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# Percent:

## Percent to fraction: x% = x/100

Percentage formula: Rate/100 = Percentage/base
Rate: The percent.
Base: The amount you are taking the percent of.
Percentage: The answer obtained by multiplying the base by the rate
Simple Interest = I = prt
Where, I= total interest, p= principle, r= interest rate (in decimal form), t = time in years.
Compound Interest=S=P(1+r/n)^nt
Where, S= future value, P=original principle, r= interest rate (in decimal form), n= number of
times per year the interest is compounded, t= number of years invested.
Number of Permutations:
Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, is given by:
n!
n
Pr =
(n - r)!
Number of Combinations:
The number of all combinations of n things, taken r at a time is:
n!
n
Cr =
.
(r!)(n - r)!
Note:
i.

Cn = 1 and nC0 = 1.

ii.

Cr = nC(n - r)

1.

## Work from Days:

1
If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A's 1 day's work = .
n

2.

## Days from Work:

1
If A's 1 day's work = ,then A can finish the work in n days.
n

3.

Ratio:
If A is thrice as good a workman as B, then:
Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.
Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

4.

5.

More men
Less men

6.

Less work

8.

More work
Less work

More work

7.

## ------- can do ------->

-------- takes------>
-------- takes------>

More Time
Less Time

More men

Less Time

Less men

## ------- can do in ------->

More Time

If M1 persons can do W1 work in D1 days and M2 persons can do W2 work in D2days, then

9. If M1 persons can do W1 work in D1 days for h1 hours and M2 persons can do W2work in
D2 days for h2 hours, then

## Note: If works are same, then M1D1h1 = M2D2h2

10. If A can do a work in x days and B can do the same work in y days, then the number of
days required to complete the work if A and B work together is

11. If A can do a work in x days and A + B can do the same work in y days, then the number
of days required to complete the work if B works alone is

Geometry formulas:
Rectangle:
Perimeter = l + l + w + w = 2 l + 2 w
Area = l w
Where, l: length, w: width
Square:
Perimeter = s + s + s + s = 4 s
Area = s2
Where, s:length of one side
Triangle:

Perimeter = a + b + c
Area = (b h)/2
Area = sqrt(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c))
Where, s=(a+b+c)/2 is the semi-perimeter if base and height are not known or mentioned.
Parallelogram:

Perimeter = a + a + b + b = 2 a + 2 b
Area = b h

Rhombus:

Perimeter = b + b + b + b = 4 b
Area = b h
Circle:

Perimeter = 2 pi r = pi d
Area = pi r2 = (pi d2)/4
Trapezoid:

Perimeter = a + b + c + d

## where, a and b: parallel sides or the bases, h: length of height

Cube:

Volume = a3 = a a a
Surface area = 6 a2
Where, a: length of one side
Rectangular solid:

Volume = l w h
Surface area = 2 l w + 2 l h + 2 w h
where, l : the length, w : the width, h : the height
Cylinder:

Volume = pi r2 h
Surface area = 2 pi r2 + 2 pi r h
where, pi = 3.14, h : height of the cylinder , r : radius of the circle of the base
Sphere:

Volume = (4 pi r3)/3
Surface area = 4 pi r2
where, pi = 3.14, r : radius of sphere
Right circular cone:

## Volume = (pi r2 h)/3

Surface area = pi r2 + pi r ( (h2 + r2))
where, pi = 3.14, r : the radius, h : the height, l : the slant height
Boats and Streams problems
are frequently asked problems in competitive exams.
Stream: Moving water of the river is called stream.
Still Water: If the water is not moving then it is called still water.
Upstream: If a boat or a swimmer moves in the opposite direction of the stream then it is called
upstream.
Downstream: If a boat or a swimmer moves in the same direction of the stream then it is called
downstream.
Points to remember
When speed of boat or a swimmer is given then it normally means speed in still water.
Some Basic Formulas
Rule 1: If speed of boat or swimmer is x km/h and the speed of stream is y km/h then,
Speed of boat or swimmer upstream = (x y) km/h
Speed of boat or swimmer downstream = (x + y) km/h
Rule 2:
Speed of boat or swimmer in still water is given by

## Some Shortcut Methods

Rule 1: A man can row certain distance downstream in t1 hours and returns the same distance
upstream in t2 hours. If the speed of stream is y km/h, then the speed of man in still water is
given by

Example
Rule 2: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if it takes him t
hours to row to a place and come back, then the distance between two places is given by

Example
Rule 3: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if it takes t hours
more in upstream than to go downstream for the same distance, then the distance is given by

Example
Rule 4: A man can row in still water at x km/h. In a stream flowing at y km/h, if he rows the
same distance up and down the stream, then his average speed is given by

