of saluted gas, wastes and
organic materials that give undesirable chlorine, color, taste and smell to
water.

AC is like coal but a material with very wide surface area (1000-1500 cubic
meter / gr).

Factors Affecting its Effectiveness

Factors Affecting its Effectiveness


Several factors influence the effectiveness of activated charcoal.
The pore size and distribution varies depending on the source of the carbon
and the manufacturing process.
Large organic molecules are absorbed better than smaller ones.

Adsorption tends to increase as pH and temperature decrease.


Contaminants are also removed more effectively if they are in contact with
the activated charcoal for a longer time, so flow rate through the charcoal
affects filtration.

67

PRESSURIZER ELCECTRICAL HEATERS

Pressuriser in a pressurized water nuclear power plant primary loop, counteracts the transients in
pressure and temperature. When the pressure in the primary loop drops due to decrease in
temperature by virtue of increase in plant power demand, the water from Pressuriser flows in to the

hot leg through the surge line connected at the bottom of Pressuriser, the electrical heaters overcome
the enthalpy drop, increase the temperature and pressure again by adding additional heat energy.

PRESSURIZER ELECTRICAL HEATERS

The electrical heaters are arranged in the circular formation at


the bottom in two, three or more concentric circles The total
number of electrical heaters may vary.

Different models of AREVA Pressuriser for nuclear power plants


of power rating between 900 MW and 1,450 MW are equipped
with 66 to 99 electric heaters accordingly.

At CHASNUPP PWR which is based on CNP-300 design of

Qinshan-I reactor in China, the pressurizer contains a total of 90


electrical heaters (60 back up heaters and 30 proportional). The
total heating volume is 1235 Cubic feet and the specific thermal
power output is 1 KW/Cubic feet. A single unit can provide up to

15KW at max. So the current heat capacity is 90*15 = 1350 KW.

The Pressurizer water heaters operate in the same saturation


conditions as of Pressuriser i.e. 315 C and 2250psig with
transients of 2000psig to 2500psig.

This cutout view at the bottom in the above picture of


the Pressuriser which shows the Pressuriser electric
heaters at the bottom, in the form of concentric
circular arrangement. Courtesy: AREVA.

PRESSURIZER ELECTRICAL HEATERS

Electric Pressuriser heaters are used to control the pressure in


the Pressuriser vessel of PWR and PHWR reactors. These heaters
are directly installed at the bottom of the Pressuriser vessel and
they are electrically powered to provide the heat input required

to maintain pressure control during transient conditions. The


Pressuriser heaters are designed and manufactured in
accordance with ASME Section III, Class 1 and stamped NPT
according to code requirements. See Following link for working.

View PWR (CHASNUPP) Pressuriser Animation in separate


window.avi
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF PRESSURISER
Manufacturers

Enertech, AREVA, WESTINGHOUSE, ABB

Voltage

Up to 660 VAC

Maximum Frequency

50 and 60 Hz

Power

Up to 400 KW. At CHASNUPP power is 1350 KW.

Design Pressures

Up to 3000psig but under normal operating conditions 2000-2500psig

Design Temperatures

Up to 398 C but under normal operating conditions 345C

Quality Class

ASME Code Section III, Class 1

PRESSURIZER ELECTRICAL HEATERS

PROPORTIONAL HEATERS: These heaters are connected to proportional controllers, which adjust the
heat input to account for steady-state losses and to maintain the desired steam pressure in the
Pressuriser. They operate only when the pressure falls to 2225 psig without insurge or the pressures are
2200 psig or low.

BACKUP HEATERS: The backup heaters are connected to on-off controllers. These heaters are normally
de-energized, but are automatically turned on by a low Pressuriser pressure signal. They turn off when
the pressure of 2275 psig is achieved.

HEATERS PROTECTION/SAFETIES: The pressurizer level heating trip is provided as a safety feature to
avoid damaging of electric heaters under excessive overheating which is certain if they are exposed to
the vapors because in vapor phase heat transfer reduces sharply which leads to a sharp rise in heater
temperature. A low-low Pressuriser water level signal (23.1% instead of 53%) de-energizes all heaters

before they are uncovered to prevent heater damage.

ELECTRICAL POWER CONSUMPTION: The electrical power input for NPP Pressuriser heating
requirements varies from 400 KW to 1,500 KW or more depending upon size and design of Pressuriser
and the nuclear reactor itself. A Pressuriser heater for a 900 MW power plant reactor offers the thermal

output of 1,440 KW.

72

Steam Trap
A steam trap is an automatic valve that allows
the condensate to discharge but traps or prevent
the flow of steam.

