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NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS

NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS

2
Gum
naval stores:
turpentine
and rosin
from pine
pine resin
resin
Food
and

Agriculture
Organization
of
the
Unaed
Nations

~->

N
ON-W
OODFOREST
FORESTPRODUCTS
PRODUCTS
\O\
-WOOD

2
Gum
naval stores:

turpentine
and rosin
from pine
pine resin
resin
and G.A.
G.A. Hone
Hone
J.J.W. Coppen and

Mi(
Mf
'

NATUR
NATURAL
AL RESOURCES INSTITUTE
IN STITUTE

AN D AGRICULTURE
AGR ICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF
OF THE
TH E UNITED
UNITED NATIONS
NATIONS
FOOD AND
Rome, 1995
1995
Rome,

designations employed
employed and
and the
the presentation
presentationof
of material
material in
in this
this
The designations
publication
do not imply the expression of any opinion
on
publication do
opinion whatsoever
whatsoever on
part of
of the
the Food
Food and
and Agriculture
Agriculture Organization
Organization of
of the
the United
United
the part
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
territory, city or
areaorofits
s, orconcerning
area
or of its authoritie
authorities,
or concerning the delimitation
delirnitation of its
its frontiers
or boundaries.
boundaries.

M-37
M-37
ISBN
ISBN 92-5-103684-5

All
reserved . No part of this publication
publication may be reproduced,
reproduced, stored
stored in a
All rights
rights reserved.
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system,
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transmitted inin any
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form or by
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any means,
means, electronic,
electronic ,
mechanicai, photocopyin
photocopying
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otherwise, without
without the
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prior permission
permission of
of the
mechanical,
g or
the
copyright owner.
owner. Applications
Applications for
for such
such permission,
with a statement
copyright
permission, with
statement of
of the
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purpose and
and extent of the
purpose
the reproduction,
reproduction , should
should be
be addressed
addressed to
to the
the Director,
Director,
Publications Division.
Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla.
00 Rome, Italy.
Caracalia, 001
00100

FAD 1995
1995
0 FAO

PREFACE
This
Natural Resources
Resources Institute
Institute (NRI)*,
(NRl)*, the
the scientific
scientific
This global
global study was undertaken by the Natural
arm
United Kingdom's
Kingdom's Overseas
Overseas Development
Development Administration
Administration (ODA).
(ODA). Funding
Funding for
for
arrn of the United
the
study and
and for
for the
the publication
publication of the
the report
report was
was met
met by
by ODA's
ODA's Forestry
Forestry Research
Research
the study
Programme.
The
information and
based on the
the authors'
authors'
The information
and analyses
analysespresented
presentedininthis
this report
report are
are based
number of
of
research
first-hand knowledge
research and
and first-hand
knowledaeofof gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores production
production inin a number
producing countries.
A complementary
complementary study
provided some inputs
inputs for the
the
study carried
carried out
out by NRI, which provided
ODA Forestry
Forestry Research
Research Programme
Programme with
with
present
and which
which was
was financed
financed by
by the
the ODA
present one and
FAO, has
has involved
involved an assessment
assessment of the prospects
prospects for development
development of new
new
support from FAO,
gum
naval
stores
industries
in
Central
and
Southern
Africa.
Single
copies
of
the
Africa
aum naval
industries Central and Southern Africa. Single copies the Africa
FAO Regional
Regional Office
Office for
Africa (PO
(PO Box
Box 1628,
1628, Accra,
Accra,
report
available from
from the FAO
report are available
for Africa
Ghana).

* Natural Resources
Resources Institute,
Institute, Central
Central Avenue,
Avenue, Chatharn
Chatham Maritime,
Maritime, Kent
KentMEA
ME4 4TB, United
United Kingdom.
Kingdom .

III

CONTENTS
Page

PREFACE

III

ABBREVIATIONS

viii
Vlll

SUMMARY

ix

INTRODUCTION

1. PRODUCTION,
PRODUCTION,TRADE
TRADEAND
AND MARKETS
MARKETS
CHAPTER 1.

33

DESCRIPTION, USES AND PRINCIPAL SOURCES


Resin
Rosin
Turpentine

33
33

TRADE AND
AND OUTLOOK
OUTLOOK
WORLD PRODUCTION, TRADE
Production and trade
Prices
Maj or markets
m arkets
Major
Trading structures and procedures
Trade in crude resin
People's Republic of China
Indonesia and other countries of Southeast Asia
Portugal and elsewhere in Europe
Russia
North
North America
Central and South America and the Caribbean
Africa
Indian sub-continent

55

ESTIMATES OF WORLD PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS

15

CHAPTER 2. RAW
RAWMATERIALS
MATERIALSAND
AND INPUTS
INPUTS

4
4

55

7
8
8

9
10
11
11
12
12
13
14
14

17

RAW MATERIAL
MA TERrAL REQUIREMENTS

17

RESIN TAPPING OPERATION


System of tapping using a wide face
System of tapping using a narrow face

18
20
21
21

LABOUR AND ORGANIZATION

22

CHAPTER 3. PROCESSING
PROCESSINGAND
AND PLANT
PLANT DESCRIPTION

24

INTRODUCTIO N
INTRODUCTION

24

FOR THE PRODUCTION


PRODUCTION OF
OF TURPENTINE
OLUSTEE PROCESS FOR
AND ROSIN

24
24

PRODUCTION OF TURPENTINE AND ROSIN IN PORTUGAL

27
27

SCALE OF
OF OPERATIONS
OPERATIONS AND
AND LABOUR
LABOUR REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS

29

CHAPTER 4.
FINANCIALAND
AND ECONOMIC
ECONOMIC ASPECTS
ASPECTS
4. FINANCIAL
OF RESIN TAPPING AND PROCESSING

31
31

OPERATIONS
RESIN TAPPING OPERATIONS

31

RESIN PROCESSING OPERATIONS


OPERATIONS

33

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES AND
AND DISADVANTAGES OF
DOMESTIC, REGIONAL AND
AND EXPORT
EXPORT MARKETS
MARKETS FOR
FOR A
A NEW
NEW
~OOOC~
PRODUCER

35

5. CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONSAND
AND ADVICE
ADVICE TO
TO A
A
CHAPTER 5.
NEW PRODUCER

37

TABLES
and country
country
Commercially tapped sources of pine resin: species and
of production

33

Table 2

Gum
Crumrosin:
rosin: landed
landed prices,
prices, 1991-95

Table 3

Estimated world production


production and
and exports
exports of
of crude
crude resin,
resin, gurn
gum rosin
rosin
and
16
and gum turpentine

Table 4

Resin
Resin tapping operations: estimated pre-production, fixed
investment, working capital and annual production costs for an
African country

32

Resin processing operations: estimated pre-production, fixed


investment, working capital and annual production costs for an
African country

34

Table 6

Some trade specifications for gum rosin

44

Table 7

Physical property requirements of the International Organization


for Standardization specification for gum spirit of turpentine

45

Table 11

Table 5

vi

Table 8

Resin quality and yield characteristics of some Pinus species

46

Table 9

Rosin: exports from the People's Republic of China, 1987-92

53

10
Table 10

Rosin: exports from Portugal, 1987-92

53

11
Table 11

1987-92
Rosin: exports from Indonesia, 1987-92

54
54

Table 12

Rosin:
Rosin: exports from Brazil, 1987-93

55

Table 13

Rosin:
United States,
States, 1989-93
1989-93
Rosin: exports from the United

56

14
Table 14

Comm)lJlity, 1987-92
Rosin:
Rosin: imports into the European Community,

57

15
Table 15

Rosin:
Rosin: imports into Japan, 1987-93

58
58

Table 16

Rosin: imports into the United States, 1989-93


1989-93

58

Table 17

Turpentine:
59
Turpentine: exports
exports from
from the
the People's
People'sRepublic
Republicof
ofChina,
China,1987-92
1987-92 59

18
Table 18

Turpentine: exports from Portugal, 1987-92

59

Table 19

Turpentine: exports from Indonesia, 1987-92


1987-92

60

Table 20

Turpentine: imports into the European Community, 1987-92


1987-92

61

Table 21
21

Turpentine: imports into Japan, 1987-93


1987-93

62

Figure 11

Systems of resin tapping using a wide and narrow face

19
19

Figure 2

the United States


States of America
Scheme of resin processing in the

25

Figure 3

Scheme of resin processing in Portugal

28

FIGURES

APPENDICES
Appendix 1

References and further reading

41

Appendix 2

Quality criteria, specifications and test methods

43

Appendix
Appendix 3

Genetic factors influencing resin composition and


and yields

46

Appendix 4

Packaging of turpentine and


and rosin

48

Appendix 5

List of importers and traders of naval stores

50

Appendix 6

Statistical tables

53
vii

ABBREVIATIONS
ASTM
c&f
c&f
EC
IMDG
ISO
US$

Materials
American Society for Testing and Materials
cost and freight
European Community
International Maritime Dangerous Goods
International Organization for Standardization
United States dollar

In tables:

na indicates not available


ns indicates not specified
-- indicates nil

viii

SUMMARY
Infonnation
technical and economic
economic aspects
aspects of crude
crude resin
resin production
production
Information is
is provided
provided on the technical
(known
from
from pine trees and on the subsequent production of gum turpentine and
and gum
gum rosin (known
commercially as
as gum
gum naval stores). Recent
commercially
markets are
Recent trends
trends in
in world
world production
production and
and markets
also reviewed.
Thepublication
publication is
is aimed
aimed at
at prospective
prospective new producers of
of gum
gum naval
naval stores,
reviewed. The
and
organizations and
and individuals
individuals appraising
appraising projects
projects involving
involving their
their production.
production. It is
is
and organizations
particularly intended for those in developing countries.
Total world production
production of
ofrosin
rosinisisapproximatelyapproximately 1.2 million
million tonnes annually,
annually, of
of
which
from
which almost
almost 720
720 000
000 tonnes,
tonnes, 60%
60% of the total,
total, is estimated to be gum rosin derived from
is about
about 330
330 000
000 tonnes
tonnes from
from all
aU
tapping living
World production
production of
of turpentine
turpentine is
living pine
pine trees.
trees. World
sources,
which 100 000
000 tonnes
tonnes is
is estimated
estimated to be
be gum
gum turpentine.
turpentine. The
number of
sources, of which
The number
countries producing gum naval stores is
is large
large but
but the
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of China
China dominates
dominates
Indonesia, Portugal
production and
,and world
world trade;
trade; of
of the
the other producers,
producers, Indonesia,
Portugal and Brazil are the
Present (early
(early 1995)
1995) prices for gum rosin are at
at
important in
most important
in tenns
terms of
of world
world trade.
trade. Present
events in the People's Republic
Republic of
the highest levels
levels for
some years,
years, due
largely to
for some
due largely
to recent
recent events
ofentry
entryinto
intothe
theinternational
international market
market by
by new
new suppliers
suppliers will
will depend
China.
The prospects
prospects of
China. The
mainly on future trends in Chinese production and consumption.
Rosin has
wide range
range of
of applications
applications including
including adhesive,
adhesive, paper size and printing
Rosin
has a wide
ink manufacture.
Turpentine is
is used
used either
either as a solvent for paints and
manufacture. Turpentine
and varnishes,
varnishes, or
or as
as aa raw
raw
value-added derivative
Most prospective
prospective new
new
material for fractionation and value-added
derivative manufacture.
manufacture. Most
will have
have opportunities
opportunities for
for domestic
domestic or
or regional
regional sales
sales of
ofrosin
rosin and
and turpentine.
turpentine.
producers will

While
most pines
pines are capable of yielding
yielding resin
resin on
on tapping,
tapping, it is only
only economic to do
While most
and its
its quality
quality isis acceptable.
acceptable. Both these
sufficient and
these factors
factors are
are
so if the quantity obtained is sufficient
detennined primarily by the species
infonnation is provided on
determined
species of
of Pinus which is
is tapped, so information
the suitability of different
different species
species for
for gum
gum naval
navalstores
stores production.
production. Tapping
Tapping can be
be carried
carried
Out either
either on natural stands
stands or
or plantations.
plantations. Methods
which do not
not adversely
adversely
out
Methods of tapping which
affect the quality
quality of the trunkwood
trunkwood are
are described
described and these
these enable
enable plantation
plantation pines
pines to be
be
felled and
and utilized
the normal
nonnal manner
manner when
when tapping
tapping isis stopped.
stopped. The cleaning
cleaning and
and
felled
utilized in the
distillation
distillation operations
operations involved
involved inin processing
processingthe
the crude
crude resin
resin are described,
described, and
and quality
quality
criteria, specifications and
and packaging
packaging options
options for
for rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine are
are provided.
provided.
of pine
pine resin
resin isis
An indication of the costs involved in the production and processing of
given. 'These
given.
These are
are based
based on
on 1000
1000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin
resin being
being produced
produced from
from 400
400 000
000 trees
trees which
which
average of
of 2.5
2.5 kg
kg of resin.
resin. The
The comparative
comparative advantages
advantages and
and disadvantages
disadvantages of
each yield an average
domestic, regional and export markets for aa new producer are discussed.

ix
ix

INTRODUCTION
'Naval stores'
inclusive term
oleoresin
stores' is the inclusive
term used
used to
to denote
denote the products obtained from
from the oleoresin
or resin*
resin* of
(genus Pinus
). The
The term
term originates
originates frorn
from the days
days when
when wooden
wooden
of pine
pine trees
trees (genus
Pinus).
sailing
other
sailing ships,
ships, including
includingnaval
navalships,
ships,were
werewaterproofed
waterproofedusing
usingpitch
pitchand
and tar
tar and
and other
Although the
the connection
connection with
with ships
ships is
is now
now remote,
remote, the
the
resinous products from pine trees.
trees. Although
is still
still commonlycommonly used
are three
three distinct
distinct
term is
usedby
bythose
thoseininthe
thetrade
tradeand
and elsewhere.
elsewhere. There are
sources of naval stores:
Gum
navalstores
stOl'esare
areobtained
obtainedbybythe
the-tapping
tapping of
of living
living pine
pine trees. Collection of
Gum naval
'gum' or
orresin
resinisisa alabour-intensive
labour-intensive operation
operation (similar
(similar to
to rubber
rubber tapping).
tapping).
the 'gum
Distillation of
resin , which
which can
can be
be undertaken
undertaken ininfairly
fairly simple
simple equipment,
equipment,
Distillation
of the
the resin,
1 and
produces gum rosin and gum
gurn turpentine
turpentine in
in varying
varying ratios,
ratios,usually
usuallybetween
bemeen 4:
4;1
and
6:1.

Sulphate naval
Sulphate
navalstores
storesare
areby-products
by-productsrecovered
recoveredduring
during the
the conversion
conversion of
of pine
pine
sulphate (kraft)
(kraft) pulping
pulping process.
Sulphate turpentine
turpentine
wood chips to pulp by the sulphate
process. Sulphate
Crude tall
tall oil,
oil, obtained
obtained from the alkaline
alkaline
is condensed from the cooking vapours.
vapours. Crude
liquors, is fractionated
fractionated into various
various products including
including tall
tall oil
oil
liquors,
tall oil
oil rosin and tall
fatty acids.
Wood naval
naval stores
storesare
areobtained
obtainedfrom
from resin-saturated
resin-saturated pine
pine stumps
stumps long after the
has been
been felled.
felled. The stumps
stumps are
are solvent
solvent extracted
extracted using
using capital
capital intensive
intensive
tree has
technology to
technology,
to give
give wood
wood turpentine,
turpentine, wood
wood rosin,
rosin, dipentene and natural pine oil.

Pinus is
is one
one of
ofthe
themost
mostwidely
widely distributed
distributed genera
genera of
trees in
in the
the northern
northern
Pinus
of trees
hemisphere, extending from the polar region to the tropics; one species, P.
P. merkusii, occurs
naturally south
The aenus
genus isis also
also one
one of
of the
the most
most widely
widely planted
planted exotics
exotics
naturally
south of
of the
the Equator.
Equator. The
large-scale use
for timber
timber and
and pulp,
pulp, and
and large
large areas
areas of
of Pinus
Pinus are
are found
found
because of
because
of its large-scale
use for
natural range in South America,
America, Africa
resources of
outside its natural
Africa and
and Australasia.
Australasia. Standing resources
therefore, in
in many
many parts
parts of
of the
the world.
world.
pine trees exist, therefore,
major products
products of
of the
the naval
naval stores
stores industry
industry are rosin
rosin (a
(a brittle,
brittle, transparent,
transparent,
The two major
faintly aromatic
glossy, faintlyaromaticsolid)
solid)and
andturpentine
turpentine (a
(a clear
clear liquid
liquid with
with aa pungent
pungent odour and bitter
Annual world
production of gum
gum rosin
rosin and
and gum
gum turpentine
turpentine isis approximately
approximately 700
taste). Annual
world production
700
000 tonnes (valued
(valued at
at around
around US$420
US$420 million
million at first
first half
half 1994
1994 prices)
prices) and
and 100
100 000
000 tonnes
tonnes
(valued at US$50 million),
million), respectively.
years rosin
(valued
respectively. For many years
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine were
were used in
an
an unprocessed
unprocessed form
form in
in the
the soap,
soap, paper,
paper, paint
paint and
and varnish
varnish industries.
industries. Today,
Today, most rosin is
is
modified and
in aa wide
wide ranae
rangeofofproducts
productsincluding
includingpaper
papersize,
size,adhesi-ves,
adhesives, printing
printing
modified
and used in
inks, rubber compounds and
and surface
surface coatings.
coatings. The
composition of turpentine
turpentine can
can vary
vary
inks,
The composition
and this greatly
influences its
its value
value
considerably according to the species of pine exploited, and
geatly influences
and end use.
use. Turpentine,
Turpentine, like
very versatile
versatile material
material and
and nowadays
nowadays is
is used
used
and
like rosin,
rosin, is aa very
mainly as
feedstock by
bythe
theworld's
world'schemical
chemicalindustries.
industries. The
The alphaalpha- and
and beta-pinene
beta-pinene
mainly
as aa feedstock
of turpentine, in particular, are the starting materials for the synthesis of a wide
constituents of
* The terms 'oleoresin'
'oleoresin' and 'resin'
'resin' may
may be
be used interchangeably,
interchangeably, and
and for
for convenience
convenience the
the term
term 'resin',
'resin', which
mU.';;;t not be
be confused
confused with rosin,
used in this
thh report.
report. Standard
tenninoiogy
relating
to
naval
stores is
is
must
rosin, is used
Standard terminology relating to naval stores
American Society
Society for
for Testing
Testing and
and Materials
Materials (AST'M)
(ASTM) standard D 804-92.
804-92.
given in the American

11

range of fragrances,
fragrances, flavours,
flavours, vitamins
vitamins and
basis of aa
range
and polyterpene
polyterpene resins,
resins, and
and form
form the
the basis
substantial and
substantial
and growing
growing chemical
chemical industry.
industry. However,
However, the simpler,
simpler, more
more traditional
traditional
products in
in which
which rosin and turpentine can be used, such as soap, paper
paper size
size and
and paints
paints and
and
the domestic
domestic economy
economy of
of developing
developing countries, and
and itit isis
varnishes, can still
still be of value to the
varnishes,
not necessary to
to think
think only
only in
in terms
terms of
of the
the wider
widerinternational
international markets
markets when
when planning
planning naval
naval
stores
production. Consumer
Consumer demand
demand in
in developing
developing countries
with
stores production.
countries is
is expected
expected to
to grow with
increasing industrialization
industrializationand
andurbanization
urbanizationand
andthere
there are,
are, therefore,
therefore, opportunities
for
increasing
opportunities for
countries
countries with suitable
suitable pine
pine resources
resources to
to replace
replace imported
imported naval
naval stores
stores products
products with
with those
those
local I y.
produced locally.
aim of
of this
this publication
publication is to
to provide
provide basic
basic information
information to enable
enable prospective
prospective
The aim
and gum rosin
rosin to
to make
make considered
considered judgements
judgements on
new producers
producers of gum
gum turpentine
turpentine arld
new
whether
to proceed
proceed with
with investment.
investment. Information
and
whether or not to
Information on
on the
the production
production of wood and
sulphate
further processing
processing of gum
gum rosin
rosin a_nd
and gum
sulphate naval
naval stores,
stores, and on further
gum turpentine,
turpentine, isis not
not
The publication
particularly for
prospective producers
producers and
and
included.
publication is intended
intended particularly
for prospective
government
bodies,
financial
institutions
or
donor
agencies
in
developing
countries
government bodies, financial institutions or donor agencies in developing countries
gum naval
naval stores production.
production. It is
concerned
appraisal of projects
projects involving
involving gum
concerned with
with the
the appraisal
hoped, also, that itit will
will assist
assist existing producers,
gum turpentine
turpentine
producers, traders and consumers of gum
and
characteristics
and rosin by increasing their awareness
awareness of production methods and product characteristics
in other
other parts
parts of
of the
theworld,
world,and
andtheir
theirknowledge
knowledge of
ofmarket
market demands,
demands, trends
trends and
and
in
preferences.

The text isis presented


The
presented in
in five
five chapters.
chapters. Following
Follos,vingthis
this introduction,
introduction, Chapter
Chapter 11
summarizes
gum naval
naval stores.
stores. The
summarizes major
major aspects
aspects of
of production,
production, trade
trade and
and markets
markets for
for gum
chief pine species used in different parts of the world are listed, and the levels
levels of
of production
production
and
in all
all the
themajor
majorproducing
producing countries
countries are
are indicated.
indicated. Chapter
Chapter 2 reviews
reviews the
the
and trends in
tapping
recover resin
and in Chapter
Chapter 33 the
the technology
technology
tapping methods
methods used
used to
to recover
resin from
from the
the tree,
tree, and
required
process the
the resin
resin into
into rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine isis described.
described. In
In Chapter
Chapter 4, the
the
required to
to process
financial and
and economic
economic aspects
aspects of the resin tapping and processing operations are
financial
are analysed.
analysed.
In
final chapter, the
the technical
technical and
and economic
economic aspects
aspects which
which must be considered
considered when
when
In the final
planning
summarised. The
Theappendices
appendices contain
contain references
references
planning aa gum naval
naval stores industry are summarised.
and suggested further reading,
reading, quality
quality criteria,
criteria, specifications and test methods for rosin
rosin and
and
turpentine, a discussion
discussion of
of genetic
genetic factors
factors influencing
influencing resin composition and yields and the
importance
species and
and provenance
provenance selection
selection when
when assessing
assessing pine
pine trees for
for
importance of
of correct species
tapping, packaging requirements
requirements for
for turpentine
turpentine and
and rosin,
rosin, aa list
list of
of importers
importers and
and traders of
naval stores, and statistical tables.

CHAPTER 1

PRODUCTION, TRADE AND


AND MARKETS
DESCRIPTION, USES
USES AND
AND PRINCIPAL SOURCES
DESCRIPTION,

Resin
Crude
resin obtained by tapping living
living pine
thick, sticky,
sticky, but
but usually,
usually, still
still fluid
fluid
Crude resin
pine trees is aa thick,
is opaque
opaque (due
(due to
tothe
thepresence
presenceofofoccluded
occludedmoisture),
moisture),milky-grey
milky-grey in
in colour,
colour,
material. It is
and inevitably contains a certain amount
amount of
of forest
forest debris
debris (pine
(pine needles,
needles, insects,
insects, etc.)
etc.) when it
is collected from the trees.
species 'bleed
'bleed' when
when the stem wood (xylem)
(xylem) is cut or otherwise
otherwise injured,
injured,
Most Pinus species
100 species
species which
which exist
been
probably only
only a few
few dozen
dozen of
of approximately
approximately 100
but probably
exist has ever been
tapped commercially as a source of resin for rosin and turpentine production; in the others,
others,
The principal
principal species
species
poor yields and/or quality of the resin make exploitation
exploitation uneconomic.
uneconomic. The
presently tapped,
tapped, and
and the
the countries
countries in
in which
which this
this takes
takes place,
place, are
are listed
listed in
in Table
Table 1.
1.
which are presently

Table I1
Commercially tapped sources of pine resin: species and country of production
Producing countryb
counrryb

Species
PiMIS
Pinus elliottii
elliottii Engelm.
massoniand D.
D. Don
P. massoniana

Royale ex Gordon
P. kesiya R.oyale

P. pinaster
pinasler Aiton
P.
merkusii Jungh.
& Vriese
P. nzerkusii
Jungh. &
P.
P. roxburghii Sarg.

P.
P. oocarpa Schiede
P. caribaea
caribaea Morelet
Morelet
sylveslris L.
P. sylvestris
P.
holepensis Miller
P. halepensis
P. radiata
radiala D.
D. Don
Don

Brazil, Argentina,
Argentina. South Africa, (USA,
(USA, Kenya)
Kenya)
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
Portugal
(Viet Nam)
Narn)
Indonesia, (Viet
(Pakistan)
India, (Pakistan)
Mexico, Honduras
(South Africa.
Africa, Kenya)
Kenya)
Venezuela, (South
Russia
Greece
(Kenya)

Notes:a In some
some case only the major species
species tapped
particular country
country is
Notes:a
tapped in
in a particular
indicated. In the
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of
of China,
China, P.
P. massoniana
massoniana is
is the
although the
the contribution
contribution of
of species
species such
such as
as
main species utilized and although
kesiya is
is small
small by
by Chinese
Chinese standards, it is significant
significant compared
compared to
P. kesiya
the
in other
other countries.
countries. Relatively
Relatively sin
small
all but
but
the scale
scale of
of production
production in
increasing areas
elliottii and other
other exotic
exotic pines
pines are tapped
tapped in
in
increasing
areas of
of P.
P. elliottii
China in
in addition
China
addition to P.
P. massoniana
massoniana and
and other
other native
native species.
species. In
Mexico,
that other
other species
species
Mexico, P.
P. oocarpa
oocarpa often occurs in mixed stands so that

are
are likely to be tapped.
The list
list of
of countries
cOWltries is
is not
notintended
intended to
to be
beexhaustive.
exhaustive.
b The

Parentheses
Parenthesc.'s

minor producer.
producer.
indicate a minor

Until very
product for
for
Until
very recently,
recently,the
the crude
crude resin
resin was
was never
never considered
consideredtotobe
be aa product
distance by road or rail to
international
Although itit might
might often
often be transported some distance
international trade.
trade. Although

the
factory where
where itit was
was processed,
processed, processing
processing still
still took
took place
place within
within the
the producing
producing
the factory
country.
However, the
theacute
acute shortage
shortage experienced
experienced by
by some traditional
traditional producers
country. However,
producers in
in recent
recent
years
the importation
importation of resin
resin for the
the first
first time;
time; India
India and
and Portugal
Portugal are
are both
both
years has
has led to the
losing the
the benefits
benefits of
of added
known
have imported
imported crude
crude resin.
resin. Although
Although losing
added value,
value, new
known to have
producers
therefore have
option of tapping
tapping trees and exporting
exporting crude resin
resin to
to nearby
nearby
producers therefore
have the option
countries without
without needing
needing to
to process
process itit themselves.
themselves.

Rosin
RosIn
Rosin
major product
product obtained
obtained from
from pine
pine resin.
resin. It remains
remains behind
behind as
as the
the involatile
involatile
Rosin is the major
is
residue
distillation of the turpentine
turpentine and
and is
is aa brittle,
brittle, transparent,
transparent, glassy
glassy solid.
solid. It is
residue after distillation
but soluble
soluble in
in many
many organic
organic solvents.
solvents. It
the basis
basis
insoluble in water but
It is graded and sold on the
of colour, the
the palest
palest shades
shades of
of yellow-brown
yellow-brown being
being the
the better
better quality.
quality. Quality criteria and
in Appendix
Appendix 2.
2. Several other physico-chemical
physico-chemical characteristics
specifications are described in
influence
influence the
the quality
quality and
and these are largely
largely dependent
dependent on
on the species of pine from which the
rosin
rosin is obtained,
obtained, i.e.,
i.e., they
they are
are determined
determined more
more by
by genetic
genetic than
than environmental
environmental and
and
in Appendix
Appendix 3.
3.
Theseaspects
aspectsare
are discussed
discussed in
in more
more detail
detail in
processing factors. These
rosin is
is used
used in
in aa chemically
chemically modified
modified form
state in
in
Most rosin
forrn rather
rather than
than in
in the
the raw state
which it is
is obtained.
obtained. It consists
consists primarily
plimarily of aa mixture
mixture of
ofabieticabietic- and
andpimaric-ty-pe
pimaric-type acids
acids
which
smaller amounts of
of neutral
neutral compounds.
compounds. This
This intrinsic
intrinsic aciclity,
acidity, coupled
with other
other
with srnaller
coupled with
chemical
delivatives
chemical properties, enables it to be converted to a large number of downstream derivatives
in aa wide
wide range
range of
ofapplications.
applications. The
The derivatives
derivatives include
include salts,
which
which are
are used in
salts, esters and
maleic
anhydride adducts, and
and hy-drogenated,
hydrogenated, disproportionated
disproportionated and
and polymerized
polymerized rosins.
rosins.
maleic anhydride
important uses
uses are in
in the manufacture of adhesives, paper sizing agents, printing
Their most important
inks,
fluxes, various
various surface
surface coatings,
coatings, insulating
insulating materials
materials for the
the electronics
electronics
inks, solders and fluxes,
industry, synthetic rubber, chewing gums and
and soaps and
and detergents.
if large
large quantities
quantities of
of
Although it is
is more
more economical
economical to
to manufacture
manufacture derivatives
derivatives if
Although
rosin
involved, small
small producers
producers often
often manufacture
manufacture simple
rosin are involved,
simple derivatives
derivativesfor
for sale
sale in
in the
domestic
substitute for
For example,
example, fortified
fortified rosin
rosin sizes
domestic market
market as
as a substitute
for imported
imported products.
products. For
can
made based
based on
on the
the reaction
reaction of
ofrosin
rosinwith
withmaleic
maleic anhydride.
anhydride. However,
However, for the
the
can be made
purposes of this report, no
no further
further reference
reference is
is made
made to
to the
thetechnical
technical aspects
aspects of
ofadditional
additional
themselves.
processing or to the products themselves.