Probability Formulas
Probability that event A occurs P(A) = n(A) / n(S).
Probability that event B occurs P(B) = n(B) / n(S).
where,
n(A) - number of event occurs in A
n(B) - number of event occurs in B
n(S) - number of possible outcomes
Complement Rule:
Probability that event A does not occur P(A') = 1 - P(A).
Probability that event B does not occur P(B') = 1 - P(B).
For non-mutually exclusive {for P(A B) 0} events the probability of either one or both
occuring is
P(A or B) = P(A B) =P(A) + P(B) P(A B)
where P(A B) is the probability of event A and event B happening at the same time.
For example, when drawing a card from a deck of 52 playing cards, the probability of getting a
red card or a King is
P(Red or King) = P(Red) + P(King) P(Red King)
P(Red or King) = 26/52 + 4/52 2/52
P(Red or King) = 28/52 = 7/13

This is so because a card can either be red, king, or both (i.e. red king). So that's why we need
to subtract the probability of a card being both red and king because it has already been
accounted for in the probability of the card being red and the probability of the card being king
Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time.
Examples
When tossing a fair coin, the event 'getting a head' and the event 'getting a tail' are
mutually exclusive because they can't occur at the same time.
When throwing a fair die, the event 'getting a 1' and the event 'getting a 4' are mutually
exclusive because they can't occur at the same time. But the event 'getting a 3' and the
event 'getting an odd number' are not mutually exclusive since it can happen at the
same time (i.e. if you get 3)
For two mutually exclusive events, A and B, the probability of either one occuring, P(A or B), is
the sum of the probability of each event.
P(A or B) = P(A B)= P(A) + P(B)
For example, when choosing a ball at random from a bag containing 3 blue balls, 2 green bals,
and 5 red balls, the probability of getting a blue or red ball is
P(Blue or Red) = P(Blue) + P(Red)
P(Blue or Red) = 3/10 + 5/10
P(Blue or Red) = 8/10 = 0.8
Conditional Probability
Probability (A given B) =P(A | B) = P(A B) / P(B).
Multiplicative Rule:
Probability that both the events occur P(A B) = P(A) x P(B).
Independent and Mutually exclusive events
Two events are independent if the outcome of one doesn't affect the outcome of the other.
Otherwise they are dependent.
Examples
When tossing a fair coin twice, the result of the first toss doesn't affect the probability
of the outcome of the second toss.
When drawing two cards from a deck of 52 playing card, the event 'getting a King' on
the first card and the event 'getting a black card' are not independent. The probability of
the second card change after the first card is drawn. The two events would be
independent if after drawing the first card, the card is returned to the deck (thus the
deck is complete 52 again).
For two independent events, A and B, the probability of both occuring together, P(A and B), is
the product of the probability of each event.
P(A and B) = P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

For example, when tossing a fair coin twice, the probability of getting a 'Head' on the first and
then getting a 'Tail' on the second is
P(H and T) = P(H) P(T)
P(H and T) = 0.5 0.5
P(H and T) = 0.25
For dependent events
P(A B) = P(A) * P(B|A)

Squares
1
1
2
4
3
9
4 16
5 25
6 36
7 49
8 64
9 81
10 100

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

121
144
169
196
225
256
289
324
361
400

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

441
484
529
576
625
676
729
784
841
900

Cubes
1
1
2
8
3
27
4
64
5 125
6 216
7 343
8 512
9 729
10 1000

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

1331
1728
2197
2744
3375
4096
4913
5832
6859
8000

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

9261
10648
12167
13824
15625
17576
19683
21952
24389
27000

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

961
1024
1089
1156
1225
1296
1369
1444
1521
1600

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

1681
1764
1849
1936
2025
2116
2209
2304
2401
2500

Tables

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70

8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80

9 10
18 20
27 30
36 40
45 50
54 60
63 70
72 80
81 90
90 100

11 12 13 14 15 16
22 24 26 28 30 32
33 36 39 42 45 48
44 48 52 56 60 64
55 60 65 70 75 80
66 72 78 84 90 96
77 84 91 98 105 112
88 96 104 112 120 128
99 108 117 126 135 144
110 120 130 140 150 160

.
21
42
63
84
105
126
147
168
189
210

22
44
66
88
110
132
154
176
198
220

23
46
69
92
115
138
161
184
207
230

24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192
216
240

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250

26
52
78
104
130
156
182
208
234
260

27
54
81
108
135
162
189
216
243
270

28
56
84
112
140
168
196
224
252
280

29
58
87
116
145
176
203
232
261
290

30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300

17
34
51
68
85
102
119
136
153
170

18
36
54
72
90
108
126
144
162
180

19
38
57
76
95
114
133
152
171
190

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200