One Sample t Test for Mean
H _{0} : µ = 3 (The average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is equal t o 3) H _{1} : µ _{≠}_{≠}_{≠}_{≠} 3 (The average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is not equal to 3)
α = 0.05, d.f = n – 1 = 99 Critical Value: t _{α}_{α}_{α}_{α}_{/}_{2}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = t _{0}_{.}_{0}_{2}_{5}_{,}_{9}_{9} = _{±}_{±}_{±}_{±}_{1}_{.}_{9}_{8} Decisi on Rule:
t = −2 less t han t _{α}_{/}_{2}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = −1.98, r eject H _{0} at α = 0.05 Conclusion:
There is sufficient evidence to conclude t hat the average number of TV sets in M ’sia ho mes is not eq ual to 3.
H _{0} : µ ≥ 3 (The average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is at least 3) H _{1} : µ < 3 (T he average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is less t han 3)
α = 0.05, d.f = n – 1 = 99 Critical Value: t _{α}_{α}_{α}_{α}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = t _{0}_{.}_{0}_{5}_{,}_{9}_{9} = _{−}_{−}_{−}_{−}_{1}_{.}_{6}_{5}_{8} Decisi on Rule:
t = −2 less t han t _{α}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = −1.658, rej ect H _{0} at α = 0.05 Conclusion:
There is sufficient evidence to conclude t hat the average number of TV sets in M ’sia ho mes is less tha n to 3.
H _{0} : µ ≤ 3 (The average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is at most 3) H _{1} : µ > 3 (T he average number of TV sets in M’sia ho mes is more t han 3)
α = 0.05, d.f = n – 1 = 99 Critical Value: t _{α}_{α}_{α}_{α}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = t _{0}_{.}_{0}_{5}_{,}_{9}_{9} = +1.658 Decisi on Rule:
Reject H _{0} if t > 1.658 Test S tatistics:
X − 
µ 
2.84 
− 
3 

t = 
s 
= 
0.8 

n 
100 
= − 2
Decisi on:
t = −2 less t han t _{α}_{,}_{n}_{}_{1} = 1.658, do not reject H _{0} at α = 0.05 Conclusion:
There is insufficient
evidence to co nclud e that the
aver age
number of TV sets in M ’sia ho mes is more tha n to 3.
pvalue = P(t > 2) + P(t < −2)
α/2 = 0.025
α/2 = 0.025
1.98
0
1.98
t 99


2.0 
2.0 

α 
= 
0.05 
0.025 0.01 
0.005 
α 
= 

v = 
40 
1.684 
2.021 2.423 
2.704 
v = 
40 

60 
1.671 
2.000
2.390
1.980
< t <
2.358
1.960
2.326



120 
1.658 


∞ 
1.645 


(0.01)(2) < pvalue < (0.025)(2) = 0.02 < p value < 0.05 pvalue < 0.05, reject H _{0} 
pvalue = P(t < −2) 
α = 0.05
1.658
0
^{t} 99 

2.0 

0.05 
0.025 
0.01 
0.005 
α 
= 

1.684 
2.021 
2.423 
2.704 
v = 
40 

1.671 
2.000
2.390
1.980
< t <
2.358
1.960
2.326



1.658 


1.645 


0.01 < pvalue < 0.025 pvalue < 0.05, reject H _{0} 
pvalue = P(t > −2)
2.0
0.05
0.025
0.01
0.005
1 – (0.01 < pvalue < 0.025) = 0.975 < p value < 0.99 pvalue > 0.05, do not reject H _{0}