Tll rpentine
Turpentine
Turpentine isis a clear,
liquid,with
with aa pungent
pungent odour
odour and
Turpentine
clear, flammable
flammable liquid,
and bitter
bitter taste.
taste. It is
immiscible
boiling point
point above
above 150C.
ISOoC. Quality
Quality criteria
criteria and
and
immisciblewith
withwater
water and
and has
has a boiling
mixture of organic
specifications
specifications are
are indicated
indicated in
in Appendix
Appendix2.2. Turpentine is a mixture
organic compounds,
compounds,
mainly
considerably (more so than rosin)
rosin) according
according
mainly terpenes,
terpenes, and
and its composition can vary considerably
to the species
species of
of pine
pine from
from which
which ititwas
wasderived.
derived.This
Thisgrgreatly
e atl y influences
influences its value and end
use and is discussed in greater detail in Appendix 3.
For some applications
applications turpentine
solvent for
turpentine isis used
used in
in whole
whole form,
form, usually
usually as
as a solvent
paints and
and varnishes
as aa cleaning
cleaning agent.
agent. However,
is aa very
very versatile
versatile
paints
varnishes or as
However, like
like rosin
rosin itit is
material chernicall.v-,
chemically, and
processing. It usuallyusually
material
andnowadays,
nowadays,ititisis used
used mostly
mostly after further processing.

undergoes fractional distillation to isolate


isolate the
the desirable
desirable chemicals
chemicals (mainly
(mainly alpha-pinene
alpha-pinene and
and
beta-pinene)
then transformed
transformed into
into value-added
value-added derivatives.
derivatives. This
further
beta-pinene) which
which are then
This further
processing is
is only
only economic
economic if
if itit is
is carried
carried out
out on a very large scale, and it is not something
to
new producer
producer of
of gum
gum naval
naval stores. Occasionally,
turpentine is
to be considered by a new
Occasionally, the ttu-pentine
rich
alpha-pinene, for
The derivatives
derivatives are
rich enough
enough in
in alpha-pinene,
for example,
example,toto be
be used
used in
in whole
wholeform.
form. The
vitamin and
and polyterpene
polyterpene resin
resin manufacture,
manufacture, a_nd
and form
widely
widely used in fragrance, flavour, vitamin
form the
the
basis
substantial and
andgrowing
growing chemical
chemical industry.
industry. The
biggest single
single turpentine
turpentine
basis of aa substantial
The biggest
derivative,
disinfectants, cleaning
products
derivative, synthetic
synthetic pine
pine oil,
oil, is
is used
used in disinfectants,
cleaning agents
agents and
and other products
with
Manyderivatives,
derivatives, including
including isobornyl
isobornyl acetate, camphor, linalool,
linalool, citral,
with aa 'pine'
'pine' odour.
odour. Many
elaboration of
citronellol,
citronellol, citronellal
citronellaland
andmenthol
mentholare
areused
usedeither
eitheron
ontheir
theirown
ownor
or in
in the
the elaboration
of
other fragrance
fragrance and
and flavour
compounds. AA few
other
flavour compounds.
few of
ofthe
theminor
minorconstituents
constituents of
ofttu-pentine,
turpentine,
anethole, are
are employed
employed for
for fragra_nce
fragrance or
chemical
such as anethole,
or flavour
flavour use
use without
without the
the need for chemical
Downstreamderivatives
derivativesare
arenot
not discussed
discussed ftirther
further in
in this report.
report.
modification. Downstream

WORLD PRODUCTION,
PRODUCTION, TRADE
TRADE AND
AND OUTLOOK
Many
the uses
uses to
to which
which rosin
rosin can
can be
be put
putare
aresubject
subject totointense
intensecompetition
competition from
from
Many of
of the
synthetic,
Tall oil
oil rosin,
rosin,
synthetic, petroleum-based
petroleum-based resins,
resins, and
and between
between gum
gum rosin
rosin and
and tall
tall oil
oil rosin.
rosin. Tall
suffer from odour problems
problems associated
associated with
which used to suffer
with its
its method
method of production and a
be inferior
inferior to
to gum
gum rosin
rosin for
formany
manyapplications.
applications.
crystallize, was considered
considered to be
tendency to crystallize,
Today, most of these
these problems
problems have
have been
been overcome
overcome and
tall oil
oil rosin
rosin competes
competes more
more
Today,
and tall
effectively with
rosin. Technical
Technical developments
more effective
effective
effectively
with gum rosin.
developments which
which have
have led
led to more
formulations for many rosin-based
rosin-based products
products have
have meant
meant that
that less
less rosin
rosin is
is needed
needed to achieve
formulations
achieve
paper industry,
industry, for
for example,
example, the
the development
development of
of more
more effective
effective
a particular result.
result. In the paper
and emulsions,
emulsions, and
and changes
changes in
in the paper-making
paper-making process
process itself,
itself, have
have led
led
fortified rosin sizes and
to aa marked
rosin consumed
consumed per
per tonne
tonne of
of paper
paper produced.
produced. The
marked decrease in the amount
amount of rosin
The
increasing demand
of rosin
rosin by
by the
the paper
paperindustry
industryisis
increasing,
demandfor
for paper,
paper, however,
however, means
means that the use of
still substantial.
substantial.

Any
of the
which attempts
attempts to follow
follow
Any detailed
detailed analysis
analysis of
the naval
naval stores
stores industry
industry which
and markets
markets beyond
beyond the primary rosin and
production, trade and
and turpentine
turpentine stage,
stage, and between
this
of naval
naval stores,
stores, is
is complex
complex and
and difficult
difficult and
beyond the scope of
of this
the different sources of
and beyond
report. In
any case,
case, a prospective
prospective new
new producer
producer of gum naval
naval stores
stores will
will first
need to
In any
first need
assess
pine resources,
resources, and
capacity to
meet domestic
domestic or regional
regional markets
markets for
for
assess local
local pine
and their capacity
to meet
rosin
and
turpentine
(rather than
rosin and turpentine (rather
than their derivatives),
derivatives), and
such additional
additional detail is
and such
unnecessary-.
unnecessary.

Production and trade


Total annual
annual production
production of rosin
rosin isis about
about1.2
1.2million
milliontonnes
tonnesworld-wide.
world-wide. Of this,
this, it is
is
estinnated that almost 720 000 tonnes, or 60%, is
is gum
gum rosin; most of the remainder,
remainder, about
estimated
35%,
35%, is tall
tall oil
oil rosin
rosin and
and the
the rest
rest isis wood
wood rosin.
rosin. World
World production
production of turpentine
turpentine is
is
all sources; almost 100 000
000 tonnes
tonnes (30%)
(30%) isisestimated
estimated
approximately 330 000 tonnes from all
to be gum turpentine, and
and the
the bulk
bulk of
of the
the remainder
remainder isis sulphate
sulphate turpentine.
turpentine.

The naval
complex and
andever-changing.
ever-changing. In the
the early
early part
part of
of the
the
naval stores
stores industry
industry isiscomplex
production was
was the
the dominant,
dominant, and
and in
in most
most cases,
cases, the
the only,
only, means
means
century, gum naval stores production
55

turpentine. Wood
Wood naval
naval stores
stores production,
production, involving
involving the uprooting
of producing rosin and turpentine.
and
pine stumps,
stumps, developed
developed in
and extraction
extraction of old pine
in those
those countries
countries with
with large
large areas
areas of
of raw
materials,
Union; production in the United
materials, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union;
States peaked during the 1950s and has
tall
has since
since declined
declinedto
to aa low
low level.
level. The recovery of tall
and sulphate
sulphate turpentine
turpentine as
as by-products
by-products of
of chemical
chemical pulping
pulping of
of pine
pine chips
chips also
also
oil rosin and
1950s.
began during the 1950s.
As
industrialized countries has become more expensive
expensive and
and less
less
As labour in the more industrialized
willing to
of tapping,
tapping, gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores production
production has
has declined
declined and
and the
the
willing
to undertake the task of
United States and
and many
many forrner
former producing
producing
centre of its
its production
production has
has shifted.
shifted. The
centre
The United
countries
of
Europe
are
either
no
longer
producers,
or
are
now
only
able
to
sustain
countries of Europe are either no longer producers, or are now only able to sustain
production at very low levels.
levels. Production
Production has
has also
also declined
declined in countries such as India
India and
production
Mexico;
in
India,
a
shortage
of
trees
for
tapping
has
added
to
the
other
problems.
During
Mexico; in India, a shortage of trees for tapping has added to the other problems. During
significant producer
the
the
Brazil emerged
emerged as a significant
the 1980s, Brazil
producer of
of gum
gum naval
naval stores,
stores, but
but here
here too, the
cost of labour
labour is
is now
now being
being felt.
felt. Also,
Also, government financial
financial incentives
which
encouraged
incentives which
new planting in Brazil have been reduced,
reduced, so
so as
as existing
existing areas
areas of
of plantation
plantation come
come to
to the
the end
end
of their tapping life fewer suitable trees are available to replace them.
them.
The
The focus
focus of production
production for
for world
world gum
gum naval
navalstores
storestoday
todayisisSoutheast
SoutheastAsia.
Asia. The
world's dominant
People's
People's Repubbc
Republic of China
China has
has been
been the
the world's
dominant producer
producer for
for many years,
years, but a
dramatic increase in production, signalled
signalled by the installation
installation of an improved and
and expanded
expanded
dramatic
processing
early 1980s,
1980s, has seen
seen Indonesia
Indonesia become
become the
the second
second biggest
biggest
processing capacity
capacity inin the
the early
producer
Chinese production
production accounts
producer of
of gum
gum rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine in
in the
the world.
world. Chinese
accounts for
for 430
430
000
tonnes (about
(about 60%)
60%) of
of the
the total
total annual
annual production
production of
of gum
gum rosin
rosin and
and Indonesia
Indonesia
000 tonnes
accounts for a further 69 000
000 tonnes
tonnes (almost
(almost 10%).
10%). While
WhileChinese
Chinese production
production isis unlikely
unlikely
accounts
increase further, Indonesia
Indonesia has an
an ample
ample (and
(and growing)
growing) number
number of trees
trees available
available for
for
to increase
tapping and the potential to increase
increase production
production significantly
significantly in
in the
the years to
to come.
come.

The People's
in gum
gum
People's Republic
Republic of China
China and Indonesia
Indonesia also dominate
dominate \vorld
world trade in
rosin and
turpentine. Trade
Tradestatistics
statistics for
forthe
themajor
majorexporting
exporting and
and importing
importing countries
countries are
are
and turpentine.
in Appendix
Appendix 6.
6. Chinese
Chinese exports
exports of
of gum
gum rosin
rosin were
were approximately
approximately 277 000 tonnes in
given in
1993 (70% of world trade) and
were about 46 000 tonnes. Russia
and Indonesian
Indonesian exports were
Russia and
and
Brazil produce more gum rosin than Portugal but most of it is used to meet domestic needs.
needs.
000 tonnes
tonnes
Portugal
Portugal is the third biggest exporter
exporter and
and exports
exports most
most of
of its
its output (about 26 000
in
in 1992, although some of this was produced from imported crude resin). AAmuch
muchsmaller
smaller
proportion of the
the turpentine
turpentine produced
produced in
inthe
the People's
People's Republicof
Republicof China
China is
is exported
exported (about
(about
5500 tonnes); both Indonesia (7500
(7500 tonnes) and Portugal (6000 tonnes)
tonnes) export more.
turpentine to the world market
The future supply of gum rosin and turpentine
market depends
depends mainly
mainly
and Portugal
Portugal (in that
on production trends in
in the
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of China,
China, Indonesia
Indonesia and
order), and to aa lesser
also depends
depends on
on consumption
consumption trends
trends in
in China
China
order),
lesser extent,
extent, Brazil.
Brazil. It also
which are difficult to predict; increasing Chinese industrialization and
and domestic
domestic
consumption
naval stores may
may eventually
eventually result
decreasing surplus
surplus available
available for
consumption of
of naval
result in
in a decreasing
export. The
The desire
desire to earn
earn foreign
foreign exchange,
exchange, and
potential for
some provinces
provinces to
and the potential
for some
expand
others decline
decline (see
(see below),
below), may
may enable exports to be
be maintained
maintained at
at
expand production as others
about their present level.
level. Any
Any decrease
decrease in
in exports
exports could
could be
be partly
partly or
orwholly
wholly made
made up
up by
by
increased supplies from
from Indonesia.
Indonesia.

The availability
availability of
the
of gum
gum rosin
rosin (and
(and turpentine)
turpentine) decreased
decreased sharply
sharply in
in late
late 1994 as the
Republic of
effects of severe floods in the People's Republic
of China
China during
during June
June to
to September became
known.
Many of
of the
the major
major production
production areas
areas were
were affected
affected and this led
led to
to aasignificant
significant
known. Many
reduction
China's ability
world
reduction in
in China's
abilitytoto collect
collect and
and process
process crude
crude resin
resin and
and export
export itit to world
reduced
markets.
Sometrade
tradeestimates
estimateshave
havesuggested
suggestedthat
thatsupplies
suppliesfor
for1994/95
1994/95maymay be reduced
markets. Some
by
much as
30-40%. This
Thisdamaging
damaging drop
drop in
in production
production has
has been
been compounded
compounded by a
by as
as much
as 30-40%.
number of licensed
licensed exporters
within the country,
rapid
competitive expansion
expansion in
rapid and competitive
in the
the number
exporters within
and
and by
by aa radical
radical change
change in
in the
the export
export licensing
licensing system.
system. Severe droughts in the production
areas
areas of
of Indonesia
Indonesia and
and Brazil
Brazil also
alsoled
ledto
to reduced
reduced production
production in
in 1994,
1994, and
and as
as aa result
result of the
the
ensuing
disorganization, world
sharply between
between late 1994
1994 and
and
ensuing disruption
disruption and
and disorganization,
world prices
prices rose
rose sharply
early 1995.

Prices
Estimates for EUM
gum rosin
-94, and
Estimates
rosinprice
pricelevels
levelsfrom
from199]
1991-94,
andfor
forthe
the first
first quarter
quarter of
of 1995, are
shown in
Table 2.
2. They
shown
in Table
Theyshow
showthe
thelarge
largeprice
pricerises
rises between
between those
those dates
dates and
and the
thedifference
difference
in the price of rosin from different
different origins,
origins, but
but they
they are
are not
not exact
exact transaction
transaction prices.
prices.
Table 2
Gum rosina:
rosina : landed prices, 1991-95b
1991-95 b
(US$/tonne)

1991

1992

1993

1994

Portuguese

800

765

795

835

900
900

Chinese

675

675

650

575

750-775
750-775

Indonesian

570

620

575

560

650-670

Brazilian
Brazilian

680

680

600

590
590

775-850
775-850

1995

Source: London
Source:
London dealers
dealers
Notes: a WW
WW grade
b Average annual
annual prices
prices except
except 1994
1994 (July)
(July) and
and 1995
1995 (January)
(January)

It is
is likely
likely that prices
prices will
will fall
fall back
back from
from the high levels
levels of early
early 1995
1995 to
to about
about
USS700/tonne
1995. However,
US$700/tonne by the end of 1995.
However, some
some uncertainty
uncertainty exists because the extent of
People's Republic
Republic of China,
and
lost production in the People's
China, and the
the ability
abilityfor
for production
production to
to recover
during 1995/96
1995/96 is
is not known.
known. At
Atthe
theearly
early1995
1995price
pricelevels,
levels, Portugal
Portugal and
and Brazil
Brazil could
could
during
both expand tappina,
but
fw-ther
falls
in
rosin
prices
would
make
this
extra
output
doubtful.
output doubtful.
tapping
further falls in rosin prices would make this
Indonesia will continue
continue to
to expand
expand production.
production.

is traded
traded at
It is
is not useful
useful to give
give aa similar
similar price series
series for aum
gum turpentine,
turpentine, which
which is
high
prices
in
drums
or
much
lower
prices
in
20
000
litre
ISO
tanks.
The
scale
and
scale and ex-tent
extent
high prices in drums or much lower prices in 20 000 litre ISO tanks.
more limited
limited than
rosin, but
but aa price
price level
level of
ofUS$450US$450international trade
of international
trade is more
than for gum rosin,
550/tonne delivered was
993 to mid-1994. Levels
was typical
typical from 1]993
Levels of
ofUS$600-650/tonne
US$600-650/tonnec8z.f
c&f
India or Europe would be
be more
more representative
representative of
of early
early 1995
1995 price
price levels.
levels.

77

Major markets
Virtually all
Virtually
all the
the non-producing
non-producing countries
countries in
in the
the world
world (and
(and some
some of
of the
the producers)
producers) import
turpentine, or their derivatives or synthetic competitors.
Examples of
of the
the scale
scale of
of
rosin and tutpentine,
competitors. Examples
statistics in
The biggest
biggest markets
markets for
imports can be seen in some of the trade statistics
in Appendix
Appendix 6.6. The
imported
imported gum rosin
rosin are
are Japan,
Japan,Western
WesternEuropean
Europeancountries,
countries,particularly
particularly Germany,
Germany, the
the
Netherlands and
and France,
France, the Republic
of Korea,
Korea, the
the United
United States
States and
and India.
India. Globally,
Globally, the
the
Netherlands
Republic of
is the
(EC) is
the biggest
biggest importer
importer and
and consumer,
consumer, and
and the
the People's
People's
European Community
Community (EC)
European
Repu
blic of
importers
Republic
of China
China isis its
its biggest
biggest supplier
supplier by
byfar.
far. France and Spain are the biggest importers
in the
the EC;
EC; they
they fractionate
fractionate ititand
and manufacture
manufacture downstream
downstream derivatives
derivatives
turpentine in
of gum turpentine
domestic consumption
consumption and
and re-export.
re-export. Japan
and India
India are other
other large
large importers
importers of
for domestic
Japan and
turpentine; supplies
supplies of rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine to
to India
Indiasupplement
supplement indigenous
indigenous production.
production.
turpentine;
and turpentine
turpentine in
in countries
countries such
such as
as the
theUnited
United
very large
large requirements
requirements for both
both rosin
rosin and
The very
Soviet Union
Union are
are met primarily
through domestic
domestic supplies
supplies of tall oil
States and the
the for-rner
former Soviet
primarily through
and sulphate
sulphate turpentine.
turpentine.
rosin and
although demand may be relatively
relatively low
still significant.
Demand isis
Elsewhere, although
low it is still
significant. Demand
sometimes
by domestic
domestic production.
production. In
Kenya, the paper
paper industryindustry uses
1000
sometimes met by
In Kenya,
uses about
about 1000
tonnes of rosin per year, most of which
is supplied
supplied from
from local
localsources.
sources. In other
which is
other countries
countries itit
is necessary
necessary to
requirements. Thailand,
Thailand, for example,
example, produces a
to import most or all of the requirements.
year.
few hundred tonnes of rosin but imports several thousand tormes
tonnes a year.

Trading structures and


and procedures
procedures
maj or producing countries, the structure of
of the
the industry,
industry, and
and the channels
channels of
In some of the major
years.
distribution
naval stores into the international
international market,
market, has changed in recent years.
distribution of gum
gum naval
In Portugal,
which trade
trade is
Portugal, individual
individual producers
producers have
have formed
formed producer
producer groups
groupsthrow.:,,h
through which
conducted. This
Thisrelatively
relativelysmall
small number
number of
of groups
groups has
has generally
generally simplified
simplified the negotiation
negotiation
of imports
imports from Portugal
Portugal and
and given
given some
some measure
measure of
of consistency
consistency in the
the level
level of
of prices.
prices.
move away
away from the more
more centralized
centralized system of trading in the
Conversely, there has been a move
People's Republic
Republic of China
China to one in
in which
which different
different provinces
provinces have
freedom to enter
enter
have the freedom
into contracts with
with international
international buyers.
Even
within
one
province
there
may
be
several
buyers. Even within
province
may be several
for sales.
sales.
groups competing for
the production
production in
in smaller
smaller producing
producing countries
countries is
is for
for domestic
domestic consumption.
consumption.
Most of the
sell directly to end
end users
users such
such as
as paper
paper mills,
mills, paint
paint or
or chemical
chemical companies.
companies.
The processors sell
However, there
some basic
basic procedures
procedures and
and practices
practices which
which should
should be noted
noted by
by
However,
there are some
prospective new
considering the
Most purchases
purchases are
are
prospective
new producers
producers or others considering
the sale
sale of
of exports.
exports. Most
As indicated
indicated in
in Appendix
Appendix 2, these specifications
specifications
specifications. As
made on the basis of agreed specifications.
will
vary according
according to
to the
the origin
origin of
of the
the rosin
rosin or
or turpentine.
turpentine. New
will vary
New producers will
will therefore
therefore
reassure potential
potential buyers
buyers of
of the
the quality
quality of
of the
the material
material being
being offered
offered by
by providing
providing
need to reassure
samples beforehand
beforehand and,
and, perhaps,
perhaps, aa trial
trial shipment.
shipment. International
International trade is normallynormally
samples
through agents
dealers, rather than
than by
by direct
direct negotiation
negotiation between
between producer
producer
conducted throug,h
agents or dealers,
Agents usually
usually act
act on
on behalf
behalf of a specific
specific producer.
Dealers buy
buy and
and sell
sell on
and end user. Agents
producer. Dealers
their own account, their main contacts
contacts being
being other
other dealers,
dealers, producers
producers and
and end
end users.
users. They
very well
well informed
informed about
about markets
markets and
and end user
user
are very
and trends,
trends, prices,
prices, product
product uses
uses and
requirements; this knowledge may be difficult
difficult for
acquire, particularly
particularly small
small
requirements;
for producers to acquire,
ones.

gum naval
naval stores may
may wish to sell directly
directly to the final
final user to
A new producer of gum
avoid paying
paying commission
commission to
to intermediaries.
avoid
intermediaries. When
When selling
selling the products
products domestically,
domestically, this
this
may
However,ininthe
theinternational
internationalmarket,
market, various
various middlemen
middlemen have
have aa
may be
be the only option. However,
valuable
will usually
usually prefer to conduct
conduct their
their transactions
transactions using
using agents
agents
valuable role
role and
and end users will
and
Commercial practices
practices vary
vary between
between companies
companies and
details of
and dealers.
dealers. Commercial
and countries,
countries, and
and details
conditions for buying
buying and selling
selling are
negotiation between the two
two
terms and conditions
are a matter of negotiation
Established suppliers
normally paid
against documents,
documents, but
but buyers
buyers
suppliers are
are normally
paid by
by cash against
parties. Established
would prefer to make payment after receipt of the merchandise from new producers.
turpentine in
in Chapter
Chapter 33
Brief reference
reference is made to packaging options for rosin and turpentine
and
described in
in more
more detail
detail in
in Appendix
Appendix 4.
4. Buyers
Buyers of material
material transported by
by
and they are described
ocean freight
ocean
freight prefer to
to minimize
minimize transport
transport and
and handling
handling costs
costsby
byimportingimporting- aa minimum
minimum
shipment size of one container load (approximately
(approximately 20 tonnes gross weight).

Trade in crude resin


In any analysis
analysis of
volume of trade
of world
world production
production and
and trade
trade in
in gum
gum naval
naval stores,
stores, the
the volume
taking
be estimated.
estimated. Until
taking place in crude resin needs to be
Until recently,
recently, this
this did
did not
not need
need to
to be
all resin
origin and
primary
considered
considered as
as all
resin was
was processed
processed at origin
and rosin
rosin and turpentine
turpentine were
were the primary
products of trade. However,
However,trade
tradeinincrude
cruderesin
resin has
has developed
developed over the past
past five
five years as
the capacity for tapping
tapping has
has fallen
fallen in
in some
some of
of the
the traditional
traditional producing
producing countries,
countries, notably
notably
Portugal
and
India.
These
countries
have
excess
processing
capacity
(usually
fully
Portugal
India. These countries have excess processing capacity (usually fully
depreciated) which can be brought back into production if an economic, external source of
crude
is found.
found. The
absence of
capital costs
therefore enables
processors of
The absence
of capital
costs therefore
enables the
the processors
crude resin is
(gum rosin and turpentine)
turpentine) at a price
price which
which only need
imported
imported resin
resin to
to sell the outputs (gum
cover raw material and
sale of crude resin
resin
and processing
processing costs,
costs, freight,
freight, drums
drums and
and profit.
profit. The sale
also allows
allows producing countries with a surplus
surplus to earn
earn extra
extra revenue
revenue without
withoutinvesting
investing in
in
additional capacity for processing.
Brazil (exporting
(exporting about 12
12 000-13
000-13
The main suppliers of crude resin in 1993 were Brazil
000 tonnes), Indonesia
Indonesia (2000-3000
(2000-3000 tonnes)
tonnes) and
and the
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of China
China (3000-4000
(3000-4000
tonnes).
Totalexports
exportsinin1993,
1993,based
based on
ontrade
tradeestimates,
estimates, were
were therefore
therefore 17
17 000-20
000-20 000
000
tonnes). Total
tonnes. Present
the
Present -levels
levels are
are likely
likelytoto be
be much
much reduced
reduced inin the
the short
short term
term as
as a result of the
destructive floods in China in 1994 and the impact of severe summer droughts in Indonesia
Indonesia
(Java)
At the
the moment,
moment, Brazil
Brazil is
is probably
probably exporting less than 10 000 tonnes
tonnes of
of
(Java) and
and Brazil.
Brazil. At
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of
of China
China and
and Indonesia
Indonesia may
may not be
be exporting
exporting any.
any.
crude resin, and the
(which imported
The buyers of crude resin in 1993 were Portugal (which
imported 8000-10
8000-10 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of
of
Brazilian
Brazilianresin)
resin) and
and India
India (which
(which bought
bought 3000-4000
3000-4000tonnes
tonnesfrom
from Brazil,
Brazil, and
and most
most of
of
Indonesian resin
resin exports,
exports, to
to give
give aa total
total of
of 8000-11
8000-11 000
000 tonnes).
tonnes).
Chinese and Indonesian

'There isis little


little likelihood
likelihood that
that tapping
tapping will
will be
be expanded
expanded in
in either
either Portugal
Portugal or India,
India,
There
and
in crude
crude resin
resin becomes
becomes permanent,
permanent, Portugal
Portugal will
will have
have less
less
and if the present reduced trade in
rosin to sell,
sell, and
and India
India will
will need
need totoimport
importmore
moreChinese
Chinese and
andIndonesian
Indonesian rosin
rosin and
and
rosin
order to meet
meet domestic
domestic requirements.
requirements.
turpentine in order
It is suggested elsewhere (Chapter 4)
domestic market demand has been
4) that once domestic
satisfied, the export of
of crude
crude resin
resin could
could be
be more
more profitable
profitable for new,
new, small
small producers than
than
satisfied,

the export of
gum rosin
rosin and
and turpentine.
turpentine. However, this would depend on
of small
small volumes
volumes of gum
a continuing demand for external supplies of resin from Portuguese and Indian processors.

One unfortunate consequence


of the
the use of crude resin which
which is
is not indigenous
consequence of
indigenous to
the country in which it is processed is that the compositional characteristics
characteristics of the rosin and
turpentine may no longer
longer indicate
indicate the source of
of the
the processed
processed products.
products. In the past, the
the
gum rosin
rosin
by the
the major
major producers
producers of
of internationally
internationally traded gum
different species
species of pine used by
and turpentine have conferred on the
the products
products intrinsic
intrinsic chemical
chemical properties which denote
origin. End
users have
have also
also become
become accustomed
accustomed to the
the predictable,
predictable, consistent
consistent
their origin.
End users
products delivered
delivered from traditional
traditional suppliers;
crude
properties of products
suppliers;the
the greater
greater the
the trade in crude
less certain
certain these
these properties
properties become.
become.
resin, the less
the next
next sections,
sections, production
production and trade in
in the
the major
major producing
producing countries
countries and
In the
described.
regions is described.

