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ARDHI UNIVERSITY-TANZANIA

SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND


TECHNOLOGY

Bachelor of science in Municipal &


Industrial Services Engineering
January 2014

GROUP 5
PARTICIPANTS
MANYAMA KAARE
2795/T.2010
MARANDO REBECA
3110/T.2010
Email:manyamakaare@yahoo.com

GREEN HOUSE GASES


A greenhouse gas (GHG)
is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits
radiation within the thermal infrared range.
The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere
are
Water vapor (H2O)
Carbon dioxide(CO2)
Methane(CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Ozone (O3)
CFCs

SOURCES OF GREENHOUSE GASES


Some greenhouse gases are produced through
agricultural practices including livestock manure
management eg; methane
Other result from natural processes like respiration
and from the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and
gas eg; CO2,

Figure showing emission of gases to the atmosphere

CAUSES OF GREEN HOUSE GASES


Industrial Emission
Burning of coal and natural gas to run the factories have
led to the dangerous rise of carbon dioxide and
methane. This has a radical impact on the greenhouse
effect and contributes to global warming. Since the
chimneys are tall, the fumes get mixed to the air directly
and are responsible for trapping more heat and

increasing it.

CAUSES OF GREEN HOUSE GASES cont..


Deforestation
Owing to the rapid increase in population, forests are
being razed to the ground, in order to grow food as
well as make place for the ever growing population

This leads to a spike in temperature, which in turn


results in increasing the gases to the atmosphere

CAUSES OF GREEN HOUSE GASES cont..


Natural calamities
Like earthquake, volcanoes, forest fires and release of
methane in bogs also adds up to the greenhouse
gases.

CAUSES OF GREEN HOUSE GASES cont..

OtherActivities

Emissions from refrigerators, air conditioners and


other insulation units as well as use of aerosols is
another causative factor which results to a rise in
the amount of these potent gases.

EFFECT OF GREEN HOUSE GASES

Environmental Pollution
Emissions from automobiles increase the amount
of carbon dioxide in the environment. Other gases like
carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide are also emitted
from the exhaust pipes of vehicles, These fumes
contribute towards air pollution

OZONE LAYER DEPLATION


Ozone is present in the stratosphere. The stratosphere
reaches 30 miles above the Earth, Ozone is a bluish

gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen.


Ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet
rays sent down by the sun.

When found on the

surface of the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous


pollutant and is one substance responsible for

producing the greenhouse effect .

CAUSES OF OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogens

(all man-made gases) emitted from industry rise


to the stratosphere where ultraviolet radiation
breaks them up and releases their chlorine.
Chlorine destroys the ozone layer
.

EFFECT OF OZONE LAYER DEPLETION


Earth's

surface

receives

more

Ultraviolet

from

atmosphere that also absorbed by soil, meters depth


of water and directly by the DNA of all surface life.
Ultraviolet absorbed by DNA
cancer,

mutation,

and

increasing rates of

decreases

crop

yields.

Ultraviolet also causes cataracts to form in eye

structures in animals (including Man).

CONTROL MEASURES
Minimize high altitude aircraft flights (oxygen reduction and
water vapor deposition)

Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen, discourage


deforestation
Decrease / control releases of high temperature steam/
moisture to the atmosphere

CONTROL MEASURES cont


Eliminate production and release of known ozone
depleting chemicals (such as CFCs and HCFCs)
where remotely possible. Subsidize production of

safer alternatives where possible.


Establish controls to assure that new compounds to be
used in high volume, are surveyed for effect on ozone