Publishod by forSolid lh6 Plblic Prival€ and ConveBenc€ Wesl6 Sec1o6 Proiod Co-govemanc6 Poor inudan Communiiies Dep8dm€nt Resouross ofEnvkonnEnl Nafuial and DENR, Visayas Avenue, Ci9, Diliman, Quezon PhiliooinBs Allrights l€s€wed eproducton, ort|ansmi$ionlhis copy ot p{biio€tion be may No p€mi6sion, und*th€ out made wilhoul witlan orcopt tefilgs€t b€low publicatlon Thl6 may by wilholl or foo iscopyrighted, borsprodlcedaiy mohod but prior pgmi$ion loachlng purposBs,not sale. coping any For in othor but lor lof piloi p6misslon beobtaingd lhopublishor must fom oircumstanogs, Millgn ISBN: 971-8986-51-0 Edlt€d doslgnsdAtono deyera ard by M. Cover illusirationLgUo, bv Ouz

The Socioeconomic Feasibility Study of a Gluster-Barangay MRF System in Barangays Palingon, Lingga, & Sampiruhan, Calamba City, Province of Laguna, Philippines


Public Prlvate Conv6rgence Sectors tor & in Urban Communities Solid Wasto Co.GovEmance Poor Projocl IPPPUE.SWMI PHI/0ZG58



the Projectis a Herculean task,lt aimsto put up the first-ever Tmplemetrtitrg PPPUE-SWM rfuliy ftnctional oluster-barangay MaterialsRecovery Facility (MRF), ald ostablish the ftst fomal public-privatepartne$hip on solid waste maoagement. The project vas launchedin August 2002 in three urban poor barangays CalambaCity, narnely, in Barengays Palingoq Lingga"and Sampiruhan. Collectively,they are knownas paliSam, whichcoincidentally root wordpalrj means cleanup completgly, its Xo Closeto theprojectfinale,March2004,w€ aren€ar completing to whatwe havecorunitted to deliver,We are able to facilitat€the olustering threebarangays cooperate the of to for esiablishment a singleMRF. We are also ableto comeup with a model on how the of govemment, this case tt[ee barangays, unitewith theprivateseoior addressing the jl can in a socialproblem,suchas solid waste.In this project,pdvate sectorrefersto all entities

and people's otganization! e.g., business,nongovemmental outside the gov€mmenla women'sgrcup,eto.

Thisfeasibilitystudy}vasthebasisofthePalisam,spublic-privatepartnershi with the local andjoint studies meetings wasa productof morethana yearof consultations' calledPaLiSam Community MRF nonprofitcorporation To residents. date,a nonstock oolvergence the publicandprivat€seotors to Ircorporsted is oflicially r€gistered l€galize management primaily aimsto provideecologicalwastg Cify. The corporalion in Calamba from its t'o the communitythe proceeds and systemfor lhe three barangays plow back assistanca' as' suoh medicol'livelihoodandschool in operations the form of publicservioes' clusterwill be ableto put up tunctional it is ho;ed thatdrough this study,oth€rbarangays 'EoologicalSolid know! astlre with the RA 9003otherwise MRFsin compliance barangay

wasteManagementActof2000'',sndatthesamgtimeelhanc€public-privatepsrtic enterprise. andcommunity


, for tlis study firsl emeBedafttr the approvalof tbe ljnpleme ing Rules alrd T he concept r Regulations RA 9OO3 Dec€mber the in 2001. Particuladyon ib provisionsencouraging of wast€ to to clusteringof bamngays put up MRFSand privates€ctor'sparticipation addrss solid a As conc€ms. therewasno modelon how thesecan b€ done,the Dep$trnentdeveloped project and can proposal would comeup with a hodel on how two or morcbs.rangays cooperate how thst Thusdrc birth of the Public thcy oer enterintojoint venturevith theh privatesectoroounterpart. in for and Privale S€ctoft Convcrgenoe Solid WasteCo_Sovernanoe urban poor oommuniti€s oftbis feasibilitystudy lhe Projecti! August2002thotspe$headed conduct IPPPUE-SWMI

Rebullids' Dr. the A t€arnof.xp€rts conducted study:A. Allan Poncr, tc.m leader, Ma. Lourdes aspecl. for oonsultart teahnical and for oompon€n! Mr, Bgrt Guevara, consultant sooial

Alb€rt Mtga@and ThePrcicct Manegemert Office providedthe ovemll supervision res€arch: Villaiueva' and Arlere deVera Gilda Yurtas,JuviniaS€rdfr\ AlbenoP€cho, Rebecoa project of th€ NSWMC_ Mr. JoeySta. Ana, a codsultantfrofl anothersolid wastemanagement survey. chamcterization the help€d PMO in conducling waste the Secretarial, spearheaded community the only of local paxln€rs, The Project Trsk Force, a group composed and validatioDs coordination: coosultations. Capt.NarcisoGillaco,Luis Mirand4 andJerryGotengco Ba$ngayPalingon: and Nicalor Paner, JoelTsfiala Lingga:Capt.Erlsn Retusto, Barangay David Baldonado, Remedios and lrpez, Emadi capt JirDmy Sarnpiruhan: Barongsy RubyArenas, Loida Humarang MayorSeleriio Lajsr4 Coun.RamilHemandez, city Govemlltent: andJulieLatip Joaquin 2d ltepr€sedative, Disnid ofI-aguin: Cong!€ssman OInc€ oflhe Congr€ssional Sarfos Mario Marcial snd Floretrtino Chipeco,.tr., Alihan LawiD- calamba:Jose Pugad

SPoNSoRS PmgmmE€ lManila] andPublie-P.lvot Plrtnershlps for thc TheUrtted NttloG Developmetrt in effort the Urbrn ErvlroDment lBangkok]supporf€d Depar[nent carying out a process-oriented Dulce Sup€tran, Aimee model:Amelia to co$e up with the PhilippinePublicPdvatePartnenhip Nishimura and Manal Moriio FraDciscr, Tsutomu



wish to acknowledge persons, the groups,and insritutjonswho at c€rhin points in the developrdent ofthis feasibility study contributed ideas, alldresources. their time

ThegoodpeopleofBarangays Palingon, Lingga,andSampiruhan patientlyparricipaied our who in seriesof oonsoltations validations, particularly,the members the BarangaySolid Waste and of purck coordinators, Management Cofimittees,Solid Waste Manage6ent members ofthe bar&ngEy councils .targerrridngl(dbaraar,junkshopownerc, solidwaste and a'lrd collectors, We would like also io extend ou. deepest appreciation the nongove.dm€nbl to lnd people's organizations dre projeotsite that haveunselfishly in shored with us theif experiences, views, and Their oourage voicingout th.ir opinionson bow this MRF prcjectshouldbe|an in palisam K€pr in thePMO gluedto the b€stinterest ofthe conununity.

TbeProJect Mrnsgement Omco


TIrs Pnoncr Locr.noN, 15 TfrE PRoPosED Svsrau, MRF 34 Pwsrc,rr F.lcnrv, .55 plet, dy' Onc,Ll,rzartotn
CAPAcrry DEvELopMEN r ytm, 7 7 Co.co'TiTRNANcE & Co-MANAcrlcNrNu,r,lces,84

Il,nmrsNunoN scurouLe, 94 FrNANcrAr, EcoNoMrc, & SocroEcolocrcAl AN,Lt_vsrs, 9Z corclusiou,1./0

t.xecullve bummary

DESCRIPTION tTrhe proposed communityMRF, In_ MRF system shall be refe ed to as the Palisam c'usler-ba$ngay I corporated. shallbe a sustainable Palingon, the of systemof managing solidwaste Barangays It wastes useable marketinto and municipal City, It aimsto transform in Lingga,and Sampinrhan Calamba qhile effectivelycontibuting !o the overallprocess reducing pollution,conserving en_ of ableresources jobs andbusiness improving manufacturing industries, building competitive opportunities, ergy,creating govemment's and overalldisposal needs and the ofthe community, defieasing local theh€althoonditions expenses. LocATION Palingon, Palingon, Cslambs City. Theserviceareais Barsngays The MR.Fshall be locatedin Barangay Lingga,andSampiflihan.






,l-'"Hf l rbep.risamcomEunitv*'."":Tj,T;J#'ffjJ,TJJ'irT seeFgaD( 2004.By that time'the fi-barangay

,$$".ffiH,:i*l'ffi ;:r# ffi ffi:Tin":fill'llx:


1"fr?ffiStilfrffi::lJH;:"*''so*Linss&ardsa"'pi'uh |
co otgsoization nonprolit nonstoolq of oty ohspter I nstiolal . frffT"1""'c*t-os [$e calaoba entsepreneursl and ""i* "to*"*t*rsons

I : tr:'#,:1ffi#:#il11"'**i""ro"quiochipeoo'rr"2dcons'essionsrD

components fourEajo!operational shall MRF'lncorporated have Co$Eunity Polisao Thcproposed
at t r€duotior/s€gr€Etion soulc€ and . catlection bansport and . reooYory Ptooesgmg and . matketing sales

B) ii


coi Housoholds, lEdel & Bbbqshmenbot$r lmttltto|B

3l E€gFlaton Souma



Sold Cdnrunlty




contofl€d,Eartbry lai(nl


; A)v


FActr-lrY Pt{YSlcAL floor' rccycla sltucturetlnt shell houseth€ main tipping the rtraiapbysioalfacility is a oncstor€y as holdingohambers' well 8sfte adminishatile cohpostioganil curingroom' rcsidual stotrgeareas, palisam communityMRF' Inoorpontsd' *r*lriog om"u" of$"

oanbeeasilyoonsfirck modularlyAdditionalvrorkspace buildingdesigned TheMRF is a one-stoley theneedariscsandasthebudg€tallowsitAtthesto4theMRFshallconsistoftlree[3]modules """i."*"0*rr""followingsize:3.60.E.widthx6.00-6:l€ngth,andaheightofstle$t30 tcrs. 'voilablQsix pa chairperso&hasrDade ofPalingoi' though its Barangay govemnlent Thebarangay to serv€asth€ siteofthe MRF' to 160 sq m', sdjacent themai! road' "if-i "oft, "f,"*,
tloorPl.nhorb I Sch.ndc

nonprofit as and shall be orga,rized registercd a nonstock, MRF, Incorporated The Palisan Community lile witi corporation a corporate of50 yea6.
Hbe cdbmftv*RF lidxDdtld


r| I I I
; ;

at and number tlpes of personnel stafi_up' rhe It shallrequire follovr'ing

gtrd.up Stafi R€quhlm6nt io!


:l :l




I r|

Tle inv€stment requirenenlof t|€ proposed palisamCommunity MRF, Incorporated computed was PhP3,482,800, brokeD down as fotlows:

' ' .

Registration Construflion arld costs Acquisition ofEqBiprnent, Fumiture Fixtures & Operdring CapiEllfirstsix monrhsl


PhP1,580,000 830,400 1,072,200

Thecashflow analysis indicates witl a positive tiat ending cash balance throughout firstfive all the parisam fars ofoperation, the comftunityMRF,rncorporateda pfofitabre, is susl.ainabre, viable and under.uk_ ing. TheProjected Cashflow Statemeft indicates thetbllowing; also r' Payback Period. payback The period a littleoverfiveyears. is on thesixthyearofits operarons, the Paiisarn comrnunig/ MRF,Incorporatedcomputed have is to paidback originar ib i'vesmen! start. or upcapitat. 2. Service As a mechanism generate Fee. to additional working capital !o naketheCoryoralion and less oepenoent extemal on project assistanca, the Task Force wellastheconmunity as rnemoen agreea to Iely on each participaling household anc ionswithinrheservice areaa dairyseryice of fee phpr for househords php5 and for institut;or;ss] Fromthehousehoids aloDe, totalofphpE 4-million expected a is to becollected during period the of fiveyea$.