People's Republic of China


Chinese
Vast areas of native pines growing in the south of the country form the basis of the Chinese
gum
naval stores
industry. The
The principal
principal species
species used is P. massoniana
massoniana (mostly
(mostly natural
natural
gum naval
stores industry.
tabulae/ormis and
stands), with smaller
smaller contributions
stands),
contributionsfrom
fromP.P.yunnanensis,
yunnanensis,P.P. latteri,
latteri, P.
P. tabulaeformis
kesiya. AAsmall
smallproportion
proportionofofthe
theresin
resinraw
rawmaterial
materialisisobtained
obtained from
from plantations
plantations of
of
P. kesiya.
massoniana and
and aafurther
furthersmall,
small,but
butincreasing,
increasing, amount
amount from
from plantations
plantations of
of exotic
exotic
P. massoniana
elliottii. P.P.elliottii
elliottiiwas
wasintroduced
introducedprimarily
primarily as
as aa timber
timber species but it has been found
P. elliottii.
found to
give
higher yields
yields of
of resin
resin than
than the native
give significantly
significantly higher
native pines
pines when
when tapped.
tapped. The main
main
production areas
areas are
are Guangxi,
Guangxi, Guangdong,
Guangdong, Fujian,
Fujian, Jiangxi,
Jiangxi, Yunnan
Yunnan and
and Hunan
Hunan provinces;
provinces;
Guangxi and Guangdong
However, these
these two
two provinces
provinces
Guangxi
Guangdong are currently
currently the
the most
most important.
important. However,
among those
those which
which are
areundergoing
undergoing dramatic
dramatic socio-economic
socio-economic changes,
changes, including
including the
the
are among
drift of the rural
rural population
population to
to more
more attractive
attractive and
andremunerative
remunerative employment
employment in
in the
the cities.
cities.
This may eventually
eventually lead
lead to
to a decrease in gum naval
naval stores
stores production in these traditionally
important areas.
areas. On
other hand,
hand, Yunnan
Yunnan has
has aa considerably
considerably greater standing
standing pine
pine
On the other
other provinces
provinces plus
plus the
the benefit
benefit of a large
large pool of
of low-cost
low-cost labour,
labour,
resource than any of the other
probably assume
assume greater
greater importance
importance as
as aa supply
supply source.
source.
so it will probably
floods in
in 1994,
1994, total
total annual
annumIn spite of the very recent fall in production due
due to the floods
resin in recent years has exceeded 500 000 tonnes, giving
giving around 400
production of crude resin
processing. Resin
Resin processing
processing covers all scales of operation
000 tonnes of gum rosin after processing.
very small,
small, involving
involving only
very large;
large; one
one
from the very
only aa few
few hundred
hundred tonnes
tonnes of
of resin,
resin, to the very
Guangxi, is
factory in Wuzhou, eastern Guangxi,
is claimed
claimedto
to be
be the
the largest
largest in
in the
the world,
world, with a rosin
capacity of 40 000
000 tonnes/year.
tonnes/year. AArecent
recentChinese
Chinesesource
source(Shen
(ShenZhaobang,
Zhaobang, 1994)
1994)
output capacity
indicates
000 tonnes
tonnes of
of rosin
rosin were
were produced,
produced, of
ofwhich
whichapproximately
approximately
indicates that
that in
in 1993, 430 000
60%
(277 000
000 tonnes)
tonnes) was
was exported.
exported. Of
Of the
the rosin
rosin which
which remains
remains for
for domestic
domestic
60% (277
consumption, about
manufacture of soap
data) and about
about 35%
35%
consumption,
about 44%
44% is used for the manufacture
soap (1990 data)
(30 000
000 tonnes
tonnes and
and 20
20 000
000 tonnes,
tonnes,
Increasingamounts
amounts of
of rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine (30
for paper. Increasing
are converted
converted to
to downstream
downstream derivatives
derivatives within
within the
the country.
country.
respectively) are

10

and other
othercountries
countries of
of Southeast
Southeast Asia
Asia
Indonesia and

Although Indonesia
Indonesia has
has produced
produced rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine for
for many
years, it was not
Although
many years,
not until
until
comparatively
Virtually all
comparatively recently
recentlythat
that itit emerged
emergedas
as aa major
majorforce
forceininworld
worldtrade.
trade. Virtually
all crude
crude
resin production is based on extensive
extensive areas
areasof
ofP.
P. merkusii
merkusiiplantations
plantationson
onJava.
Java. These are
Corporation, who are
are also
also responsible
responsible for
managed
managed by Perum
Perum Perhutani,
Perhutani, the
the Forest State Corporation,
the tapping and processing operations (although
(although some of the factories fall
fall within
within the
the private
private
sector). AAvery
verysmall
small quantity
quantity of
of resin
resin is
is produced intermittently
intermittently in
inSumatra.
Sumatra. In the early
1980s,
processing methods
replace the older,
older, direct-fired
direct-fired
1980s, modem
modern processing
methods were
were introduced
introduced to
to replace
(9000
distillation units. Production
subsequently rose
Production subsequently
rose from
from 16
16 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of crude resin (9000
tonnes of
of rosin) in 1981 to 70
70 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin (49 000 tonnes of rosin and 8000 tonnes
of turpentine) in 1991; by 1993, it had risen to over 100 000 tonnes of
of resin
resin (69
(69 000
000 tonnes
tonnes
turpentine). Slightly
Slightly lower production levels are forecast
of rosin and 12 000 tonnes of turpentine).
forecast for
for
1994 because of a severe drought
drought which
which affected
affected resin
resin yields.
yields.
Although
most of the rosin and
is exported,
exported, an
Although most
and turpentine
turpentine produced
produced in Indonesia
Indonesia is
increasing
increasing proportion
proportion of both is
is being
being consumed domestically.
domestically. Perum
Perum Perhutani
Perhutani statistics
statistics
tonnes of rosin (two thirds of total production)
production)
approximately 46
for 1993 show that approximately
46 000 tonnes
and 7500 tonnes
tonnes of
of turpentine
turpentine were
were exported.
exported. Figures
Figuresfrom
from the
theofficial
official Indonesian
Indonesian trade
trade
likely to attract
significantly lower.
Production of
of downstream
downstream derivatives
derivatives is likely
statistics are significantly
lower. Production
attention in
in the
the years
years to
to come.
come.
increasing attention
The actual
actual
In 1991, production in Indonesia
Indonesia came
camefrom
fromabout
about 100
100 000
000 ha
ha of
of pine.
pine. The
area
area of planted pine
pine in
in Java
Java is
is about
about four
four times
times this
this figure
figure and
and still
stillexpanding.
expanding. There
There are
are
also
pine plantations
plantations on Sumatra, .Sulawesi
Sulawesi and
Kalimantan and
also large areas of pine
and Kalimantan
and these,
these, too,
too,
are increasing
The potential
potential for
for increased
increased resin
resin
increasing in
in size
size to
to meet
meet the
the demand
demand for
for wood
wood pulp.
pulp. The
production is
is therefore
therefore very
very large
large (assuming
(assuming that labour
labour continues
continues to
to be
be available)
available) and
and in
in
years Indonesia
Indonesia will
will -undoubtedly
undoubtedly consolidate
future years
consolidateand
and improve
improveits
its position
position as
as the
the second
producer of
of gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores after
after the People's
People's Republic of
of China.
China.
biggest producer
Production elsewhere
very low.
low.
Production
elsewhereinin Southeast
Southeast Asia
Asia is
is very

Viet
Viet Nam
Nam produced
produced

approximately 2500 tonnes of resin from P.


P. merkusii in each of the five
five years
years from
from 1986 to
approximately
1990,
the country
country isis now
now open
open to
toforeign
foreign investment
investment this figure
figure may rise
rise in the
the
1990, and as the
Thereisissome
someproduction
productionininThailand
Thailand and
and Laos
Laos from
from P.
P. merkusii,
merkusii, and
and some
some from
from
future. There
kesiya in
in Myanmar
Myanmar (Btu
(Burma),
(less than
not
P. kesiya
ma), but
but it is very
very low
low (less
than 500
500 tonnes/year)
tonnes/year) and does not
enter international trade.
trade.

Portugal
Portugal and
and elsewhere
elsewhere in Europe
The warm summer
summer temperatures which are
are conducive to high resin flow, and the large areas
natural pine
pine which
which exist,
exist, made
made Portugal
Portugal and
andsome
someMediterranean
Mediterranean countries
countries major
major
of natural
naval stores
stores at
at one
one time.
time. Some
and
Some production also took place in central and
producers of gum naval
eastern Europe. However,
~owever,increasing
increasinglabour
labourcosts
costsand
andaagrowing
growingunwillingness
unwillingness amongst
amongst
workers to undertake
undertake tapping has led to aa decline
decline in
in production,
production, sometimes
sometimes to
point
workers
to the point
where it has ceased altogether.
P.
P. pinaster
pinaster occurs
occurs quite
quite widely
widely in
in central
central and
and western
western areas
areas of
of northern
northern Portugal
Portugal
exception of
of recent
recent purchases
purchases of
of crude
crude resin
resin from
from Brazil,
Brazil, is
is the sole
sole source
source of
of
and, with the exception

11

gum naval
naval stores.
stores. In the
the ten
ten years
years 1978
1978 to
to 1987,
1987,crude
cruderesin
resinproduction
production
Portuguese gum
averaged 110
110 000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year and
and yielded
yielded 84
84 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of
of rosin
rosin and
and 19 000 tonnes
tonnes of
of
averaged
to approximately
approximately 30
resin
turpentine. By
By1992,
1992,production
production had
had declined
declined to
turpentine.
30 000 tonnes of resin
000 tonnes
tonnes of rosin),
rosin), although
although a slight
slight increase
increase is
predicted for
(equivalent to
(equivalent
to 22
22 000
is predicted
for the
Portugal'srosin
rosinoutput
outputisisstill
still exported,
exported, although
although an
an increasing
increasing
Mostof
ofPortugal's
1994/95 crop year. Most
amount
being used
used internally;
internally; much
its turpentine
turpentine is
is fractionated
fractionated or
or consumed
consumed
amount is
is being
much of its
domestically.
domestically.

France no
no longer
gum rosin
rosin or turpentine
turpentine and
and production
production in
in Spain
Spain has
has
France
longer produces
produces gum
fallen to aa very
very low
low level.
level. Production
as
fallen
Production in central and eastern European countries such as
Poland, Bulgaria, and the former Yugoslavia and
and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia has
has also
alsodeclined.
declined. Greece
produced
the trend
trend for
for
produced about
about 6000
6000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin
resin from
from P.P. haZepensis
halepensis inin 1993,
1993, but
but the
Production of
of resin
resin isis now
now reported
reported to
to have
haveceased
ceased in
inTurkey,
Turkey,
downwards. Production
production is downwards.
although in the late 1980s it produced about 3000 tonnes/year from
from P.
P. brutia.
brutia.

Russia
syZvestris covers vast areas
areas of
of Russia
Russia and
and other
other parts
parts of
of the
the former
former Soviet
Soviet Union
Union and
and
P. sylvestris
substantial naval
The main
main areas for gum naval stores
forms the basis of a substantial
forms
naval stores
stores industry.
industry. The
production are in
in Irkutsk
Irkutsk and
and Yekaterinbourg
Yekaterinbourg (the
(the former
former Sverdlovsk
Sverdlovsk region),
region), the
the central
central
Krasnoyarsk region, and the central and northern regions
parts of the Krasnoyarsk
regions of the European part
of Russia.
Siberia
and
the
Urals
account
for
about
50%
of
Russia. Siberia and the Urals account for about
of crude
crude resin
resin production;
production; the
the
remainder
comes from
from European
European Russia.
Russia. The
of Siberia
Siberia are
are not
not conducive
conducive
remainder comes
The colder
colder regions
regions of
high resin
resin yields
yields and
and productivity,
productivity, in general,
general, is believed
believed to be
be low.
low. Russian
to high
Russian sources

production of
of resin has fallen in recent years from a high
high of 115
115 000
000 tonnes
tonnes
have stated that production
around 90
90 000
000 tonnes
tonnes in
in1992;
1992; this
this total
total isisbelieved
believed to
to include
include very
very minor
minor amounts
amounts of
to around
larch and fir
plans to tap
tap trees
trees in
in the
the Crimea
Crimea go
go ahead,
ahead, production
production may
may be
be
fir oleoresin.
oleoresin. If plans
stabilized at this level as
as resin
resin yields in
in this area
area are
are expected to be higher.
the rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine produced
producedininRussia
Russiaisisused
useddomestically,
domestically, but
butsmall
small
Most of the
amounts have been offered
offered on
on the
the international
international market
market in
in recent
recent years.
years.

North America
For many years,
years, the United
United States
States has
has experienced
experienced problems
problems in
recruiting labour
in recruiting
labour for the
at aa wage
wage which
which makes
makes the
the collection
collection and processing of resin
resin
arduous task of tapping trees at
economically viable.
viable. This has
has led to a steady
naval stores
stores production, and
steady decline
decline in gum naval
economically
elliottii (slash
(slash pine)
pine) is grown
grown for
for
from
wide supply
supply base
base in the southeast
southeast where
where P.
from a wide
P. elliottii
pulpwood, tapping
is
now
confined
to
the
state
of
Georgia.
Extant
production
is
probably
tapping is now confined to the state of Georgia. Extant production is probably
tonnes; exports of gum rosin averaged about 1200
1200 tonnes/year
tonnes/year for the
the
only a few thousand tonnes;
five
years
1989-93
and
were
less
than
1000
tonnes
in
1993.
Naval
stores
production
five years 1989-93 and
less than 1000 tonnes in 1993. Naval
production
remains
(and a dominant
dominant force
based
remains aa major
major industry
industry in
in the
the USA
USA (and
force in the world), but itit isis based
largely on sulphate turpentine and tall oil rosin recovered during
during chemical
chemical pulping (sulphate
(sulphate
naval stores) and.
and, to a much lesser extent, on wood naval stores.

12

There
species in
country
There are probably more native
native Pinus
Pinus species
in Mexico
Mexico than
than in any other country
in the
Although many
many of
of the
the species
species are
are unsuitable
unsuitable for tapping,
tapping, a large naval
naval stores
the world.
world. Although
stores
industry
Although mixed
mixed stands
stands of pines
pines are
are often
often
industry has
has developed
developed using
using those
those which
which are.
are. Although
tapped,
major species
species is
oocarpa. Tapping
states of
of
tapped, the
the major
is P.
P. oocarpa.
Tapping isis concentrated
concentratedinin the
the states
Michoacan,
Jalisco
and
Mexico.
However,
as
in
the
United
States,
there
has
been
However,
as
in
the
United
States,
there
has
been
a
Michoacn, Jalisco and Mexico.
tonnes/year
downward trend in resin
resin production,
production, and
and output has
has fallen
fallen from
from about
about 60
60 000 tonnes/year
in the early
1980s to about
about 30
30 000
000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year in
in the
the early
early 1990s.
1990s. Gum
in
early 1980s
Gum rosin
rosin and
22 000
000 tonnes
tonnes and
and 4000
4000 tonnes,
tonnes, respectively,
respectively, in
in 1991;
1991;
turpentine production was around 22
most was consumed domestically.

Central and
and South
South America
America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Several
some time
time but
Several countries
countries inin Central
Central America
Americahave
havetapped
tappedpines
pinesfor
for resin
resin atat some
Honduras remains
oocarpa
Honduras
remains the major
major producer.
producer. Most
resin is obtained
obtained from
from P.
Most of
of the resin
P. oocarpa
although
although aa small
small quantity
quantitycomes
comesfrom
fromP.P.caribaea
caribaea var.
var. hondurensis.
hondurensis. Production of crude
1980s, but
but has
has since
since declined.
declined. In recent
recent years
years itit
resin
Honduras peaked
peaked in the early
early 1980s,
resin in Honduras
appears
have stabilized
stabilized at
at about
about 6000-8000
6000-8000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year (equivalent
(equivalent to
to approximately
approximately
appears to have
4500-6000
tonnes of
of rosin).
rosin). Most
the rosin
rosin is
is exported,
exported, mainly
mainly to Europe,
Europe. where
where
4500-6000 tonnes
Most of the
largest importer.
importer.
Germany is the largest
Brazil
Considerable
Brazil is
is the
the biggest
biggest producer
producer of gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores in
in South
South America.
America. Considerable
areas (approximately
(approximately 1.5 million
million ha)
species; the tropical
ha) are planted with pine of different species;
caribaea and
andP.
P. oocarpa
oocarpaare
aregrown
grownininthe
thenorth
northand
andthe
themore
more temperate
temperate P.
P. elliottii
elliottU and
and
P. caribaea
P. taeda
taeda (a(apoor
poorresin
resinyielder)
yielder) are
are grown
grown in
in the
the south.
south. Large-scale
Large-scale tapping
tapping began
began in the
late 1970s and production of crude resin increased
increased steadily
steadilyto
to around
around 65
65 000
000 tonnes in the
from P.
P. elliottii and production has
late 1980s. The
The resin
resin has
has been
been obtained
obtained almost
almost entirely from
taken place mainly in
additional production in Paran,
Parana, Santa
Santa
in Sao
Sdo Paulo state;
state; there is some additional
Catarina, Rio
Rio Grande
Grande do
do SuI
Sul and
and Rio
Rio de
de Janeiro.
Janeiro. Production
in 1991
1991 and
and
Catarina,
Production fell
fell somewhat
somewhat in
(equivalent to
believed to
1992 but is currently believed
to be
be around
around 60
60 000-65
000-65 000
000 tonnes (equivalent
to 42
42 000-45
7000-8000 tonnes
tonnes of
of turpentine).
turpentine). Most of
000 tonnes of rosin and 7000-8000
of the processed
processed products
products
quantitiesare
are exported
exported (13
(13 500 tonnes of gum
gum
are consumed domestically,
domestically, but significant
significant quantities
turpentine in
in 1993).
1993). Replanting
rosin and 3000 tonnes of turpentine
Replanting is not keeping pace with the loss
of
elliottii trees
trees as
as they
they come
come to the
the end
end of
of their
their tapping
tapping life
life and
and it is
is likely
likely that
of P. elliottii
P. caribaea
future.
P.
caribaeawill
willbe
beincreasingly
increasinglytargeted
targeted as
as aa source
source of
of resin in the future.

Argentina
and Venezuela
Venezuela are
are the
the only
Argentina and
only other two countries
countries producing
producing gum
gum naval
naval
America. in
InArgentina,
Argentina, plantations
plantations of P. elliottii
elliottii are
are tapped
tapped in
in the
the northnorthstores in South America.
eastern
is
eastern provinces
provinces of Misiones,
Misiones, Corrientes
Corrientes and
and Entre
Entre Rios.
Rios. Crude
Crude resin
resin production
production is
estimated
approximately 30
estimated at approximately
30 000
000 tonnes
tonnes (1993)
(1993) from
from which
which 21
21 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of rosin and

4000 tonnes
4000
tonnes of
of turpentine
turpentine are
are obtained.
obtained. Substantial
products are
are
Substantial amounts
amountsof
of both
both products
converted into value-added derivatives for domestic
Venezuela isis
domestic consumption
consumption and
and export.
export. Venezuela
believed to proouce
produce around 7000
7000 tonnes
tonnes of
of crude
crude resin
resinfrom
fromP.P. caribaea.
caribaea.
There are some very large plantations
in Chile
Chile (about
(about 1.5
1.5 million
million ha).
ha).
plantations of
of P.
P. radiata in
Experimental
tapping
has
taken
place
and
although
the
quality
of
the
turpentine
from
Experimental tapping has taken place and although the quality of the turpentine from
P. radiata
radiataisisprobably
probablysuperior
superior to
to that
thatfrom
from any
any other
otherspecies,
species, yields
yields of
of resin
resin are
are not
not high
high
enough to encourage commercial
commercial production.
production.

13

In the
resin have
have been
been produced
produced in
in Cuba
Cuba from
from three
the Caribbean,
Caribbean, small
small quantities
quantities of resin
native
var. caribaea,
caribaea, P.
P. tropicalis
tropicaiis and
and P. cubensis)
cubensis) but
has
native pines
pines (P.
(P, caribaea
caribaea var.
but output has
averaged less than 700
700 tonnes/year
tonnes/year for
for the
the five
five years
years from
from 1989
1989 to
to 1993.
1993.

Africa
of pines
pines have
have beenbeen'- planted
some time,
time, Africa
Mrica
Although large areas of
planted for
for timber
timber or pulp for some
has only become
naval stores
become a producer of gum naval
stores relatively
relatively recently.
recently. Tapping of P.
P. elliottii
Chimanimani area
Highlands of
Production
in the Chimanimani
area of the Eastern Highlands
of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwebegan
began in
in 1976.
1976. Production
crude resin
resin has
has never
never exceeded
exceeded about
about 1000
1000 tonnes/year,
tonnes/year, however,
pine
of crude
however, and
and as
as the pine
increasing pressure
fall and
and
resource comes under increasing
pressure for
for use
use as
as timber,
timber, output
output is expected to fall
altogether. Small
Small amounts
amounts of rosin have been
been exported
exported intermittently
intermittently to
perhaps cease altogether.
South Africa but most is consumed
consumed domestically
domestically by
by the
the paper
paper industry.
industry.

Kenya and South Mrica


Africa both
both began
began production
productionininabout
about1986.
1986. A diverse source of
elliottii growing
growing in the Machakos
Machakos area
area of
of southern
southern Kenya
Kenya
raw materials is used in Kenya; P.
P. elliottii
provides
most
of
the
resin,
P.
caribaea
var.
hondurensis
is
tapped
in
the
southern
coastal
provides most of the resin, P.
var. hondurensis
coastal
r~gion
is tapped at higher elevations
elevations near
The total
total resin
resin
region of Kwale,
Kwale, and
and P.
P. radiata
radiata is
near Nakuru.
Nakuru. The
All
the
rosin
is
1000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year is showing
showing a small
small upward
upward trend.
production
production of about 1000
trend. All the
converted to a modified form and sold to local paper mills for use as a sizing agent.
South
African tapping
tapping operations
centred on the
the extensive
extensive P.
P. elliottii
elliottii and
and
South African
operations are
are centred
P.
caribaea
var.
caribaea
plantings
in
the
Lake
St
Lucia
area
of
northern
NataL
P. caribaea var. caribaea plantings in the Lake St Lucia area of northern Natal.
Production of resin is more than 2000 tonnes/year,
tonnes/year, which is the highest of the three African
Mrican
countries.
Mostof
ofthe
theresulting
resulting rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine is consumed domestically.
countries. Most
domestically. The rosin
is used mainly for paper
paper size
size and
and in
in the
the manufacture
manufacture of
of adhesives;
adhesives; some
some is
is exported.
exported.
Several
Mrican countries
Several other African
countries have
have the
the potential
potential for gum naval
naval stores production
by using
extensive areas
using the extensive
areas of under-exploited
under-exploitedpines
pineswhich
whichexist.
exist. There
There are
are signs
signs that
that in
Malawi, for example,
some
potential is
is being
being realized
realized in
in practical
practical terms.
terms. Malawi,
example, has
has
some cases this potential
more than 50 000 ha of mature pines in the north of the country
country and
and although
although most
most of
of them
them
are P. patuia,
patula, aaspecies
species with
with little
little or
or no
no prospect
prospect as
as aa commercial
commercial source of resin,
resin, there are
probably enough P. elliottii
elliottii to
to make
make commercial
commercial tapping aa viable
viable proposition; it is
is unlikely,
unlikely,
however, to
become aa large
large producer
producer of
of naval
naval stores
stores inininternational
international terms.
terms. It is
however,
to become
understood (late
(late 1994)
1994) that
that commercial
commercial production
production will
will begin
begin in Malawi
Malawi in
in 1995.
1995. In
understood
Uganda, commercial
commercialtapping
tappingofofP.P.caribaea
caribaea began
began on
on aa small
small scale
scaleinin late
late 1994.
1994. Several
Uganda,
Several
countries, including
including Tanzania
Tanzania and Zambia,
Zambia, have
other countries,
have substantial
substantial areas
areas of
of pines,
pines, but their
suitability and capacity to support gum naval stores production has not yet
yet been
been proved.
proved.

Indian sub-continent
India has
Areas of
of natural and,
and, more
more recently,
recently,
has been producing
producing naval
naval stores
stores for
for aa long
long time.
time. Areas
(chir pine)
pine) have
have been
northern states of
of Jammu
Jammu and
and
plantation P.
plantation
P. roxburghii (chir
been used
used in
in the northern
Kashmir,
wallichiana grows
grows at
at higher
higher elevations
elevations
Kashmir, Uttar
Uttar Pradesh
Pradesh and
and Himachal
HimachalPradesh.
Pradesh. P. wallichiana
little,
along the same Himalayan belt but as
as it gives
gives lower yields
yields of
of resin
resin than
than P.
P. roxburghii, little,
if any,
commercially. Crude resin production
production peaked
000 tonnes
tonnes in
in
any, is
is tapped commercially.
peaked at about 75 000
1975/76 and
and has
has since
since fallen
fallen steadily.
steadily. Production in
in 1990/91
1990/91 was
was less
less than
than 25
25 000 tonnes,
1975/76

14

although it is now believed to have recovered and stabilized at about 25


25000-30000
000-.30 000 tonnes
tonnes
rosin). The
main reason
(equivalent
(equivalentto
to approximately
approximately18
18 000-21
000-21 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of rosin).
The main
reason for the
decline has been the loss of trees for tapping, either because many of them have reached the
end of their productive lives and there are no new areas of
of pine
pine with which
which to replace
replace them,
them,
or because the damage
damage done to
to trees
trees by
bythe
the use
useof
ofinefficient,
inefficient, incorrectly
incorrectly applied
applied methods
methods
of tapping has led to Forest
Forest Department
Department bans
bans on
on tapping.
tapping.
of substantial
substantial indigenous
indigenous production
demands of
The loss of
production of
of crude
crude resin,
resin, and
and the demands
Indian
Indian industry
industry for
for naval
naval stores
stores products,
products, have
have meant
meantthat
that India
India isis now
now aa net
net importer
importer of
of
and turpentine. The
Theshortfall
shortfall in
in local
local production
production has
has been
been further
further compensated
compensated
both rosin and
The greatest
greatest single
single use of
of
by
by the
the importation
importation of
of about
about 10
10 000
000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year of
of crude
crude resin.
resin. The
is for the
the production
production of
of synthetic
synthetic camphor.
turpentine in India is

roxburghii is
is also
also tapped
tapped in
in Pakistan,
Pakistan, Nepal
Nepal and
The quantity
quantity of
of resin
resin
P. roxburghii
and Bhutan.
Bhutan. The
three countries
countries combined
combined does not exceed
exceed aa few
few thousand
thousand tonnes
tonnes and
and isis
produced by the three
Allthe
theoutput
outputfrom
from Nepal
Nepal and
and Bhutan
Bhutan goes
goes to
to India.
India.
probably much less. All
Lanka, about 30 000 ha of
of P. caribaea
caribaea(mainly
(mainly var.
var. hondurensis)
hondurensis) have
have been
been
In
In Sri Lanka,
planted
on
degraded
land,
on
which
the
species
has
flourished.
planted
degraded land, on which the species has flourished. These plantations
plantations have
have
tapping has
great potential as sources
sources of
of gum
gum naval
naval stores,
stores, but
but although
although some
some small-scale
small-scale tapping
is no
no large-scale
large-scale collection
collection and
and processing
processing of
of resin at
at present.
taken place, there is

ESTIMATES OF
OF WORLD PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS
Estimates for production of crude resin, gum rosin and gum turpentine, and exports of gum
gum
rosin and gum turpentine are presented in Table
Table 3.
3. The
Theestimates
estimates are
are based
basedon
onpublished
published
to be reliable,
and on
on trade
trade sources.
sources. In
data which are believed
believed to
reliable, and
In cases
cases where
where figures
figures differ
differ
widely the authors
authors have
have used
used their
their judgement
judgement to
to provide
provide an
an estimate.
estimate.

15
15

Table 3
Estimated
Estimated world production and exports of crude resin, gum rosin and gum turpentine
(tonnes)
(tonnes)

Production

Exports

Crude resin

Rosin

976000
976 000

717000
717 000

99400
99 400

384000
384 000

25000
25 000

a1993

570000
570 000

430000
430 000

50000
50 000

277000
277
000

5500
5 500

Indonesia

1993
1993

100000
100 000

69000
69 000

12000
12 000

46000
46 000

7500
7 500

Russia

1992
1992

90000
90 000

65000
65
000

9000
9 000

1000
1 000

500

Brazil

1993
1993

65000
65 000

45000
45
000

8000
8 000

13 000

33000
000

Portugal

1992

30000
30 000

b22000
b22
000

b5000
b5
000

26000
26
000

66000
000

India

1994

30000
30 000

b21000
b21
000

b4000
b4
000

Argentina

1993

30000
30 000

21000
21 000

4000
4 000

e10 000
Cio

22000
000

Mexico

1991

30000
30
000

22000
22 000

4000
4 000

5000
5 000

??