There are three basic purposes of using steam


trap
i.
ii.
iii.

to remove the condensate


to remove the non condensables
to prevent the discharge of steam

Types and Applications


Types of Steam Traps
Mechanical steam traps
i.
float and thermostatic traps
ii.
inverted bucket traps
Thermostatic traps
i.
liquid expansion thermostatic trap
ii.
balanced pressure thermostatic trap
Thermodynamic traps
i.
flat disc steam traps
Applications
Steam traps are used in all types of steam heated equipments like
Evaporators
Reboilers
Steam jacketed vessels.

Types
1. Mechanical steam traps

Have a float that rises and falls in


relation to condensate level and this
usually has a mechanical linkage
attached that opens and closes the
valve. Operate in direct relationship to
condensate levels present in the body
of the steam trap.
[

Types
2. Temperature steam traps

Have a valve that moves in/out of position by


either expansion/contraction caused by
temperature change. Some condensate builds
up as it cools sufficiently to allow the valve to
open. In most circumstances this is not desirable
as condensate needs to be removed as soon as
it is formed.

Types
3. Thermodynamic steam traps
Work on the difference in response
to velocity change in flow of
compressible and incompressible
fluids. As steam enters, static
pressure above the disk forces the
disk against the valve seat. The static
pressure over a large area
overcomes the high inlet pressure of
the steam. As the steam starts to
condense, the pressure against the
disk lessens and the trap opens to
allow condensate out.

78

Bellow Expansion Connector

Definition & Parts


It is a device containing one or more bellows used to absorb
dimensional changes caused by thermal growths or
contractions. It may be used for vibration damping.

Liners or sleeves are available for all


expansion joints and should be used when
pressure drop must be minimized and
smooth flow is essential or to protect the
bellows from media carrying abrasive
materials such as catalyst or slurry.

Bellows

Continued
Covers (Shrouds):
used to prevent damage
during installation and
operation or when welding
is going to be Perform
Tie Rods:
usually bars or rods,
attached to the expansion
joint assembly and are
designed to absorb pressure
thrust loads and other
extraneous forces

Continued
Limit Rods:
Limit rods are used to protect the bellows
from movements in excess of design.
They dont contain pressure thrust during
normal operation.

Control Rods:
They are attached to the expansion joint
assembly with primary function is to
distribute the movement between the
two bellows of a universal expansion
joint. They are not design to restrain
bellows pressure thrust

Axial loading mode

Axial loading mode

Lateral loading mode

Torsional loading mode

Angular loading mode

Connector Movements
Axial movement is the
change in dimensional
length of the bellows from
its free length in a direction
parallel to its longitudinal
axis.
Lateral movement is the
relative displacement of one
end of the bellows to the
other end in a direction
perpendicular to its
longitudinal axis (shear).

Continued
Angular movement is the
rotational displacement of the
longitudinal axis of the
bellows toward a point of
rotation

Bellow
Testing

Bellow
Forming

Forming
Machine

90

Spray Nozzle and Sparger

Spray Nozzle
A spray nozzle is a precision device that facilitates
dispersion of liquid into a spray.
Spray is a dynamic collection of drops dispersed in a
gas. The process of forming a spray is known as
atomization.

Spray Nozzle

Spray Nozzle

Spray Nozzle
Spray nozzles are used for three purposes: to
distribute a liquid over an area, to increase liquid
surface area, and create impact force on a solid
surface.
Spray nozzles can be categorized based on the energy
input used to cause atomization, the breakup of the
fluid into drops.

Spray Nozzle

Applications

Fire protection system.


Heat removal system.
Spraying water from fixed sprinklers.
High pressure water misting systems for expensive and
delicate equipment.
Deluge systems for protecting assets or keeping
potentially explosive materials cool in the event of fire.
Water tunnel systems designed to ensure a safe "cool"
corridor to allow people to escape in the event of fire.

Disadvantage
A portion that are atomized, lost into the air due
to weightlessness. This results in high usage (cost)
and extra cost for pumping the material.
Spray nozzles are prone to clogging and abrasion
at the nozzle mouth.

Spray Nozzle
Symbol

Sparger
Spargers are ideal for applications requiring gas-to-liquid contacting because of the
media's uniform porosity. The key to high-efficiency sparging is fine bubble
propagation, which provides maximum surface area for effective "mass transfer"
while using less gas, resulting in cost reduction.

Sparger Nozzles

Sparger Applications

Sparger nozzles are designed to be submerged in the liquid for heat and mass
transfer. It is recommended for use in the cases:

1.

Where it is desired to start heat and mass transfer from a shallow level.

2.

Where uniform agitation and heat and mass transfer is required over a large,
shallow tank area.

3.

Where steam pressures are relatively low.

4.

Where solids in the liquid might tend to clog the small passages.

5.