&) ix


financialassidalc€ in with the se.vicefee soheme plac€,no additionalcapitalinftsion or exterDal would berequi&ddudngthe first five y€lJsofopemtionoftle Enterprise of a tu genemte grosscashsales is th€ Duritlg the period2004-2OOE. Corporahon anticipated 3. Sates, a but piocess'gensrate modest from PhP6.4-mi1lion coBpostandfactoryretunablesaloneandin tbe incomeftom ssl€sof PliP1'7_million' very pleashgDetoperaling AllAlYsEs EcoNo}\.flc is communityMRF, Incotporat€d uPonthe local impactofthe Palisam socio€conomio Th€mostevialent tradeandcoornerrialartivitieswithin thethre€balangays' on €specially themor:bund economy in of PhPT'g-millioll a will The Corporation be generating total of 16 newjobs in the areaeaminga total a that on the average, tot41of PhPl l-million in taxes over a periodof five yea$. This means salari€s alonewill bePaid, paltents! aading' 6 of The operations the MRF will be generdling totatofPh!6'?-million in Purohases' business anddownsheam I andthe like over a periodof five yea$. In the process' numberofupsheon is const'tuction' exspending' recreational sales, aotivities,e.g., sari-saristore,applianc€ and economic peoted be stimulated to SocroEcoloclcAr ANAI-YsEs divertingawayftom the landfill' an that The studyindicates the MR-Fwould be handling,andtherefore ofthe 3 basisThis is about 3% ofth€ totalcoll€ction on of average 34.6tonsof solidwaste a monthly in is this terms, reduction equalto PhPs2-thousdndteffis ofthe monttllybudget City ENRO,In monetary

F F F F F F t


Crt)' sNno php+oENRO una and PhP40-thousand lermsofthe total monthlypa)mentofthe City ll dre c;t'' in Governmenr to _:_,3 contr-actor. S\\ MRF is alsohighly elficjent in the utilizationofthe investment .1. Palisam contribulions. Over a Deriod

the f fi\'eyears, Palisam MRFwouldbehandring almost 820,tons ofsoridwaste. ttuslatesto onrv This investment costper hP'{.24 kilogram ofsoiidwajrc.
we arc to assume the Palisam that MRF \,vould contributory the reduction be to ofone caseeachofden_

I 4



t t I

&) xi

Chapte. I


ofthePhilippine or herfirstofficialactasthe14'President Republic, cloriaMacapagal-Arroyo, on26 200 Mamgement of Janusry I , signedinto law RepublicAct 9003or the EcologicalSolid Waste Act legislation callsfor the establishment syst€matic, ofa cotuprehensive, ecologiand 100. Thepioneering program address critical situation management to the solidwaste ofsolid wastcin the country. shalltakeinto consid€ration social,economic, political,andadrninissaidprogram the technologioal, problem. social ofthe country's ivedimensions solidwaste The difiension ofsolid waste management ls for the minimizationofwaste generation fiom the source. The economic dimeflsionregards waste as activity.Theteohnolorydimension promotes recycling an entepreneurial affordable, appropriate, and waste vhonmentally-friendly disposal systems. Cuttingacross at€ these threedimgnsions the policyirn. requirements nationwid€ ratives adminiltrative and olthe waste minimization, recyoling, disposal atd

Actr underscores moretheirnportant thatthebarangay once playin ensurtatk uDits localgovcmmenl -ng the success implementing nationalsocioeconomic of any program particularlywhercit development -aEers mosl- at the communitylevel. The bamrgaylocal government units, in parhershipwith key T,munitvmembers, expected be at the forefrontof rolid wastecollection,segregation, reare to and ftrlcling activities. the focalpointofthe barangay As prog|am, Materials wasie a management Rer =r docunenl RepublicAct 9003shallb€ interchan8eably refered to by ils for,nallille of EcologicslSolid r= \r3?€!r,xrt Act of2000,asRA 9003,or simplyastheAct.


by coveryFacility [MRF] sha[ be established mandated the Act in everybarangay clusterofbaratas or gaysofthe couniry. plannirlgandmanagement In its contiruingefrod to upgrode envfuonrnental nsturalresources and th€ capacitiesof localgovernment members, omcialsasw€ll askey community especially implementing in $e rel€vantprovisions ofthe new Act, theDepartrnent ofNatural Resources Developient developed and and put into play a short-term package. techdcal sssistance Thrcughlhe NationalSolid Waste Managenent principallytaskedwith overseeing implementation enha[cing the Cor0mission, nationalagsDcy the and to the policy environrnent RepublicAct 9003,the package of seeks improvethe capabilities local govof preferentially €rDm€nt oflcials aswell asoommutitymembe.s, ftom urban-poor barangays, desigring in ands€aitrg a cluster-barangay up MRF.' PRoJECT SrlE package thrce contiguous economicallyChosen be the pilot site for this technicalassistence to are a$d challenged borangays Calarnba is descripttue snyhajor city in thecountry,i.e.,a mpof in City. Thecity idly modernizing widr signsofsocio€conomic one disparities polaritigi, and beset alld with problems aspopulation spatialcongestior\ particularly ofan ineflicientsolidwaste sociat€d that with snd management Eystem. Thc threepilot barangays Barangays are Palingon,Lingga,and Ssmpiruhan. baranga,s located The are alongtherhoresof Laguna Ba'i. de

projcctfoousing looslgoverrnnent Prior to thft, the mostrecentoapacity-building on ofiicials wrs the Lac€lEnvilolllnent Phnningand lttanrgemcnr Proj.ct ILEPM Projcct].Initirte-din 1998wifl fundin8assistanc. fron th€ UnitedNitioDsDev€loprnent Progranme[UNDP],dl€ Projert w!3 pilotedin dle citiesof Lips, Tagbila$fl,andC!galm dc Oro. Dudry dl€ courseof implementatioq boemo grar€ly evidentthat lo.al govcrnment it units wolld n€edall tlc h.lp d|.y can 8et in ffndilg s sultainable solutidr to th€ !€€minglyuncontrollable Fbblern of solid waste.Thb capacity-building noedwa! all the ftorc highlightcd durinS!h€ pr€pantionof the lrnplen€Dting Rul€s andRegulatioff[IRR] olRA 9003thst Etdtedin July 2000sndin whiohthe LEPM Projec!plsy€d majorpart es s th€ Finciprl nsourceconduitofUNDP rid anddle dat bankofvalrlableirsidts andexpc.i€ncc localgovemsnce in andcqErnuity-lerll policyandop.ratior8ldynanicr,



the .ocatirlg projectin CdambaCity is based the fo'lowine selectio!criteriar: on

is Crlamba_City a rapidlyurbanizing with a bd.geo[ingproblem Bolid city on wrste.Thecityis hostto 4,1?9 loc€l ard intemational manufsctu.ing cornmercial and establishmenls well as six inas parks, dustrial several r€sof facilitiesr a number ard ofhigh-end housing subdivisions. 2002total Its ofPhP593.8 revenue million, impressive increase 2OOl an 60% from ,evenue figur€, rivals ofth€ that leadingcities of Metro Manila.Throughit all, a s€rious concemjs ih solid w6stesituation. The City and Environment Naturai Resources Officelcity ENRO]js only able service outofthe 54 total to 32 baradgays ofthe ciry,Withinthisservice area, citygovemment the manages collect to only ?8%of fr€ total solid wastegenerated. collected The solid wastesare disposed in a contractor-op€raEo of controlled_dlmpsitelocatedin the neighboring municipalityof Cabuyao. The cjty's two prewous dumpsites beeD have closed to overfilling. due CahmbeCity's environmental part condltions bsvern impscton the bigger nstioorl ecosystem. of Lagunade Ba'i, the country'sbiggest lakeandfreshwater source, iocated Calamba is in City. Two majorriversystems oflhe citydraindirectly thelake.Thelake,ontheother to hand. drains throueh PaiigRiverandthence Manila to Bay.


The projectstak€holders hsvemadecle{r their conmitments the succ€ssful to Inplementrtion of the proj€ct. Theconcemed stakehoiders put into *Titing theircomrnitnents tle design have to and operational stccess theproposed of undertaking.

Crlrmb3 City's proximi8 to the olficeot the NadonrtSolldWesleMonrgement CoDDlssiotr !!d oth€r concenednationalsnd Inter[alionrl development agenci€s, Beinga pilot project, it would be practicalfor the projectto b€ located nearthe Metro Manilo areawhere.6; conc€med na, tional agencies officesare locat€d. ajld Thh setup facilitatesthe conductof regularmonitoringand evaluation exercises well as ensurcs moreeffective as the operational collaboration omong be" and partners. tweenthe implementation

Annex 3, IINDP ProjecrDocument rhe DENR-implemenled of fublic and pdvareSecrors Convergenc€ for poorCommunilies +l;d wasi€Co-govenunc€Urban prcject, in PHI/02/O5S [pppUE-SWM] F)3




t t t

l*;*,;+;;1,ro't*]nr ihil #lif
*T"Tf ;"3#"lffi $gp,g+:-ugl,i,+*fi*fl


fi':l :ni::"::''fi i:H.xl*H :JJ:llliTTiiqlJij'; :ltTilT#:ilx'"Tffi"ifi,fi

HJfiliil***=r'll*.' fr ijif".f.$i;:il#i{;":ilfi
ansve$ to the following: objective the Specifioally' studyprovided clusterMRF work? Wilt theprototype b. How will it work? Whatis needed?

ffiTrli:*illl.",iil;fi;,ih'fi'"'iff::::T*::'j*i"J:ff'#';':i opportun$Fs' tiesandoperational


How muchiovestnentis required? will S'ha1 ihe retumsbe? ofthe studywasdonein a highly participatory manner ageeably thegeneml lae conduct ard to ,ermsafid ofthe PPPUE-SWM P.oject Document, wellastheapplicable as provisions :ondilions ofthe Ecological Management of2000. Act lid Waste ofthe feasibilitystudywasthe responsibility St dy Teamcomposed conduct ofa ihe ofthe follor,ving:
A. Allan Ponce Teamleader andprincipalwriter LourdesG. Reballida,DPA Consultant socialresponsibility prepaEtion a" and RobertoB. Guevara Consultanl technical assessment, design economic and soundness, busin€ss and planning

Management TheNationalSolid Wastre Commission Office INSWMC] throughiti projectManagernent extended appropriate edministrative, research alata-garhering and support the StudyTean. to aliPMOl TE. ' lhe Jhe StudyTeamwasunder directadministrative operational and supervision controlofMr, Albert and

ill"1li";'ft:Jifi l;# ffi ft*ill"*1;ij"H;$ft:fiFff ,'!"iif"'-di*'Ti;:


BAsIcDESICN coNsDER-ATIoNs The design ofthe proposed shailadbere thefollowing MR.F to principtes:a Resource Commltmenti. institutional individual All and paft0ers ofth€proposed MRFmust commit resouroes capital]to thejoint undertaking, lfinancial,human, co-mlnagen€ntI Co-govehaDce. ibterests all majorstakeholders be feflecled the The of shall in final design olthe project. Special consideration bedirected m€€ting needs shalt at the ofthe poor. participation Theactive ofthe stakeholdersall ofthe project in prccesses b9sought particularly shali pointsto maximize acceptability sustainability at strategic implementation the and ofthe proposed un.


Pa,lne.shlp!Ior the Atban Envtnmient: O/rorr ard rss,respppuE Working _-....-.- A&pten ffofl A/bhc-Pttvote Se;ies, Vol. L E|;zrbc$ Bernefl,Peter ifilllnann, & Bnd Centry.r,NDpr'Newyortq 1999 Irper tE

F t

fo, -d vRF "*""tthie] o{iheproror}pe lframe*"rL rea$res onrhe Transparency basic denaring.



*',Fs* #ltm"*g*i*#tre*

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Hffi #-;*:p#i:tr#tri#:{r:

t€cbnologies bea comerston€ Frorisionsarldthe useof eco-efficient shall prcc€pt ofthe proposed prod-


:'; I:##iT$.1#*jlr#$m"#:n$,ff:,x?'s#i*'lf;il*ri"

projedis consisrenr tie diredive proposed wirh ofRepublicAct 9003, specilically section ofthe Jhe 32 that:"Thercshallbeeshbtished Materials !rc4 whichstates a Recovery Facifiiyio bulangay o. u. of barangays... lthqt] shallrcceivemixed wa:te for final sorting,s"g""guioq "n"i "ro.;a .oy_ nris dircctiveis prirnarilydirected bamngay at "o;portingl govemrieotilii. local liing." -Republic Act 7160,or the Local covemmentCode,deyolved resFlonsibility the solid the fo. wasledis-

*'ilfflrT'5ff1$iH,"l1ffi MRFshap€d are and derimi:;:i":::.*:-r.'*'av
farlineofnver the in t"as' biockin!the of oourse ofa


Comrnorwealth 383,whichpunishes dumpinginto riv€rsofrefuse,wastewa@r suDstances Act th€ ot


82s, p€nalizes imploper whlch the disposal ofgarbase and forms llinerins] other

T T f,

manigement, naturalrcsources management oonserva_ and tion, andenforcement guidelines waste and for managemenr.

or lhephilippine code, provides quality for muragelT:]1"jjf13-*"T:-Ltl2, water,landtrse Envircnment which m€nls@noatos ar alrd lot 68,or rhe Corporatior of thephitippines, provides theregis_ Code which for

3g-P.1]lT:-ll9,e p&ameters all privale ratron ard regutatory of corporations $e country. in

RepublicAct 3931,or the PollutiodControtLaw, which prohibitsandpenalizes the throwng, run" ning. draining disposition anyofthe water or into and/or agnospheric air;f6e county!anyma[eror suDsunce gaseous liquidtbfmlhatshall rn or cause poliulion ofsuchwaters annospherii or air.