Honduras

1992

88000
000

66000
000

1000
1 000

5000
5 000

500

Venezuela

1993
1993

77000
000

55000
000

800

Greece

1993
1993

66000
000

4000
4 000

600

South Africa

1993
1993

22000
000

1500
1 500

200

Viet Nam

1990
1990

22000
000

1 500
1500

200

66000
000

4 000
4000

600

Total

Turpentine
Ttirpentine

Rosin

Turpentine

of which:
a/which:
China, People's Rep. of

Others

Source: Based
Based on
on various
various literature
literature and
and trade estimates
Source:
Notes: a Production
Production and
and exports
exports expected
expected to
to be
be sharply
sharply reduced for 1994/95
1994/95
b Does not
not include
include that
that produced
produced from
from imported
imported crude
crude resin
resin
c Mainly downstream derivatives
derivatives
- Indicates
Indicates small
small amounts
amounts

16
16

11000
000

CHAPTER 2

RAW MATERIALS AND INPUTS


RAW
RAW MATERIAL
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
The fundamental requirement is an adequate number of suitable, mature pine trees available
available
for exploitation over
over the
the lifetime
lifetimeof
of aa processing
processingplant.
plant. Both natural forests
forests and plantations
plantations
may
high tree density
density and
may be
be used,
used, although the high
and easier
easier terrain
terrain which
which enables
enablesthe
the tapper
tapper to
to
day, makes
makes resin
resin collection
collection cheaper
cheaper and
and easier
easier to
to manage
manage
visit a greater number of trees per day,
in plantations. If the annual
annual yield
yield of
of resin
resin isis 33 kg/tree,
kg/tree, at least 330 000 mature pine trees
would be necessary to provide
provide resin
resin feedstock to aa small
small processing
processing plant
plant with
with an
an annual
annual
throughput of 1000 tonnes.
Many
or more
more species,
species,
Many countries
countries have
have substantial
substantial resources
resourcesof
of pine
pine trees
trees of
of one or
either
as
natural
forests
of
indigenous
species
or
as
plantations
of
introduced
exotics.
either natural forests of indigenous species as plantations of introduced exotics.
capable of
of yielding
yielding resin, both the
the obtainable
obtainable yield
yield and
and the
the intrinsic
intrinsic
Although all pines are capable
quality of the rosin and turpentine
The way
way
turpentine can
can vary
vary considerably
considerablyaccording
accordingto
to the
the species.
species. The
in which these genetic factors can
can influence
influence resin characteristics at the species,
species, provenance
provenance
and
individual tree level are discussed
discussed in
in more
more detail
detail in
in Appendix
Appendix 3.
3. Species
and individual
Species selection is
therefore
crucial to the
the marketability
marketability of the products
products and
and the
the profitability
profitability of the
the overall
overall
therefore crucial
operation.
Theprincipal
principal pine
pine species
species tapped in various
various parts of the
the world
world have
have already
already
operation. The
Chapter 1.
1. It should be appreciated,
appreciated, however,
been noted in Chapter
however, that those which are tapped
are invariably
chosen from
from the standing resource already existing
existing within
within the
the country either
invariably chosen
or plantations.
plantations. Pines
usually planted
than
as natural stands or
Pines are
are usually
planted for
for timber
timber or pulp rather than
resin, and whether the species
species originally
originally selected for wood or
or fibre
fibre quality
quality are
are also
also suitable
suitable
production is
is aa matter
matter of
of chance.
chance. P.
P. patu/a,
patula , for example, which is
for resin production
is one of the most
widely
planted pines
pines in
in Africa,
Africa, produces
produces aa very
very poor quality resin
resin in low yields
and cannot
widely planted
yields and
be tapped economically.
As well
well as being dependent
dependent on the species of pine tapped,
tapped, the quantity of resin that
may
be obtained
from a particular
group of trees depends
obtained from
particular group
depends on a number of other factors.
factors.
may be
The most important of
of these
these include
include ambient
ambient temperature (and
(and altitude
altitude insofar
insofar as
as itit affects
affects
temperature), rainfall,
rainfall, diameter and crown size of the tree, method of tapping and
and length
length of
of
tapping season.
High
conducive to
resin flow,
flow, while
while prolonged
prolonged periods of
High temperatures
temperatures are
are conducive
to good resin
high rainfall are
are not, and
and the
the extent
extent of
of seasonal
seasonal changes
changes in
in climate
climate will
will largely determine the
the
period during the year when
when itit is
is profitable
profitabletototap
tap the
the trees.
trees. In
In temperate
temperate countries
countries such
such as
as
Portugal, tapping
tapping takes place for eight to nfrie
nine months
The time
time between
between the
the
months of
of the
the year.
year. The
replacing
tapping season
season and
and the beginning
beginning of
cleaning or replacing
end of one tapping
of the
the next is used for cleaning
tools and accessories and installing or raising gutter systems
and
cups
on
the
trees.
In more
more
systems and cups on the trees. In
prolonged cold
cold periods,
periods, tapping
tapping may
may proceed
proceed all
all year
year
tropical countries, where there are no prolonged
round, although seasonal
seasonal heavy
heavy rains
rains may
may interrupt
interrupt it.
it.
In general, the greater the diameter of the tree tapped and the bigger the proportion
of live
will
live crown, the
the greater
greater the
the resin
resin yields.
yields. Selection
Selection of groups of trees
trees for
for tapping
tapping will
therefore
be made
on the basis
of the
therefore be
made on
basis of
of utilizing
utilizing the
the oldest
oldest or largest
largest trees
trees available
available of

17

preferred species.
species. Plantation
15-20 years
years old before
before tapping
tapping
Plantation pines
pines are
are usually
usually at
at least
least 15-20
commences; some
with
commences;
some countries
countries have
have regulations
regulations which
which limit
limittapping
tappingtoto those
those trees with
diameters
greater
than
about
20-25
cm.
Comprehensive
data
are
available,
from
many
diameters greater
about 20-25 cm. Comprehensive data are available, from many
sources, relating diameter and
although such
and crown size to expected resin
resin yields
yields However, although
data may serve to illustrate the general dependence
dependence of
of yields
yields on
on tree
tree size,
size, they
they apply
apply only
only to
to
a particular species; they might
might also be
be misleading
misleading if used directly to estimate yields outside
country from which they
Furthermore, as resin yields
yields are
the country
they were
were derived.
derived. Furthermore,
are known
known to be
considerable provenance
provenance and
and tree-to-tree
tree-to-treevariations
variationsmay
mayexist.
exist. As a
genetically determined, considerable
guide,
species grown under favourable
favourable conditions
conditions can yield 3-4 kg/tree
kg/tree annually.
annually.
guide, suitable species
Minimum
is unlikely
unlikely that yields much below 2 kg
Minimum acceptable
acceptable yields
yields are
are around 2 kg/tree; it is
could support a viable resin tapping operation.
operation.
Tapping
assess yields
yields should
should therefore
thereforecomplement
complement any
anyfeasibility
feasibility stikly
stddy
Tapping trials to assess
which
examines the prospects for
for establishing
establishing a gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores industry.
industry. At the same
same
which examines
time,
time, samples
samples of the resin obtained
obtained should
should be
be analysed
analysedto
to determine
determinequality.
quality. Regardless
Regardless ot
of
derived from
from the resin is so
the quantity produced, if the quality of the rosin and turpentine derived
poor that the
the products
products are
are unacceptable
unacceptable to the market,
market, the trees will not be worth tapping.
Quality assessment
assessment criteria
criteria for gum rosin and gum turpentine
turpentine are described in Appendix 2.
In general, as far
far as
as international
international markets are concerned, the products from
from Portugal
Portugal and
and
the People's Republic of China will
from
will set the standards against which
which gum
gum naval
naval stores from
new sources will be judged.

RESIN TAPPING OPERATION


Resin
manner analogous
analogous to
rubber tapping
Resin is
is obtained
obtained from
from the
the tree
tree in a manner
to rubber
tapping except
except that the
exudate is more viscous
exudate
viscous and
and slow-running
slow-running than rubber
rubber latex.
latex. Tapping generally involves
involves
the following basic steps:
preparation of
of the
the face of
of the
the tree
tree
installation of the resin collection system
wounding of
of the
the tree
tree to
to induce
induce resin
resin flow
flow
application of a chemical formulation to stimulate and maintain resin flow
collection
collection of
of the resin, re-wounding
re-wounding of
of the tree, and
and application
application of
of the
the stimulant
stimulant at
at
suitable intervals.
some countries,
countries, traditional
traditional methods
not entail
entail
In some
methods of
of tapping
tapping are
are used
used which
which do
do not
application of a chemical stimulant and
and which are
are generally less efficient.
The precise manner in which the
the above
above steps
steps are
are carried
carried out in the various producer
countries has developed in different ways
ways over
over the
the course
course of
ofmany
manyyears.
years. Nevertheless, it is
generally
generally recognized
recognized that
that tapping
tapping should
should be
be carried
carried out
out carefully
carefully and
and in
in such
such aa way
way as
as to
Older methods
methods in which cuts were made
avoid permanent damage to the tree.
tree. Older
made deep
deep into
into the
wood have
have mostly
mostly been
been replaced
replaced by
by more
more modern
modem practices
practices involving
involving removal
removal of bark
bark
alone. Some
Someproducing
producingcountries
countrieshave
havespent
spentmuch
muchtime
timeand
andeffort
effortdeveloping
developing and
andrefining
refining
procedures and investigating the use of different materials
materials and
and accessories
accessories such
such as
as cups and
gutters. Others still adhere to traditional
traditional methods
methods and
and materials.
materials. In Indonesia,
Indonesia, trees are
are
tapped by the frequent removal of slivers
slivers of wood from
from the
the stem
stem without the application of
18

(although steps are being


being taken to introduce
introduce alternative
alternative methods
methods which
which do not
not
stimulant (although
still carried out which
which
InIndia,
India, although
although tapping
tapping is
is still
involve the removal of so much wood). In
in the
the form
form of
of'blazes',
'blazes', the
the 'rill'
'rill' method,
method, in
in which
which an
an
wood from
from the
the tree
tree in
entails removal of wood
acid-based stimulant
stimulant is
is applied
applied to small channels cut in the xylem in a 'herring bone' fashion,
Themethod
methodofoftapping
tappingusually
usuallyfollowed
followedininthe
thePeople's
People'sRepublic
Republic of
ofChina
Chinaisis
is advocated. The
involves moving
unusual because it involves
moving down
down the
the tree
tree during
during the
the course
course of
of the season rather
than
than starting
starting at
at the
the base
base and
andmoving
moving up;
up; although
although the
the benefits
benefits of
of using
using stimulants
stimulants to
enhance resin
resin yields
yields have
have been
been demonstrated,
demonstrated, the
the practice
practice has not
not been widely adopted.
adopted.
enhance
The particular style
style of
of tapping
tapping employed
employed may
may also
also be
be influenced
influenced by
by the
the ex-tent
extent to
which the trees
which
trees are
are used
used for
for purposes
purposes other
other than
than naval
naval stores
stores production.
production. If tapping is
is
on plantation
plantation pines,
pines, for
for which
which the principal
principal interest is the final
final sale of the
the logs
logs
conducted on
pulpwood, the
the common
common practice
practice is to tap
tap fairly
fairly intensively,
intensively, using
for sawtimber or pulpwood,
using aa wide
wide
are no
no
face, for four years (perhaps
(perhaps extending to
to six or eight
eight years)
years) prior
prior to
to felling.
felling. If there are
pressing demands for
for felling, or if there is a large enough number of trees available
available to allow
allow
the use of
of aa narrow
narrow face
face and
and still
still maintain
maintain the required production overall,
overall, tapping
tapping may
may be
be
carried out
out for
for up
up to
to 20
20 years
years or
or more
more on
on the same
same group of trees.
are now
now described.
described.
Systems of tapping developed in the United States and Portugal are
entail the removal
removal of bark
bark and
and the
the application
application of sulphuric
sulphuric acid
stimulant, but
Both entail
acid as
as a stimulant,
whereas
wide face
face for
for intensive
intensive tapping,
tapping, the latter uses
uses aa narrow
narrow face
face
whereas the former uses aa wide
with a simpler system
system of
of guttering. The
Thetwo
two methods
methods are
are illustrated
illustrated in
in Figure
Figure 1.
1.
Figure
Figure 11
Systems of resin tapping using a wide and narrow face

.../

i \.,

'II,
"1

,r

,\"
\./

I'

0\.\., \ \I 'v

II

V II
1

lv

N
IV

l/

Face
I-----Face

'(

.:.:....:.
v

Double-headed
Doubleheaded
naiis
nails

"-

t. - -

r-T-~Apron/
gutter
Apron/gutter

-+,,-T-- Resi
n rece
iver
Resn
receiver

V\

Nail

--~-'+--4r-

,"",

\ \"\

" \..'

Either
Either method,
method, adapted
adapted to
to meet
meet local
local circumstances
circumstances where necessary,
necessary, could
could be
be
adopted by intending new producers.
producers. Both
Bothsystems
systems are
are well
well documented
documented and
and the intention
intention
here
only to
to give
giveananoutline
outlineofofthe
themethods
methodsand
andmaterials
materialsused,
used,highlighting
highlighting the
the
here is only
differences
systems, rather
differences between
between the
the two systems,
rather than
than to
to offer a complete
complete guide
guide to
to tapping
tapping with
with
detailed descriptions of
of tools
tools and
and accessories.
accessories.

19

Variations of the US system


system have been used in many
many parts of the world
world including
including
Variations
America, and
Countries using
using the
the
Brazil, other countries in Central and South America,
and Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe. Countries
method include Mediterranean
Mediterranean producers, South Africa and Kenya.
Kenya.
Portuguese narrow face method
Alternative
Alternative tapping procedures
procedures which
which may
may be
beused
usedin
inother
other countries
countries are
are not
not described
described here
here
because they
they are
are generally
generally
because their
use is limited
limited to aa particular
particular country,
country, or because
either because
their use
considered to be less efficient.

System of tapping
tapping using a wide face
In order to facilitate
facilitate installation
installation of
of the
the collection
collection system
systemon
ontrees
trees which
whichare
areto
to be
be worked
worked

for the first time, the rough outer bark is first removed
removed from
from the
the area
area at
at the
the base
base of
of the
the tree
tree
be fixed.
fixed. This
Thisrough
roughshaving
shaving isis usually
usually extended
extended for part of the way
way up
up the
the
where it is to be
make the
the subsequent
subsequent tapping easier.
easier. Although
Although aa two-piece
two-piece apron
apron and
and gutter
gutter system
system
tree to make
made of galvanized iron is illustrated in Figure 1, this has been dispensed with in Brazil and
a specially
specially designed
face and
and isis
designed plastic
plastic bag
bag is
is used
used instead;
instead; this
this fits
fits across
across the width of the face
held flush
flush to
to the tree
This system
held
tree by
by wire
wire which
which goes
goes round
round it.
it. This
system is simpler,
simpler, cheaper and
and
quicker to install than the cup and
and gutter
gutter system,
system, and
and does
does not
not risk
risk contaminating
contaminating the resin
resin
with dissolved iron (which may
rnay result
result from
from the
the corrosive action of the acid stimulant on the
galvanized
risk of
of leaving
leaving the nails
nails used
galvanized iron
iron gutter
gutter if its
its application
application isis over-zealous).
over-zealous). The risk
to fix the apron/gutter
apron/gutter system
system in the tree after
after tapping
tapping has
has finished,
finished, and of damaging
damaging saw
saw
blades
more
blades ifif the
the trees
trees are destined
destined for
for sawtimber,
sawtimber,isisalso
alsoremoved.
removed. However,
However, itit is
is rather
rather more
difficult
to
remove
the
resin
from
the
bags
without
wastage
than
from
the
rigid
system,
and
difficult to
rigid system, and
the bags have a shorter life.
life. The
Theapron/gutter
apron/gutter system
system can
can be
be nailed
nailed in position using five
five
double-headed nails
nails which
facilitate later removal
which are
are easy
easy to remove and facilitate
removal of the guttering.
Immediately
made of
of galvanized
galvanized iron,
iron, aluminium
aluminium or durable
durable
Immediately below
below the
the guttering,
guttering, a cup made
plastic
is
fixed;
it
is
supported
on
a
large
nail
and
held
in
place
by
the
bottom
edge
of the
the
plastic is fixed; it is supported on
nail and held in place by the
of
Zimbabwe, galvanized
galvanized iron
iron gutters and
and aa small
small spout are
are used
used to
to direct
direct the
the resin
resin
apron. InInZimbabwe,
into glass jars.
A horizontal
horizontal strip
strip of
of bark
bark 2-2.5
2-2.5 cm
cm high
high isis removed
removed across
across the
the width
width of
of the
the tree,
tree,
above the gutter,
gutter, to
tocause
causethe
theresin
resintotoflow
flowand
andthe
thechemical
chemicalstimulant,
stimulant, usually
usually acidacidjust above
based, is applied
along the
the top edge of the
based,
applied along
the exposed
exposed tissue ('streakt).
('streak'). The
The combination
combination of
of
bark removal
and acid
acid treatment
treatment makes
makesitit unnecessary
unnecessarytotocut
cutinto
intothe
thewood
wood to
to open
open the
the
bark
removal and
is
resin ducts,
Wounding to the tree is
ducts, which
which was
was characteristic
characteristic of
of older
older methods
methodsof
oftapping.
tapping. Wounding
therefore
only superficial
superficial and
growth during
during tapping
tapping is
is minimal.
minimal. The acid
acid also
also
therefore only
and loss
loss in growth
maintains resin
maintains
resin flow
flow for
for aa longer
longer period
period of
of time
time and
and the
the tapper,
tapper, instead
instead of
of having
having to
to return
to the face within two to four
four days,
days, as
as is
is the
the case
case when
when traditional
traditional methods of tapping are
used, need not repeat the task
task until
until some
some weeks
weeks later, at which
which time the bark
bark is
is removed
removed
used,
above
and
adjacent
to
the
first
streak.
In
this
manner,
a
two-week
tapping
interval
using aa
above and adjacent
In this manner, a two-week tapping interval using
streak height of 2 cm would necessitate
necessitate about
about 16
16 visits
visits to
to the
the tree
tree in the
the course of an eight
season, and
vertical face
high, down which
which
month tapping
tapping season,
and would
would result
result in
in a vertical
face about 32 cm high,
A shorter
shorter tapping
tapping interval,
interva1, say 10 days, would use a streak
the resin would flow to the cup.
cup. A
height proportionately less than 2 cm.
50% solution
solution of
of sulphuric
sulphuric
The first type of
of stimulant
stimulant to be
be used
used commercially
commercially was a 50%
acid,
production
acid, applied
applied as
as a fine
fine spray
spray from
from aa plastic
plastic bottle.
bottle. Later developments led to the production
specially formulated
applied as
of a specially
formulated sulphuric
sulphuric acid
acidpaste.
paste. This is applied
as a thin bead from
from a plastic
and is
is now
now quite
quitewidely
widely used,
used, although
although the
the precise
precise formulation
formulation varies
varies somewhat
somewhat
bottle and

20

according to the availability


of local
local materials.
materials.*
As well
well as
as being
according
availability of
* As
being less wasteful
wasteful and less
the person
person using
using it,
it, the
the paste
paste has
hasthe
theadvantage
advantage of
ofrequiring
requiring slightly
slightly less
less
hazardous to the
hazardous
of the paste
applications than the
the spray.
spray. The greater penetration
penetration of
paste requires
requires the
the
frequent applications
removal of a bigger strip of bark than normal;
normal; so in spite
spite of
of fewer
fewer visits
visits to
to the
the tree,
tree, the
the total
height of the face
spray. Whichever
Whichever type
type of
of stimulant
stimulant
face worked is about the same as
as for the spray.
is used, its
its strength,
strength, frequency
frequency of application,
application, and the height of bark
bark removed
removed should
should be
at each
each removal
removal of bark there is some live xylem
optimized so that at
xylem tissue
tissue showing.
showing. This is
indicated
wood above
above the
the line
line which
which shows
extent of
indicatedby
by the
the paler
paler colour
colour of
of the
the wood
shows the
the extent
penetration of
acid from the
the previous
previous streak;
streak; the wood below
below the line
line is
is darker
darker and
and
penetration
of the acid
Morerecent
recentresearch
researchhas
has shown
shown that
thatinclusion
inclusion in
in the
the formulation
formulation of 22redder in colour. More
chloroethylphosphonic acid
acid (e.g.
chemicalused
usedto
to enhance
enhance yields
yields of latex in
chloroethylphosphonic
(e.g. EthrelTm),
EthreI), aa chemical
rubber tapping, also has beneficial effects on resin production.
production. However, further research is
demonstrate the
the long-term
long-term benefits
benefits and it is not thought to be
be used
used commercially
commercially
needed to demonstrate
in tapping pine trees at present.

During
the course
on the
the face
face of
of the tree before
During the
course of its flow
flow some
some resin solidifies
solidifies on
before
reaching
The extent
extent to
to which
which this
this happens
happens depends
depends on the species
species of pine
pine
reaching the
the receiver.
receiver. The
Thesolid
solidmay
maybe
bescraped
scrapedoff
offperiodically
periodically during
during the season,
season, or
or ititmay
may be
be left
left
being tapped. The
to the end and collected and
and processed separately
separately from the bulk of
of the resin
resin as
as itit will
will yield
yield a
slightly lower grade of rosin.
about six
six monthly
monthly intervals,
the season,
season, the
cup and gutter
gutter
At about
intervals,oror atat the
the end
end of
of the
the cup
system
is
removed
and
re-installed
where
the
last
removal
of
bark
was
made;
a
second
system is removed and re-installed where the last removal of bark was made; second
season's
This is repeated for a third, fourth and, perhaps,
perhaps,
season's tapping
tapping can
can then
then be
be carried
carried out.
out. This
fifth
fifth season (3-4 years in total),
total), when the height finally
finally attained
attainedisislikely
likelytotobe
betoo
too great
great for
for
a person to reach
reach and
and itit becomes
becomes uneconomic
uneconomic to
Depending on the
the
to proceed
proceed any
any higher.
higher. Depending
intended use
use for
for the trees, it may
to initiate
second face
face for
for tapping
tapping on
on the
intended
may be possible
possible to
initiate aa second
opposite side of the trunk.

System of tapping
tapping using a narrow face
Procedures using a narrow face are
are also
also based
based on the removal of bark with acid treatment.
However, the use of a narrower face, usually 10 cm wide, brings with it several advantages,
advantages,
the most important being
being the
A small,
small, flat,
flat,
the simpler
simpler system
systemof
ofguttering
gutteringthat
thatcan
canbe
be used.
used. A
arc-shaped piece
piece of
of galvanized
iron isis inserted
inserted edgewise
edgewiseinto
intothe
the shaved
shaved part
part of the tree
arc-shaped
galvanized iron
tree
with a special tool; it requires no
no nails
nails to
to hold
hold itit in
in place.
place. A clay or plastic pot is supported
under it by
by aa single
single nail
nail or
or wooden
wooden splint;
splint; in
in appropriate
appropriate circumstances,
circumstances, a bamboo cup or
coconut shell
The height
height of bark removed at each visit to
shell can
can be
be used
used as
as the resin
resin receiver.
receiver. The
is similar
similar to that
that for
for aa wide
wide face,
face, about
about2-2.5
2-2.5cm;
cm; the
thetapping
tappingschedule
schedule(using
(usingspray
spray
the tree is
or paste-based stimulant)
stimulant) is also similar.
After working on one vertical
vertical face for four
four years,
years,
similar. After
**In
In addition
addition to the
the sulphuric
sulphuric acid
acid solution
solution itself, a typical paste contains small amounts
amounts of
of aa lubricant-cumlubricant-cumsurfactant
(to
reduce
drying
out
and
prevent
sticking
of
the
paste
to
the
sides
of
the
container),
an acidacidsurfactant (to reduce drying out and prevent sticking of the paste to
the container), an
stable
and aqueous
aqueous phases),
pyrogenic silica
stable emulsifier
emulsifier (to
(to prevent
prevent separation
separationof
of the
the oil
oil and
phases), aa pyrogenic
silica (to
(to act
act as aa
thickener)
carrier such
such as
as finely
finely graded
graded pecan shell or rice bran flour (to
(to impart adhesive
adhesive qualities to
to
thickener) and a carrier
the paste and provide texture).
The concentration
concentration of
of the acid
acid used to make the paste may be between
between 40%
texture). The
40%
and 60% (w/w) depending on the tapping method used and the climatic conditions
conditions under which the paste is
applied.
applied. Note:
Note: appropriate
appropriate safety precautions
precautions should
should be
be taken
takenwhen
whenpreparing,
preparing,handling
handling and
and using
using strongly
strongly
acidic
acidic materials and their formulations.

21

another may be
In this
this way,
way, four
four or
or five
five faces,
faces,
be started about 10 cm to one side of the
the first.
first. In
years, may
may be worked
worked on
on large
large trees.
trees. If the trees are
are large
large enough,
enough,
each lasting for four years,
or more
more faces
faces may
maybe
beworked
workedsimultaneously;
simultaneously; however,
however, although
although they
they will
will be
be higher,
higher,
two or
two faces
faces are
are not
not twice
twice that
that for
for aa single
single face.
resin yields for two
Tapping remains
remains essentially
manual operation
used, and
and
Tapping
essentially aa manual
operation whatever
whatever system
system is used,
although attempts
attempts have
have been
the United
United States, to introduce
although
been made,
made, notably
notably in the
mechanization
for
some
of
the
tasks,
particularly
those
which
arephysically
physically demanding
demanding
mechanization for some the tasks, particularly those which are
initial shaving
shaving of
and the
the removal
removal of
of bark,
bark, they
they have
have met
met with
with little
little
such as the initial
of the
the tree and
success.
The
tools
and
accessories
required
for
tapping
are
relatively
few
and
simple
success. The tools and accessories required for tapping are relatively
simple and
and
include the following:
bark shaving tool
cup or other form of receiver
guttering
nail(s)
nail (s) (to
(to support cup and/or to fix guttering)
hammer
bark hack
file or whetting stone (for
(for sharpening bark hack)
sulphuric acid-based stimulant (liquid
(liquid or
or paste)
bottle (plastic,
(plastic, for
for application
application of
of acid)
acid)
bucket (into
(into which resin
resin from cup
cup is
is emptied)
emptied)
funnel (for
(for transfer of resin from bucket to drum)
drum or barrel
protective clothing and
and accessories
accessories (for
(for tapper, including
including visor
visor or
or goggles,
goggles, acidacidapron or
or other
other garment,
garment, and
and rubber
rubber boots).
boots).
proof gloves, plastic apron

LABOUR AND
AND ORGANIZATION
Labour
requirements and
Labour requirements
and organization
organization during
during the
the tapping
tapping season
season vary
vary from
from producer
producer to
involve the
the removal
removal of
of bark
bark and
producer. Methods
Methods of tapping
tapping which
which involve
and application
application of a
chemical stimulant usually mean that the tapper
tapper only
only needs
needs to
to visit
visit the
the tree every 7-14 days;
the interval may be even longer
longer under
under favourable
favourable conditions
conditions and
andusing
usingacid
acidpaste.
paste. Methods
visits,
which involve the removal of wood without applying stimulant require more frequent visits,
every
three days,
days, and
and are
are therefore
therefore more
more demanding
demanding in terms of
of labour.
labour. Resin is
is
every one
one to three
emptied
visit depending
depending on the system
system of
of
emptied from
from the receiver every second,
second, third
third or fourth visit
tapping used and the size of the receiver.
It
is
emptied
into
buckets
and
the
full
buckets
are
receiver. It is emptied
emptied into drums or barrels strategically
When full,
full, the
the drums
drums
strategically located
located amongst
amongst the
the trees.
trees. When
are transported directly
directly to
to the
the processing
processing plant
plant or
or to
to aa central
central storage
storage depot.
depot.
Productivity
system of tapping used and the
the efficiency
efficiency of the
Productivity is
is dependent
dependent on
on the system
tapper;
also influenced
influenced by
density and
tapper; it is also
by tree
tree density
and the
the terrain
terrain over
over which
which the
the tapper
tapper has
has to
move when
Between 200
200 and
and 800
800 faces
faces may be attended
attended in one
move
when going
going from
from tree
tree to
to tree.
tree. Between
day, so in a two-week cycle of 10 working
working days,
days, 2000-8000
2000-8000 trees
trees (or less
less if
if more
more than
than one
one

22

face is being worked per tree) can be tapped by one person. Although
Althoughaadifferent
differentindividual
individual
usually collects the accumulated resin from
division of labour
from the trees, there may also be a division
Forexample,
example, one
oneperson
personininaateam
teammay
maybe
beresponsible
responsible for
for
amongst the tappers themselves. For
applying the
(which is
covered or
applying
the stimulant
stimulant and/or
and/or replacing
replacingthe
thecup
cupon
on the
the tree
tree (which
is either covered
avoid pieces
pieces of bark falling
falling into
it) while the others carry out
out
removed during streaking to avoid
into it)
streaking.
the strealdng.
addition to the
the tappers,
tappers, small
small teams
teams of
of people
people are
are required
required during
during the
the
In addition

establishment and
and maintenance
maintenancephases:
phases:totoshave
shavethe
thetrees
trees and
and install
installthe
the cups
cups and
and gutters
gutters
establishment
tapping new
new groups
groups of
of trees
trees (establishment),
(establishment), and
remove the
prior to tapping
and to
to remove
the cups and gutters
and repeat the process at the end of one season in preparation for the next (maintenance).
systems of
of remuneration
remuneration exist.
exist. The hourly
hourly wage
wage system,
system, which
which requires
requires
Several systems
constant
supervision, increases
incentive to
constant supervision,
increases production
productioncosts
costs and
and gives
gives the
the labourers
labourers no
no incentive
to
work efficiently.
efficiently. A
A system
system in
in which contractors or pieceworkers undertake the tapping has
advantage of
of relieving
relieving management
management of
problems associated
associated with
the advantage
of some
some of the problems
with having
having a
the quantity
quantity of
of resin
resin
large labour force under its direct control, and payment on the
the basis
basis of
of the
checking is
is still
still
produced
encourages higher
Some supervision
supervision or checking
produced encourages
higher levels
levels of
of production.
production. Some
ensure that tapping
tapping is
is being
being carried out correctly,
correctly, and a system
system of bonuses
bonuses or
or
required
required to ensure
penalties
may
be
adopted
to
reward
productivity
and
penalize
poor
workmanship.
In
some
penalties may be adopted to reward productivity and penalize poor workmanship. In some
5000; he can then
then
countries
allocated a specific
specific number
countries a plot-holder is allocated
number of
of trees,
trees, perhaps 5000;
or involve
involve other
other members
members of
of
employ extra tapping labour at his
his own expense if he needs it, or
his family.