Where diffusion of the process fluid is desired.

Animation Ref.

Video Ref.

103

Quick Disconnect Coupling

Introduction
Quick-disconnect couplings provide a
means of quickly disconnecting a line
without the loss of hydraulic fluid or
entrance of air into the system.
Each coupling assembly consists of two
halves, held together by a union nut. Each
half contains a valve, which is held open
when the coupling is connected.
This action allows fluid to flow in either
direction through the coupling.
When the coupling is disconnected, a spring
in each half closes the valve, preventing the
loss of fluid and entrance of air.
The union nut has a quick-lead thread that
permits connecting or disconnecting the
coupling by turning the nut. The amount the
nut must be turned varies with different
styles of couplings.

Quick Disconnect Coupling


For one style, a quarter turn of the union nut locks or
unlocks the coupling.
For another style, a full turn is required. Some couplings
require wrench tightening; others are connected and
disconnected by hand.
Some installations require that the coupling be safe tied
with safety wire; others do not require any form of safety.
Because of these individual differences, all quick
disconnects should be installed in accordance with the
instructions in the applicable MIM.

107

TOPIC: RUPTURE DISCS

What is a rupture disc?


A rupture disc is a thin diaphragm (generally a solid metal
disc) designed to rupture (or burst) at a designated
pressure. It is used as a weak element to protect vessels
and piping against excessive pressure (positive or negative).
There are five major types available
Conventional tension-loaded rupture disc
Pre-scored tension-loaded rupture disc
Composite rupture disc
Reverse buckling rupture disc with knife blades
Pre-scored reverse buckling rupture disc

Principle of Operation
Forward acting discs mount with the concave surface facing the process media. As
pressure increases above the recommended operating pressure, the disc will bulge
until it reaches the maximum tensile strength of the material and ruptures.

Pictorial view of rupture discs

Application
Rupture discs are commonly used in petrochemical, aerospace, aviation, defense,
medical, railroad, nuclear, chemical, pharmaceutical, food processing and oilfield
applications.
They can be used as single protection devices or as a backup device for a
conventional safety valve; if the pressure increases and the safety valve fails to
operate (or can't relieve enough pressure fast enough), the rupture disc will burst.
Rupture discs are very often used in combination with safety relief valves, isolating
the valves from the process, thereby saving on valve maintenance and creating a
leak-tight pressure relief solution
They are often used as the primary pressure relief device.
Very rapid pressure rise situations like runaway reactions.
When pressure relief valve cannot respond quick enough.

They can also be used in conjunction with a pressure relief valve to:
Provide corrosion protection for the PRV.
Prevent loss of toxic or expensive process materials.
Reduce fugitive emissions to meet environmental requirements.

Rupture Discs are Well Suited for


some Applications
Advantages
Available in a wide choice of materials and designs to suit the process
application
Wide range of models for different applications
Reduced fugitive emissions - no simmering or leakage prior to bursting.
Protect against rapid pressure rise cased by heat exchanger tube ruptures or
internal deflagrations.
Less expensive to provide corrosion resistance.
Less tendency to foul or plug.
Provide both over pressure protection and depressuring.
Provide secondary protective device for lower probability contingencies
requiring large relief areas.

Rupture Discs are Less Well Suited for


other Applications
Disadvantages

Dont reclose after relief.


Burst pressure cannot be tested.
Require periodic replacement.
Greater sensitivity to mechanical damage.
Greater sensitivity to temperature

Damaged during
Installation

Forward Acting and Reverse Acting


Discs
Forward Acting, Tension Loaded rupture discs
perform with the process pressure on the concave
side of the rupture disk

Reverse Acting rupture disks offer revolutionary new


scoreless and scored non-fragmenting designs for
universal use - new ultra low ratings - 90% operating
ratios

Single Stage Orifice

SINGLE STAGE ORIFICE PLATE

A single stage orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. It uses the same principle as a

Venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli's principle which states that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid
and the velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa.

DISCRIPTION

A single stage orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in the middle. It is usually placed in a pipe in which fluid flows.

When the fluid reaches the orifice plate, the fluid is forced to converge to go through the small hole; the point of
maximum convergence actually occurs shortly downstream of the physical orifice, at the so-called vena contracta
point (as shown in the figure below). As it does so, the velocity and the pressure changes. Beyond the vena contracta,
the fluid expands and the velocity and pressure change once again. By measuring the difference in fluid pressure
between the normal pipe section and at the vena contracta, the volumetric and mass flow rates can be obtained from
Bernoulli's equation.

Uses

Orifice plates are most commonly used for continuous measurement of fluid flow in
pipes. A restrictive flow orifice, a type of orifice plate, is a safety device to control
maximum flow from a compressed gas cylinder.

