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Pile Lateral Load Analysis Using Finite Difference Method

LatPile Function
Pile bending moments, forces and deflection due to lateral loads using a finite difference analysis
=LatPile(Segments, Loads, Soil table, Sections table, PY tables, Defaults, Output code, Koption)
Optional input in italics

Input:
Segments
Loads
Soil table

Sections table

Optional input:
PY tables
Defaults
Output Code options

2 column range listing pile length and number of segments


7 row single column range listing applied loads at head of pile:
See below for details of load input
Range listing soil properties, 7-9 rows x 1 column for each soil type
Effective depths at the top of each layer may optionally be entered in rows 8 and 9
See SoilProps sheet for further details of how Effective Depths are calculated.
Range listing pile section properties, 3 to 13 rows x 1 column for each section type
Notes: If the depth specified for Soil types and section types does not extend to the bottom
then the last provided value is applied to nodes to the bottom of the pile
Section stiffness (EI) may be specified as constant in row 3, or calculated for reinfor
piles of circular or rectangular cross section, to Eurocode 2 method.

Contiguous range with 2 columns for each table: pile deflection(Y) and support force per u
PY curves are used for those soil layers with "PY" in row 2 of the soil table, and Table Num
Change system defaults; available parameters and default values are shown in the examp
1: Output array includes 6 output columns (see below for details)
2: Output Pile EI and soil stiffness only
3: Output array includes all 11 output columns (see below for details)

KOption

1: initial stiffness (P/Y) for soil type 2 and 3 = Ki * Depth (as COM625 Manual and LPile)
2: initial stiffness (P/Y) for soil type 2 and 3 = Ki * Diam

Sign Convention

Assuming a vertical pile, with nodes listed from top to bottom:


Deflections and loads are positive from left to right
Positive bending moments cause compression in the right side of the pile

Units

All units are kN and m except:


Reinforcement bar diameter and cover (mm)
Concrete Shrinkage (microstrain)
Any other consistent units may be used if a fixed value is entered for the pile flexural stiffn

Non-linear pile behaviour

The calculated pile flexural stiffness takes account of post-cracking behaviour of reinforced
concrete, including tension stiffening and shrinkage effects if a C (circular) or R (rectangul
is entered in row 3 of the Sections Table. If a numerical value is entered in row 3 this is us
fixed stiffness (EI) and the entries below are ignored.
Note that non-linearity due to steel yielding, or concrete crushing is not included in
A separate check must be made of steel and concrete stresses.

Output:
Output is a 6 or 11 column array, enter as an array function:
To enter an array function:
Enter the function in the top left cell of the output range
Select the entire output range
Press F2

Column 1
Column 2
Column 3
Column 4
Column 5
Column 6
Column 7
Column 8
Column 9
Column 10
Column 11

Press Ctrl-shift-enter
Node Position from top, m
Deflection, m
Bending Moment, kNm
Shear force, KN
Pile EI, kN/m2
Soil spring stiffness, kN/m2
Soil layer number
Effective Depth 1, m
Effective Depth 2, m
Maximum soil force per metre length, kN/m (pf)
Soil force/metre length

Other Functions
PY624tab Function
Table of soil stiffness values at a specified effective depth
=PY624tab(Soil data, Pile Sections, Loads, Deflections, Koption)
Optional input in italics

Input:
Soil data
Pile Sections
Loads
Deflections

As LatPile function, except that rows 8 and 9 are not optional


As LatPile function
As LatPile function
Single column range listing pile deflection in ascending order

Optional input:
KOption

As LatPile function

Output:
Output is a single column array , enter as an array function:
Spring force/m of pile for each input deflection

PfEffDepth Function
Returns the maximum soil resistance per metre due to wedge failure at a specified effective depth
=PfEffDepth(Soil data, Pile EffDepth, PYTabsA)
Optional input in italics

Input:
Soil data
Eff Depth
PYTabsA

As LatPile function, except that row 1 is pile diameter and rows 8 and 9 are not required
Effective depth at which the soil stiffness is required
As LatPile function

Output:
Maximum Spring force/m due to wedge failure

ntered in rows 8 and 9


hs are calculated.
n for each section type
does not extend to the bottom of the pile
bottom of the pile
ow 3, or calculated for reinforced concrete
de 2 method.

ion(Y) and support force per unit length (P).


f the soil table, and Table Number in row 3.
alues are shown in the example.