23

CHAPTER 33
CHAPTER

PROCESSING AND PLANT DESCRIPTION


INTRODUCTION
The separation of resin
resin into its
its component
component parts,
parts, rosin
rosin and
and turpentine,
turpentine, involves
involves two
two basic
basic
Cleaning
is
necessary
to
remove
all
extraneous
operations:
cleaning
and
distillation.
Cleaning
is
necessary
to
remove
all
extraneous
operations: cleaning and distillation.
forest debris
the resin,
resin, looth
both solid
solid and
and soluble.
soluble. This includes
includes forest
debris such as bark,
bark,
material from the
tree,
pine needles
needles and insects, which
which may
may have
have fallen
fallen into
into the
the cup
cup during
during its
its period on the tree,
Water-soluble impurities
impuritiescarried
carried into
into the
the cup by
removal by
by filtration.
filtration. Water-soluble
and which require removal
The
approximate
rain
water
are
removed
by
washing
the
filtered
resin
with
water.
approximate
rain
are removed by washing the filtered resin with water.
received at the plant for processing, is 70% rosin, 15%
15%
composition of crude resin, as it is received
produced by the corrosive
corrosive
turpentine and 15% debris
debris and
and water.
water. Small
Small amounts
amounts of
of iron produced
turpentine
sulphuric acid on galvanized iron guttering and cups may also contaminate
action of excess sulphuric
As the
thepresence
presence of
of iron
iron would
would lead
lead to
to aa darker,
darker, lower-grade
lower-grade rosin,
rosin, it is removed
the resin. As
filtration. Iron
Ironcontamination
contaminationhas
has become
become less
less of
of aaproblem
problem
by adding oxalic acid prior to filtration.
of acid
acid paste
paste rather
rather than
than spray has
use of
as the use
has become
become more
more widely
widelyadopted.
adopted. The use of
plastic or
or other
other non-ferrous
non-ferrous material
material eliminates
eliminates the risk of iron contamination
contamination
cups made of plastic
from this source.
source.
distilled, or, to
to be
be precise,
precise, steam-distilled;
steam-distilled; the
the
The cleaned resin is then ready to be distilled,
direct-fired still
still has given
given way, almost universally,
universally, to a still
still in which
which steam
steam is
is
older type of direct-fired
used both
both to
to heat
heat the
theresin
resinand
andtotofacilitate
facilitatethe
thedistillation
distillation by
byco-distilling
co-distilling with the
the
used
turpentine
Designs of
of equipment,
equipment, and
and the
the procedures
procedures followed,
followed, vary somewhat
somewhat
turpentine vapours.
vapours. Designs
and used
used in the United
between producing countries.
countries. The Olustee
Olustee process,
process, developed
developed and
United
States and adopted elsewhere, is described first.
The methodology
methodology is
is well
well documented, and
and
first. The
since
differences between
since the
the differences
betweenthis
this and
and any
any other
other system
system of
of processing
processing are
are likely
likely to
to be
matters of detail rather than principle,
principle, aa description
description of
of the
the process
process serves
serves as
as a useful guide
resin. The
to any prospective processor of crude resin.
The final
final design of plant can be tailored to
to suit
suit
A description
is then
local
preferences and
requirements in
terms of scale.
scale. A
description is
then given
given of
of
local preferences
and requirements
in terms
Portuguese
principles as
Olustee process,
Portuguese methods
methods which
which are
are based
based on
on the
the same principles
as the
the Olustee
process, but
but
which
equipment and
relative capacity
the units.
units.
which differ
differ in
in the
the layout of equipment
and the relative
capacity of
of some
some of the
Processing methods
methods used
used in
in other
other producing
producingcountries
countriesare
arenot
notdescribed.
described. To
To aa greater
greater or
Processing
all follow the same
same basic
basic principles,
principles, namely,
namely, filtration
diluted
lesser degree they all
filtration of the hot, diluted
resin, usually including
including aa washing
washing stage,
stage, and
and steam-distillation.
steam-distillation.

OLUSTEE
PROCESS FOR THE
THE PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION OF
OF TURPENTINE
TURPENTINE
OLUSTEE PROCESS
AND ROSIN
is illustrated
illustrated in
in Figure
Figure2.2. Barrels of resin arriving
The scheme of processing is
arriving at the plant are
immediately weighed
grill covering a large concrete or
or mild
mild steel
steel
weighed and
and upturned
upturned over an iron grill
the adhering
adhering
dump
Thebarrels
barrels are
are placed
placed over
over steam
steam outlets to remove
remove the last of the
dump vat.
vat. The
'Scrape', the
the solidified
solidifiedresin
resinwhich
whichisistaken
takenoff
offthe
theface
faceofofthe
the tree
tree at
at the
the
semi-solid resin. 'Scrape',
the season
season and
and which
which yields
yields aa poorer
poorer quality
quality rosin,
rosin, is emptied
emptied into
into aa separate
separate
end
end of the
compartment for separate
separate processing.
processing.

24

Figure 2
Scheme
in processing
States of America
Scheme of
of res
resin
processing inin the
the United States

S
I( ~ ( lll \
Stearn

J.-----.

[J l lIl1P va l

Was il

1<1 111,

W a l el
Water

""me
Steam-

...
Bl ow -

Co n den se r
Condenser

W"s il l a nk

N
VI

Trap

Charge
tank

,... ..

51111
Still

+
~--

In

C d S~

p. u " ve l

To

turpentine
receiver

S ieil lll
dlllllP

W it, h

vat

Se p a l a to l
Separator

w a le r

De hydr
3 10r
De
iyiliator

Source:: Based
on McConnell
McConnell (19631
(1963)
Source
Based on

In order to facilitate
facilitate the flow
flow from
another, the
from one
one unit
unit to
to another,
the resin
resin has
has to be diluted
with
Aswell
wellas
asmaking
making the
theresin
resinmore
morefluid,
fluid, dilution
dilution lowers
lowers its
its
with turpentine
turpentine and
and heated.
heated. As
specific
washing stage
will form
two-phase system
system with
with
specific gravity,
gravity, so
so that
that in the later washing
stage it will
form a two-phase
water more readily.
readily. The
The resin
resin isis transferred
transferred first from
from the dump vat to aa blow-case,
blow-case, and
and
then from the blow-case to a melter,
Filter aid
aid (diatomaceous
(diatomaceous
melter, by
by the
the use
use of
of steam
steam pressure.
pressure. Filter
resin) and oxalic
oxalic acid
earth, 0.5-0.6 kg/tonne of resin)
acid (0.6-1.2
(0.6-1.2 kg/tonne)
kg/tonne) are
are added
added at
at either
either of
units. Turpentine
Turpentine (from
(from a previous
previous distillation)
distillation) isis added
turpentine
the two units.
added to
to bring the turpentine
content of the
the resin
resin to
to between
between 30%
content
30% and
and 40%;
40%; the
theprecise
precise amount
amount added
added depends
depends on
on
The temperature
whether good quality
quality resin or
or 'scrape'
'scrape' is
is being
being processed.
processed. The
temperature inside
inside the
whether
melter is raised to 85-100C by steam, the exact
exact temperature
temperature again
again being
being dependent on the
the
quality
Steam pressure
pressure is then used to force the hot resin first through a metal
metal
quality of
of the
the resin.
resin. Steam
screen at the bottom of the melter to remove the larger sized
solid
matter,
and
then
through
sized solid matter, and then through
remaining solids.
The filter
filter is of the horizontal
horizontal or vertical
vertical plate
plate type
type
a filter
filter to remove all remaining
solids. The
or cloth;
cloth; filtration
filtration is
is assisted
assisted by
by the
the
and consists of about 12
12 plates
plates backed
backed with
with filter
filter paper
paper or
The resin
resin passes
passes directly from the filter to the bottom
bottom of
of aa wash
wash
filter aid added previously. The
1500-2000 litres
litres of
ofwater
waterwhich
whichisissufficient
sufficient
tank containing
containing hot water.
water. Each
Eachtank
tankholds
holds1500-2000
20 000
000 litres
litres of
ofresin
resin (about
(about seven
seven charges
charges from
from the
the melter).
me Iter) . After
washing up to 20
for washing
washing, the mixture
mixture is
allowed
to
settle
for
at
least
4
hours
and
preferably
overnight.
is allowed to settle for at least 4 hours and preferably overnight. The
bottom aqueous layer is then run off to waste,
waste, an
an intermediate
intermediate layer of unbroken emulsion
('muck') is
returned to the low grade dump vat for reprocessing,
reprocessing, and
('muck')
is run
run off
off to
to be returned
and the top
layer, which
which consists
consistsofof washed
washedresin,
resin,isis drained
drainedand
andpumped
pumpedtoto aa charge
tank in
layer,
charge tank
preparation for
for distillation.*
distillation. *
preparation

The still is filled


filled with
with resin
resinfrom
fromthe
thecharge
chargetank.
tank. The temperature is
is then raised
raised by
by
means
about 110C
110C atat which
which point
point live
live steam
steam isisgradually
gradually introduced
introduced
means of steam coils to about
through sparger valves.
valves. As
As the
the temperature
temperature continues
continues to rise, distillation
distillation proceeds
proceeds and
and the
the
inflow is increased
increased until,
end of
of the
the distillation,
distillation, the
the temperature
temperature has
has
sparger steam inflow
until, at the end
reached
160-170C. The
The rate
rate of
ofincrease
increase in
in temperature,
temperature, and therefore the time taken for
reached 160-170C.
the distillation,
distillation, is dependent on the steam pressure used; the higher the pressure within
within the
the
2
kg/cm (125-150
(125-150 psi),
range 8.8-10.5 kg/cm2
psi), the
the faster
faster the
the distillation.
distillation. For still capacities of about
4-5 tonnes, distillation times
times vary
vary between
between90
90and
and150
150minutes.
minutes. If
If the
the steam
steam pressure
pressure is
is too
too
will be more difficult
difficult to remove the last
last of
of the
the turpentine
turpentine (particularly
(particularly if there are
are
low, it will
appreciable
amounts
of
high-boiling
components)
and
there
will
be
an
inordinately
long
appreciable amounts high-boiling components) and there will be inordinately
residence time for the hot rosin in the still; both these factors have an adverse effect on the
quality of the rosin.
The turpentine
turpentine and
and steam
steam vapours pass through an entrainment
rosin. The
entrainment trap
trap to
remove any entrained resin
resin and
and then
then condense
condense in
in aa water-cooled
water-cooled condenser.
condenser. Completion of
distillation isis indicated
minimal level
level of turpentine
turpentine in the
the distillate
distillate (which,
(which, by
by
distillation
indicated by
by a minimal
experience,
is found
found to
to correspond
correspond to a particular
temperature). A
experience, is
particular temperature).
A small
small proportion of the
turpentine coming
the beginning
beginning and
and end of
of the
the distillation
distillation may
may be
be collected
collected
turpentine
coming over
over at
at the
separately as slightly lower-quality
lower-quality turpentine,
turpentine, and
and used
used for
for diluting
diluting the
the next batch of resin
at the melter.
Otherwise, there
there is
is no
no fractionation.
melter. Otherwise,
water-turpentine distillate
distillate is
immediately to
separating tank;
tank; the upper
upper
The water-turpentine
is led
led immediately
to a separating
turpentine
layer
overflows
and
passes
first
down
to
the
base
of
the
dehydrator
and
then
turpentine layer overflows and passes first down to
the dehydrator and then
upwards through
remove all traces
Thedry
dryturpentine
turpentine isis
upwards
through a bed of rock salt to remove
traces of
of water.
water. The
** Simple
than continuous
continuous or
or vacuum
vacuwn distillation,
distillation, is
is most
most commonly
commonly used
used and
and isisdescribed
described
Simple batch,
batch, rather than
here, although the other methods offer some advantages
advantages in terms of product quality
quality and steam
steam conswnption
consumption
of resin
resin to
to justify
justify their
their use.
use.
if there is sufficient throughput of

26

holding tanks for subsequent storage in bulk


then fed to holding
bulk or
or in
in galvanized
galvanizedsteel
steeldrums.
drums. The
rosin from
from the
the body
body of
of the
the still
still isis discharged
discharged from the bottom into
into suitable
suitable containers
containers
hot rosin
are set
set aside
aside for
for the
the rosin
rosin to
to cool
cool and
and solidify.
solidify.
which are
Yields
turpentine obtained
Yields of
of rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
obtained by
by US
US producers
producers were
were about
about 700
700 kg
kg and
160
respectively, from
resin. 'Scrape
'Scrape' yields
yields less
less turpentine
160 litres
litres (140 kg), respectively,
from one
one tonne of resin.
than normal
Specifications for both products are given
normal resin.
resin. Specifications
given in
in Appendix
Appendix2.2. The general
and bright,
bright, pale yellow-brown in colour, and
appearance of the rosin should be hard, clear and
turbidity due
due to
to the
the presence
presence of
ofmoisture.
moisture.
with no visible
visible sign
sign of foreign
foreign matter
matter or turbidity
with
Packaging options
turpentine and
rosin are
are described
described below,
below, but
but more
more detailed
detailed
Packaging
options for
for turpentine
and rosin
packaging and labelling requirements are given in Appendix 4.
The materials
materials used
used for
for the
the construction
construction of
of the
the plant
plant are
are important.
important. The dump vat is
or mild
mild steel
steel and
and the
the blow-case
blow-case isis mild
mild steel.
steel. In order to avoid
avoid corrosion by the
concrete or
acidic
resin is handled
handled should
stainless steel;
melter,
acidic material,
material, any
any area
area where
where hot
hot resin
should be stainless
steel; the melter,
all
filter (where it comes into contact with the resin), charge tank, still and all pipework are all
therefore made of stainless
steel. The
or stainless
stainlesssteel.
steel. The
stainless steel.
The wash
wash tank may
may be aluminium
aluminium or
condenser, separator
separator and
and dehydrator
dehydrator are
are also
also usually
usually of
of stainless
stainless steel.
steel.

between 2.5
2.5 and
and 5 tonnes of resin when
when
In the United States, melter
melter capacity varied between
number of independent
independent processors.
There were
were usually
usually two or
or more
more wash
wash
there were aa number
processors. There
of resin
resin and
and each providing material for four
tanks, each capable of holding up to 22 tonnes of
distillations.
Operation
of
two
stills,
or
double
shifts,
allowed
up to 10
10 000
000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin
resin
distillations. Operation of two stills, or double shifts,
in aa year.
to be processed in

PRODUCTION OF
OF TURPENTINE
TURPENTINE AND
AND ROSIN IN PORTUGAL
The scheme of processing followed in Portugal is based on the same
same principles
principles which led to
some of the units which
the development
development of
Olustee process
of the
the Olustee
process in
in the
the United
United States
States but
but some
The process
make
the plant
plant differ
differ inindesign
design and
andcapacity.
capacity. The
process lay-out
lay-out is
is illustrated
illustrated
make up the
diagrammatically in Figure 3.
Metal
Metal drums
drums containing
containing resin
resin are
are unloaded
unloaded at
at the dump
dump vat.
vat. To facilitate
facilitate the
the
emptying
(which is the most
most labour-intensive
labour-intensive part
emptying of
of the drums (which
part of
of the whole process), aa
rectangular section (measuring
(measuring about
about25
25cm
cmxx15
15cm)
cm)isiscut
cutout
outof
ofthe
theside
sidebefore
beforeuse.
use. The
The
section
is
then
replaced
but
can
easily
be
removed
subsequently
as
required.
On
receipt,
section
replaced
easily be removed subsequently as required.
receipt,
the drums are rolled on their sides to the vat
vat opening
opening and the resin is forced out with
with large
large
spatulas. Resin
Resinfrom
from the
the dump
dump vat
vatisisfed
feddirectly
directly into
into aamixer
mixer (the
(the equivalent
equivalent of
of the
the melter
melter
in the previous scheme)
scheme) with no intermediate
The mixer,
mixer,
intermediate transfer
transfer to
to and
and from
from aa blow-case.
blow-case. The
containing vessel
rather than being just a containing
vessel like
like the
the melter,
melter, incorporates
incorporatesaa stirrer
stirrer so
so that
that the
the
including the added
added turpentine
turpentine and
and oxalic
oxalic acid
acid (if
(if used),
used), can
can be
be thoroughly
thoroughly mixed
mixed
contents, including
as well as heated.
significant difference
of live
live
Another significant
difference isis the
the addition
addition of
of washing
washing water
water in
in the form of
steam (up
(up to 10%)
10%) at this stage rather than
than in
in liquid
liquidform
formatataa later
laterstage.
stage. The hot mixture
mixture
steam
is
the larger
larger solid
solid impurities;
impurities; this occurs in
in a
is next passed through a metal screen to take out the
separate vessel rather than at the bottom of the melter as in the Olustee process.

27

Figure 3
processing in Portugal
Scherne
Scheme of
of resin processing
Steam

Dump vat
Still
Still

]Dom')

Condenser
Condenser

Water
Water -"1--1----1

Stealll----j
Steam

N
00

..... -

Mixer

To
t orpent ate
reLl-!IVt;H
reueiVC1

E)
cc
Decanter

Sep3rator
Separator
Screenlilg
SLreeoing
ve~sel
vessel

DeliydrdlUr
Dellyili
atur
Filter

Filter
Charge
tillik
tank

To

------...

foixur

r-

IF-1-Miluk lank

Sourc
.. : Based
SUUICD:
Basedon
oil Gama
Gama (1982)
(1982)

VVash

wat.

sluny of diatomacaeous
diatomacaeous earth
from another
another vessel
vessel and the
the screened
screened
A slurry
earth is added from
mixture
immediately through
mixture then
then passes immediately
through aa fine
fine filter
filter as before. The
'I'he hot, filtered mixture
passes
several decanters
decanters in
passes to
to one of several
in which
which the
the aqueous
aqueous portion
portion isis allowed
allowed to
to settle
settle out,
out,
usually
charge from
mixer is sufficient
sufficient to fill
fill one decanter (unlike
(unlike the
usually overnight;
overnight; one
one charge
from the mixer
Olustee system where one wash tank takes four to seven
seven charges from the
the melter).
melter).
batch and
and continuous
continuous distillations
distillations are
carried out in
in Portugal
Portugal and
and although
although
Both batch
are carried
batch
stills are
are predominant,
predominant, the larger
larger throughput
throughput which
which is
is possible
possible with
with continuous
continuous
batch stills
distillation
means
that
a
significant
proportion
of
Portuguese
production
is
obtained
in this
this
distillation means that significant proportion
is obtained in
way. Batch
Batchstills
stills ininPortugal
Portugal are
arerelatively
relatively small,
small, with
with a capacity
capacity of 0.5 or
or 11 tonne,
tonne, and
and
way.
distillation times
about 20-30
20-30 minutes.
minutes. On
Oncompletion
completion of
of the
thedistillation,
distillation, the
the
distillation
times are
are short,
short, about
rosin is often drained from the still into a wagon; this
this can
can then be
be pushed
pushed between
between two
twolines
lines
on aa concrete
concrete floor,
floor, and
and rosin
rosin can
can be
be discharged
discharged into them by
by
of steel drums spaced out on
overflow arrn.
arm. Alternatively,
Alternatively,paper
papersacks
sacksmay
maybe
befilled.
filled.
lowering an overflow

Stainless steel
Stainless
steel is again
again the
the main
mainconstruction
construction material.
materiaL Mixer
Mixer and
and decanter
decanter
are each about
about 5-7
5-7 tonnes, and
and there are usually at least four decanters to provide
capacities are
a constant supply
supply of
of material
material for
for distillation.
distillation. Nominal
Nominal plant
plant capacities
capacities range
range from
from a few
thousand tonnes up
10 000
000 tonnes/year.
tonnes/year.
up to
to about
about 10

SCALE OF OPERATIONS AND LABOUR


LABOUR REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS
production isis determined
determined by
by the
the availability
availability of
The target production
of crude resin,
resin, the throughput which
can be sustained,
sustained, and the size
size of
of the
the market
market for
for the
the products.
products. In some
some cases,
cases, the
the resin
resin
supply
may be limited
by the
the number
trees available
availablefor
for tapping.
tapping. The
supply may
limited by
number of suitable
suitable trees
The annual
annual
production
capacity required
requiredtoto meet
meet the
the target
target is largely
dictated by
by the
the still
production capacity
largely dictated
still size,
size, the
number of stills,
and the shifts worked.
stills, and
worked. The
Thesmallest
smallest sized
sized plant
plant might
might have
have aa single
single still
still
with a capacity of
one
tonne
and
be
capable
of
performing
three
distillations
per
day
(single
of one tonne and be capable of performing three distillations per day (single
shift). The
Thenumber
numberof
ofworking
working days
days available
available each year will be governed by the length of
shift).
tapping season,
season, but
but assuming
assuming a 260-day
260-day year,
year, an annual
annual throughput
throughput of around
around 800
800
the tapping
tonnes of resin could be
be achieved.
achieved.

The
The factors
factors to
to be
beconsidered
considered when
whenchoosing
choosing between
between the
thedifferent
different processing
processing
systems include
include relative
relative plant
plant costs,
costs, availability
availabilityand
andcost
cost of
of technical
technical expertise,
expertise, the
the costs of
maintenance and spare parts, steam
steam and
and water requirements,
requirements, and the relative
relative advantages or
Estimates of
of plant
plant costs
costs are
are discussed
discussed
disadvantages of using larger or smaller batch
batch sizes.
sizes. Estimates
in Chapter
4. Data
necessary to
make an accurate
accurate comparison
comparison of
steam and water
water
in
Chapter 4.
Data necessary
to make
of steam
requirements for the different types of plant are not
not available.
available. The use of
of larger
larger stills
stills means
fewer distillations
distillations are needed to process
process aa given
given amount
amount of
ofresin.
resin. However, aa small
small still
still
allows for greater flexibility
interruptions inin steam,
steam, water
water or
or raw material
are
allows
flexibility ifif interruptions
material supplies
supplies are
anticipated. As
Asthe
thestills
stillsdesigned
designed for
for distillation
distillation of
of pine
pine resin are not
not suitable
suitable for
for distilling
distilling
anticipated.
harvested plant
option for using
using spare
spare
harvested
plant material
material to
to produce
produce essential
essentialoils,
oils,this
thisisis not
not an
an option
capacity should
should itit occur.
occur. In
capacity
Inany
anycase,
case, the
therisk
riskof
ofcross-contamination
cross-contamination and
and taints
taints would
would be
be
too high.
labour requirements
requirements are
are comparatively
comparatively small for a plant capable of handling
handling up
The labour
to 1000
1000 tonnes/year
tonnes/year of
of resin.
resin. Only
Only four
skilled workers
number of
four or five skilled
workers and
and a greater number
general labourers are needed;
needed; one
one person
person isis normally
normally responsible for operating the
the still,
still, two
two
29

or three others assist


assist and
and operate
operate the
the other
other pieces
pieces of
of equipment,
equipment, and one is in charge of the
boiler. The
Theemptying
emptyingof
ofthe
the barrels
barrels or
or drums
drums of
of crude
crude resin is the most labour-intensive
labour-intensive and
time-consuming
whole processing
processing operation
least six
six labourers
labourers are
are
time-consumingpart
partof
of the
the whole
operationand
and at
at least
required for unloading,
unloading, loading
loading and
and similar
similar work.
A
storeman, and
A storeman,
and office
office and
and transport
transport
staff,
required. The
The total
totallabour
labour requirements
requirements for a larger
larger plant
plant do not
not increase
increase
staff, are
are also required.
proportionately as the same number
number of
of workers
workers are needed to operate the specialized
specialized pieces
of equipment.
equipment. More
general labourers
labourers will
handle the
the greater
greater
More general
will be
be required,
required, though,
though, to handle
quantities of resin and its products.

30

CHAPTER 44

FINANCIAL AND
AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RESIN
TAPPING AND
AND PROCESSING
The aim of this
this section
section is
is to
to provide
provide economic
economic and
and financial
financial guidelines
guidelines for
for the production
and
the
production
of
crude
resin,
and
its processing
processing
and processing
processing of pine resin. Although
Although the production of crude resin,
its
into
rosin and
and tut-pentine,
turpentine, are
distinct operations,
levels of
of resin
resin tapping
tapping will
will
into rosin
are distinct
operations, the
the cost levels
directly affect the economic and
and financial competitiveness of resin
resin processing.
processing.
resin costs are
are markedly
markedly
It is
impossible to
is irnpossible
to compete
compete in
in world
world markets
markets ifif crude
crude resin
higher
largest three
three exporters,
exporters, the
the People's
People's Republic
Republic of China,
China, Indonesia
Indonesia
higher than
than those of the largest
in crude
crude resin
resin has
has expanded
expanded over the last
last five
five years,
years,
and
Brazil. The
Theinternational
international trade
trade in
and Brazil.
arl y from
small percentage
percentage
particul
particularlyfromBrazil
Braziltoto Portugal
Portugal and
and India,
India, but it still
still represents a very small
of the total volume of rosin and
and turpentine traded.
It must be emphasized
emphasized that costs will
will be site specific
specific and
and there could be substantial
differences accordingdifferences
according to local
local circumstances.
circumstances. This
This is particularly
particularly true
the tapping
tapping
true of the
operation,
and aa detailed
detailed feasibility
feasibility study,
study, which would be
be necessary
necessary before
before making
making any
any
operation, and
investment
pine resource
resource and
and the
the likely
likely
investmentdecision,
decision,would
wouldneed
needtoto look
look closely
closely atat the
the pine
productivity.
hasalready
alreadybeen
beennoted
notedthat
thatintrinsic
intrinsicresin
resinyields
yields are
are influenced
influenced by
by species
species
productivity. hIthas
and
local climatic conditions, but output is also greatly influenced by the productivity of the
and local
workforce
the effectiveness
effectiveness of the
the management,
management, and
and this
this may
may vary
vary considerably
considerably from
from
workforce and the
another (or
(or even
even within-country).
Within-COuntry).
one country to another

RESIN TAPPING OPERATIONS


Tapping
labour-intensive operation and
and labour
labour costs
costs will
will therefore
therefore greatly
greatly influence
influence
Tapping is aa labour-intensive
and, hence,
hence, profitability.
profitability. The
Thetapping
tappingoperation
operation itself
itselfcan
canbe
becat-ried
carried out
out
production costs and,
pieceworkers who are
are paid
paid according
according to the
the amount
amount of
of clean
clean resin
resin they
they
by contractors or pieceworkers
in aaprevious
previous
produce. The advantages
advantages of this
this system
system of
of payment
payment have
have been
been discussed
discussed in
section. AAmuch
muchsmaller,
smaller, permanent
permanent work
work force
force isis required
required to
to supervise
supervise and
and manage
manage the
the
section.
arrangefor
forpurchase,
purchase,storage
storageand
andtransport
transportofofcrtude
cruderesin,
resin, and
andmaintain
maintain
tapping operation, anange
stores and accounts. However,
However,ititisisessential
essential for
for management
management to undertake
undertake periodic
periodic checks
that con-ect
con'ect tapping procedures
procedures are
are being
being followed.
followed.
to ensure that

The major
hen establishing
operation is the
major capital
capital cost
cost Nwhen
establishing aa tapping
tapping operation
the purchase
purchase of
of
gutters and
gutters
and cups, a range
range of
of tools,
tools, and
and items
items of
of protective
protective clothing
clothing and footwear for the
the
tappers. The
Thegutters
guttersand
andcups
cupsmay
maybebemanufactured
manufacturedspecifically
specifically for the
the purpose,
purpose, or
or they
they
may be made
may
made using
using suitable
suitablesecondhand
secondhand materials.
materials. Other
Other major items
items of
of expenditure
expenditure
include
the processing
processing
include pre-production
pre-production and
and start-up costs, transport within the forest and to the
plant, and licence
licence fees
fees payable
payable to
to the
the owner
owner of
of the
the trees
trees for
for tapping
tappingrights.
rights.
tapping operation,
operation, Table
Table 44
Although
impossible to
Although it is impossible
to provide
provide accurate
accurate costs of a tapping
gives
details
of
the
estimated
pre-production,
start-up,
fixed
investment,
working
gives details
the estimated pre-production, start-up, fixed investment, working capital
capital
annual production costs for
for an
an African
African country
country at 1995
1995 prices.
and annual

31

Table
Table 44
Resin
estimated pre-production,
pre-production, fixed
fixed inves-tment,
investment, working capital and
Resin tapping operations: estimated
annual
annual production
production costs for an African country

Sub-total

Pre-production and start-up


start-up costs
costs
training; initial management and
Manpower recruitment and training:
administrative expenses;
expenses: materials for training
Contingencies (10%)
(J 0%)
Fixed investment costs
Site preparation, civil
civi l works and
and loading
loading bay
bay
Buildings:
Buildmgs: staff housing and office
Production equipment: bark
bark shavers,
shavers, gutters:
gutters; cups,
cups, tapping
tapping
tools, acid applicators, buckets, funnels, drums, acid-proof
aprons, rubber boots
equipment: vehicles,
vehiclcs, workshop and office equipment
Auxiliary equipment:
Contingencies (10%)
(10%)

(US$)

Total costs
(US$)

25000
25 000
22500
500

27500
27 500

55000
000
65000
65
000

80000
80
000
70000
70 000
22000
22 000

Working capital costs


3 months' working capital for raw materials,
materials, labour and
staff costs, exploitation fees,
fees, vehicle
vehicle licences
licences and
and insurance
insurance