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fr: ffi,i:L:i.ffi,l"wasres

KapasiyEban Bilang 752. TaoD1S97.Laeuna.pro-vincial ordinance &ar caljs for the properhandLjng

from rubric privare both aDd hospirats. ,"ai*]io"*"a.. crid"i.


propoled Local fnvironment Code of Calarlba_C-ity. wbich.inlends to integrale, harmorize, and id_

the "iiJ"':;?Tf,'"o*'"eurution'"tut'd 10 proricction. *"r?*lir"". ',iil"*,



care maintenarc€ and of drainase aswelasthe canars disposirion and Palinsorl Lingss" sampiruhan and onhousehotd segrewasre

r| tr

;a fr"#i"J,H*ffidBaransavs

'he design implemenEtioD and ofthe DroDosed clusrer-barangay in Barangays palingon, MR-F Lingga *'e tocd 'lwq' pu6tt privareffi and organiz ard Puvrr! aro PnYaEage'!cies Tfi#f, s ;'J:,#ll*i'*"i":::?':"::l^Tj-to ensurethe success orkingin participatory *or"nruui aurin *o "naofthis pioneering er "i"i'i'1?org"ni,ations endeavor,

through om*, Resouroes rhe rtre :ll[ ;T*ff:',ii5gi"y,?: Execudve ortr," orrr,"i-.-"*i",-iui_ift'ffij'i.],t Dirc*or om"" t-Ti::X*S.s*, ",J".ir,.i"i,Jiip.fiii"" rl,.,:?Tffi:ffH%;"trt*Hj"r nee4s serves the facilirative coordinarlve and as and hub ofthe projec

eadingthe implemenhtion the Depafimefltrof b l]I1lm.I:and


q:3frEtti,-'lffi H#g'ffi ritH:,i;;i'rT#i$"ri*jitf trt*#,fr ;;'il:;ff ;#tffi:
meftation activiti$ are*rti"iij fr.tln3"q utely andadequate mannet ttt" *t. ,o .pr"*"a liplJ

diversenr anrasonistic and even institu. ::th,their


;Ti1?J: fr ff;?tJ:[: S1#".,#i.nH:,SffJT#,lf




ri ili


Disrict' rr.,2'd chipeco, corsressional Fovin.e : H:3'g::1"##,:i.,:$fl:?esenrative roaquiD
organi tioncomnonProfit nonstock, of anational Ciry ltheCatarflba chaprer . illi5"rf,*,"_""r.Oa ""i$i' andentrepreneursl "Tu"tt*tp"rsons

The Bafangay Governfients ol

and sampiruhan BamngaysPalingon' Lingg&

iilll lli

llillr w*t'ffitr;1g1p*n j]ifi ril5l '$ff ili;l f;ff"Tl"fi :"ffl;li::ff"H:iitil',]}lffi#f'f;*ffiT iliLi jpjji+trt$*{;1t'6-* liffii1fE'"f-.q;;
8) 10


f6. L of protansfotmationof th€PTFdurinEthecourse of pres"ntauon thercle andinstitutiooal oap6ica 'n is ioptemenation sho\ Delo\'' iecr


t t

TaskForcs Ptolect

lnoolooratro$ of > solrcss or {or condult In' inpub veshngnt

Aalrmbv Gensrrl I Eotdot Dlrlclot! > lggalot{l6rofho MRF r hisl€3tpol'cy. booy meklng or $s tt,RF

deci9on' > highsst body making on levol gound the & > 'chemplon' 'd6tsnder dssign > Fovide6 analttc6l and

t t

.^- -,,tr.* OT DH]I|$1ONS TERMS takof,tom deftnitiossof key tems rhis study,the fonolving of solid wast€ tbe Ecological




have aooptcu too06 been

sa! ctustzl-Boro ilj;'#i:il::i?:::":11

$ei de-,-.^'.. h"",noavsthal foBnallyexpressed

ffi"u#;;; ;;"n

in project'tbis

lt€coveryr&""r' case'a Materials or ftom a communal wa{e fiom lhe source of temovirg solid Collection The scl storag€Po$r'

3''croorgani$ns ;il1'$:"?"ffi conposn,,s trJ;tTi$"ifJffiil;Pl" it a'dmakes
csa,4,o, A ryril:#l,s:;J#:$i;'ho

us€s rast amate'ial

81) 12

Mouriols Recowrcd Mole RecYctobte ak

';i+ff-*ff i#'s''liedLuisFD t****'Jy{#te'::#"&i"w#f{::E'f



At Redltclion Source Sobrce Worsdon Sbrage


substitutio!' '* materiars 6ar6iars *fsi #ffi"tJl"1H"fnT' al lhe
ts qaste into someor all of its compoo€T sortingof solid Th€ Pointof geneBtloD'


piorto aod afte' waste generatiotr



solidwoste of producitrg The&ctor proc€ss V6te Generolon

t F


F rr Il|


E) 14


r| r| t t
i?Ironal nero,ur. JoseKEal.

Chapter 2
PRoJEcr LocATtoN


lf ;;;i';"*;:lJ'ifiilH*#.'!HJ#;*1liI: ru:'J i,|,18"#; ,",.T;,;:.-i'i,ff t f "J'#i lT,"#":i:'1ff :fffr
are in barangays located Calamba Ciry.a componeDr of rhe cify

kn:*r;;xlf i:i,$:',".Tf;l;,?:ffi i**I"J,,*:,::
::lT".l[:" ?x'ifi#. Jlxi',?# ll'"i]ij: l"":'fl :.'.ff
' catio,n for Chinese s'te settlers oompliance a decree in to issued by

industry thiving in themunicipality. €riculturcandthelake-fishing was flr I I fr r.ugn yearsl rne Lalamba to becohe prosperous grew a municiparity a favolit" and destinationlocdl of and foreign rourisrs never grewtiredof viaitinithecenturies;ld who ;estor"a nouse oitt oouooy na_ s "

caiamba became separare pueblo, !860.aneconomy a By based

ln' aru;'m*.'m:'-*::i',*d;i:Tfidd:*fl*y;*T'J"H*1f :n:tr.il'"ill
invigoratingly by thenearby hot dormant volcaro, Mount

&) 1s

on2l-April2001bv virtue its Acquiring cityhoo-d jusi destination is Today, Calamba morethan a tourist grow(hthat parthe a"isgZ+, * is now a flourishingcity thatexemplifies dmmatic.economicthesouthLuadjace to situated "in?ri"li" s*tr'".n-r"eulos Resionsr'perbl) ilil;";;;';;;;;u."'-.iJ

p.i.JEi g"t"*ly are found.


total economtc t,otlt" itslling Calabarzonareawhere aimost halfofthe country's

inland of water' i"c*a d€Ba'i,thecoint! s large"t -bod) 9:'T9--q':-:i zones

or 280,529individuals' at the estimates comPolen!clfy's population 58,466households The 2000 census is Calamba still a fast tansientpopulation' f,'ir *o"i"ti"" *ith a meanageofzi yean Minus its ngure narionar ']'an orthe """r"* i' r''ieh". .r'al


indirare employment in theprovince Oily oneout of everyI 5.employable City Calarnba hasthehighest industries folfromthcmanufacturing comes ofemployment source The is viduals unemploved primary indusfies snd by lowed livelihood fishing live_ il are of sources income mainlyengaged cropfanningondgardening; who rely on agricultural Those on of sources income' the other Non-agricultural .i"itg; an,tor fishingandhunting .,""f*t-o"inv and retail' manufacturin& entiepre*o iatatiet uswell as wholesale' ;ani, ;;tfi;;il1;ii*"g"s and activities, thelike.' neurial of of in center lhe province LagrnaReflectjve theeconomic and is Calafiba a majortrade commerclal 10 as low polertyincidence conpared thena_ of boasts a comparatively p"""i""", Laguna iilr-"t ""f,ft" tional figure.


govpr Eotd'ffi nscD cootditaiitg Nalronal shdsfco/


Ofiice'2tltl Development ciq ofcatamba" Planningand lc PtoJ eoftte CttJ Thesocio-Econon 8) t6

ihe A-i $hile drerenlay be fewerpoor familiesin Laguna, poor in the provincemust struggle harder than o',iersto lift $emsel!es up the poveriythreshold level,wlich is much higherthar the nationalfigure. lr.



l{ationsl 9,843


liere rs indeeda price for all the frenziedactivities. The city,sthriljng commerce industryare drawand 19 into its confinedquarters increasingly an largenumberof peoplein search the proverbialpot of of old.

e influxofpeople taking toll uponthealready is its strained resources capaciti€s and ofthe city,There indications urban that environmental problems, asinsuflcient such water supply sanitation and faciliwasle iies.inadequate rnanagement, unsustainable and energy systems, beginning beacutely as are to felt ciw'savailable servic€s resources being and are population. overwhelmed anexpandjng by Theagricuhural features Calamba arc alsobeingfasttransformed an iddustrial proof of Cify into oDe. sitiveis thepresence ofsix industrial estates thecity.Already, industrial in the estales' cornbined land



- nearly equal of thecity,s that torat area is commercially tand thar ptanted wilh

Silangan Canlubang Industrial Estate. located Barangay in CanlubangJ currently houses several food giants PepsiCola San dustry like and MiguelCor?oration. Carmelray lndustrial ParkI, alsolocated Barangay in Canlubang, hometo electronic semiis and ductor firmsaswellasautomotive manufacturels asACSManufacturing, pads such Sarden, Tupand LightIndustry Science II, located Barangays sndLaMesa, and Park plays in Real host 24 etecnon!o i_! *mi-.onductor finnsa.s asmach well ineD' equ entcompan tha1 intlyemploy and iprn ies jo aboutI 0,000 indiriduals.

&) 17

parkphase is ajoint_venrure II underraking ofrhe yulo FamilyandJTCIntema_ TheggmelEy Indusaial tionaiPte.Ltd. of Singapore. Locatedin rh;park a.e:O A"". tf,"t at"ut iil;;*"". "ipf"y The CalanbaPremiere parlc located lDte.national alongthe boundaxies -' ofBaransaysBatuo, Br.andal, andPrinza- hostlo 24marufacruring andth.l. 3-J;t;;;;;;;. is firms park,with its j32-ha. sit€,is currently TheFelines Technology beingdeveloped promo.eo. and Thereare signsthat a brcadsectorof the citizenryias not lastedthe fnrits of a boomingeconomy. The rncome in l*guna still stands a doubre-digii gap at figo.e of r9.5%.This ,t"*.a .itr"ioi i. u".t.".n in B€rangays Palingon, Lingga,and Sampiruhan which;o ectir€ly iltustrats" ,i""o"i"iioitfr" Uornro*o Thethreebarangays, sitmtedalonethe shores ofthe historiclake,arc only two kilomete.s awaytiom tbe Poblacion theciw center. or Yet;sDerirv hasse€mingi) passed rhem Decliring by. fisficatches to ldue de inabiliry rhefisherlolk compite of ro againsr.rhe biggeicorporare fishi"g*^f;;.ri.L. of oppofiunities pursue to altemative folmsofliveunooo, a populalton "tr.n". and clepleted its productive of mem_

i',"1 '"r-;ng oono'i nixi;:?n?J,H:x,ltr """'p;.a'i" 'i"on"" :,:::-#:*T*.:;j:"#::'".
bararsays to househords or 15,607 individuals_ a combined with f:,"1y:, ot on I 4I .3hechres. is}lome 3,263 rard area ?9991g:.q.f ty anindividual ass$ed is mathematioally least 9O.sq.m, that of at a spacq is,if theindividual would mind not sharins space theroad this with netirort J"ii"" * outrai,gr, houses, other physical and structutes, "uiiou,