COM625 Manual and LPile)

side of the pile

ntered for the pile flexural stiffness.

acking behaviour of reinforced


a C (circular) or R (rectangular)
e is entered in row 3 this is used as a
crushing is not included in the analysis.

cell of the output range

ws 8 and 9 are not required

Examples

Example 1: 20 m pile in a layered soil with one input PY curve and 2 calculated PY Curves
Layers
Loads
Length, m
Subdivisions
Type
18.55
40 Shear
Moment
Axial at head
Axial at base
Depth of zero axial
Number of cycles
Water table depth
Shear and moment are specified at the head of the pile. There is currently no provision for
applying loads at other locations.
Axial load is assumed to vary linearly from the head to toe of the pile, or bi-linearly from the
head to the depth of zero axial, and depth of zero axial to the base.
If Depth of zero axial is <=0, >= pile length, or blank, it is ignored.
Soil Tables
Depth of layer base
Soil cohesion, Cu; or "PY" to use PY table
Soil friction angle, Phi, or PY Table number
PY
Soil Density
Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50
PY
Soil Type
Initial stiffness, ki
Layer top Effective depth for wedge failure (optional)
Layer top Effective depth for initial stiffness (optional)
Soil Type, 0 = "void", 1 = "Soft to firm clay", 2 = "Stiff Clay", 3 = "Sand"

30

20.000
3
85000

PY Tables
Y
0.000E+00
3.000E-03
6.000E-03
9.000E-03
1.200E-02
1.500E-02
1.800E-02
2.100E-02
2.400E-02
2.700E-02
3.000E-02
3.300E-02
3.600E-02
3.900E-02
4.200E-02
4.500E-02
4.800E-02

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P
0.000E+00
4.970E+01
6.270E+01
7.170E+01
7.890E+01
8.500E+01
9.040E+01
9.510E+01
9.950E+01
1.035E+02
1.071E+02
1.106E+02
1.139E+02
1.169E+02
1.199E+02
1.227E+02
1.253E+02

Examples

5.100E-02
5.400E-02
5.700E-02
6.000E-02
1.200E-01
1.260E-01

1.279E+02
1.303E+02
1.327E+02
1.350E+02
1.350E+02
1.350E+02

Sections Table
Depth of base of section
m
Pile diam or width
m
EI or Section Type (C or R) for RC
kNm2
Bar diameter
Diat
mm
Number of bars*
Numt
Bar cover
Covt
mm
Concrete compressive strength f'c
kPa
Steel yield stress
fys
kPa
E steel
Es
kPa
E concrete
Ec
kPa
Concrete flex. tens. strength
f'ct
kPa
Concrete shrinkage strain
Epscs
Microstrain
Section depth (rectangular sect.)
m
* Total number for circular section, or bars on tensile face for rectangular section
Defaults Table (default values in brackets)
Tension stiffening Beta value (0.5)
Maximum iterations (20)
Tolerance on deflection norm (0.001)
Tolerance on soil stiffness norm (0.001)
Tolerance on section stiffness norm (0.001)
Output
X
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Deflection
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

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Moment
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Examples

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Soil Resistance
0

10

15

20

12.000

Depth, m

10.000

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000
LatPile

Bending Moment
12.000
10.000
8.000

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25

30

35

Examples

Bending Moment

12.000
10.000
8.000
6.000
4.000
2.000
0.000
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0
LatPile

Page 8

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

Examples

2 calculated PY Curves
Loads
m, kNm
74
192.4
881

1
30

ently no provision for

r bi-linearly from the

Page 9

Examples

18.6
0.8
C
16.0
8.0
30.0
30,000
400
200,000,000
20,000,000
2
600.0

0.5
100
0.001
0.001
0.001

Shear Force
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Pile EI
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Spring
stiffness
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

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layer
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

EffDepth1
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

EffDepth2
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Examples

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

35

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Deflection
0.000000
12.000

5.000000 10.000000 15.000000 20.000000 25.000000 30.000000 35.00000

10.000
Depth, m

30

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

8.000

6.000

4.000

2.000

0.000
LatPile

Shear Force
12.000
10.000
8.000

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Examples

Shear Force

12.000
10.000
8.000
6.000
4.000
2.000

30.0

35.0

0.000
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0
LatPile

Page 12

20.0

25.0

30.0

Examples

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Examples

pf
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Spring force
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

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Examples

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

0000 30.000000 35.000000

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Examples

25.0

30.0

35.0

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Examples

m
kPa
degrees
kN/m3

0.800
0.00
PY
20.00
PY

1 to 3
KN/m3

3.00
85000.00

0.800
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Page 17

0.800
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.800
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.800
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Examples