242000
242
000

96 000

TOTAL fixed
rIXcd and working
working capital
capital costs
costs

365500
365
500

Annual production
production costs
costs
Manpower: wages
wages and
and salaries
salaries to
to permanent
permanent labour
labour force
force
Raw materials:
materi als:
Licence fees for use of trees
Contractors' payments
200 trees
trees with
with double
double face
face
payments (based
(based on
on 200
to be tapped
tapped per
pervvorking
working day)
day)
Production materials:
materials:
Nails
paste
Sulphuric acid paste
fuel, licences
licences and
and insurance
insurance
Transport: fuel,
maintenance and
and replacement
replacement
Equipment: maintenance
General stores
(10%, all
all items
items except
exceptmanpoweilraw
manpowe,/rawmaterials)
materials)
Contingencies (10%,
Annual charge for
fo r fixed
fixed and
and working
working capital
capital (20%)
(200/0)

TOTAL
TOTAL annual
annual cost
cost of
of resin
resin

20000
20
000
30000
30
000

80
000
80000
99000
000
15000
15
000
35
000
35000
10000
10 000
15000
15 000
88400
400

222 400
400
222
73100
73
100
295500
295
500

32
32

1000 tonnes of
of crude resin
resin being produced from 400 000
000
All the costs are based on 1000
year from
above,
trees, each yielding an average of 2.5 kg of resin per y-ear
fromtwo
twofaces.
faces. As stated above,
in determining
determining the
the
labour
will be
be critical
critical in
labour productivity
productivity and
and annual
annual resin
resin yields
yields per
per tree
tree will
tapping operation.
operation.
profitability of the tapping
It
should be
noted that
that in order for the
the data
data to
to reflect
reflect the
the true
true annual
annual costs
costs of
of
It should
be noted
production,
working capital
capital costs are charged at 20%/year;
20%/year; this
this is
is lower
lower than
than isis
production, fixed
fixed and working
African countries.
countries.
usual in many African

Table
shows aa total
tota l annual
annual cost
cost of crude
crude resin
resin at
at the
the production
production site
site of
of
Table 44 shows
World prices
prices for crude
crude resin
resin in
in the
the period
period 1991-94
1991-94 (for
(for traded
tradedmaterial)
material)
US$295/tonne.
US$295/tonne. 'World
averaged
US$270-320/tonne (c&f)
prices may
may fall
fall back
back slightly
slightly between
between 1996 and
and
averaged US$270-320/tonne
(c&f) but
but prices
2000.
Allowances for
for ocean
ocean freight,
freight, internal
internal transport
transport costs, and ad valorem
valorem import
import duties,
duties,
2000. Allowances
will enable
enable aa new
new resin
resin producer in Africa,
Africa, for instance, to be competitive in domestic and
and
will
regional
make aa profit
profit on
on capital
capital employed,
employed, even
even if
if crude resin
resin is
is produced
produced
regional markets and to make
at levels slightly
Profitability is likely
likely to be low, however, if
if imports
imports are
are
slightly above
above this
this range.
range. Profitability
20% or
or lower.
lower.
permitted and duty levels
levels are
are only
only 20%

RESIN PROCESSING OPERATIONS


The overall capital costs of
of aa resin
resin processing
processing plant
plant cover
cover machinery
machinery and
and equipment,
equipment, freight
frei ght
of all
all imported items, and installation and
and start-up.
start-up. Pre-production costs such as manpower
to
recruitment and training and all initial management and administrative
admini strative expenses also have to
be included.
included. It is
is assumed
assumed that
that the
the training
training element
element will
will be
be provided
provided by
by aa foreign
foreign technical
technical
expert. Additional
land costs
costs and
and civil
civilworks,
works,buildings,
buildings,
Additional provision
provision must
must be
be made
made for land
utilities, auxiliary equipment
equipment and
and spares.
spares.
fixed
investment,
workim_-_,capital and annual
An approximation
approximationofofpre-production,
pre-production,
fixed
investment,
working capital
annual

an African
African country
production costs for an
country is
is given
given ininTable
Table55 (based
(basedon
on 1995
1995 prices).
prices). Costs
relate to single-shift
single-shift working
relate
working throughout
throughout the
the year
year and
and are
are based
based on
on 1000
1000 tonnes
tonnes of crude
resin
material (costed in
in Table 4) producing
producing an
an estimated
estimated 700 tonnes
tonnes of
of rosin
rosin and
and
resin as raw material
110 tonnes of turpentine.
turpentine. Operation
Operation of
ofthe
thefactory
factory on
onaatwo-shift
two-shiftbasis
basisprocessing
processing 2000
2000
tonnes of
of resin
resin annually,
annually, would reduce unit fixed
fixed and working
working capital
capital costs per tonne
tonne of
of
US$60 000,
000, but
but annual
annual
rosin produced.
produced. The
Theannual
annual charge
charge for
for fixed
fixed costs
costs would
would fall
fall by US$60
rosin
production costs
costS would
would rise.
rise. Table
Table55shows
showsaatotal
totalannual
annual cost
costfor
forprocessing
processing1000
1000tonnes
tonnes
of crude resin of about
about US$668
US$668 000.
000.
annual costs
costs shown for
for the
the African
African model
model in
in Tables
Tables 44 and
and
Using the figures for total annual
5, and assuming that 700 tonnes of rosin
rosin and
and 110
110 tonnes of turpentine
turpentine are
are recovered
recovered from
from
1000 tonnes of crude resin,
1000
resin, itit is
is possible
possible to calculate
calculate the annual
annual production cost per
per tonne
tonne
of rosin. In
Inthose
thoseparts
partsofofAfrica
Africawhere
wherepetroleum-based
petroleum-based 'mineral
'mineral turpentine' or
or white
white spirit
spirit
is available cheaply, gum turpentine may
valued, and
and itit may
may be
be uneconomic
uneconomic to
may not be highlyhighly valued,
of drums
drums and
and ocean
ocean freight.
freight.
ship small
small consignments
consignments to
to export markets because of the cost of
rosin, turpentine
turpentine isis given
given aa nominal
nominal value
value of
of
Therefore, in calculating a break-even price for rosin,
US$350/tonne. The
total value
value for 110
110 tonnes
tonnes of
of turpentine
turpentine is thus
thus US$38
US$38 500,
500, and
and
The total
annual production costs of US$668 400 gives a residual
residual cost
deducting this from the total annual
of US$629 900; this is
equivalent
to
a
break-even
price
for
the
rosin
of
US$900/tonne.
is equivalent a break-even

33

Table
Table 55
processing operations: estimated
estimated pre-production,
pre-production, fixed
fixed investment, working
working capital
capital
Resin processing
and annual production costs for an African country

Pre-production and start-up


start-up costs
costs
Technical expertise
admillistration; materials
materials
Manpower recruitment;
recruitment; training
training and
and administration;
Manpower
for trial runs
runs
Contingencies (10%)
(10%)
Fixed inves-ttnent
investment costs
Site preparation and civil works
Buildings:
Factory
and staff housing
Workshop and
Contingencies (10%)
(J 0%)
Plant and equipment:
Boiler (imported)
(imported)
Boiler
other production equipment
equipment (made
(made locally)
locally)
All other
Manager's 4WD vehicle;
vchlcle; workshop
workshop and
and office
office equipment;
equipment;
clothing and tools
(5%)
Contingencies (5%)

Sub-total

Total costs

(US$)

(US$)

20 000
20000
25 000
25000
4 500
4500

49 500
49500

10000
10
000
60000
60 000
80000
80 000
15
15000
000

74 000
74000
240000
240
000
60000
60 000
18700
18 700

fixed costs
costs
TOTAL fixed

557700
557 700
607200
607 200

production costs
costs
Annual production
Manpower: wages and salaries to pennanent
permanent labour force
1000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin
resin at
at US$295/tonne
US$295/tonne
Raw materials: 1000
Produclion
filter aid
aid and
and oxalic
oxalic acid
acid
Production materials: filters, filter
Transport: truck hire; fuel, licences and
and insurance
insurance for
for own
own
vehicles
Equipment: maintenance and replacement
Packaging: 4-ply paper
paper sacks with
with HDPE
HOPE lining,
lining, 20
20 kg net
net
General overheads: office,
office, telephone.
telephone, fax,
fax, etc.
etc,
(including aa provision
provision for
for working
working capital
capital to
to
Contingencies (including
cover two months'
months' supply
supply of
of resin)
resin)

84000
84 000
295
000
295000
20000
20
000

36
000
36000
10000
10 000
77000
000
30000
30
000
65 000
65000

547000
547
000

(20%)
for fixed
fixed costs
costs (20%)
Annual charge for

121 400

TOTAL annual costs

668400
668 400

34

It should be noted
noted that
that the
the gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores industries
industries established
established during the last
last 20
20

years will
will be operating with
with older,
older, lower-cost
lower-cost equipment
equipment which
which will
will have fully
fully or partially
partially
As aaresult,
result, they
they should
should be
be able
able to
to produce
produce both
both crude
crude resin
resin and
and processed
processed
depreciated.
depreciated. As
rosin at prices
in Tables
Tables 44 and
20-30% lower
lower than
than those
those shown
shown in
and 5 which
which are
are based
based on
on
rosin
prices 20-30%
capital equipment
equipment purchase
purchase and
and start-up
start-up costs
costs at
at 1995
1995 prices.
prices.

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES AND
AND DISADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES OF
COMPARATIVE
DOMESTIC,
DOMESTIC, REGIONAL
REGIONAL AND
AND EXPORT
EXPORT MARKETS
MARKETS FOR A
A NEW
NEW

PRODUCER
It is
is recognized that
that the
the break-even
break-even price
price for
for rosin
rosin of
of US$900/tonne
US$900/tonne isis high
high compared
compared with
Wilh

the price of Chinese or Indonesian imported


imported rosin,
rosin, although
although itit should
should be
be possible
possible to
to reduce
reduce
by improvements
improvements in
costs by
in productivity,
productivity, particularly
particularlyininthe
thetapping
tappingoperation.
operation. However, if
the quality of his product is
is acceptable,
acceptable, an African
African (or any other)
other) producer would have an
advantage o-ver
over the
imported rosin,
meeting domestic
domestic or
or regional
regional
advantage
the end
end user
user of imported
rosin, in terms of meeting
internal transport
demand, because he would not incur the
the following
following additional
additionalcosts.
costs. First, internal
port to
tofactory
factory for
forimported
importedmaterial
material would
would probably
probably be
be around
around US$40-60/
US$40-60/
costs from port
tonne. Even
Evenififexports
exportsare
aremade
madetotoregional
regional countries
countries by
by rail
rail and
and truck, the
the advantage
advantage will
will
of not
not having
having to bear
bear the
the cost
cost of
ofocean
oceanfreight
freight (approximately
(approximately US$70-90/tonne)
US$70-90/tonne)
be retained of
incurred by Chinese, Indonesian and
and other
other competitors.

Secondly,
Secondly, any
any customs
customs duties
duties or tariffs
tariffs levied
levied on
on imports
imports will
will add
add to the
the landed
landed
cost; aa duty
duty of
of20%
20%will
willadd
adda afurther
furtherUS$100-120/tonne.
US$100-120/tonne. It is
is also
also possible
possible that
that aa
cost;
preferential) rate
neighbouring country buying
buying gum
gum naval
naval stores
stores will
will have
have aa reduced
reduced (or preferential)
rate of
duty, allowing the regional exporter to pay only 50% of the full ad valorem tariff.
of
Thirdly, relatively small users often experience difficulty in opening 30-day letters of

credit
working capital
capital may
may be
be tied
tied up
up in
providing sight drafts;
drafts; several
several months'
months' working
in the
the
credit or providing
import
50-200 tonnes
tonnes of rosin
rosin in
in aa single
single shipment,
shipment, and interest
interest charges
charges may
may add
add a
import of
of 50-200
US$50-1 OO/tonne to
to their
their costs.
costs.
further US$50-100/tonne
US$190-280/tonne for imported
imported rosin
rosin and
and would
would
These additional costs amount to US$190-280/tonne
At the early
raise the cost to the end user from about US$600
US$600 (c&f)
(c&f) to
to US$790-880/tonne.
US$790-880/tonne. At
US$750-800 rather
rather than
than US$600,
US$600, the
the African
African producer
producer could
could sell
sell
1995
rosin price of
of US$750-800
1995 rosin
competitively
in the
the domestic
domestic market
market for between
between US$900
US$900 (his
(his break-even
break-even price)
price) and
and
competitively in
US$1100/tonne.
US$1100/tonne. However,
However, as
asthese
theseprice
price levels
levels are
are unlikely
unlikely to be sustained over the next
five years,
years, aa new
new producer
producer should
should aim
aim to produce
produce rosin
rosin at
at US$750-800/tonne
US$750-800/tonne or
or
three to five
preferably less.
less.
preferably

Once the domestic demand is satisfied,


face aa dilemma.
dilemma. He
satisfied, the new producer wiLl
will face
He
will
obliged to become
become aa competitive
competitive exporter to find
find new
new markets
markets but
but will
will only
only have
have
will be
be obliged
marginal tonnage
He may
may have
have aa surplus
surplus of
of crude
crude resin,
resin, but
but will
will have to contend
contend
marginal
tonnage to
to sell.
sell. He
volume requirements
requirementswhich
which are
are hard
hard to
to meet.
with low prices and
and with
with buyers'
buyers' minimum
minimum volume
His factory may be able to sell
sell all
may also need to dispose
dispose
all its
its rosin
rosin and
and rosin
rosin products
products but may
of 50-150 tornes
tonnes of
of turpentine
turpentine in
in drums.
drums. Turpentine
Turpentineininsuch
such small
small quantities,
quantities, and
and possibly
possibly
the best
best quality-,
quality, may
is also
also
not of the
may be
be difficult
difficulttoto sell
sellon
oninternational
internationalmarkets.
markets. However, itit is
sold in
in domestic markets, to 30003000difficult
difficult to
to expand
expand output from 1000 tonnes of product sold

35

4000
between export
barrier is the extra
4000 tonnes
tonnes split between
export and
and domestic
domestic markets.
markets. The greatest barrier
or rail,
rail, port
port handling
handling charges
charges and
and ocean
ocean freight;
freight;
cost incurred from local transport by road or
although this was an advantage when import substitution began,
began, it has
has now become a major
barrier
profitable exporting,
barrier to profitable
exporting, even
even ifif markets
marketscan
canbe
befound
foundfor
forsmall
smalltonnages.
tonnaaes. The cost
of new drums will add aa further USS20-25/tonne
US$20-25/tonne to export costs.
These
the ex-factory
ex-factory prices
and turpentine
turpentine for
new
These charges
charges mean
mean that
that the
prices of
of rosin
rosin and
for a new
producer
be US$130-175/tonne
US$130-l75/tonne (internal
(internal transport
freight ++ packaging)
packaging)
producer must be
transport ++ ocean freight
below the market price for established producers if it is to be landed in importing countries
US$llOparity. For many
many small
small producers,
producers, the
swing from
from aa freight
freight advantage
advantage of
of US$110the swing
at parity,.
ISO/tonne
150/tonne (internal transport + ocean freight)
freight) on domestic sales to a freight
freight disadvantage of
US$130-175/tonne
on export
export sales,
sales, is
is too
too great.
great. Agents
Agents and brokers
brokers are
are sometimes
sometimes
US$130-l75/tonne on
reluctant to handle
handle ver
veryy small
small consignments
reluctant
consignments of
of uncertain
uncertain and
and untested
untested material,
material, and
and the
time
effort which
which may
may be
be required
required totoovercome
overcomesuch
suchdiffic-ulties
difficulties often
often provides
provides aa
time and effort
further disincentive
disincenti ve to the
the new
new or
or small
small producer.
producer.
this problem
problem is to first expand the processing capacity for rosin
The best solution to this
rosin
and
turpentine
in
line
with
domestic
or
regional
demand.
Assuming
there
are
sufficient
and turpentine in line with domestic regional demand. Assuming there are sufficient
trees to support
support increased
increased production
production of resin,
resin, crude resin exports, or increased
increased output of
of
processed products (by
(by working
working multiple
multiple shifts)
shifts) which
which will
be
more
marketable
than
very
will be more marketable
very
small
small quantities, can be considered at a later date.
New
New producers of crude resin,
resin, rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine should
should anticipate
anticipate these
these problems
problems
of balancing
balancing resi
n supply,
resin
supply, local
local demand,
demand, capacity
capacityand
andexport
export sales,
sales, ifif they
they are
are to
to operate
profitably. It should
should not
not be
be presumed
presumed that
that the
the price
price levels
levels of
of late
late 1994/early
1994/early 1995
1995 of
of
US$750-800/tonne for rosin
rosin will
will continue
continue for two or three more
more years.

36
36

CHAPTER 5
CHAPTERS

CONCLUSIONS AND
AND ADVICE
ADVICE TO
TO A
A NEW
NEW PRODUCER
There
There are
are two
two major
maj or and
and distinct
distinct operations
operations involved
iiwolved in
in producing
producing gum
gum rosin
rosin and
and gum
gum
turpentine:
turpentine: the tapping of pine trees to produce resin,
resin, and the recovery from resin of rosin
turpentine using
using the
the relatively
relatively simple
simple technique
technique of
of steam
steam distillation.
distillation. Production of
and turpentine
resin price
crude resin alone is unlikely
unlikelyto
to be
be economic
economicas
asaaseparate
separateoperation.
operation. A resin
price of
of about
about
US$300/tonne
US$300/tonne close
close to
to the tapping
tapping operations
operations in
in the
the forest
forest will
will rise
rise to
to an export price of
about
the costs
about US$500/tonne
US$SOO/tonne when
when the
costs of
of drums,
drums, internal
internal transport and
and ocean
ocean freight
freight are
are
Thisprice
pricecould
couldnot
notcompete
competewith
withthat
thatfor
forthe
thecrude
cruderesin
resincurrently
currently available
available from
added. This
Brazil,
and the
People's Republic
Republic of China
China which
which normally
normally sells
seUs at below
below
Brazil, Indonesia
Indonesia and
the People's
\ ered to the importing country.
US$300/tonne deli
delivered
Operations in nearly all
all producing
producing countries
countries combine
combine tapping
processing the
Operations
tapping with
with processing
rosin and
There may
may be options for further processing
processing but this
crude resin
resin into rosin
and turpentine.
turpentine. There
usually
take advantage
advantage of
of economies
economies of
of scale.
scale.
usually demands
demandsaa high
high volume
volume of
of output
output to take
local paper
paper industry,
industry, the production of rosin
rosin size
size is
is aa fairly
fairly simple
simple
However, if there is aa local
process
is worth
worth considering.
considering. Despite
Despite the existence
existence of
of aa substantial
substantial international
international
process which is
and turpentine,
turpentine, itit isis recommended
recommended that aa developing
developing country should
should base
base
market for rosin and
its operation
operation initially
initially on supplying,
supplying, perhaps,
perhaps, the soap,
soap, paper
paper and
andpaint
paintmanufacturing
manufacturing
import
industries
the domestic
domestic market.
market. This
would yield
yield immediate
immediate benefits
benefits from import
industries of
of the
This would
substitution and the saving of foreign
forei anexchange.
exchange. Once the raw materials
materials and
and the
the technology
technology
in the
the domestic
domestic market,
market, it would
would be
be appropriate
appropriate to
to expand
expand into
into
have
been proven
proven in
have been
regional markets
markets and
and wider
wider international
international ones.
ones.
neighbouring regional
gum naval
naval stores operation has
has several
several attractions for aa developing
developing country with
with
A glim
is an
an industry
industry based
based on
onrenewable
renewable natural
natural resources.
resources. The
suitable
resources. It is
suitable pine resources.
tapping operations are labour
tapping
labour intensive
intensive and can
can therefore
therefore offer
offer employment
employment and
and incomeincomeearning
rural areas.
areas. Although
have
earning opportunities
opportunities to
to people in rural
Although the
the processing operations have
is also
also relatively
relatively low. In addition
addition to
low labour
labour requirements,
requirements, the total
total investrnent
investment cost is
saving
and earning foreign exchange
exchange from import substitution or exports,
exports, local
local industries
industries
saving and
expenditure on buildings and
should derive some 'benefit
benefit from
from the
the resin
resin producer's expenditure
and tapping
equipment, as well as
as on
on the local
loca l fabrication
fabrication of part of the resin processing plant.

As a guide,
for a viable processing operation
guide, the
the minimum
minimum size
size of plant
plant necessary,
necessary for
would be one with
with sufficient
sufficient capacity
throughput of around
around 1000
1000 tonnes
tonnes of
of resin
resin
would
capacity for
for a throughput
There would
would be
be scope
scope for
for increasing
increasing the
the quantity
quantity
annually, working
single-shift basis.
annually,
workina on a single-shift
basis. There
processed by
by worldng
working multiple
multiple shifts,
shifts, with
with only
only marginal
marginal additions to fixed
fixed capital
capital
of resin processed
(storage capacity)
capacity) and working
worldng capital
capital for financing
financing stocks
stocks of
of resin,
resin, rosin
rosin and
and turpentine.
turpentine. ItIt
estim ated that for an
an operation
operation of
of this
this size
size in
in one
one African
African country,
country, the
the total
total investment
investment
is estimated
for the
the tapping,
tapping operation
operation are likely
likely to be
be about
about US$350
US$3S0 000;
000; this
this includes
includes all
aU preprecosts for
production and
and start-up costs and
and three
three months'
months' working
working capital.
The investment
investment cost
cost of
of
production
capital. The
processing operation
operation is about
about US$600
US$600 000.
000. These figures
figures could
could vary
varysubstantially
substantially
the processina
be
the site
site and
and the
thespecific
specific local
local circumstances;
circumstances; costs, in
in general,
general, are
are likely
likely to
to be
according to the
about US$250
US$2S0 000-400
000-400 000
000 and
and US$500
US$SOO 000-700
000-700 000
000 for
for the
the tapping
tapping and
and processing
processing
about
operations, respectively.
operations,

37

The viability of any gum naval stores industry depends mainly on the number of pine
for tapping,
resin yields
and resin
resin quality.
quality. The
trees available
available for
tapping. resin
yields and
The above
above estimates
estimates have
have been
been
000 trees
trees each
eachyielding,
yielding 2.5 kg of
of resin
resin annually.
annually. It is
is unlikely
unlikely that yields
yields
based
based on 400 000
favourable
much
kg could
couldsustain
sustainan
aneconomically
economically viable
viable tapping
tapping operation.
operation. In favourable
much below 22 kg
circumstances.
tapping regime,
regime. 3-5
3-5 kg/year
kg/year are
are possible.
possible. If
circumstances, and
and depending
dependingon
on the
the tapping
If aa
development is contemplated,
contemplated. detailed and reliable information must first be obtained on the
identity.
species. and on
on the
the climatic
climatic conditions
conditions
identity, availability.
availability, age
age and distribution of the pine species,
at
the forest
forest sites.
sites. All
stages of the
the development
development process
process should
should be
be undertaken
undertaken in
in
at the
All stages
consultation
consultationwith
withthe
the Forest
Forest Department
Departmentororowner
ownerofof the
the trees
trees as
as they
they will
will need
need to
to be
assured that tapping
tapping will
will not injure
injure the trees.
trees. In some instances,
instances. the preliminary
preliminary data may
may
indicate
tapping would
would be
be unprofitable.
unprofitable. If
preliminary survey
the
indicate that tappina
If the preliminary
survey suggests
suagests that the
is satisfactory,
satisfactory. limited
limited tapping
combined with
availability
raw material
material is
availabilityofof the
the raw
tapping trials
trials combined
with a
laboratory evaluation
evaluation of resin
resin samples
samples should
should be
be undertaken.
undertaken. If these results
results are
are also
also
laboratory
satisfactory, more extensive
satisfactory.
extensive tapping trials,
trials. together
together with
with aadetailed
detailed feasibility
feasibility study,
study. should
should
be carried out.
Any
Any feasibility
feasibility study
study must
must examine
examine carefully
carefullythe
thecosts
costs of
of capital
capital (with
(with an
an adequate
allowance for working capital
annual charae
charge for
for this,
this. along
along with
with
allowance
capital costs and profits) and the annual
annual
production
costs.
so
that
potential
investors
can
compare
their
break-even
selling
annual production costs, that potential investors can compare their break-even selling
price
with the
the cost
cost of
ofimported
imported rosin.
rosin. The key elements
elements or questions
questions for any
any
price for rosin with
feasibility study are
are listed
listed below.
below.
Marketing The
Thelocal
localdemand
demandfor
forrosin
rosinand
andturpentine,
turpentine. the
the competition
competition from
from
importS
from regional
regional producers or international suppliers.
imports whether from
suppliers, the potential
for market
market growth
growth over
over the
the next
next three
three to
to five
five years,
years. and
and the
the level
level of
of prices
prices from
from
to be
be assessed.
assessed.
these competitors need to
Quality
QualityAn
Anestimate
estimatewill
willbe
beneeded
neededof
ofhow
how locally
locally produced
produced rosin
rosin and
and turpentine
turpentine
will
wi 11 compare
compare with
with internationally
internationally traded
traded material.
material.
Raw
Raw materials
materialsThe
Theavailability
availabilityofofthe
thepine
pineresource
resourceand
andits
itspotential
potentialproductivity
productivity
should be determined,
in
determined. taking
taking full
full account
account of
of the
the felling
felling and
and replantina
replanting policy
policy in
the case
case of
of plantation
plantation pines,
pines. and
and of
of the
thepossible
possible changes
changes which
which might
might occur
occur inin
use which
which would
would affect
affect their
theiravailability
availability for tapping.
tapping. The ability
ability to bring
bring
end use
asworked
workedones
onesreach
reachthe
theend
endof
oftheir
theirtapping
tappinglife
life isis crucial
crucial
'onstream'
stream' as
new trees on
to the
the sustainability
sustainability of a gum naval stores operation.
operation. The
Theintrinsic
intrinsic productivity
productivity
in tapping.
tapping, need
need to
to be
of the trees,
trees. and
and the
the efficiency
efficiency of the work force involved
involved in
sufficient to provide crude
crude resin
resin at
at an
an economically
economically attractive
attractive price.
price.
Processing If an
an existing
existing producer
producer is willing
willing to consider
consider purchases
purchases of crude
crude
resin . the advantages and disadvantages of initially
initially setting up a tapping operation
operation
resin,
only, need to be
only.
be evaluated.
evaluated. The
location of aa processing
processing plant
plant (availabilty
(availabilty of
The location
energy.
labour supplies,
supplies. transport
the relative
relative merits
merits of
of
energy, water
water and labour
transport costs.
costs, and the
siting the
plant close
tapping areas.
ports of
of
siting
the plant
close to
to either the tapping
areas, the
the end
end users.
users, or the ports
markets) also requires consideration.
exit for inter-national
international markets)
Labour
LabourThe
Theavailability
availability and
and cost
costof
oflabour,
labour. particularly
particularly in
in the forest
forest areas,
areas. and
and
methods of organization
organization and
and payment,
payment. need
need to
to be
bedetermined.
determined. Adequate
methods

38

incentives will
efficient work force who can
can collect
collect resin
resin
incentives
will be
be required
required to retain an efficient
at a low unit price.
price .
Financial
Financial and
andeconomic
economicappraisal
appraisalAnAn
assessmentofofthe
thefinancial
financial and
and economic
economic
assessment
will depend primarily on establishing
cost of
offixed
fixed
returns will
establishing aa correct
correct value for the cost
and
planning the
the project.
project. AArealistic
realistic annual
annual
and working
working capital
capital to the investor(s)
investor(s) planning
calculations to
allow an
an accurate
accurate
charge
char.clefor
forcapital
capitalmust
must be
be included
included in
in the
the calculations
to allow
estimate
full costs
tapping operations
estimate of
of the full
costs of tapping
operations and
and resin
resin processing.
processing. The key
factors will not be factory and office overheads,
overheads, marketing
marketing costs,
costs, depreciation
depreciation or
or
interest on loans,
loans, but
but the
the price
price of
of crude
crude resin
resin and
and the
theproject's
project'sability,
ability to sell
sell gum
gum
rosin,
imports, at
at a price
rosin, against
against competing
competing imports,
price above
above the
the operation's
operation's break-even
break-even
A
cash
flow
analysis
based
on
discounted
costs and
production
cost
level.
A
flow
analysis
based
discounted
and
production
level.
or three
three different
different prices
prices for
for
revenues over the life of the project should use two or
revenues
crude resin and three different
prices
for
sales
of
rosin
and
turpentine.
A
proper
different prices for sales of rosin and turpentine. A proper
sensitivity analysis
analysis will
willshow
showthat
that crude
crude resin
resin costs
costs and
and prices and the sales price
will largely
gum naval
naval stores
stores project is
of rosin
rosin will
of
largely determine
determinewhether
whetheraa gum
viable or
or not.
not.
economically viable

39

APPENDIXlI
APPENDIX

REFERENCES AND
AND FURTHER READING
Pirius species
Pinus
CRITCHFIELD,
W.B. and LITTLE, E.L.
E.L. (1966)
(1966) Geographic
Geographic Distribution
Distribution of the Pines
Pines of
of
CRITCHFIELD, W.B.
USDA Forest
ForestService
Service Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous Publication
Publication 991.
991. Washington,
Washington, USA:
USA:
the
World. USDA
the World.
USDA.