Barangay Paringon came fornal existence 22June1963 virtueofRepubric 3590. into on by priorto Act this, it waspart of neighboring Barangay palingonis boundecl Barangay Lingga.Triangularin shape, by Linggaon its southcdy side,Barangay sarnpiruhan its,rortherry on side,andthe lakeon its westerrv

&) l8




passionplay,the Cenaculo, peri9:0s-j0s, the placeis renowned host ofthe tradjtional as as

-:j l::rg rf ilGiga]

5l ihe .esidents during Len!.it hasbeen sometime th€Cenaculo performed, eflorts since was but made nountthetraditional ona more to play regutar basis. sBrisrics 2002show for thal 1,223 households foundin thebamgay,distributed purok are by as





Purok 3

Purok 4Purok 5Purok 6

408 I8Z 69

slightly ouhumber nlales. the Theirmainsource income emplo)men! of is small-scale fishing,

;"i,:ffi ::"Y"::.'ffi:'##:iil:?J:i::ffi ls Iiiil-*f"lTj-Lfjilltr ::
gasoline lcery, foursari-sad stores, s srnall and station. e*crile of a sluggish economic acriviry thebarangay govemment,s is dependence its share the on of Ailocation funditsday-1o-day to operations, dJnalRevenue

r| t
I &)re


Barangay Linggais one of the oldest villagesof the city. Existingsincethe Spanish colonial days,the barangay be€nthe oeBter fishing, tradin& srd water tlanspo( activitiesas ;t is wheretle city's has of wharfis found. It hassomeinteresting stori€s regarding nationalhero.It is wh€reJose the Rizalfirst experienced bru_ the tality of the coloniz€.s whenduringhis youngq dsyshewasgun-whipped a guardia by civil for hjling to give a propersalute. muchlaterstorymeDtioned at the wharf\4;hile his wayto Manila,Riz.l scA that on cidentallylost oneofhis slippers sawit dropto thewaters. ifiunediately alld He took theremaining slipper andthrew it to the lakesaying as it is useless him withouttheotherit mightbebestfor it to join the that to onein thelakesothatit wouldbeofuseto s fish€rman will find$e Dai.later. who Thebarangay a totallandareaofabout 45,1hectares. is bounded thenorthby Barangay palingon, has It in in the southby Barangay Lecheria,in the eastby Bsrangay Jose,aod in the west by the lake.lt is San abouttwo kilometers awaylrom thePoblacion theold nstionalhighwsy, and Bar"angay statistics 2002showthat t ,06I households foundin thebamngay, for are distributed purokas by follows:

Purok lPurok 2Purok 3-

i50 83 85

Purok 4ruroK 5Purok6-

66 4t7 260

Females slightly outnumber ltu.les.Fishingremaifls chief source incomefor mostof the resi. thc the ol dents. thebaEngay As boasts ofan irrigdtioonetworkcovering seflic€ area a of64 kilometers, faming is

&) 20

'I I
retaiiing, odrer smail-scale' home-based liveliacri\iD. follosed bv duck|aising' and ll- , _:,';.:"*
.q:. tle bar"ngayis hosl to two manufacturing firms, two bakeshops, balut-making a enlerprise, a prodnctoullel two reslaurants, reai a and concrete a :.zi shop.eight $d-sari stores. construction

I t-t-r ' |

t ,.

u"oabeaury Parlor' "*"n"t'
govemmenlis siill beholden its to ely scene, bara.ngay tlle ::ie a relatL\ livelier rade and commefcial - a r e o - e i n i e m aR e v e - " e Ao c , ' ' | o n

Jo:ies !----!: Fl


whenfive familiesfrom Sampiruhan traced is haveit thatthe origir of Barangay backto the 1900s placeofwhat wasthenthe villageofLooc to nearby nrunicipaliry ofSan Pedrorelocated the Iakeshore

the --r:r_Calamba. Thesefive familieswere saidto havestarted fish cageindustryin the lake.With the news of arcundthe province.othergroupsand l'arrilie! :oon joined rhe success the five familiesspreading IJ

is SL recognized a dislircl barangay. nameof the bamngay, Lpiruhan, a as The Junc l96S. the place\\,as in atagalog derivativeof SanPedro, menory of the piaceof origiDof the foundingfive families.

FI -

pi r'f lhe in \ rfi i$ 8l-heclare lokl landarea, SampiruhanthebiSge(anrong three )t bartrrrgaysterms is rlaflaiilrc. theeast in by Looc,in thesoulh Barangal by It in size. is bounded thenonhby Barangay llnd plrangay and two awayfiom ihecilJ cenler Palingon, in thewestby thelake,lt is about kilometers and



iheold nalional hishwav.


&) 2r

Females the Ofnciai banDgay €ain slightlyoutoumtr€r malesin the barangay. statistios of2002 show as t}!atI 247 bouseholds foundin thebarangay, are by distributed purokasfollows: Purokl Puok 2Auok 3Purok 4159 109 184 12E Purok 5Purok 6I l5 302 ?50

Fishingand farmingarethe mostcornmon soutces oflivelihqod in the barangay. Somefishermen main_ tain fish pensandfish cages. Catfishandtilapiaarcthefiost common variety;f culturedfishes. A number commercjal of establishment! foundin the ba.rangay:floor-waxfactory,a food.seasoning are a factory,a.figurine-making conc€m, balut-prccessitg a enteeris€,some dressmakiog weavbgcentenl and junkshops, autor€pairshops, sari-sad stores, bakeries, smallcarindedas, videorentalshops, billiard and halls. Thercarethree clementary sohools within the barangay, oi which sre privat€lyrun. Therearetwo nvo daycare facilities,one govemment operated, the othernrn by an NGO._ and Thereis alsoa govemment healthcefiter. otherhealthfacilitiesexistin the barangay. No As with the odrcrtwo piiot balangays, barangay rhe govemment Sa$piruhan similarlybeholden it of is !o annual share ofti€ IntemalRevenue Allocation,

Takinga snapshot ofthe socioeconomic oonditions ecological and orientations obtainingin fte project sit€,a suvey wasconducted involvinga representative groupol lS0 households drawneiua y dm"the threepilot barangays. rcspondents The wereselscled randomly rcpresent to e{ually the low., middle-and high-inc-orne goups peculiar_in barangays. rhe Ofthe total respondents, l2l retu$ed their duly ac_ only c-omplisbed self-administered questionnaires, respondents The were:spouses heads [40%];househotd rnernben The [337.]andhousehold are [26%]. results asfollows:

did ro ihev said *.pondents thevhave iobs,5%admi$ed hav€ jobs'whiletheresl 57%q -_l::,*.

t. -


sq than50sqm; l5% at 50-99 m; of that answered theyhadlot sizes less -" ."spondents ,... " ", of200 sq'm and have i3% ofthe resPondenls lot areas sqm. Some ,q.rn;und6%,I50-199 ::,:-1.19 sq of have 2?% itself, combined ofthe respondents lot sizes 50-99 m' a area
and cenent; and l2%' have housesmade of wood and cem€nt;l7oz, concrete respondents
': * AGE



l0olo basis, pesos to said i:::ire respondents thattheyeamfromPhPloo PhP3OO daily Ona monthly and6%' ftom to fromPhP5,O00 PhP9,999.P€sos; ?% thanPhP5,O00; eamed or a<J eamlngs of Li-it eamings less their income' to r€fused disclose howevcr, About45% of the respondenls' ::.!00 to P;P20.000.
::.: daily or monthly .<aio:D SWM PRACTICES

and metall9olol, paper plastics [16%], already segregate [15%],glass 122%1, ? -.i90ofhouseholds throw' feweithef a wastes selling by usuaily disposaplastic {30%1,.!hough :-:e".,4.the respondents ;

respond** erylg:i"-1-1: proaucts collecors, I I %ofthe About roirash gJ. , .1, rn.pt"tti. ::l9 junk
i i."f soldto products also 8re awayGlass ,o d"t O.y uf bum andthrowthese

For dealers

scrapmetaiand tin cans sell !-j- i7% "" the collected

but buming], most selling, composting, for were methods used foodscmps lthrowing, *ce::i disposal are wastes are to Yardwastes burned these animals. [?%],whilebathroom 3l%, feed -e::sDondents, r:- ?uried, burned or [1%]



E) 2l


LDunrill0March200S'theGenemlservicesofficeunderthedirectsupervisionoftheomceof|hec the as ofsolidwaste wellasfor cleaning and for ,"sponsible thecollection disposal iiulo. *". tt," and "g"n.y ofthe city.Then€wlycreated ENRO,orlhe Cily Environment Natuml City mainsteetsard'paris these ofthe office of thecity Mayor,fiow h.ndles tile Cfficc.alsounder directsupervision Resources funclions. capaciry ofeightfons'andthree truck with anaverage the Logistically. CiryENROhasfour compactor manageiaent to five tons A totalof 128solidwaste ranging fromfouf with capacities cce_l dumptrucks dunng oftyPhoons' e anse, g ' occurrence j:WV1 p.rtonnet theneed op.ta'coira two_sl;i tasis should to contractor augmenl of theservices a private secrires the .".ron ot tot"nflestas, gc,vemmenl bhriatn,o, etfods. anC ils solidvasle(ollection dispocal

Staff Admlnistralive

l{umber 10 2E

&Transport Collcction tulonitodng Sweeping Slreet TOTAL


dumpsite loto are solidwasle tmnsported anddLr pedin theciry'sop^en-pit the Priorto 2002, collected frorn nine approxirnaleb kjlomelers thePoblacion Kay-Anlog. lor catea a prlvatety-owned at Berangay in


ht thc Data lbr this seciiontrcrc oflaifcd rion the Solid h/uste\la o{enent Profk Sl:ns} Fa"n submitlcd '1 fn(: r,'r' i,.rn rt2 i\ anl'lcmentBurelu in Nlr\ ?ci):].and Pdner Towa ls Et'olving tte XAYA' ro rt',, ciq,inro ptotcclott and Resources f\AP lxalnzatan dnPI'ilt! vl'|r&t at Kapatillnnl: An Efittc'"nantal atkj Naturcl ; 20 ) i r' b\ vanigemeit Prog,a'nfor. /.nDs p-enated the CPDo ":

&) 21

:*. -:.r s:nlnenrpaid the lo! owner a monfhlyieaseof PhP200.000 this pd!ilegc. A cil),-o\\,ned fo. would gradeand levelthe Ueldafierdumping. n- ;c-: 5:igned at the dumpsite an,l in l:'-:. -i3 useoflhe Kay-Anlogdunpsitewaslerrninated anolhcropen'pilCunpsilewasopened S",r Cristobal. Sometinein 2003. however. SanCristobaldurnpsite the was orderedclosedby tr-==: : l-R due to overfillingand contaminaiion ofthe nearb] San CrislobalRiver,a major tribular_j, of -_-.: i? Ba'i. : --=::.- rl'r collecled solidq asre. di,posed :n a p"i\areb'o$nedconrol'ed dump)ile aie of locdlcd in


.::ghbonng municipali!y Cabuyao. of
- :::r:dance wilh a ciry ordinance, residents insiructed bring their segregaled rhe are solid wasteto to pick-up dateand collectionpoints orjust outsidetheir residences only durjng the scheduled i:!:aated


:e. usually during evening theearlymoming the until hours.


by CiR' ENRO, however,is only able collectthe solid wastegenerated 32 out ofthe city's 54 total

ilffi,::|i"*T andother€stablishmentsfound.Theserviced ;'tr'j'l:i ::iiii Ift;';5"9,'Xttt,'."JJ.ff institulions fr"iJltr.:flililJilTfim"::ffi a ofrnarkets, hospitals, are .-,!s where number
r-rdngays E areali localed withinor adjacent thePoblacion to area. govemmenls to theirown ga.rbage -i!en this scenario, cightbarangay opted acquire trucksandSWM These barangays Pansol, Parian, Lawa.Paciano Rizal,Mayap4Canlubang, are: Bucal, and -.GlLripm€nt. Atong thetselves, these barangays a totaloi l2 Isuzu garbage own EIf ttucks Il*l generation in theciw. studies regarding waste or rate have been conducted the character wasie -' \o fonnal lheCiryENROhas estimated whhintheserviced that barangays, t toal of 142toDs solid of lonerheless, generated generation 0.6kg.withinthe is being daily.Thistranslates a dailypercapita to waste of Flasre area. hasbeen It noted solid is up ofkitchen marand sefticed alsothatthecollected waste made mainly r-twastes, FT govemments 40 barangays,nearly Iir practice, CityENRO fte abovemenlioned the and barangay cover or
l<o ^ ^f rhF .i{!c r^rrl h.nndrw<