They are also used in some small river systems to measure flow rates at locations where
the river passes through a culvert or drain. Only a small number of rivers are
appropriate for the use of the technology since the plate must remain completely
immersed i.e. the approach pipe must be full, and the river must be substantially free of
debris.

A SINGLE STAGE ORIFICE

122

Single Stage Orifice Plate

Single Stage Orifice Plate


In order to measure the coolant flow rate
within a pipe, we install single stage orifice
plate
Restricting orifice plates enable to reduce
pressure of medium in the orifice plate
outlet (under constant flow)
The pressure drop depends on the size of
the hole and the number of stages in case
of multistaged orifice plate

Single Stage Orifice Plate

Single Stage Orifice Plate Cont..


They also functions as a hydraulic resistor
The velocity of the fluid that leaves the
orifice is faster as compared to that
entering the plate
Calculations of restricting orifice plates is
ensured by software and it unambiguously
enables us to determine inside diameter
of plate depending on specified operating
parameters like working fluid density, pipe
diameter etc.
Orifice Plate Side & Top View

Single Stage Orifice Plate Cont..


If these orifice plates are used in cascade
,they gradually decrease medium pressure
and prevents it from cavitation
Multiple restricting orifice plates placed in
sequences (up to 5 throttling orifice
plates) are sometimes used for
minimization of vibrations or cavitations in
applications with high loss in pressure,
when it is suitable to decrease pressure of
medium gradually

Orifice Plates in Cascade

Accident In Kansai Electric Power Company


Mihama Nuclear Power Plant (PWR)
In order to measure the coolant flow rate
in the pipe network, an orifice plate was
installed. This caused a reduction in crosssectional area and resulted in a Bell
shaped section of pipe being subjected to
increased water pressure. This eventually
led to a rupture in the pipe. As a result,
large quantities of high temperature
steam were released.
This accident caused 12 deaths due to
design faults when installing an orifice
plate.

128

Flange Connection and Blind


Connection

Flange connection

A flange is an external rib at the end of pipes, valves and other flow devices to assemble them.
Flange Connection is a technology from the hydraulic area, which allows a weld free
connection of hydraulic tubes.
Flanges to be used on all pipe: flanges must have holes for bolts quite separate from the big
hole in the middle of flange.
All flanges must be cast or forged of very best quality iron metal, close grained, free from
blowholes, lumps, cavities, pockmarks, pinpricks and warts. Otherwise we cant use them.
Gaskets are to used to fill space between flanges.
The flange connection system is competing with the welding bonding of hydraulic tubes.
Compared with the welding process the advantages are marked in savings on time and costs.
Expansive procedures like radio graphing and cleaning with anticorrosive agents of the pipe
connection are dispensed with the flange technology. Therefore the technology is also more
environmental friendly and safer than welding.

Contd

Types of flange connections:


Raised Face Flanges (RF):
RF flanges seal with a flat gasket designed for installation between the
raised faces of two mating flanges (both with raised faces). The raised faces have a prescribed
texture to increase their gripping and retaining force on this flat gasket. Some users of raised
face flanges specify the use of spiral wound gaskets.
Ring Type Joint Flanges (RTJ) or Ring Joint Facing Flanges (R-JF):
RTJ flanges have grooves cut into their faces which accept steel Ring
Gaskets. RTJ flanges seal when tightened bolts compress the gasket between the flanges into
the grooves, deforming (or "Coining") the gasket to make Intimate Contact inside the
grooves, creating a metal to metal seal.

Contd

Welding Neck flange


Welding Neck Flanges are easy to recognize at the long tapered hub, that goes
gradually over to the wall thickness from a pipe or fitting.
The long tapered hub provides an important reinforcement for use in several
applications involving high pressure, sub-zero and / or elevated temperatures. The smooth
transition from flange thickness to pipe or fitting wall thickness effected by the taper is
extremely beneficial, under conditions of repeated bending, caused by line expansion or
other variable forces.
Socket Weld flange
Socket Weld flanges were initially developed for use on small-size high pressure
piping. Their static strength is equal to Slip On flanges, but their fatigue strength 50% greater
than double-welded Slip On flanges.
The connection with the pipe is done with 1 fillet weld, at the outside of the
flange. But before welding, a space must be created between flange or fitting and pipe.

Blind connection

A blind flange is a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe.


Blind Flanges are manufactured without a bore and used to blank off the ends of piping,
Valves and pressure vessel openings.
From the standpoint of internal pressure and bolt loading, blind flanges, particularly in the
larger sizes, are the most highly stressed flange types.
However, most of these stresses are bending types near the center, and since there is no
standard inside diameter, these flanges are suitable for higher pressure temperature
applications.