Production
technologies
Production technologies
CLEMENTS,
(1974) Manual,
Manual, Modern
Modem Crum
Gum Naval
USDA Forest
CLEMENTS, R.W.
R.W. (1974)
NavalStores
Stores Methods.
Methods. USDA
Service Southeastern
Southeastern Forest
Forest Experiment
rperiment Station
Station General
General Technical
Technical Report
Report SE-7.
SE-7.
Service
Asheville, USA: USDA.
SERVI<;:OS FLORESTAIS
FLORESTAIS E
AQuicOLAS (1962)
(1962) [Resin
[Resin
DIREC<;:Ao
DIRECO GERAL
GERAL DOS
DOS SERVIOS
E AQUICOLAS
Tapping
JuntaNacional
Nacional dos
dos Resinosos.
Resinosos.
Tapping - Basic
Basic Instruction
Instruction for
for Resin
Resin Tappers.
Tappers.]] Portugal: Junta
(In
(In Portuguese)
GAMA,
(1982) [Processing,
[Processing of
resin in
in Portugal.]
Portugal.] Boletim
Instituto dos
dos
GAMA, A.
A. (1982)
of pine resin
Boletim do
do Instituto
Produtos Florestais -- Resinosos,
Resinosos, no.
no. 38:
(In Portuguese)
Portuguese)
38: 26-30.
26-30. (In
GREENHALGH, P.
(1982) The
The Production,
Production, Marketing
Marketing and Utilization
Utilization of
of Naval
Naval Stores.
Stores.
GREENHALGH,
P. (1982)
Report of the Tropical Products Institute [now
[now Natural Resources Institute],
Institute] , G170.
KRISHNAMURTHY, T.,
S.P.and
and UPADHAYA,
UPADHAYA, L.P.
L.P. (1971)
(1971) A
A review
review of
of some
some
KRISHNAMURTHY,
T., JUYAL, S.P.
worldwide) . pp.
investigations on pines for their oleoresin (review of tapping methods used worldwide).
Q1-Q35.
Q1 -Q35. In:
In: Seminar
Seminar on
the Role
Role of
of Pine
Pine Resin
Resin in
in the
theEconomic
Economic and
and Industrial
Industrial
on the
Development of
of India, New Delhi, April,
April, 1971.

LAWRENCE,
LAWRENCE, R.V.
R.V. (1989)
(1989) Processing
Processi ng pine
pine gum
gum into
into turpentine
turpentine and
and rosin.
rosin. pp.
pp. 123-142.
123-142.
In:
In: Naval Stores.
Stores. Production,
Production, Chemistry,
Chemistry, Utiliattion,
Utilirotion. Zinkel,
Zinkel, D.F.
and Russell,
Russell, J. (eds).
(eds).
D.F. and
New York: Pulp Chemicals
Association.
Chemicals
Cleaning and
McCONNEL, N.C.
(1963) Operating
McCONNEL,
N.C. (1963)
Operating Instructions
Instructionsfor
for Olustee
Olustee Process
Processfor
for Cleaning
of Pine Gum.
Steam Distillation
Steam
Distillation of
Gum . USDA
USDApublication
publication ARS-687.
ARS-687. (Available
(Available from
from the
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Olustee, Florida, USA).
UTH, S.V.
CLEMENTS, R.W.
(1989) Gum
Gum naval
naval
McREYNOLDS, R.D.,
McREYNOLDS,
R.D., KOSS
KOSSUTH,
S.V. and
and CLEMENTS,
R.W. (1989)
stores methodology.
Stores. Production,
Production, Chemistry,
Chemistry, Utilization.
Utilization.
methodology. pp.
pp. 83-122.
83-122. In: Naval Stores.
Zinkel, D.F.
(eds). New
New York:
York: Pulp
Pulp Chemicals
Chemicals Association.
Association .
D.F. and
and Russell, J.
J. (eds).
(1978) Field
Guide to
to Modern
Modern Methods
Methods of
of Resin
Resin Tapping
Tapping [in
[in India].
India].
VERMA,
VERMA, V.P.S.
V.P.S. (1978)
Field Guide
Dehra Dun, India: Forest
In stitute.
Forest Research
Research Institute.

41

Quality assessment
assessment of
of Pinus
Pinus species
species
COPPEN,
DJ., ROBINSON,
ROBINSON, J.M. and
and MULLIN,
MULLIN, L.J.
L.J. (1993)
(1993)
COPPEN, JJ.W.,
J.J.W., GAY, C., JAMES, D.J.,
Xylem
resin composition
and chemotaxonomy
chemotaxonornyofofthree
three varieties
varietiesofof Pinus
Pinus caribaea.
Xylem resin
composition and
caribaea.
33: 1103-1111.
1103-1111.
Phytochemistry, 33:
Phytochemistly,
COPPEN, J.J.W., GAY,
GAY, C.,
C., JAMES,
JAMES, D.J.,
D.J., ROBINSON,
ROBINSON,J.M.
J.M.and
andSUPRIAN.A,
SUPRIANA, N.
N. (1993)
(1993)
Indonesian Pinul'
Variability in
Variability
in xylem
xylem resin
resin composition
composition amongst
amongst natural
natural populations
populations of
of Indonesian
Pinus
merkusii. Phytochetnistry,
Phytochemist/y, 33:
33: 129-136.
129-136.
nierkusii.
COPPEN,
GREEN, C.L.,
c.L., GREENHALGH,
GREENHALGH, P., KEEBLE,
KEEBLE, B.
B. and
and MILCHARD,
MILCHARD,
COPPEN, J.J.W.,
J.J.W., GREEN,
MJ.
(1985) The potential
potential of some
some tropical
tropical pines as sources of marketable
marketable turpentine. pp.
M.J. (1985)
pp.
In: Proceedings,
Proceedings, Ninth
Ninth International
International Congress
Congress on
on E'ssential
&sential Oils,
Oils, Singapore,
Singapore,
138-147. In:
]1983,
983, (Book(Book 5).
J.J.W. and
(1988) Terpenoid constituents and properties
properties of
of
COPPEN, J.J.'W.
and ROBINSON,
ROBINSON, J.M.
J.M. (1988)
NavalStores
Stores Review,
Review, (Mar./Apr.):
(Mar./Apr.): 12-14.
12-14.
xylem oleoresin
oleoresin from
from exotic
exotic Pinus
Pinus radiata.
mdiata. Naval
J,J.W., ROBINSON,
ROBINSON, J.M.
J.M. and
and KAUSHAL,
KAUSHAL, A.N.
A.N. (1988)
(1988) Composition
Composition of
of xylem
xylem
COPPEN, J.J.W.,
and P.
Phytochemistry, 27:
27: 2873-2875.
resin from
from Pinus
Pinus wallichiana and
P. roxburghii. Phytocheinistry,
COPPEN, J.J.W.,
ROBINSON, J.M.
MULLIN, L.J. (1988)
(1988) Composition
Composition of
of xylem
xylem
COPPEN,
J.J.W., ROBINSON,
J.M. and MULLIN,
resin from
from five
five Mexican
Mexican and
and Central
Central American
American Pinus
Pinus species
species growing
growing ininZimbabwe.
Zimbabwe.
resin

Phytochemisny , 27: 1731-1734.


Phytochemistry,
C.L. , KEEBLE,
KEEBLE, B.
B. and
and BURLEY,
BURLEY, J.
J. (1975)
(1975) Further
Furthergum
gum turpentine
turpentine analyses
analyses of
of
GREEN, C.L.,
oocarpa, P.
P. caribaea
caribaeaand
andP.P.k.esiya
kesiya provenances.
provenances. Tropical
Tropical Science,
Science, 17:
17: 165-174.
165-174.
some P.
P. oocarpa,
ZHAOBANG (1994)
(1994) Chemical
Chemical utilization
utilization of non-wood
non-wood forest products
products in
in China.
China.
SHEN ZHAOBANG
Institute of Chemical
Chemical Processing
Processing and
and Utilization
Utilization of Forest
Forest Products.
Products.
Nanjing: Research
Research Institute
Nanjing:
[Unpublished report.]

Additional note
Naval
Re view is published
published bi-monthly
bi-monthly and
contains trade news,
news, information
information and
and
Naval Stores Review
and contains
all aspects
aspectsof
ofthe
thepine
pinechemicals
chemicalsin.dustry.
industry. It also
also includes
includes papers
papers from
from
on all
technical papers on
Stores Conference
Conference organized
organized by
Pulp Chemicals
Chemicals
the annual
annual International
International Naval
Naval Stores
the
by the Pulp
Association. The
The present
present annual
annual cost
cost of
of subscription
subscription (late
(late 1994)
1994) is USS80
US$80 (six
(six issues and
Association.
InternationalYearbook).
Yearbook) .The.
ThE;address
address for
for subscriptions
subscriptions is:
is: Naval
Naval Stores
Stores Review,
Review, Kriedt
Kriedt
the International
129 S.
S. Cortez
Cortez Street,
Street, New
New Orleans,
Orleans, LA
LA 70119,
70119, USA.
Enterprises Ltd, 129
address of
of the
the Pulp
Pulp Chemicals
Chemicals Association
Association is:
105113, Atlanta,
Atlanta, GA
GA 30348,
30348,
The address
is: PO Box 105113,
USA.
USA.

42
42

APPENDIX 2

SPECIFICATIONS AND
AND TEST
QUALITY CRITERIA, SPECIFICATIONS
METHODS
Rosin
Although
Although several
several other criteria
criteria determine
determine rosin
rosin quality
quality and
and acceptability
acceptability for
for different
different
col our and
and softening
softening point
point are
are usually
usually sufficient
sufficient indicators of quality to satisfy
satisfy
applications, colour
purchasers
traditional and
and proven
proven sources.
sources. Rosin
purchasers of rosin from
from traditional
Rosin is graded on the basis
basis of
of
palest being
being the
the most
most desirable
desirable and
and designated WW*
ww- ('water-White').
This grade
grade
colour, the palest
('water-white'). This
and the slightly
slightly lower grade WG ('window-glass')
('window-glass') are
A
are the
the most
most commonly
commonlytraded
traded rosins.
rosins. A
grades are
are N,
N, M,
M, K, I,I, HH and
superior
X, isissometimes
sometimes offered.
offered. Darker
Darker grades
and lower.
lower.
superior grade, X,
Rosin is
is a glass,
and the
Rosin
glass, rather
rather than
than aa crystalline
crystalline solid,
solid, and
the point at which
which is
is softens
softens when
when
as the
the softening
softening point
point (rather
(rather than
than melting
melting point). AAsoftening
softeningpoint
pointinin
to as
heated is referred to
the range 70-80C is usual, the higher end of the range representing the better quality.
quality.
Since
rosin is an
an acidic
acidic material
material and
and the
the manufacturer
manufacturer of downstream
downstream derivatives
derivatives
Since rosin
its acid
acid functionality,
functionality , a high acid number (and saponification
depends on its
saponification number)
number) is
is also
also an
an
indication of good
good quality.
quality. The better quality
quality rosins
rosins usually
acid number
number in the
indication
usually have
have an
an acid
Providedthat
thatthe
theacid
acidnumber
numberisishigh,
high, the
the detailed
detailed resin
resin acid
acid composition
composition
range 160-170. Provided
usually of little
little consequence
An exception
exception isis rosin
rosin
of rosin is usually
consequenceor
or interest
interest to
to the
the end
end user.
user. An
which, because
because of the presence
resin acid,
acid, has
has an
an
derived from
from P.
P. merkusii which,
presence of a rather rare resin
acid number
The percentage
percentage of
of
acid
number which
which isis higher
higher than
than normal;
normal;itit may
mayreach
reach190
190or
or more.
more. The
unsaponifiable matter
unsaponifiable
matter indicates
indicates the
the amount
amount of
of non-acidic
non-acidic material
material in
in the
the rosin,
rosin, so
so the
the lower
this value, the better;
better; anything above
above about
about 10%
10% unsaponifiable
unsaponifiable matter
matter would
would be
be considered
considered
quality rosin.
rosin.
a poorer quality
There are
international standards
American Society
'There
are no
no international
standards for
for rosin,
rosin, and although the American
for
Testing
and
Materials
(ASTM)
describes
standard
test
methods,
stipulates no
no
for Testing and Materials (ASTM) describes standard test methods, it stipulates
specifications to
The appropriate
appropriate controlling bodies
specifications
to which
which rosin
rosin should
should conform.
conform. The
bodies of some
producing countries
countries do
do provide
provide specifications
specifications but,
but, inevitably,
inevitably, companies
companies and
and traders
traders
producing
rosin industry
industry have
have their
their own
own'in-house'
'in-house' specifications
specifications which
which will
will vary
vary from
from
involved in the rosin
company
makes itit difficult
difficult to generalize
generalize and quote
quote 'typical'
'typical' analytical
analytical
company to company, and this makes
data.
which was compiled
compiled from trade sources,
sources, presents
presents some
some specifications
specifications for
for
Table 6, which
gum rosin of different origins and
may be used as a guide for assessing
assessing the acceptability
acceptability of
and may
rosin by those thinking of
of entering rosin production.

Data such
as the
the contents
contents of
ofvolatile
volatile oil,
oil, insoluble
insoluble matter,
matter, ash
ash and
and iron
iron (which
(which
Data
such as
should
low) may
may be
be specified
specified by
by producers
producers of
of rosin.
rosin. Other,
less w,ell
well defined
defined
should all
all be low)
Other, less
properties, such as the tendency of the rosin
rosin to crystallize
crystallize (which
(which is undesirable),
undesirable), also affect
its value; Chinese and, to some extent, Indonesian rosin have this particular shortcoming.

"'The notation
notati on follows
followsthe
theUSDA
USDAcolour
colourscale
scalefor
forrosin
rosinwhich
whichisisused
useduniversally
universallyinininter-national
internati onal trade.
trade.
'The

43

Table 6
Some
Some trade specifications for gum rosin

Origin

Colour

China, PR
Portugal
Brazil

WW
WW

Indonesia

WW(WG
WW/WG

X/
WW
X/WW

Softening
(OC)
point tC)

Acid
number
nurnber

70-85
miti 70
min
70-78
75-78

162-175
162-175
165-171
155-170
155-170
160-200
160-200

Saponification
number

171-177
165-185
170-210

Unsaponifiablc
Unsaponifiable
maner
(%)
marter (70)

max 7.5
ma.x
4.3-5.5
max 10
10

For
determination of
physical data,
the
For determination
of these
these physical
data, reference
referenceshould
shouldbe
be made
made to
to the
The following
following test
test methods
methods
definitions
definitions and
and methods
methods of
of analysis
analysisgiven
givenby
bythe
the ASTM.
ASTM. The
concerning rosin are described (Annual
(Annual Book of
of ASTM
ASTMstandards,
standards. Section 6):

0269-92
269-92
0464-92
464-92
0465-92
D 465-92
0509-70
509-70
889-58
0889-58
01063-51
1063-51
1064-58
01064-58
1065-92
01065-92
03008-90
3008-90
E 28-92

Insoluble matter in rosin


Sapocification
Saponification number of rosin
Acid number of rosin
gradina rosin
Sampling and grading
Volatile oil in rosin
Ash in rosin
Iron in rosin
Unsaponifiable matter
maner in rosin
Resin acids in rosin by gas-liquid chromatography
Softening point by ring-and-ball apparatus

Turpentine
Specifications for 'gum spirit of turpentine'
turpentine' have
have been
been published
published by
by several
several national
national bodies
bodies
Specifications
including
including,the
theAmerican
AmericanSociety
Societyfor
forTesting
Testingand
andMaterials
Materials(ASTM
(ASTM0D 13-92)
13-92) and
and the Bureau
Indian Standards (IS 533:1973).
533:1973). These
Thesestandards
standards were
weredevised
devised largely
largely for
for the
thequality
quality
of Indian
assessment of turpentine
turpentine intended
solvent, i.e.,
in whole
whole form
assessment
intended for
for use
use as
as a solvent,
i.e., in
forrn rather
rather than
than as a
chemical
feedstock in
in which
which the composition
composition is of
of prime
prime importance.
importance. They generally
generally
chemical feedstock
specify
distillation
specify parameters such
such as
as relative
relative density
density or
or specific
specific p-avity,
gravity, refractive
refractive index,
index, distillation
and evaporation residues.
residues.

for Standardization
(ISO), which
which is
is a world-wide
world-wide
The International
International Organization
Organization for
Standardization (ISO),
federation
federati on of national standards institutes, has issued a standard,
standard, the
the main
main requirements
requirements of
of
which are shown
7.
shown in
in Table
Table 7.
type, Pinus pinaster' (1994)
A draft ISO standard for 'Oil of turpentine, Portugal type,
(1994)
data very
very similar
similar to
to that in
in Table 7 but with the addition of a range for
includes physical data
(20C) of -28
_28 to -35.
_35. Compositional
Compositional ranges
ranges are also given for a number
optical rotation (20C)
of constituents of
(72-85%) and
and beta-pinene
beta-pinene (12(12of the
the turpentine
turpentine including
including alpha-pinene
alpha-pinene (72-85%)
20%).

44
44

Table 7
Physical property requirements of the
the International
International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO 412-1976)
specification for gum spirit of turpentine (ISO

Relative
<Jens;I)'
density
(20!20oC)
(20/20C)

Refractive

0.862-0.872

1.465-1.478

index

(20e.
120C. D line)

Distillation
t% v/v)
vI \')

Evaporntion
Evaporation
residue

after
Residue alter
polymerizatioo
polymerization

1% m1m)
m/m)

(% "Iv)
v/v)

below 150C
lSOoC max 2.5
max 11 below
min 8i
l700e
87 below 170C

max 12
12

Acid
value

Flash
point
(oc)
1C)

max!
max
1

min 32

Turpentine
the chemical
chemical industry
industry as aa source
isolates for
for
Turpentine purchased
purchased by
by the
source of
of isolates
pine oil,
oil, fragrance
fragrance and flavour compounds, and other
other derivatives,
derivatives,
subsequent conversion to pine
is assessed
its detailed
detailed composition.
composition. The
The major
majordemand
demand isisfor
forturpentines
turpentines
assessed on the basis
basis of its
containing
containing a hiah
high total
total pinene
pinene content.
content. P.
P. elliottii
elliottii turpentine
turpentine contains
contains around
around 60% of
of
alpha-pinene and
of beta-pinene.
beta-pinene. P. radiata
radiata turpentine,
turpentine, noted
noted earlier
earlier as
as being
being of
of
alpha-pinene
and 30% of
exceptionally good
pinene, of
of which
which
exc,eptionally
goodquality,
quality,generally
generallycontains
containsmore
morethan
than95%
95% of
of total
total pinene,
over half is beta-pinene;
beta-pinene; it has virtually
virtually no
no high-boiling
high-boilingconstituents.
constituents. However, the relative
relative
proportions of
other components
components may
may also
also influence
influence an
anindividual
individual buyer's
buyer's quality
proportions
of other
evaluations; 3-carene,
which is found
significant proportions
turpentine of
of some
some
evaluations;
3-carene, which
found in significant
proportions in the turpentine
Pitius
Pinus species
species (such
(such as P. rayburghii
roxburghii and
and P.
P. sylvestris)
sy[vestris) is
is of
of little
little value,
value, and even if itit is
is
present
relatively small
present in relatively
small amounts
amounts it may
may be
be undesirable
undesirable for
for certain
certain applications.
Depending on
turpentine may contain
or more
more of
of betabetaDepending
on the
the variety, P.
P. caribaea
caribaea turpentine
contain up to 50% or
phellandrene. While
While such
such aa composition
composition does not
not diminish
diminish its value as a solvent
solvent for
for paints,
paints,
phellandrene.
it would not be attractive
anractive as a source of pinenes for derivative manufacture.

45

APPENDIX 33

GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING


INFLUENCING RESIN
COMPOSITION
COMPOSITION AND YIELDS
Some
Genetic factors
factors
Some of the factors which affect resin yields
yields have
have been
been referred
referredto
to earlier.
earlier. Genetic
playa
in determining
determining both yields
yields and
composition (quality)
play a major role in
and composition
(quality) of
of the
the resin,
resin, and
and a
tapping can
provisional
provisional judgement
judgementon
on the
the suitability
suitabilityof
of aa standing
standing resource
resource of
of pines
pines for
for tapping
often
simply by
often be made simply
by consideration
considerationof
of the
the species
speciesconcerned.
concerned. For example P.
P. patula,
which
widely planted
quality resin
yields, and
which is
is widely
planted in
in Africa,
Africa. gives
gives aa very
very poor quality
resin in
in low yields,
and is not
commercially anywhere
tapped commercially
anyv,Therein inthetheworld.
world.P.P.caribaea
caribaea provide~
provides turpentine and rosin of
acceptable,
exceptional quality,
quality, but
now being
being recognized
recognized as
as aaparticularly
particularly
acceptable, but
but not exceptional
but it is now
high-yielding species;
used
species; in Africa
Africa and
and Brazil
Brazil itithas
has out-yielded
out-yieldedP.
P. elliottii, a species often used
radiata, on
onthe
theother
otherhand,
hand, produces
produces
as the benchmark
benchmark by which
which others are
are judged.
judged. P. radiata,
probably the best quality turpentine in the world, but resin yields are poorer than P.
P. elliottii,
for example, and itit is not widely tapped.
tapped .
Table 8 gives an indication of the relative quality
quality and
and quantities
quantities of resin
resin which
which might
miaht
be expected from some species of Pinus.
Table 8
species
Resin quality and yield characteristics of some Pinus species

Species

Quality

Quantity

P. elliottii
P.
pinaster
P. pbwster
P. massoniana
massoniantl

++
++
++
+
+
+
+
+
+
+++
+
+

++

+/+/+I+/+I+/-

P.
P. merkusii
P.
p. caribaea
P. radiata
P. roxburghii
roxburg hii
P. kesiya
kesiya
P.
p. oocarpa
P. sylvestrks
sylvesrris
P.
patilla
P.paru
ia
Note:
Note:

+I+/+I+/-

+
+
+
+
+
+

+++
++
++

are rated
rated on
on aascale
scale
Resin characteristics are
good (+++)
poor (-)
(-)
from very gcxxl
(+4-0 to poor

The list
list is
is not
not intended
intended to be
be exhaustive,
exhaustive, and no attempt has
has been
been made
made to
to provide
provide
specific
quantity values
values based
based on
on yield
yield data
data reported
reported in
in the
the scientific
scientific literature.
literature. Such
Such data
data
specific quantity
encompass a wide range of variables
variables (age and size of trees, climate, tapping method, etc.)
and itit could
bernisleading
misleading to
to quote
qu oteprecise
precisefigures.
figures. Site-specific
Site-specific factors
affect the
the
cou ld be
factors can affect
rating either favourably
favourably or
adversely, so
relatively poor
th at the
the
rating
or adversely,
so aa relatively
poor rating
rating does
does not mean that
species cannot be used (P.
(P. oocarpa
oocmpa and
andP.
P. sylvestrt's
sylvestris are
are tapped
tapped in
in Mexico/Central
Mexico/Central America
America
and Russia,
Russia, respectively).
respectively). Conversely,
Conversely, aa high
high rating
rating does not
not ensure
ensure profitability
profitability ifif that
that

46
46

will not flow,


flow, no matter
matter how
how
particular species is tapped;
tapped; if temperatures
temperatures are low the resin will
yielder the
the species
species may
may be
be intrinsically.
intrinsically.
good a yielder
in Pinus hybrids.
hybrids.
A relatively recent development is
is the interest shown by foresters in
crossing of
of appropriate
appropriate species
species itit is
is possible
possible to combine the
the desirable
desirable features
features
By controlled crossing
of one
one species
species with
with those
those of
of another
another atatthe
theexpense
expenseofofthe
theless
lessfavourable
favourableattributes.
attributes.
in South
South Africa,
Africa, following
following earlier
earlier research
research in
in Australia,
Australia, has
has confilined
confinned the
the
Recent work in
potential for
improved wood
caribaea hybrids
hybrids over
over the
the
potential
for improved
wood production
productionofofP.P. elliottii
elliottii xx P.
P. caribaea
parent species.
Ofequal
equal importance
importance to
to naval
naval stores
stores production,
production, was
was the
the finding
finding that the
the
species. Of
In the
the future, Pinus hybrids may become a valuable
hybrid also gives enhanced resin yields. In
wood and resin
resin production, if they are found to be suitable.
resource for combined wood
In spite of the
the generalizations
generalizations which
made about the suitability
suitability of certain
which can
can be
be made
resin properties
properties can
can also
also
pine species
species for naval
naval stores
stores production,
production, intrinsic
intrinsic variation
variation in
pine
in resin
occur within aa species according
are derived,
derived,
according to the natural population from which the trees are
i.e., the provenance
provenance origin;
origin; P. caribaea
caribaeashows
showssome
somevariability
variability between
between and within each of
caribaea , var.
var. honciurensis
hondurensis and var. bahamensis). As
Asresin
resincomposition
composition
the varieties (var. caribaea,
(measured
turpentine and
and rosin)
rosin) isis easily
easily determined
determined and
and isis less
less influenced
influenced
(measured in
in terms of the turpentine
environmental factors
than yield,
yield, most
most of
of the
theavailable
available inforrnation
information on
on provenance
provenance
by environmental
factors than
variati on relates
composition rather than
than yield.
yield. Compositional
often
variation
relates to composition
Compositional variation
variation is
is most often
seen in the
the turpentine
turpentine and
and can
can sometimes
sometimes be
be quite
quite marked.
marked. The
The turpentine
turpentine from
from one
one
seen
rrlight have
have a high
high (and
(and therefore
therefore desirable)
desirable) pinene content, whereas turpentine
turpentine
provenance might
rrlight be
Rosin composition
composition is
is much
much more
more
from a different provenance might
be richer
richer in
in 3-carene.
3-carene. Rosin
stable within a species
species than
than turpentine.
turpentine.
If natural
natura I stands of pines
pines are
are being
being considered
considered for tapping, it is
is essential
essential to survey
survey
in order to
to determine
determine the
the extent
extent of
of any
any major
major variation in
the different areas where it grows in
resin
quality; tapping
tapping trials
trials at different
to assess
assess
resin quality;
differentsites
sites should
shouldalso
also be
be carried
carried out
out to
productivity. IfIfplantation
plantationpines
pines are
arederived
derived from
from different
different provenances,
provenances, samples
samples from
from each
each
ensure that they are all
all suitable for exploitation.
Although
provenance should be tested to ensure
exploitation. Although
variability of
of turpentine
the variability
turpentine composition
compositionmay
mayappear
appeartoto impose
impose constraints
constraints on
on the
utilization of a pine resource, in
in practice
practice it does
does not,
not, particularly
particularly for
for aa small
smallproducer.
producer. The
The
likely to be
be used
used locally,
locally, in
in whole
whole for-rn,
form , rather
than
as
a
source
of
chemical
turpentine is likely
rather than as
of chemical
Variations in
in resin
resin yields
yields are
are far
far more
more important.
important.
isolates for which composition is crucial. Variations
If individual
individual trees
trees are
are examined,
examined, pronounced
pronounced differences
differences in resin
resin (turpentine)
(turpentine)

composition and
yields become
become apparent
apparent even
even within
within the
the same
sameprovenance.
provenance. Trees
Trees of
composition
and yields
to each
each other
other(and
(andtherefore
thereforeexperiencing
experiencingidentical
identical climatic
climatic
comparable size growing close to
and
evaluate the
the
and edaphic conditions)
conditions) can
can yield
yield vastly
vastlydifferent
differentamounts
amountsofofresin.
resin. In order to evaluate
productivity of a particular
particular site, tapping
tapping trials
account of
of this
this
productivity
trials should
should be
be designed
designed to
to take account
variability
sufficient number
number of trees. In spite
variability by testin,g,
testing aa sufficient
spite of
of the
the disadvantages,
di sadvantages, these
these
differences offer
scope for
for improvements
improvements in
in quality
quality and
and productivity
productivity by
by
differences
offer some
some long term scope
elite germplasm
germ plasm selection. In
Inaafew
fewcases,
cases,seed
seedorchards
orchardshave
havebeen
beenestablished
established from
from which
which
lite
superior seed can be purchased (P.
(P. elliottii
elliottii in
in the
the United States, for example).