84) 25

govemtnenl ic onlyabh to col' bamnga) wr$ $e tflck-owniDg runitstbe Ho$ever. City ENRObgether "g*tt"t&'in ttt" ttrv icedareaEffecti velv seresiiia i""ti" I I I rreric tonsdail] o' lt" aot rtrerour, l€ct CiO js 555"o rale il-.". t'e sol;a"astecotteclion in Calarnba C!l'mb' cltv w.d. cdl€clion, Ay.lrlp D.llvSolld


MANAGEIViENT gIIECTS POOR SOLDWASTE OI solid waste of the regatding effeots sn in€ffi^oient studyhasyet beenconducted While no oomprehensive so_ selected a numberof city' uponth" ti""t unoumt' if-tit'i"t;alno oicur'-uu sysrem manasemenr solidvaste situaitnp."p"rly managed of cioec;logicaldatais indicative the negatrve"ooi".q..n".i "f* uon. the As and olfactory visual^senseswas an solid mansged \ra{e assails individlal's or -#av Uncollected poorly sseer along piles rotdnS_"garbage rhe i"in *t"n it nt.r utsiied ciq. heapjng of suchpilesnotonlycon' il?i.liii uttu*tr"itingixpttience "i'rf; camenarenotonlyanunpt""t't 'igt'', nty i'Jatto " roatn" uid affectthus insects adve$ely o aterandso't'"'oorct'' 'n"yli'" minate theair, "itor "*"tt quality and ingpublichealth environmenul caus"',:li:1lt:,T 10leading one from theCty HealthOmcereveal-that ofthe Staristics infecrion' ""1"-0" 'e acuErespimlory "ttt rttt oo"il-a on or causes Jor-biairy' the Among to leaaing is dianhea. if not oontamitutn t"t off by filthy and skin disease, gastto-"nte.iti"rn"te oi'u""is lJ li!"uut"a "na natedsuroundings.


to 26

Cii] \iuiiipartite Monitoring Team,which regularlyconducts : -':.: on-siteinspection ofrhe l5-.-., s slneiis. 'rdicale lhal the city's natural$,alerways well as aquifgrsare now being as :e: :j .;:r.:einafion and pollution due to the "indiscriminale dumping of untreated inadeor ::i= irdusrrialuastes"sucha5"volatile organiccompounds, solvenrs, heary metals,ancl other not i-:: je Ba i. a cdticai natumlresource oniy ofthe city but the countryas well, ,.hasbeenunr_! :r,=;eruled euth.ophication to increasing due nutrjentwaste-loads from households, expanded _--r :]1i livestockproduction activities,intensive fishpenoperations, soil erosion.,' and The sus, :-.::lhelaletoremainasastrategicresourcefortheeconomicandsociaidevelopmen!ofrnereby the problem associated with pollution."rl : r i995. the LagunaLake Developrnent Authodty and the Ecosystem Rescarch ard Development

ll ti,

r- :orducred in-depth an study ofthe SanCristobal RiverSystem, majorriversystem s ofthe city r. :.o! inceof Laguna drains that into the lake. TheSanCr;stobal Rivercutsacross seveml ofthe
!parksand estates. contributes ._ir's rnajor industrial It aboutfive percent freshwater discharge the to


; r$'i"n:!i1*iHi';ili.i::i::i,i;"i,::;5il::::; l;'.',"J::iffi:'*:tr':i::t"ffi
-::\ llly ' -!i. rhe Il barangays and thousands oftons ofga$age into discard lnin€ in Ca]amba four in Cabuyaol ef annualiy! which endsup in the lakebed."Moreover,,.a numberof livestock poultryformsare and rhrowingtheir wastes into the river."rt :.: ! R€sPoh*Ds

.i ::..:i)concludes "aside industrial that pollution, unhampered dumping therjver from the daily into of

_-ie creation ofthe CityENRO, syslematic coordinated a and approach solidwaste to management is :::a andcipated. following among manysolidwaste The are the management measures arebeing that -o ttnn"o 'or imPlementation Jtt
l-\rr.,ot 1 P.imet Towar.ts Eroblns the K4YAK4P |Kalngata,t ang Likos-yama a! Kapatiginnl: An Ent'honheital Resources Proroctin oM Manogenent Prosrun fot catnnh.CpDo. aahmba: Aprit2002

8{) 27

The fiNt-€verLocal Environment Codeof Calamba Cify is beingfinalizedto tske into considoration the naldates of RepublicAct 9003.The prcposed Codeshall integrate, harmonize, .ationalizeall city and odirances andr€gulations related the protection, to conservation, utilization,andmanagement ofthe city envfonment, Thereis now grealerappreciation regardtbe problemofsolid wastefrom an ecological to point ofview ratherthar a mechanical activity of simply collectingard disposing. such, City ENROis embarkAs the ing on a series preparatory of activiti€stowardsthe reductionof the volumeofsolid wastegoingto the landfill. TheCity Solid Waste Management Boardhasbeencreated. Recognizing the city is compos€d sevemldisqeteecosystems, lakeshorquplanct, that of i.e., industrial. and Poblacion ecosystems, City ENRO will soonembarkon a seriesof barangay the consultations and advocacy campaigns activate Barangay to the Management Solid Waste Committees be at th€ forefront to of ecological work as well as to elicit inputs towardsthe fomulation of a fiore responsive City Solid WasteManagem€nt Plan.The city govemment also finalizing the debils for the acquisition a lot is of wherea controlleddumpsite preparatory a sanitary to landfill would beput up. WASTE CHARACTERIZATIoN ITESTJTTS STUDY A critical input in the overalldesign ofthe proposed cluster-barangay system the resultofa waste MRF is oha.acterization studyin thethreebanngays. study,conducted The mainlyby theProjectTaskForce, took proportional samples from rcpresentatjve groups thethreebarangays. low., middle-,andhigh-incom€ ir The study.evealed th€ middle-income thet g.oupgener'ates mostsolid wasteon a daily basisat 85.6 the kg.,comparcd 57.5kg.dailywaste to gen€rarion group, 62.9kg.genefttion olthe high-income .nd ofthe group, same low"income The group ranking set-up, middle-income followed thehigh-income i.e., by .nd groups, observed for totalvolume wsste low-inoome generated bulkdensity. vas also of and

8) 2E


+ + i

:: -r;=

.€.bies characte.ization study. present detaiisofthe waste the Ba6ngly6 Incotno by Grolp In t ,r!t G.n.radon Srmd€

-rgga =aiin9on

Incone Group

ilet Woight I ka. I 32.7 6.3 24.9 6&0

Volume lcr.m.l 0.187 0.046

BullDenslty t ksJcu,m, I 219 25 195.37 177.U



Palingon [4iddle


0 115

267.31 164.97 224.59

10.2 33.7

Sampiruhan Total'Middle

0,187 0.1E9


Lrngga Palingon Sampiruhan Total.High


0 187 0.090 0.187 0.161


42.3 67.1

270,58 629,58


Housohold WaiL Gon rllion pgrEamphErr.ngiy

Prllngon Samplei50 households per Ave. Household:kg. 0.6
folFl.PdiDgon [4iddle High

Nel Welqht I ko.I 6.3 10.2 14.4 309

Volume Irum.l
0.046 0.115

I tqJfl,lt|. I

195.37 164.97 257.39


Llnggr households Sample:51 perhouseholdi 1,7 Ave. kg. folsl.Llngga

32.7 41.7 10.7 85.1

0.18i 0.f87 0,187




0,187 0.187 0,187 0,561

177,54 224.59

Srmphuhan Samplerhouseholds 52 per Ave. householdi 1,9 kg,

24,9 33,7 42.3



Iot6lSeDplflrl!, l$.9 generalionr kg. DailypercapiE:ol:J\.asle 0.28 generation: 1.42 Dailypefhousehold waste solid ke.



;i:":"*i*rlx'';l; T=nr,*;T;ilxt"ti;Tt-;{f:*Tr*,Si#,1"*'tffi
* '"""f m-3;; r;1il*m ;:ffi';1li;ifi:1 |;l"r'tril#;}:T"'*"ff:il:;1iY;]$ff

;**:: *:':: i:?r;::,#jtbi*r't ::":;-dffiffi **::::"" ; j*iill'liliffi hl*ittt#jqi+;i:+::*li
oil :p'^itii ,g1'iiuti': ttit. !obuv sonething cookine withl'
Tli: il€ms garbage tbe "f donot .llv,"tl^t^ Therespondents consider recovered as segregaEo notinclude :"tpl"' ttudydid"*9til1: these characterization to **" UroLrghttbe\tasie n""."lia-*fia


';:fr :ilif li"'" it'rl*h:::Tl::l',:''"'l;'3Jift *l$:;ift ;f*::f,:.ffi


lo areaadjac€nl the houseto-aloid conEminadon the Uponsegregation. llemsareplacedin a storage

lI;:x"*"'i*if ii,lit.H';li"'f;i lliffil"f Tff "iiii##:1##Jff',Xf "'l"J[:i.l: ;


R) ll

&1dcoilectedby ihe households then sold to the junk dealers a weekly,quarterly,or even and on yearlybasis. The lisi ofpreferreditemshasnot considerably changed throughlhe years.
Hou!6hold ltem! Prerently B€ing Segregrted, Collected Soldto tft. Junk06aleB &

Plastic items drink botlles, conlsoft tainels minercl for watel, condiments,and bath toilel items, plastic other Droductsl Glass bottles Scrap metal dink,ginand liqlsoft pots pans, dls- old, inoperaiive hous€hold ldilapidaledand uoc, condime bath s, electdc caded rcoing maleials, applrances an0 wircsl tollel itemsl Soft drinubeveGge cans Ne$6paper, magazines Csrtons, cardboard boxes,ackaging matedi als
preval€nt the tluee barargays The FGD also revealed a[other interesting wastereductionpractice in involvingfood 6craps, kitchenwastes, used/old and clothing. On a daily basis,rnostif not all households the threebarangays in collecttheir food scrapsandkitchen wastes. These placed a recept&cle are in usually froma recycled milk-powder or a plastio can made container.On the avemge, eachhousehold would amaisabouthalf a car-loadof food scnps ard kitchen wastes pig.raising picksup,also a dailybasis, daily.Theneighbo. is intosmall'scale who business on the food scraps wastes, uses and and these augment livestockfeed, to the

&) 32


:1 !-::t"p*n*l'#r.'d#"Hrltlt+:r$#iljilf ikli#lrr::fl
] a usually sackcol'ected' qudntiry'is a When sumcienl old -'= r_-*noldsal'o collecl usedor clothing lim' - '- " i itoor po'l a"ir'g butche:ing

h: ti:'-'^:""J':"1#;ilx:J:'J"*:; *s ilil:;f -:r;"", fittr;ll,j'i#,i*

t t t t t

3}l: *","*u;lj'"",:trfi ;lffi1iT?'#,#:tr$$:';1i:';:::fi:ffi;$i:#:H":
ga6n$y! In Houlohold bo Pllot ln Wast€ aTyplcal ttlixof Solld

& soEps Kkhenwasles Food

ks.I0l 0.250

bolt|os 12.17 CJYI oloihlng fl) ol I sack usod



B) 33

Chapter 3
TheProoosed MRF Svstem E)F)C€

he cluster-barangay beiry Foposed in this studygoesbeyondthe conventional MRF definitionofa matedals recovery faoility,i,e,, a placeor a facility wheresolid wastes delivered be separated, are to processed, stored l&teruseasraw materials remenufacturi[g rcprocessing, and for for and Th€Foposedcluster-bar&gay MRF shellbe morethaDjusta sfucture.It shallbdngtogetheifour distinct but intor-related operational components fhe tirec key shloholder groups local govemment and units, - into a produotive the privatesector, thecornmunity altd members schem€ encounges that these compon€ntsand staleholders functiontogetherar a singleunit and in the processr to generate t€sultsthat arc gr€ter thar the sumoftheir individualeffectsor capabilities. The oluster.baEngay MRF beingproposed hereis a sustainable syote of managing conmunity solid waste. Theproposed cluster-barangay system MRF shalltansforln waste materirlsirl,o usoable msrsnd k€tableresources while effectivelyqonhibutingto the overallp.ocass reducing pollution,cons€rving of enerSy, oleatiflgjobsand b$iness opportunities, buildingcordpetitive rnanufasturitg indusaies, improv. ing the healthoonditions ofthg oommunity, d€creasing local govem$ent,s the and overalldisposal n€ods andexpenses. It is designed resouroe for feco!€ry by means msnualmatelialssepantion, of The mainbusiness ofthe proposed MRF systgm to rnaximize quantityof reoovqables rccyclables is the and oollected, whil€ p.oducingmat€rials will generate highest possible that the revenues themorket. in

