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Percentage formula: Rate/100 = Percentage/base

Rate: The percent.

Base: The amount you are taking the percent of.

Percentage: The answer obtained by multiplying the base by the rate

Simple Interest = I = prt

Where, I= total interest, p= principle, r= interest rate (in decimal form), t = time in years.

Compound Interest=S=P(1+r/n)^nt

Where, S= future value, P=original principle, r= interest rate (in decimal form), n= number of

times per year the interest is compounded, t= number of years invested.

Number of Permutations:

Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, is given by:

n!

n

Pr =

(n - r)!

Number of Combinations:

The number of all combinations of n things, taken r at a time is:

n!

n

Cr =

.

(r!)(n - r)!

Note:

i.

Cn = 1 and nC0 = 1.

ii.

Cr = nC(n - r)

1.

1

If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A's 1 day's work = .

n

2.

1

If A's 1 day's work = ,then A can finish the work in n days.

n

3.

Ratio:

If A is thrice as good a workman as B, then:

Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.

Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

4.

5.

More men

Less men

6.

Less work

8.

More work

Less work

More work

7.

-------- takes------>

-------- takes------>

More Time

Less Time

More men

Less Time

Less men

More Time

If M1 persons can do W1 work in D1 days and M2 persons can do W2 work in D2days, then

9. If M1 persons can do W1 work in D1 days for h1 hours and M2 persons can do W2work in

D2 days for h2 hours, then

10. If A can do a work in x days and B can do the same work in y days, then the number of

days required to complete the work if A and B work together is

11. If A can do a work in x days and A + B can do the same work in y days, then the number

of days required to complete the work if B works alone is

Geometry formulas:

Rectangle:

Perimeter = l + l + w + w = 2 l + 2 w

Area = l w

Where, l: length, w: width

Square:

Perimeter = s + s + s + s = 4 s

Area = s2

Where, s:length of one side

Triangle:

Perimeter = a + b + c

Area = (b h)/2

Area = sqrt(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c))

Where, s=(a+b+c)/2 is the semi-perimeter if base and height are not known or mentioned.

Parallelogram:

Perimeter = a + a + b + b = 2 a + 2 b

Area = b h

Rhombus:

Perimeter = b + b + b + b = 4 b

Area = b h

Circle:

Perimeter = 2 pi r = pi d

Area = pi r2 = (pi d2)/4

Trapezoid:

Perimeter = a + b + c + d

Cube:

Volume = a3 = a a a

Surface area = 6 a2

Where, a: length of one side

Rectangular solid:

Volume = l w h

Surface area = 2 l w + 2 l h + 2 w h

where, l : the length, w : the width, h : the height

Cylinder:

Volume = pi r2 h

Surface area = 2 pi r2 + 2 pi r h

where, pi = 3.14, h : height of the cylinder , r : radius of the circle of the base

Sphere:

Volume = (4 pi r3)/3

Surface area = 4 pi r2

where, pi = 3.14, r : radius of sphere

Right circular cone:

Surface area = pi r2 + pi r ( (h2 + r2))

where, pi = 3.14, r : the radius, h : the height, l : the slant height

Boats and Streams problems

are frequently asked problems in competitive exams.

Stream: Moving water of the river is called stream.

Still Water: If the water is not moving then it is called still water.

Upstream: If a boat or a swimmer moves in the opposite direction of the stream then it is called

upstream.

Downstream: If a boat or a swimmer moves in the same direction of the stream then it is called

downstream.

Points to remember

When speed of boat or a swimmer is given then it normally means speed in still water.

Some Basic Formulas

Rule 1: If speed of boat or swimmer is x km/h and the speed of stream is y km/h then,

Speed of boat or swimmer upstream = (x y) km/h

Speed of boat or swimmer downstream = (x + y) km/h

Rule 2:

Speed of boat or swimmer in still water is given by

Rule 1: A man can row certain distance downstream in t1 hours and returns the same distance

upstream in t2 hours. If the speed of stream is y km/h, then the speed of man in still water is

given by

Example

Rule 2: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if it takes him t

hours to row to a place and come back, then the distance between two places is given by

Example

Rule 3: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if it takes t hours

more in upstream than to go downstream for the same distance, then the distance is given by

Example

Rule 4: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if he rows the

same distance up and down the stream, then his average speed is given by

Probability Formulas

Probability that event A occurs P(A) = n(A) / n(S).

Probability that event B occurs P(B) = n(B) / n(S).

where,

n(A) - number of event occurs in A

n(B) - number of event occurs in B

n(S) - number of possible outcomes

Complement Rule:

Probability that event A does not occur P(A') = 1 - P(A).