Page 18

Examples

Page 19

Examples

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Examples

0.800
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

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Examples

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Examples

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Examples

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Recommended Typical Soil Properties


Source: COM624 Manual

Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50

Clay Consistency
Soft
Medium
Stiff

Average
Undrained Shear
Strength, kPa
10 to 25
25 to 50
50 to 100
100 to 200
200 to 400

Eps50
0.02
0.01
0.007
0.005
0.004

Initial soil stiffness, Ki


0

100

200

Average Undrained Shear Strength, kPa


50 to 100
100 to 200
200 to 400

Stiff Clay
Static load, kN/m3
Cyclic load, kN/m3

Sand (static or cyclic


Submerged kN/m3
Above water table kN/m3

Unit conversion:

140,000
50,000

270,000
110,000

540,000
220,000

Loose
5,000
7,000

Medium
15,000
25,000

Dense
35,000
60,000

140000
50000

1 ton/ft2 = 95.8 kPa


1 lb/in3 = 272 kN/m3

Effective Depth
When a pile with a layered soil is analysed, the upper soil layers affect the lower layers in three respects:
If the ultimate resistance is controlled by wedge sliding, the resistance at any level is the sum of the
resistances from each layer above.
If the ultimate resistance is controlled by flow with a granular soil the reisitance is related to the vertical
pressure at the level of analysis.
The initial stiffness for type 2 and 3 soils is proportional to the vertical pressure at the level of analysis.
To allow for these effects the LatPile function calculates two effective depths:
1) The effective depth for wedge failure for a point within any layer, L, has two components:
i) The depth of soil with the same properties as Layer L that would have the same wedge sliding
resistance as the actual soil layers above the top of Layer L.
ii) The depth of the point below the top of Layer L
2) The effective depth for vertical pressure for a point within a layer, L, is the depth of material that
would have the same vertical pressure as that due to the actual soils layers above the point.
Depths 1) and 2) are calculated by the LatPile function, or may optionally be specified for the top
of each layer as rows 8 and 9 of the Soil Properties Table.
Example PY Curves; Data from Examples sheet
Soil Tables
Depth of point
Soil cohesion, Cu; or "PY" to use PY table
Soil friction angle, Phi, or PY Table number
Soil Density

5
0.00
0
0.000

25
0.00
0
0.000

Strain at 50% ultimate stress, Eps50


Soil Type
Initial stiffness, ki
Effective depth for wedge failure
Effective depth for initial stiffness

Depth = 5 m below surface

Depth = 25 m below surface

0.0000
0
0
5
5

PY624tab
Deflection
Force
m
kN/m
0
#VALUE!
0.005
#VALUE!
0.01
#VALUE!
0.015
#VALUE!
0.02
#VALUE!
0.025
#VALUE!
0.03
#VALUE!
0.035
#VALUE!
0.04
#VALUE!
0.045
#VALUE!
0.05
#VALUE!
0.055
#VALUE!
0.06
#VALUE!
0.065
#VALUE!
0.07
#VALUE!
0.075
#VALUE!
0.08
#VALUE!

PY624tab
Deflection
Force
m
kN/m
0
#VALUE!
0.0025
#VALUE!
0.005
#VALUE!
0.0075
#VALUE!
0.01
#VALUE!
0.02
#VALUE!
0.03
#VALUE!
0.04
#VALUE!
0.05
#VALUE!
0.06
#VALUE!
0.07
#VALUE!
0.08
#VALUE!
0.09
#VALUE!
0.1
#VALUE!
0.11
#VALUE!

0.0000
0
0
25
25

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0

0.01 0.02 0.0

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0

0.02

0.

PT624tab

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0
0

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

PY624Tab

2.0

0.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

12
10
8
Colu
mn
AL

6
4
2
0
0

10

12

Disclaimer
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
A copy of the GNU General Public License may be obtained from:
The Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

dougjenkins@interactiveds.com.au
www.interactiveds.com.au
http://newtonexcelbach.wordpress.com/

Copyright 2012 Interactive Design Services Pty Ltd. all rights reserved

Revision History
Current Version
Rev

Date

1.02
By

1.00 17-Jul-10 DAJ


1.01
### DAJ
1.02
### DAJ

###
Description

First release
Code to read first row in input PY tables corrected (row and column ind
KOption added; PY624tab function added; PY_624 function modified, e

cted (row and column indeces reversed)


624 function modified, effective depth input added