8) 34

-:c\* ::=:ei A MRF systemshall be joindy ownedand malagedby the stakeholdets clusrer-baraigay chapter ofthis scheme foo d in a seParate is ofthe organi?ational managerial and discussion

to shall refered as: be cluster-bamngay system MRF the :rosesofthis study, proposed MRF, lrcorporst€d PalisrmCommunity l-o GaPAlingon, of of is of Palisart an acronym the first syllables the names the thfte barangays: '?alir" whichmeans, to root thewordcontains theTagalog wo.d anaSavpiruhan.Interestingly,

t"o*o**, o, to rortroo,,, "o"* "r" "*. ,".o*"o*rro
components: operational foul major MRF,Incorporated have shall a",'rua community


f-*to -:giJctiorl/segregationatsowce -

as component serving an of basis other a linear withtheoutput one on t"ract witheach ftgg5.

n n


collgclion & han$o(


& marl(gting sales

8.) J5

lb!.hdds, Conmdi{Btrui$merlb


wast€ manageEffective and sustainable and se€lors with the persons ment begins waste.Througl a combination that creale legislated sancdor|s, ol societalpressures, ard skills eninfonnation dissernination, hancementschemes,the generation of of wasteand rnixtures wasteshallbe oomat Fehensivelyreduced the sourcelevels. The seg$gatiooof wssteat souce is tle Paliof key !o the success the pioneering MRF, Inootpomted. samCornmuhity Among the reduction schemesto be arc adapted the following: Th€ throuohReuse. communig Redaction to shallbetoughtandenooudged members the extEnd utilit of certainproductsand for itemsth$ugh .e-us€.This is possibl€, exa.Illplgwifi items like writing pap€rs, plastic containeN,bottles, linen diapets, andthe like. Throu* public information oamparg$ ordinanc€s, the bamngay and eppropriato ootnmunitymembefiishall also be perproducts canber€that to suaded purchase ftom purTheysball be discouraged u$ed. 6nd ohasing usingso-oalled "disPosable" plateg, eating products, suchds disposable Instead or bags. diapers, shopping utEnsils,

&) 36

''d tui lrorisions of coffee,sugar,
E Gixtd

loothpasle. shampoo. and delergenbin dtsposable sa_ shal b€ encourag€d-mlll- tnesertemsin ro ouy reusable plasticconbiners.bottles,or

3E 'rlrFid

composting by burial method in garoensand


.rrr"i:Ed conhinerizrdcomposting, suchas: - s-. !c!3- -10\r'er tires" !'a: ;":.€nethod usirg permeabie membranes sacks like =ir:&d drumsfor aembic composting |.Er-or composling ar€as for with openspaces
.. . ,c-n", tk.-].ctin!.lnformarioD campaigns shallbe condusred identi$, lo -- r:u-.,i :Ealctrng. household items suitSuchr€c)cjingmethods are:

.< == :s plentborden,fences compost or conlarners r;, r:z:ocr aspillowcase filiers
=rEi-1 as Empoia4/ wEpping and packag€_fillingmaterials 5_1< s a_in3tive conlainers condlmenb for
=!j :i --2nt containers

.-i:-.a.j. --r.ns


comprehensivery eriminate,r,i. T:::1:11I*d'jftulr":'hat ",*,r"""i**,",," -. -.sr- .r-_.:.-s proa *:=:Al!I:,1p.epar;ngasetormcarrhar;"1;;:;;;:.#;.'i;:;:1i_ijil'**'Jffl;,jl
ucinggoods wirh co-nptele recyctabte y paflqandpactaging.

effecrivescheme ensure 1o susraimbie wastereduction wasteavoicience. lhis scheme, is ln

&) 37

practiceanongthe househol&in thethr€e Reduction thrcuehRecvclinp Animal Feed.It is a corDm{n as barargays usetheir kitchenleitoveNas animalfeed,includiflg ieed for their culturedfish p.oduction. to This is a cost-€ffective methodofwastereduction sh8llbe furtier enco$raged. that Reductiofi throuqhRecvcline FueLErvironheni-fti9ndlymethods ofusing biodegradable waste alas as ternativefuel-sources shall be disseminat€d. Among suchmethodsarc: biogastechnolog/to produee methane cooking,andusingddedtre€andshrubcuttings frewood. as foi Segreeation Source.Afier all possible .tt effortshavebeenexhausted, residents th€ reduction shallbeencouraged segrcgate r€mainingwasteinto biodegadable to and nonbiodegndable lvastes[with tlrc th€ groupings] prior to theirpick-up nonbiodeg.adables on fufihersorted grouped and based a pie-amounced by thecamrnunity solidwaste collectors. joint barangay The reduotiorl/segegation scheme shall be outlinedin an appropdale ordinance. fooal A pe6on ftom the Palisanr MRF, IncorpoEtedshali facilitat€the conductofpublic m€etings Community andinformationdrivesconcerDing lechniqu€s. eff€otive rcductior/segegation COLLECIION TRANSPORT AND COMPONENT The designofthis cornponent MR!, IncorporatEd detennined of.thePalisam Co1nmunity was largelyby the designofthe previous re-us€/s€gregation com.ponent, Withouta proactive conponent,the colleclion andtrlnsport component would hardlyb€differentfrom theprevailingsolidwaste coliectionsohemes implemenGd mostciti€s and localitiesofthe countrytoday involvingthe useofbig dumptruck. Suoh in practic€dueto the colleotionsoheme unsound, solid wastemanagement is in€mcient a.nd unproductive following rcasonsi r The use of a singlecompartmeltdumpfook collectsth€ raried typesof wasteftom a numb€rof sources lesultingin a mixedpile of wastein the truck. Eflorts to segregate source rendered at ale to. tallyworthless, Thetruck helpers that scavenge the6uck while still onthc road.Any solidwaste is ofvalu€ wiil b€ on takenand sold to junk shopsalongthe way, leavingthe MRF with residuals oontaminated and com" postables, Recyclablo because ofmishandling. items lose will much ofthehvalue



F) 38

activities duing the scavenging with toxic substarces miglt be coltaminated waste Tle compostalle and compost erenot saleable in contaninated resull biodegadables ir-ilr"p.tt c*o*-i*"d "i]f" c"r"-i*t"a and --post mayevenbeharmtulto vegetables edibleplaits' Ji " TlefnancialviabiiityoftheMRFcollapsesbecauseitwillinvolvemorep€opleandequipment!o wastefrom a mixedsource. ard seg€gale proc€ss Theoractlceexposesthecoll€ctorsaswellasthecommunitiesalongthewayto6vari€tyofhaftful agents' as andevendeadli contaminants well aspathog€nic *rcak or e useof dumptrucksfor house-to-house sbeet-level.ooilection l*:"

?;il;;;;;;;;;Gn"aio. of biggervolumes the volumeand numberof ttips to thetumpsite, are wongly motivttedto collect -:by to justi! theit trips to tbe dumpsite' Iaruage callectionlechniqueslnTh. Pulirut cot-unity MRF, hcorporatedshalldo awaywith thesewasteful ln"1 i" snd glass on on inty onvoridals,tioaegradables Trresdays, items wednesdays, soon.

ip"." since arelaid connactors' thev haulins iu"t' t'.u'1 to"a' ln addition,6e


*l!.!#H#, i":i,ff"1H:*'i ?"i.:li'""Ji t*ittrit5ffi,',sll*;*:::tn**i' j:liffi ll',,''j", :*:l*f,::.J::$.i:jff 1#,':,ttrilt""Hl".';lii: fr;g. :?$ru;tn

Hi:$l :"s#?ff rl'l**:**'m:;:fd{::}l*T*Fff ffi Lqti;4jlii"'ff f+ --""\ fts
-/\ -----


the To enhance collection efforts,the Polis8mCommuniry MRF, Incdrporated may ss! uP Brrsngoy Ecocentenit strategiolocatioB wi$iD the servicearea.The Eco_ shall sene astem_ centers porary stonge a$as for

8) 39

coll€dedtEcyclabl€s asan intemedialeplac€to performpreliminarysortin&clasrification, eveD and ard prior to their deliveryto theMRF. Additionally,theBaraDgay clcanitrg ofcollectedi1€ms Ecoceniers shall campaierscar be be tte visible lBllying point wherepublic mobilization,information,aod advococy Iarlnciedandcoo.dinated. The cornmunitysolid wastecollectorsshall usesmallcollectionvehicles, The smallcolleotionvehioles haveseveFladvantages: . . ' ' . . Reduction air andnoisepollution in More reliabilitt b€cause offew€r breakdowns thusreduced daintenarce c4st and L€sspeNons involv€d,because driver is alsothecollector the L€ssor evenzerofuel expense Lessdamage cornmunity to road3 Cane$ily aocess navigate and througbthe naflow rcadnetworkofthe threebarangays

Depending the operational on needs,the PalisamCommunityMRF Enterprise will make us€ of the following collectionvehiclesi . . . , Pushcarts several with comparinents P€dal-powered tdcycles pedicabs or with specially design€d sidecars with specially Motorizedtdoyol€s designed sidecars Jeep with compafinentalized trailer

Seps.raie vehioles shallbe usedto collect specifict,?es of waste. theminimum,onecollectionvehicle At The shall be dedioated eachfo. biodegradables nonbiodegradables. colleotionvehioles and shall be distinctly color-coded. compartnentalized The trailer pulledby . jeep shallbeusedin collsctingbulk wastes as aswellasdouble a delivery vehicle.

8) 40

- 1:: _.r=:jje urdu€ economic dislocalion andconlusionin the srea,the communilysolid wastecol-::: s:r.l .*.i:gm r.lle re.-vclabies from the households the sameprice thejunk shopsare offeringfol ai junk shops, the otherhand,shallbe encouraged assisted upgrade i3-s. T-de on :=:-. and to their opela:.n house{o-house retail business community-\r'ide to recyclable integfators dealingdirectlywith l-j
'alcling plants.


^r-rdrDrs fior

Prtn' cwuniv rRF,he.d.bt!

R-t foirr

Frot 4Elp,fl,rncaMnnrr


:': , ':,

r. '---.-+ ll dih vt/


f,;:*utnx'*";giil";1l:;':?:::1?s:nTH;i',l;:::d1Hii"*ff lffi:TLl:
not. collected-and who. to segregaie belevied fine.A dailyservice of PhP for be those fail shall fee I a dlall juridicalentiiies and PhPstor commercial esiablishments other and shallaisobe collecled. -useholds Flfie serrice maybepaidin cash in itsequivalent recyclables. fee or in

&) 4l


b€low are majorsctivities These discussed of cornpolentconsists several Tbeprocessing The and Unlaodino Classificafion' seg' &om the wastecollected solid rcp,aied shall be establishrnenls and ho,-l'lseholds theMRF. Wtile these broughtdirectlyto at items have been seglegateo source' funh€rsegr-egathey will still undergo tloor at tionandclassificadonthetipping with thespeciofltheMRF in aocordance fications of the market/buyenand the to prccesses beapplied waste,uponarrivalat the Biodesmdabl€ furthet into the folb€ MRF,-shall sorted lowing categories: - Grass,leaves€nd other Yad tim_

b€ that - frLiin". and slems cannot
easily shredded Specificagriculturalwostegatbered ftom thear€, e g ric€ hull, bagasse

from oollected bomes that lsftovers arefteshly Kitchen teohniques oomposting using or ttrataresemi_alrypre-processed home iitchen leftovers atthe that Animll waste is pre_processed source pads' etc napkins, sanitary is ioundin diapers, that waste Human and Fines inerh be shall ,s-orte1, t:tl-*e followincl waste, Nonbiodegradable ontheothethsnd, llf(|:l and colors r]pesl
to b;;k;" siass ;;;X. .;;;. [according specific numbe4 to caregory Plastics laccordinB stel, olherironsl ana Metals latuminum dn cans. Bnd compositesl canons mixed, Paper [*hite.ne-sprint

&) 42


:-'Fs oi qr-aPper5

:::r:.:5. :oers. hair.etc -;-: .:3:,'. bonesldimculi to compostl :-_-:= marketspecifications andbaledaccordingto .. ,llarrcquireno furtler so(ing shallbe classified the icisd lvhil€ awaidng buyers.


iLi;;;.;;:. sortl :_-raz:a automaled

procsorting a operatonFurther' manual to as materials comparcd the mJcnani'ea :_: :ore reiected
-_r=:,r neq jobs in the loc8litY.