Probability that event B does not occur P(B') = 1 - P(B).

Addition Rule:

For non-mutually exclusive {for P(A B) 0} events the probability of either one or both

occuring is

P(A or B) = P(A B) =P(A) + P(B) P(A B)

where P(A B) is the probability of event A and event B happening at the same time.

For example, when drawing a card from a deck of 52 playing cards, the probability of getting a

red card or a King is

P(Red or King) = P(Red) + P(King) P(Red King)

P(Red or King) = 26/52 + 4/52 2/52

P(Red or King) = 28/52 = 7/13

This is so because a card can either be red, king, or both (i.e. red king). So that's why we need

to subtract the probability of a card being both red and king because it has already been

accounted for in the probability of the card being red and the probability of the card being king

Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time.

Examples

When tossing a fair coin, the event 'getting a head' and the event 'getting a tail' are

mutually exclusive because they can't occur at the same time.

When throwing a fair die, the event 'getting a 1' and the event 'getting a 4' are mutually

exclusive because they can't occur at the same time. But the event 'getting a 3' and the

event 'getting an odd number' are not mutually exclusive since it can happen at the

same time (i.e. if you get 3)

For two mutually exclusive events, A and B, the probability of either one occuring, P(A or B), is

the sum of the probability of each event.

P(A or B) = P(A B)= P(A) + P(B)

For example, when choosing a ball at random from a bag containing 3 blue balls, 2 green bals,

and 5 red balls, the probability of getting a blue or red ball is

P(Blue or Red) = P(Blue) + P(Red)

P(Blue or Red) = 3/10 + 5/10

P(Blue or Red) = 8/10 = 0.8

Conditional Probability

Probability (A given B) =P(A | B) = P(A B) / P(B).

Multiplicative Rule:

Probability that both the events occur P(A B) = P(A) x P(B).

Independent and Mutually exclusive events

Two events are independent if the outcome of one doesn't affect the outcome of the other.

Otherwise they are dependent.

Examples

When tossing a fair coin twice, the result of the first toss doesn't affect the probability

of the outcome of the second toss.

When drawing two cards from a deck of 52 playing card, the event 'getting a King' on

the first card and the event 'getting a black card' are not independent. The probability of

the second card change after the first card is drawn. The two events would be

independent if after drawing the first card, the card is returned to the deck (thus the

deck is complete 52 again).

For two independent events, A and B, the probability of both occuring together, P(A and B), is

the product of the probability of each event.

P(A and B) = P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

For example, when tossing a fair coin twice, the probability of getting a 'Head' on the first and

then getting a 'Tail' on the second is

P(H and T) = P(H) P(T)

P(H and T) = 0.5 0.5

P(H and T) = 0.25

For dependent events

P(A B) = P(A) * P(B|A)

Squares

1

1

2

4

3

9

4 16

5 25

6 36

7 49

8 64

9 81

10 100

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

121

144

169

196

225

256

289

324

361

400

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

441

484

529

576

625

676

729

784

841

900

Cubes

1

1

2

8

3

27

4

64

5 125

6 216

7 343

8 512

9 729

10 1000

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1331

1728

2197

2744

3375

4096

4913

5832

6859

8000

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

9261

10648

12167

13824

15625

17576

19683

21952

24389

27000

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

961

1024

1089

1156

1225

1296

1369

1444

1521

1600

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

1681

1764

1849

1936

2025

2116

2209

2304

2401

2500

Tables

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

7

14

21

28

35

42

49

56

63

70

8

16

24

32

40

48

56

64

72

80

9 10

18 20

27 30

36 40

45 50

54 60

63 70

72 80

81 90

90 100

11 12 13 14 15 16

22 24 26 28 30 32

33 36 39 42 45 48

44 48 52 56 60 64

55 60 65 70 75 80

66 72 78 84 90 96

77 84 91 98 105 112

88 96 104 112 120 128

99 108 117 126 135 144

110 120 130 140 150 160

.

21

42

63

84

105

126

147

168

189

210

22

44

66

88

110

132

154

176

198

220

23

46

69

92

115

138

161

184

207

230

24

48

72

96

120

144

168

192

216

240

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

26

52

78

104

130

156

182

208

234

260

27

54

81

108

135

162

189

216

243

270

28

56

84

112

140

168

196

224

252

280

29

58

87

116

145

176

203

232

261

290

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

17

34

51

68

85

102

119

136

153

170

18

36

54

72

90

108

126

144

162

180

19

38

57

76

95

114

133

152

171

190

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

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