,. -- communir, rncorporarcd.sharl MRF. ';;; ll",,'"Ti1].-.^111s,"::::i?::-T,51,*::,1 p'oduces quariq.m'"'^':,1j::::l hisner po',.nriurb 'lni"i"d"pr

ft:-.:!,1;;if::#;',tifil:1,::g::::,$5}fii"'sJiJil"issharrhavebeeniden'1inedre MRF'
Communi8 !o optionsavailable the Palisam waste l hereate several :;:::.? of Biadeeradahle

-i =ilin

wasles pto.."tingliodegradable 'r:'i:,il-"-t?il::,i:"";:ffi;;';These.are: 'T.l: ;;J;;;;;til.:,1't ::und handrevorume lltH"fl'.iil"',',';",ffi""1' anv 'noaur* can ifi' ut'o

r' :,1T":.'I;;.:'iljffiilJ pi"'.. "iii"ia-p;oi"
Fl=. all I.':ti

for that to p.odu"tion thisis lirnited waste is edible anirnals' eg as methane a by_product' livewaste for lechnology d)is is best processing thatdevelops 3: . -:2s nanure


&) 43

controlledconditions.whire animalf€€dFoduction is a viable option,tie.ecent ouiburst of diseases, e.g.madcow disease SARS,altributed animals havebeenfed with rccycledmatter, and to thal Eisesseri_ oushealthconcems. Thebiodegradable waste shallbeprocessed usingaerobic composting technolos/, specifically staticpile, passive the aemtionversion, Aerobiccomposting sJvhas eral potentialadvantages: the decomposition process proceeds [a] moreragidly; lev€lsthatarelethalto pathogens afained;and[c] the numbir are [b] ternperature andintensifyofobjectionable emissions reduced are shagly. Theinterstitialair, or the air in the spaca betweex psrticlesofthe cornposting the mass, the source oxygenfor the activ€micmbialproduction. oxygenii is of The th€ ambient that impinges the outersurface air on air layer]alsoiontib[surface utesin er*tancing microbialproduotion. the The particlesremainstatioDdyand only the interstitialair is exohanged throughnatumlconvection and air move_ menL Theadopt€d process cost-efficient, fhe process composting is as doesnot involv€ the intervention sophisticated costlymechanicsl of and equipment fansor like tumingequipment. process The also involv€smanual activities thus connibutins to the creation ne\^jobs in the localiD. of Theend-product is [compost] suffi cientlystablefor nuisance-free storage would besafefor usein agtioulture. and ThePa.lisam composting process involves principal five steps covering period a of45-60dayslra I. Shr€dding. biodegndables beshredded uniform The shall into particle sizes of3-4 cm,Thisis done to avoid_. later in tle compostina prooess, developm€nt sna€robio the of pocketsin and th€ unevcn drsttbution movement and ofair rhrough composting the mass. 2. Incorporatlon BulklngAg.trt or BiGolidsitrtothe Wrsie.Such agent ofs goir an could coconut be oustor brosorids water like hyacinths lakealgae or found tre looality. biosolids in The shallbe mixed with
'" Thed€sign oJ th€Pelissm composting process an adaptarioD the composting is of process usedin BanngsySun ,, laliey MRF in Paranaque. Sun V6ll€y MRF syslemu€3 designed d€vcloped Sanngay Chai-rp€rson The and by Robeno cu€vara. B.

&) 44

biod€radables nanually wilh theuseofa simple or mixingmachine a one-bagger like ceCoEpolting Pmcqss. The composting massshallbe placedin semi-permeable sacks that would vessels. composting The 5 ie composting sacks shallbe looselypacked promote flow ofair to the room r: -:-- :i. mass.The sacksshall then be placedon stackingshelveslocatedin the composting *e IIRF. The composting room shali b€ dry and w€ll-ventilated alltimes. The room shallalso at lto a iiifficient working space allow the restacking ofthe sacksas often as necessary €xpose to the mass air and thuslessen emission putrefactjve to the of i-r.ing odors.

process progressing :omposting is satisfactorily, a numbe. changes thepbysical of in chafacteristics .omoostins mass wiilbe observed:



')ior- Theoriginal odorofthe biodegradables ofmw garbage. process adis thal Iithe composting is rarcingwell,thesucc€eding couldbedescribed odors collectively "faintcooking." as Size. Due to the microbial P?rticle activjties, particle of the composting the size material becomes Also.organic 6bers become grairular smaller. brittleandamorphous becom€ somewhat in materials

ooo""*,"" rne composting gradually mass da*ens color appearance in and

Mixture.Once mass achieved the SifliogtheComposted has complele composting,is taken of it out ^, sack once and morcmanually sieved, is done rernove rcmaining paiicles This to the bulk I.omposting '.hus promote consistent prefer. a El uniform appearance buyers that Curidgrnd Storage, sifted The compost shall repacked f'!al curing storage, thispoinl be and for At compost exude earthly shall an smell wouldbedarkg|ayor brownish colorandappearance. €nd in

&) 45

Wa\te 1he availabilit/of marke$will of Proc?ssine Nonbiadeerodabte for MRf will maintain *"gones lhal the Palisarh ;G;fi. "r.fif l actory retumables will be baled and packedfor 'irnr.aiu,i to ""iii"J"**Llr.t aaiu..y and sale. lhese will be delivered the recycling qualrtityis accumulated' whena commercial tuJ.i"r o. t"a"aptloo "ente$

oan the particularly recyclables' be items' the ofth€ m€rket, nonbiodegadabie on Dep€nding theneeds specificationsr on based thefollowing classified

/ ContaineE Ferous t!.{etal Products

. . . . . . . . . . .

M€ttrlSpecmcons SlmDls by Separ"tedgrade or specified]looso Baled &,,€lght lsize some or Dry including w€t of degrcs co!!q!l!4!g! or Clean some orshrcdded unflattened, Flattened, ofnot €moved €moved Labels of or a Clean with degree mntamination baled shredded, ordensmed Flatlened, din, l€ad, etc of Free molslurc, foll, llase granulated orloose Baled, 0r bvcolor SeDarated orlype, mlxe!

. Loosg, ordensifie!l@ig!!.9!iE baled

Contalners Aluminun

a) 46

c.tons samtlstla*et SPecif

t| F- *. r.:{r!*8*iT1t.t.fir"H#fildf[.iijih;* -'. Size cullet of lspeciiled] . Deorce contamlnalon of

l-EGEiEd- color mi'ed by o'

il#'iffi':[h:t'"'T"* ]i[*tltJl;t'**1;'


"""til""i"Jirtt*gr' .,.i'-nl tr,", ii"'rinooa'ril' F|l:l'"'#ffi "tl:;f;.j:.**ffJffiH charactt::. j,:l-'l'i:]:,lil""l'..t"'riH:Silif Based ofResiduats onthewaste the ror rccessine destinedcitv *'"'rduars f:.T::i; '}]ff#fi;iiii" JuiJin'a mffi:ffi::*emTJilffi

ot *,,Ti:I"!:ll"*ll,j:#;iillLii;,i-,"{idlliii#::l*gnt.'il,:i'J''HT. theofocessingnono'o*t*""'' "l'riiirit office'in cooperati" city Livelihood uuining

p-":::':l':::i::l"Tnfflfi'l}iJ]fi::: MRF, ,",'o..o.muniry rncorpomr"d:h"lllg:lll

i#5li'Ji'"i3'Jli fftrf$i'"lx'fi'silff Ft;::1fl xu#,i:
Ecl 47

coll€ction MRFwhileawaiting to allowed collecl be no longer

with the City be determif,ed in coordination A schedulefor this purPosev{ill coraoNENT AND MARKTTD,IG SALES ENRO'

***i'S"":,l+*l-g'm,j*,*'u rhepa,isamcommuni,y,ur*::nr::i,l*:l,

8c) 48


-il:,vr*i;ilt.l#,rT*rt;'"ffirYlf* I#*, F:jli:#il4?+#xlfi
le-buyersThe PalisanCommuniryMRF In_ shall be elelated!o that of recyclab r-: :_ =. iuni. shoDs buying operations, hand,shall take tull controi of the day-to-dayrecyclable 1',-.,... o, $e other
- . - - , s. 6 3 1 1i - n I o e a l e f 5 n l o l h e o p e r a l i o n a'lt l e a m o f l h e V R I I I*-,r


the -ir:,.rables So asnotlo dislocate existingjunkshopsin the localitywho tradeprincipallyin

jts the :r r Compostincreases organicconientoflhe soil and can improve texture,its nutrienlconcan be usedand marofthese, the compost Because :.: :'j qater retenlionand aemtioncapacities, ..r-^: :. ::e iollowingl . r-.,lrur€ cropsand farms food andnon-food prcperties grounds maintenance and commercial -a::iaping crcps planting,andforeslseedling \ ---:ries pottedplanls,barerool parks,andotherpublicProperties areas, recrcational --r :. Agencies highwaylandscaping, and i:. :.n.es homelandscaping gafdenrng and :_:.: iandreclamation landfill cover ANALYSES CoMPETITIoN


a competitor is dumptrucks consid€redserious scheme ofthe Ciiy ENROinvolving t :-::::: hauling issimplei Thereqson MRF,Incorporated Community scheme ofthe Palisam ;: ::;:gated cillection - place yourrubbish inside a all procedure thehousehold to simpler offers much a :--i :lck haulen thantherccom_ all and :+- .ring il out to thehaulers. forget aboutit This is muchconvenient
al : :::ardated segregation source. to budgetrequired and pouredintothe old scheme a signilicant - :: ? sizeable investmenl already in -- :: :! unlikelythal localgovemment haulers fa' ofthe the unils will soonterminate operations scheme' collection and segregalion_at-source snall_vehicle ecologically-sound :::;::::

[.J 49


goups on this level: Ther€arethreecompetitor is manua]ly ti€ helpers by collected th€ curbside separated at t. tnforEal RecycleN- Thegarbage havetheir own way of segregation. The on the dumpauck while effoute to the dumpsite. truck helPers on ar€ to Thefactoryretumables unload€d junk shops the wayto the dumpsite. who 2. Formsl R€cyclers- Thereare existingjunk shops,within the threesubjectbaradgays, do They will definitelybe affectedby the operadon usingpushcafis. redemption their own "door-to-dooi' an shop is MRF, lncorporated essentially institutionaliz€djunk as Comrnunity MRF operation the Palisam junk shops doingbusiness the country. in axe will change wayordinary/faditional the opemliotthat studyin tbe dr€e duringth€ wastechaxacterization Animrl Feed Coll€ctors- it was observed 3. pile find their way into the garbage that is sent!o the do barangays mostofthe kitchenwast€s not that piggeries fishponds. pets and into dumpsife. Most areprocessed animalleed for dom€stic ar,dbackyard MARKTTING SAIES & partictlCommunity MRF,Incotpo@ted wouldbethemainproductline ofthe Palisam Factory retumables mainproducts ofjunk shopopetatorsln phases. These itemsafealsothe tarly duringits earlyoperational operation wouldbethejur* marketing the ofthe proposed MRFconceming a \{ay then, maincompetitor shops thearea. in & MACHN\ERYEOL'1PT€NT and shall the on mentioned earlierin this section, lollowing machin€ries equipmeDt be Based the schemes requiredi . . . I r . Collection vehicles Mixingmachine Compost bins Plasticcontainers / ShredderChipper or Sieve [manual mechanical]

F) 50


J.iaib asto number, specifications, ac{uisitioncostsarefoundin the latterchapter and ofthis study.

palisam gaphically the op€rationai diagam found on the nextpggedescribes flow ofth€ propos€d
ity MRF.


&) 5l

Pdilsm Con$unlo llRF opsratlonsl FlowEhan Hor$€holds, Comrnercial Establhhments lnslitutions & oiher

ReduclionSource al

Segmgalion at SouBe

Noiblodegradablg Wasle

El) 52

Solld Comm!iily Waste leclors Co

& Final Soding Classiicaton

&) 53


:ri l,r:

Chapter 4


in ofthe Palisam Community MRI, Incorporat€d shallbe er€cted barangay 6ajn physicalstructure recovety structur€, referiedto asthe MRF, shallhous€ principairesource the >.:jngon.Theone-storey composting cutirg and storage areas, rro.€ssingfacilitiesincludinglhe nain tippingfloor, rcoyclables a! and msrketingoflic€s of the Palisam ---.=. I€sidualholding chambers, well s5 the administrative unity MRF, Inoorporated. shall structures the PolisamCornmunity of MRF, lncorporoted, as ::c BarargayEcocentc6, secondory witlin the service as int€inediateoolle.tion and storagepoints and shali be locat€dstralegically shall be established Howeve.,it is projected no Eoocente$ that duringthe fint five yea$ of opera-

governmeflt has six ofPalingon,throughits Barangay Chairperson, madeavaitable parc€ls ::e baraDgay rotaling almost sq,m, serve thesiteofthe MRF. 960 to a5 -:*d -

h) 55

with MRF shallbeconsistent the followingconsiderations Tte physicalstructures siteofthe proposed ard ofRA 9003: Rules Regulalions and in 28 a5specified Sections and29 of tie Implementing the to mustb€ designed accommodate eflicient and a- Th€ building and/orland layoutard equipment movement, sto€geof materials; and safeprocessing, and to b. Thebuildingmustbedesigned allow efficientandsafeext€malaccess bt€mal flow; to 29 operation shali complywith the prcvisionsof SectioD of the IRR applicable c, The composting composting compos8; and uponr€questi and d. Thefollowing tecordsshallbemaintained submitteito the Department processed, removed and ftom siteaccurale or ofwastereoeived, " Recordofdaily weights volumes purposes raoking ofsuccess and ofwaste for and to witbin ten percenl adequaie overallPlanning goals;and diversion - Daily logbookor file ofthe following informationilires, sPecial occunedces! unauthorized loads' injury, andpropertydalrlAge. and Thec.mpostingfacility shalloonformto the following standards critedal engineering to flooding,unless conin a. The facility shallnot be tooated anateathat is subject frequent of the trols areprovidedin the desig to prevent inundation the faciiity.

Et) 56

E.fr| tht E:EOff. lb E d! 4r|E d ffi tfu

*. oqosl

anddrain€e controlmechanisms The facilityshallbe designed shallbe in place. piles.windrcws,residues, processed and materiaiwill not be exposed surface !o

lahare stomge provided,the discharge is ofleachateinlo any body ofwater is prohib-

s,!ch discharge meets rhe limits prescribed by rhe DENR slandards for emuents. Where it r.r4s !o b€ stored, shallcomplywirh lhe provisions shallbe ofSection38A 12.'"Provisions is.e-circulated dEdthe ieachate into the comeost oilesor w'ndrowsasmuch as Dossible. provisions vector,odorJlitter,ard dustcontrolshallbe included. ior shallbe maintained all timesin accordance al with the preceding seclion.

r-:rr:ciu. I.:fie+ing

as ofas such. i-:$r::cs shallbe ma.naged solid waste&1dshallbe disposed shsll be ma;ntained saG ::c _<:;eraluresofcompost piles,curingpiles,and processed composts at the ofspontaneous combustion, flal :Llpr€venl occurrcnce r.-:a:. condilions gases shallbe maintained prevent formationofdangerous to suchas methane. the

slom8e facililiesshsll be designed wiLhcontalnment frcm spillageand its -.r.:? slstems10 prev€ntleachale r:-i r - D uderl) inCgroundwaler nearb)surfa.edy of waler.For ]eachate ponds, desig! or impoundmenl the a geomembmne linef systemund€rlaii by a low penncability :!,j. soil layerofal leas!0.30 n thick. Thd tEL lin€f shallbe al learl 1.5mm thick wilh a permeability lxl0i" cm/sec less.Linef sp€cifications, or of -----re ., :-: aeineerjnecertificarion rcquirements shallbe p€f provisions Section 38A13.Adequa!€ frc€board inof I voluduendo1h€r pondov$flowing. r:-.*ancc lor rarnt:rll salbguards shallb€provid€d prevenl !o ti-t


&) 57

pieceof r€al property parcelsof tandthat forms a rectangular of lL ta is composed six contiguous ar€a swayfrom thepopulated out avemges at 15m x 60 m. Thepropertyis located ml dimension € tr3fic as and to borlSay but is highly accessible all formsof vehicularUand waterlard Pedestrian Jt to and Palingon Linggaleading thepier' Thesite baiadgays - - hcacd aloagfte msinroadthatsepamtes tbepowerline. 3E cut sits Tb Fopcrty, however, belowthe streetlevel.As such,substandal 4nd fill would be r€quiredto &:ae tb€ productionar€ato a lev€l that is equalto or higherthar the streetto avoid the ill effectsof loding duringtherainyseason.

E) 58


I I|




olnenliona :h6Sflo of
LdNo. *!r {.qfi.l

llnr 2.3[mJ 15.18 10.08 16.53 10.3
16.66 9.94




315 316 317 318 319 320

151 154 157

10.00 15.34

15.01 1010 15.34








27, Novenb$ 1973 slr€€l ol Survsy Dalaltun BuAau LmdEsile Descniotiors, No.PLS-709, t}t..15,daled

its It buildingdesigned modularly. canexpand workingal€asasthe needarises TheMRF is a one-storcy with module hav. consist ofthree[3]modules each allows Atthe start, MRFshall it. tie andasthebudget F widthx 6.OO-m. ofat least 0 meters 3 and ingthefollowing size:3.60-m. length. a heighl activitiesas shownin the the The typical floor plan ofthe MR-Fshall accommodate mdjo! operational on schematic diagram the nextpage.

17 TheBarangsy widthx4.80-m letglh. Ecocenter have modular shall a sizeof3.60-n.

!o 60

Plan to selej Floor Inol Schemdtic

:c&.designrequirementsmenlionedinthelRR'thefollowingdesignParametersshallalsobe as.uell process the to shall systems bein place protect composting run-offdiversion ,-nd soe: marKeEble the degade products inat moisture woulddramatically d F$iiuis fromexcessive A of leachate and for the collection trealnent with shallbe of concrete provislons

rlfu b;G3ssr.r}becauseit:[a]fa.ilitatesmalerialshandling;ib]enablesloffiolof]eachareand areas' to of fly larvae thesurrounding ,Jnano t"l or"u"nothemigration of the to mecha"lismscontrol production goodventilation *. ir*t *all have J'"tt" processes' and the during composting sorting 6&6 oanicularly are ofthe elevations rendition as ofthe sfuctures well asan architectuml ofqua.nliry FF5
B) 6i

8{l oa ou.nttY m n. InF od!h,3-6 r 6.0

DE3,en|Pio orlm!4l



Sbd 6F onm


5 w LL9 { Ert rtof dll }

Fur! 2, r2: x 12 rumb.r,

c*d.r,Lr c'ooirin€D



c.r cJ:Rel. q. 29 ! I o Pdn G rshrn. 4. 2€t 3 x3'
2' ! 3" r 1? rldD.., E!!!!L



Bifiofou.ntlty lodule,36n x4.8m B.ren$yEcocad.r


5 Chapter


Palisanl for mostappropriate tie proposed structure and the Tn formularing organizational management rCommunitv into taken consideration: lhe MRF,lncorporated. follosingcriteiawere ' MRI' lncorporat€d Community Patisam ofthe proposed structure and The organizational mansgerial that involvesinstitutional ente'ptise of to mustbe r€sponsive the complexities startinga pioneering and inleresls needs differing and with sbkeholders varying even and mustproflote effectiveoperational decision_making shucture and The organizational managedal and on capitalize changes opportunities' to processes arequiokto respond 8l1d that bu1 srengthof the sbkeholders the mustbe ableto promotesnd sustain collectiYe The organization withoutundulvcultliling individualcreativityandinitiative retun on ofreasonable form mustbeaneffectiveinsfumentfor thefah genemtion Theorganizational investnent,


. .

rrEEz:ional na-iL E@d!di.

and managerial structue must facililate the continuous genemtion of resoLrls€s, gifu. lodns.bonds.fees.donalions.

th€ arganizational configuration must contdbute in p.omoting and enhancing the cordc co-os n€d characieristics of rhe Paliss-rn Cornmunity MRF, lncorpoEted. The cod ao€ovemance scheme a given focusofthe studyas this scheme is offers advantlg€s to

Ftrr re coasi(Gring cluster-banngay a MRF in compliance with the rnandates ofRA 9003.Th€se



iEr.$n€nt requirement settingup a MRF, it is morepracticalfor somebamagays, of parfu. eilb budgetarf limitations, !o teaJnup with their neighborsand split the investrnentcost ratier thanfootingthe bill slone.


;r |... fr fild dremselves limited spac€ put up thephysicallacility or evenwith sn unrewith to ,t+ of Bencmled solid waste, entering a join! ventur€ iinlo MRF with the neighboring ; r cerenient andprofitable arangement comply to withthernandates ofRA 9003. .r-d MRFoflen anemcient to capitalize theunique way on of strengths thepublic priand d Forid6 a vehicle theprivate for public sector helpdeliver to servic€s lowercost at quality accessibility. ..ffcding or
fti{crerions andthe peculiar operalional d}narnics aDdirnperad! of rheproposed es

lorm for thePalisam MRF, lnconoratedis a Community Fopriate organizational ,-?q-'ion.rr ThePalisam Community MRFEnterprise beorganized regisshall and $-ith provisions the oftheCorporation ofthe Philippines. Code
b prior ro rhe conducr Essl,lred ofrhe feasibilir)sud) thar $e organ;?aional fom of

IIR.F k a coop€ralive- indee4dudngr,he And conduct ofihe srudy,it wasnored a that

&) 65

A stockcor?omtion ajuddical entirythat hasa capitalstockdividedinto €qualshares is authoriz'ed is and to distrflute !o the holders suchshares, dividonds allotments of the or oith€ surplusprofits based the on held.All olhercorpoftrtions non-stock sh8r€s aft corpomtions. A nonstock corpomtion, therefore, a corpomtion hasno capitalstockdividedinto shares is that held by irdividual investors. InsEad,the principal ecotomic rcsouroe a nonstockcorporation formedby of is juridical pe$ons,who vdluntaryconfibutedvaryingamounts who maybenatursland./or shkeholders, of cashor qusntifiedassets. Duringthe life ofthe nonstock corporation, usuallynot exceeding ye€rs, 50 no dividends paidandno partof the corpo€teincome diskibuiedto its members, are is omcers,or dir€ctors with the exception of.e€sonable compensation se$icesr€ndered allowable and for distributions upondisprovisions solutionor liquidation,subject the to Code. ofthe Corporation A nonstockoorporalion also r€ferredto a5a not-for.profil or nonprofitcorporation is organized is and geDerally charitable, for purpose. civic, religious, othersimilarbenevolent or Throlgh they9ars, however, DoDprofit corpomtions havegonebeyond charitable-related activiti€s. Today,a number nonstoclq of llonprofit corporations engage conunerciBl business also in enterpdses male incomeor profit. ld the that or process, surplus incidertalresqvesaregenerated thesedo not accrue the individualb€nefitof a or but to rhest€teholders, aaaumulated The surplus plowedbackto operations. is

*ould havebeen mostapprlopfiate the organizrtional vehiclefor tlte project8iventhe pafticipsFimar' ooop€r.tive br,v andccgovemance charect€ristics the Palism Conrmunity of MRF, Incorporated. How€ver, slskeholden the ol dp CoDoration consislof ag€ncies institutions and Section of thc Coopemfiom the publicandprivateseclors. 26 tilr Codeof the Philippines e)plicidy states that only notwal persots nay & adnittedas mernbers a priftary of cep€rstiv€.Furtb€r, while anynatumlp€$onwho is a citizenofth€ Philippin€s, another coop€mlive, a non-profil or c.Eanizatjon jwidical p€rsonality, wift sha'l be eligiblefor nembership a cooperetiv€, in otherjuridical€ntitieslike i@l 8ov€mment urits or business €nteerises not erume€tedandthuspresumed are excluded.

ts) 66

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