47

APPENDIX 44

PACKAGING OF
PACKAGING
OFTURPENTINE
TURPENTINEA_ND
AND ROSIN
Turpentine
International
usually made
(20-tonne) bulk
bulk
International shipments
shipments of
of turpentine
turpentine are
are usually
made in container size (20-tonne)
In response
measures to
to ensure
response to the world-wide
world-wide concern for adequate safety
safety measures
ensure the
tanks. In
handling and transportation
transportation of materials
materials that
that are
are actually
actually or
orpotentially
potentiallydangerous
dangerous
safe handling
importing countries
packaging and
and
substances,
increasing attention
substances, increasing
attention is being paid by importing
countries to the packaging
labelling of
As ttxpentine
turpentine isisaaflammable
flammable material
material itit isis classified
classified under
labelling
of 'dangerous
'dangerous goods'.
goods'. As
heading.
this heading.
Within the
Community, a 1979 Council
Council Directive
Directive (79/831/EEC),
(79/831/EEC), which
which
Within
the European Community,
and administrative
administrative provisions relating
has now become mandatory, details 'laws, regulations and
the classification,
classification, packaging
packaging and
and labelling
labelling of
of dangerous
dangerous substances'.
substances'. The Directive
Directive
to the
requires every
name and
and origin
origin of the
the substance,
substance, the
the danger
danger symbol
symbol
requires
every package
package to show the name
in aared
reddiamond
diamondindicating
indicating aaflamrnable
flammable liquid)
liquid) and
and standard
standard phrases
phrases
(e.g.
flame in
(e.g. a flame
indicating special
special nisks
risks (e.g.
(e.g. 'flammable')
'flammable') and
and safety
safety advice.
advice. The MiTliMUM
minimum size
size and
indicating
placement
When dangerous
dangerous 'substances'
are transported they
placement of labels
labels is
is also
also specified.
specified. When
'substances' are
they

become
'goods', and
and when
conveyed from
from one
one country
country toto another
they are
become 'goods',
when conveyed
another they
are subject
subject to
.iinternational
nternational regulations
means of
of conveyance.
conveyance. VVhen
When sending shipments
shipments
regulations according
according to the means
regulations of the International
International Maritime
Maritime Dangerous
by sea, the regulations
Dangerous Goods
Goods (IMDG)
(IMDG) code have
be observed.
observed. As
Aswith
withdangerosus
dangerous substances,
substances, dangerous
dangerous goods have to be
be marked
marked with
with
to be
warning labels.
labels.
United Nations
Nations number
Turpentine
shipped under
Turpentine is
is shipped
under United
number 1299
1299 which
which means
means that
that the
must meet
meet certain
certain requirements;
requirements; this
this number
number falls
falls within
v.-ithin Class
Class 3,
3,Packing,
Packing Group
Group
container must
be quoted
quotedininall
allshipping,
shipping documents.
new producer
producer contemplating
contemplating the
Ill, and
and has
has to
to be
III,
documents. AA new
and international
international shipment
shipment of turpentine
turpentine should
should obtain
obtain more
more detailed
detailed information
information
export and
authorities or
or prospective importers.
from national transportation authorities
When
When it arrives
arrives in
in the
the country to which it is being shipped,
shipped, the importer may divide
divide
consignment into
into lacquer-lined
lacquer-lined steel
steel drums
drums for
for local
local sales.
sales. If the importer is
is willing
willing to
the consignment
the turpentine
turpentine in
in drums,
drums, they should
should be new galvanized steel
take the
steel drums
drums of
of about
about 200 litres
(170-185
capacity. Internal
lacquering of
drums is
is usually
usually preferred, but
but care
care
(170-185 kg net) capacity.
Internal lacquering
of the
the drams
taken to avoid
avoid cracking
cracking the
the lacquer
lacquer layer
layer when
when handling
handling because
an
should
should be
be taken
because this
this has
has an
adverse
effectOT1
on the
adverse effect
the turpentine.
turpentine.

Rosin

Requirements
Requirements for
for the
the labelling
labelling of
of rosin
rosin for transportation
transportation into,
into, and
and within,
within, the
the European
European
Community are
resolved for some
Community
are currently
currently (late
(late 1994)
1994) under
under discussion
discussion and
and may
may not
not be
be resolved
Prospective exporters
exporters of
of rosin
rosin to
to the
the EC
ECor
orelsewhere
elsewhere are
are therefore
therefore advised
advised to
to seek
seek
time.
time. Prospective
in the
the countries
countries concerned.
concerned.
up-to-date information
information from
from importers
importers in

48

Rosin
variety of
On discharge
discharge from
from the
the still,
still, the
the
Rosin may
may be
be packaged
packaged inin aa variety
of forms.
forms. On
galvanized steel drums
drums of around
around 225-250
225-250 kg
kg (net)
(net)
molten
into new,
new, galvanimd
molten rosin
rosin is
is often fed into
capacity. The
Thedrums
drums have
have domed
domed tops
tops so
so that
that after
after they
they have been set aside for the rosin to
cool and
and solidify
solidify (with
(with resulting contraction
contraction in volume),
volume), the
can be
be hammered
hammered flat.
flat.
the tops can
stages over several days
days to
Alternatively,
Alternatively, flat-topped
flat-toppeddrums
drumscan
can be
be filled
filledinintwo
two or
or three
three stages
Internationalshipments
sltipmentsof
ofrosin
rosinare
arealso
alsousually
usually
allow for the change in volume on cooling. International
wltich there are
are large
large endendmade
loads. In
larger producing
producing countries
countries in which
made in container loads.
In the larger
in specially
specially designed
designed tank-cars is
is
user consumers of rosin,
rosin, transportation
transportation of
of molten
molten rosin
rosin in
feasible;
unlikely, however,
something wltich
smaller producer would
would
feasible; tltis
this is unlikely,
however, to
to be something
which a new, smaller
contemplate.
End
End users
users are showing a growing
growing preference
preference for
for less
less robust
robust forms
forms of packaging
packaging to
enable easier opening and
and handling,
handling, and
and in
in this
tltis case,
case, silicone
silicone or
orpolypropylene-lined
polypropylene-lined multimultiwall
wall paper bags
Was can be used. The
Thesacks
sacks can
canbe
be filled
filled either
either with
with molten
molten rosin directly from
from
the still (which
(wltich is then allowed
allowed to cool to forrn
form aa solid
solid block)
block) or
or with
with flakes
flakes of
ofsolidified
solidified
by the
the time
time itithas
has
rosin. The
Theflakes
flakes are
are formed
formed by
by discharging
discharging hot
hot rosin
rosin onto
onto aamoving
moving belt;
belt; by
the rosin
rosin has
has solidified
solidified into a thin
thin sheet
sheet which
which can
can easily
easily be
be
reached
the line,
line, the
reached the end of the
Forease
easeof
ofhandling,
handling, 25
25 kg
kgbags
bags are
are aaconvenient
convenientsize.
size.
broken up and transferred to bags. For
relatively small
For relatively
small naval
naval stores
stores operations,
operations, the
the quantities
quantities of
of rosin
rosin produced
produced or the
intended markets
forms of more
more
intended
markets may
may not
not warrant
warrant investment
investmentininnew
new drums
drums or
or other
other forms
expensive packaaing.,,
packaging, sososimpler
simplerways
waysofofhandling
handlingand
andtransporting
transportingthe
the rosin
rosin can be used.
The
molten rosin
be drained
drained either
either into
into cardboard
cardboard boxes
boxes supported
supported by
by
'I'he molten
rosin from
from the still can be
suitable frames,
into split
split drums.
drums. Solidified
broken into
into
suitable
frames, or into
Solidified rosin
rosin from
from split
split drums
drums can be broken
lumps
and
bagaed.
The
disadvantage
of
this
method
is
the
formation
of
an
appreciable
lumps and bagged. The disadvantage of tltis method is the formation of an appreciable
quantity of powdered
quantity
powdered rosin
rosin which
which is
is prone
prone to
to oxidation
oxidation and
and discolouration,
discolouration, and
and which
wltich
results in a poorer
poorer quality
quality product.
product.

49

APPENDlX5
APPENDIX
5

LIST OF IMPORTERS
IMPORTERS AND
AND TRADERS
TRADERS OF
OF NAVAL
NA VAL
STORES
The follovving
following tist
companies which
list gives
gives the
the names
names and
and addresses of
ot some of the companie,s
which import or
in naval
naval stores.
stores. Such
companies may
willing to
purchases of exportexporttrade in
Such companies
may be
be willing
to consider purchases
quality,
turpentine from
new producer.
producer. Only
quality, container-load
container-loadshipments
shipmentsofofrosin
rosin or
or turpentine
from a new
compani
es in
and the
the United
United States
States are
are given.
given. The
The list
tist should
should not be
be
companies
in Europe,
Europe, Japan
Japan and
regarded
exhaustive and
inclusion in
have any
any
regarded as exhaustive
and inclusion
in the
the tist
list does
does not
not imply
imply that
that FAO
FAO or NRI have
knowledge of the financial
financial standing of
of the
the company.
company.

EUROPE
France
AlmimetSA
Almimet SA
18 Rue
Rue de
de la Michodiere
Michodire
18
75002 Paris

Drives Resiniques et Terpeniques


Derives
30 Rue Gambetta
40105 Dax

Germany
Gratenau &
& Hesselbacher Chemie KG
Klosterwall
KJosterwall 2
20017 Hamburg
Hermann ter Hell
& Co.
Co.
Hell &
Kattrepelsbriicke 11
20095 Hamburg
Weissmeer-Baltische GmbH
Lange Miihren 9
2000 Hamburg

Willers, Engel GmbH &


& Co.
Grimm 8
20457 Hamburg

Italy
Chemverga SL
Via Romagnosi 20
00196 Rome

50
50

IEMPSA Delta
1EMPSA
Boccaccio 33
Via Boccaccio
on Naviglio
Naviglio
29020 Trezzano on
Milan

Netherlands
De Monchy International BV
POBox
762
PO
Box 762
Meent 106
106
3000 AT Rotterdam
Integrated Chemicals BV
Kanaalstraat 276
302
PO Box 302
2160 AH Lisse
& Co.
Co.
G.C. Rutteman &
Exchange Building, Room 374
PO Box 30028
3001 DA Rotterdam

United Kingdom
& Menzies Ltd
Ferguson &
312 Broomloan Road
Glasgow G51 2JW

Langley
Smithcg:.
& Co.
Langley Smith
Co. Ltd
36 Spital Square
London
London E1
El 6DY

A.V. Pound &


& Co. Ltd
A.V.
83a High Street
KTlO 9PZ
Esher KT10
White Sea and Baltic Co. Ltd
Amdale
Arndale House
Otley Road
Headingley
Leeds LS6 2UU

Japan
Arakawa Chemical Industries Ltd
3-7 Hirano-machi 1-chome
Chuo-ku
Osaka
Osaka 541
51
51

Harima Chemical Inc.


6-7 Dosho-machi 3-chome
Chuo-ku
Osaka 541
541

Sang Yo Boeki Ltd


Daiwa Bank Buildings 2-5-28
Kyu Taro-machi
Chuo-ku
Osaka 541
541
Toyo Chemical Co. Ltd
16-12 Ginza 6-chome
Chuo-ku
Tokyo 104

United States
PDM Inc.
3512-6 Silverside Road
Wilmington
DE 19810
Co. Inc.
Rausch Naval Stores Co.
PO Box 4085
New Orleans
LA 70178
Chemicals Inc.
Inc.
Ter Chemicals
P
PO Drawer
DrawerP
Pass Christian
MS 39571

52

APPENDIX 6

STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 9
Rosina:
Rosina: exports from
from the People's Republic of China, 1987-92
(tonnes)
1987

Total

193000
193 000

1988
1988

1989
1989

193000
193 000

182975
182 975

1990

1991

1992

174000
174 000

205000
205 000

261000
261 000

Source:
Customs Statistical
Statistical Yearbook,
Yearbook , 1992
1992
Source: Customs
Note: a Believed
Believed to
to be
be wholly
wholly or
or mainly
mainly gum
gum rosin
rosin

Table 10
10
Rosina: exports from Portugal, 1987-92
1987-92
Rosina:
(tonnes)

Total
of which to:
a/which
France
Germany
Gennany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgium/Luxembourg
Spain
Switzerland

Austria
Japan
USA
Canada
Venezuela
South Africa
Morocco
Other countries

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

84
456
84456

59
068
59068

54
258
54258

57107
57
107

47050
47 050

26069
26
069

13 107
107
22 156
22156
9 590
9590
9 122
9122
55687
687
907
14
059
14059
356
485
300
3 016
3016
408
1 224
1224
1I 115
lIS
830
22094
094

88059
059
15 454
15454
88338
338
77005
005
55028
028
434
88890
890
412
412
428
263
22471
471
169
100
337
337
302
1I 378

10448
10 448
15 687
15687
44302
302
77657
657
33342
342
289
289
77250
250
315
181
181
193
193
22311
311
476
106
106
224
547
930

9091
9 091
20518
20
518
44213
213
88894
894
33122
122
698
55664
664
400
275
275
193
193
1985
1 985
180
180
140
140
120
120
402
1I 212
212

77655
655
18493
18 493
33368
368
66882
882
1 831
325
33997
997
369
269
298
11592
592
403
140
140
80
641
641
707

55068
068
9535
9 535
11994
994
22804
804
11520
520
471
649
649
258
354
354
315
315
11389
389
111
III
140
140
135
679
679
647
647

Source: Eurostat
Euraslat
Source:
Notes: a Defined
Defined as
as 'rosin
'rosin obtained
obtained from
from fresh
fresh oleoresins
oleoresins' or
or'gum
'gum rosin'
rosin' [excludes
[excludes other
other
and rosin
rosin derivatives]
derivatives]
types of rosin and

53

Table 11
11
Table
RosinG,b
: exports
1987-92
ROSina,b:
exportsfrom
from Indonesia,
Indonesia, 1987-92

(tonnes)

Total

a/which
of
which to:
Gennany
Gerrnany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Be1giumILuxembourg
Belgium/Luxembourg
Portugal
Spain
Greece
Turkey
India
Bangladesh
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Japan
Taiwan, Prov.
Provo of China
Singapore
Korea, Rcp.
Korea,
Rep. of
Thailand
Philippines
Australia
USA
Mexico
Colombia
Ecuador
Ec uador
Egypt
Eg-ypt
Other countries

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

14966
14 966

22 103
103

7380
7 380

14562
14
562

17480
17 480

23274
23
274

36
54

18
342
342
288
36

696
1397
1 397
936
108

na
126
126
350
126
126
na

na

36
18
18
55937
937
144
630
72
22520
520
1574
1 574
225
1 166
1085
1 085
176
176
144
95

340
38
36
36
33290
290
54
54
15
15

653
11920
920
11453
453
40
346
I1 056
709
1 709
125
594
1 795
454
913
913
113
113
22856
856
22451
451
352
22072
072
595
650
116
1 116
015
1 015
55
55
335
72
96
438

5645
5 645
386
-

2786
2 786
3417
3 417
1I 388
522
750
54

55294
294
474
791
na
44822
822
5660
5 660
115
2 115
594
499
864
76
16
16
na
na
na

1 310
54

44420
420
702
492
162
101
50

44392
392
11088
088
239
2282
2 282
742
387
186
186
614
-

18

296

00

56

528
76

Indonesia Foreign
Foreign Trade
Trade Statistics
Statistics
Source:
Source: Indonesia
Defined as
as 'pine
'pine resin'
resin' but
but believed
believedto
to be
be wholly
wholly or
or mainly
mainly gum
gum rosin
rosin
Notes: a Defined
Notes:
b
are: nil (1987),
(1987),
h Additional, small quantities are classified under
under 'rosin'.
'rosin'. Totals are:
(1988), 148
148 (1989),
(1989), 607
607 (1990),
(1 990),404
(1991) , 104
104 (1992);
(1992); in each case, most
na (1988),
404 (1991),
to India.
India .
went to
na ~ Not available

54

Table 12
Table
Rosino,b:
Rosina,b: exports
exports from
from Brazil,
Brazil, 1987-93
(tonnes)

Total

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993
1993

962

II
11 682

13 843
13

8451
8 451

8330
8 330

10
10 384

13
13 502

101
120

490
490
1 779
177
925
84

na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
n.
na
n.
na
n.

15
1772
1 772
20
235
38

na
na

na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
n.
na

na
na
na
na
na
n.
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
n.
na
n.
na
n.
na
n.
na

of which to:
o/

Germany
Gennany
Netherlands
Italy
It al y
UKUI<
Belgiurn
Belgium
Portugal
Spain
Japan
Singapore
USA
Mexico
Uruguay
Chile
Ecuador
Venezuela
Peru
Argentina
Africa
South Afric.
Other countries

40

415
60

36
10
477

10
10
4 531
53 1

135
42
30

326
705
10
1 598
103

4
33

335
335
98

Source: National
National trade
trade statistics
statistics
Source:
Notes: a Defined as
as 'colofonias
'colofonias' [excludes
[excludes rosin
rosin derivatives]
deriv.tives]
b Believed to be wholly or mainly
mainly gum rosin
na =
: : : Not
Not available

55

79
779
779
74
33938
938
387
302
425
425
156
120
25
40
46

n.

T1 a

n.
na
n.
na
na
na
na
n.
na
na
na
n.
na
n.
na
na
na
na
na
na
n.
na
n.
n.
na

Table 13
13
Rosina:
pon s from the United States, 1989-93
1989-93
Rosina: ex
exports
(tonnes)

Total

a/which
to :
of which to:
Gennany
Germany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgium
Lebanon
Pakistan
Japan
Singapore
Thailand
Philippines
Canada
Cariada
Mexico
EI Salvador
El
Panam
Panamaa
Venezuela

Peru
Colom bia
Colombia
Argen tina
Argentina
Egypt
Egypt
Kenya
Afri ca
South Africa
coun tries
Other countries

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1 808

1087
1 087

1274
1 274

1 109
109

820
820

91
30
55

122

35
55
17
83
101

19
4

22
22

480
7
23
99
1166
11
78
60
5
22
10
10
36

428
11
11
88

191
191
15
54
80
2
7

477

18
18
11
11
77
38
38
11
11
28
28
232
49
45

750

17
-

57

95

15
51
6

71
71
258
22

27
706
27
32
49
32

69

95

35
15
IS
-

139

85

106

61
61

117

35

SSource:
ource: National
Nati onal trade
trade statistic.s
stati sti cs
Note : a Defined as
as 'gum
'gum rosin
rosin'[separate
[separate from
from wood
wood rosin
rosin and
and taIl
tall oil
oil rosin]
ros in]
Note:

56
56

18
18
35

Table 14
14
Table
Rosina: imports into the European Community,
Community. 1987-92
Rosina:
(tonnes)
(tonnes)

Total

1987

1988
1988

1989
1989

1990

1991

1992

151986
151 986

147897
147 897

141961
141 961

146075
146 075

160354
160
354

188
188 036

672
1254
1 254
395
69
472
71875
71 875
509
5 187
165
23
ns
65468
65 468

574
]1 551
]1 796
58
407
54442
54
442
292
8539
8 539
91
91
347

362
362
1 835
2889
2 889
215
401
401
50219
50 219
412
312
312
81
81
2894
2 894
ns
66459
66
459
180
161
716
585
33352
352
55941
941
973
973
66

544
544
1405
1 405
1624
1 624
593
465
51
51 654
457

496
1] 782
2490
2 490
1 276
1276
1677
1 677
41551
41 551
478
45
45
302
952
ru;
ns
94790
94 790
44664
664
234
799
197
22841
841
22708
708
76
20
20

22276
276
1 989
55213
213
22068
068
33243
243
142
23 142
520

of whichlrom:
from:
~rwhich

France
Germany
Netherlands
UK
Belgium/Luxembourg
Portugal
Spain
Yugoslavia,forrric.T
fanner
Yugoslavia,
Greece
Soviet Union, former
fanner
Russia
China. People's Rep. of
China,

Indonesia
Hong Kong
USA
Mexico
Honduras
Brazil
Argentina
Venezuela
Sou th Africa
South
Other countries

of which to:
alwhich
France
Germany
Netherla1l(ls
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgiurn/Luxembour
2-,
Belgium/Luxembourg
Spain
Portugal
Greece
Denmark

Ireland

329
763
1221
1 221
2 809
101
15

ru;
ris

66725
66
725
404
]1 879
1 303
835
22308
308
33045
045
42

157
977

ns
76843
76 843
579
304
689
142
142
2 749
2749
22063
063
241
241
316
1 316

300
303
942

123895
123 895
]10
0872
872
389
1 389
11 0
1 110
73

3463
3 463
5009
5 009
639
639
-

81
81

659

33259
259

33908
908

33273
273

976
22 976

1 509

20 888
20888
49069
49 069
33644
33 644
16036
16
036
15546
15
546
2087
2 087
14037
14 037
12
22
329
336

19861
19 861
47425
47 425
34025
34
025
13 601
18386
18 386
1 970
10 519
10519
1I 410

17 396
17396
44 833
38
023
38023
12846
12 846
14 033
14033
22228
228
11 158
11
503
503
99
356
576

18 211
18211
54
487
54487
33445
33
445
12292
12
292
13 335
335
33121
121
88999
999
809
809

21
725
21725
54553
54
553
39564
39
564
15
083
15083
323
11 323
33038
038
88607
607
33115
115

184
184
1192
1 192

794
22552
552

979
21 979
61
61 053
43811
43
811
15 639
12658
12 658
55758
758
13 994
88875
875
134
1I 029
3 106

310
390

Eurostal
Source: Euro
star
Notes:
Notes: a Defined
Defined as
as 'rosin
'rosin obtained
obtained from fresh
fresh oleoresins'
oleoresins or 'gurn
'gum rosin'
rosin [excludes
[exclud es other
other
and rosin derivatives]
derivatives]
types of rosin and
N at specified
specified
ns = Not
l

57
57

Table 15
15
Table
Rosina: imports into Japan, 1987-93
(tonnes)
1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

Total

71011
71 011

82416
82
416

78911
78 911

60844
60 844

74
442
74442

68927
68
927

75303
75
303

of
which .from:
from:
of which
China,
Rep, ofb
ofb
China, People's Rep.
Prov, of China
Taiwan, Prov.

60473
60 473

66399
66 399
230
5038
5 038
200

59589
59
589

48328
48 328

60697
60
697

58046
58
046
522
522
4968
4 968
1531
1 531
815
845
333
1554
1 554
20
20
293

61755
61
'755
630

b
Indonesia
Lndonesiab

Hong Kong
Nam b
Viet Namb
New Zealand
b
Portugal
Portugalb
USA
Brazil
Brazilbb
Other countries

3372
3 372
118
1 885
248
44809
809
106

9005
9 005
1022
1 022

3474
3 474
535

1 375
298
8663
8 663
36
177

1491
1 491
263
7429
7 429
97
15

1374
1 374
158
6072
6 072
798
798
105
105

55656
656
1 150
300
1 163
333
4416
4 416
634
93

Japan Exports
Exports and
alUi Inworts
Imports
Source:
Source: Japan
as 'rosin
'rosin' or
or 'rosin
'rosin and
and resin
resin acids'
acids' [excludes
[excludes salts, ester gums
gwns and
Notes: a Defined as
other derivatives]
deri vati ves]
to be
be wholly
wholly or
or mainly
mainly g,tun
gum rosin
b Believed to

Table 16
16
Table
1989-93
Rosina: imports into the United States, 1989-93
(tonnes)

Total
of
which from:
ofwhichtom:
Portugal
China,
Rep, ofb
China. People's Rep.
Indonesiab
Inctonesia b
Hong Kong
Singapore
Canada
Mexicob
Mexkob
Honduras b
Hondurasb
Brazilbb
Brazil
Argentina b
Argentina12
Venezuela b
Venezuelab
Other countries
cOWltries

1989
1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

14301
14 301

16783
16
783

703
13 703

14 639

671
13 671

I1 863
33281
281

220

1758
1 758
55818
818
18
18
127

1 895
1895
55508
508
678
1 081

22118
118
77028
028
11073
073
560
151

168
2 168
33112
112
11228
228
347

274
963
396
6 068
6068
838
44
354

294
390
390
120
44275
275
33382
382
452
149

26
60
33756
756
664

16
16

202
202
49

20
22864
864
807

6093
6 093
433

35

Source: National
National trade
trade statistics
statistics
Source:
Notes: a(l Defined as
as 'gum
'gum rosin'
rosin' [separate
[separate from wood rosin and tall oil rosin]
rosin ]
b Believed to be wholly or mainly gtun
gum rosin
rosin

58

39
39

8172
8 172
212
821
1003
1 003
263
263
22379
379
20
20
48

Table
17
Table 17
Turpentine":
Turpentinea: exports from the People's Republic of China, 1987-92
(tonnes)
(tornes)

Total

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

22855
855

6769
6 769

24 323
323

1788
1 788

88052
052

5 560

Source:
Customs Statistical
Stalistical Yearbook,
Yearbook , 1992
1992
Source:. Customs
Note:
a Believed to
to be
be wholly
wholly or
or mainly
mainly gum
gum turpentine
turpentine

Table
18
Table 18
Turpentine":
Turpentinea: exports
exports from
from Portugal, 1987-92
(tonnes)

Total
o/which
to:
of which to:
France
Germany
Gerrnany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgium/Luxembourg
Spain
Other countries

1987
1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

12695
12 695

99888
888

7974
7 974

5784
5 784

7875
7 875

5775
5 775

5675
5 675
665
182
182
31 8
318
417
344
4 583
4583
511

44398
398
749

3153
3 153
517
170
54
222
185
185
33614
614
59

1694
1 694
603
89
429
60
159
159
22658
658
92

22767
767
510

561
11 561
363
363

196
196
160
160
352
352
250
3 480
303
303

149
149

91
91

280
280
102
275
33721
721

398
398
299
2 968
2968

71

31
31

64

Source: Eurostat
Eurosrat
Source:
Notes: a Defined as
as 'gum
'gum spirits
spirits of
of turpentine
turpentine'[separate
[separate from
from spirits
spirits of
of wood
wood and
and sulphate
sulphate
Notes:
turpentine]
turpentine]

59

Table 19
19
Turpentine":
Indonesia. 1987-92
Turpentinea: exports from Indonesia,
(tonnes)

Total

1987

1988

1989
1989

1990

1991

1992

22147
147

33421
421

3403
3 403

44935
935

3989
3 989

77234
234

97
360

237
65
192
126
42
20
95
2559
2 559

508
508
165
38
38
754
164
123
123
366

of which to:
a/which
to :

France
Germany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgium/Luxembourg
Greece
India
Bangladesh

Japan
Japtlo
Taiwan,
Taiwan, Provo
Prov. of China
Hong
H
ong Kong
Singapore
Korea, Rep.
Rep. of
Korea.
Thailand
New Zealand
USA
Canada
Egypt
Egypt

Other countrico;;
countries

349
163
163
50

227
312
394

22030
030

22470
470

552
96

292
82

1587
1 587
358
95

11 619
11128
28
269
1

34
14

97
27
80

327

00

109
54

14

631

57

30
30

Source: Indonesia
Source:
Indonesia Foreign
Foreign Trade
Trade Statistics
Statistics
Note:
D efin ed as
as 'gum
'gum turpentine'
turpentine'
Note: a Defined

60

204
152
59
14

44121
121
68
68
95
68
94
94
-

41
41

00

00

39
152
14
19
19

209
379
28
28
13
13

Table 20
Turpentine":
Turpentinea: imports into the European Community, 1987-92
(tonnes)

Total

qf which
from:
of
which from:
Portugal
Germany
Bulgaria

Yugoslavia, former
farmer
Yugoslavia,
Soviet Union,
Union, fanner
former
Russia

1987

1988
1988

1989
1989

1990

1991

1992

14715
14 715

14546
14 546

21288
21 288

19903
19 903

15821
15 821

16415
16 415

12965
12 965
127
58
505
589

11
11 042
311

9 350
9350
1 063
90
945
415

6415
6 415
22135
135

8062
8 062
825
266
87
717

55977
977
992
376

ns

1I 243
879
ns

80

ns

150
302
103
ns
7528
7 528
1072
1 072
771

ns
TIS
3 149
594
1 155

233

7498
7 498
501
513

Argentina

South Africa
cotmtri es
Other countries

443

758

109
804

339
1 088

247
719

5 648
5648
868
159
1 472
1472
490
441
55305
305
59
59
135
95
43

5 886
5886
1 103
259
1 555
468
375
4 869
4869

9301
9 301
2658
2 658
283
11542
542
411
411
357
5 452
5452
11 100
100
148
10
26

6725
6 725
2557
2 557
176
1 359
463
650
77260
260
445
236
16
16
16
16

66453
453
1540
1 540
308
770
339
379
44936
936

China, People's Rep. of


Indonesia

28

Brazil

of which to:
afwhich
France
Germany
Netherlands
Italy
UK
Belgium/Luxembourg
Belgitun/LtLxembourg
Spain
Portugal
Greece
Denmark
Ireland

15
16

650
417
21
21
88

120
120
457
3492
3 492
22125
125
11684
684
626
127
127
439
3938
3 938
1 341
132
1 379
306
306
481
66373
373
1 618
812
22

Source: Eu
rostat
Eurostoc
Source:
as 'gurn
'gum spirits of turpentine
turpentin e'[separate
[separate from
from spirits
spirits of
of wood
wood and
and sulphate
sulphate
Notes: a Defined as
turpentine]
~ Not
ns -=
Not specified
specified

61

13
13

Table
21
Table 21
Turpentine":
Turpentin ea :imports
importsinto
intoJapan,
Japan, 1987-93
(tonnes)
1987

1988

1989

1990

1991
1991

1992

1993

7995
7 995

12266
12 266

14894
14 894

66580
580

77629
629

8240
8 240

66533
533

Indonesia
Indonesiabb

1711
1 711
302

44828
828
1 521

22384
384
272
98

20
899
44418
418
645
00

40
1 120
3 979
3979
775
3

22484
484
176
53
30
360
1 360
2 001
2001
476
0

809
1 809
136
136
56
24
1915
1 915
33537
537
762
11

33196
196
567

Hong Kong
Viet Namb
Nam b
New Zealand
USA
Chile
Chile
Other countries

88357
357
770
53
40
498
44551
551
625
0

Total

of which from:
a/which/rom:

ofb
China, People's Rep. ofb

Source: Japan Exports


E'ports and
and Imports
imports
Source:
Defined as
as 'gum,
'gum, wood
wood or
or sulphate
sulphate turpentine
turpentine oils'
oils'
Notes: aa Defined
mainl y gum turpentine
b Believed to be wholly or mainly

62

1 307
1307
3 039
3039
528
11

906
1274
1 274
571
19
19

r;

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.o

Pinus isisone
oneof
ofthe
the most
mostwidely
widely distributed
distributed genera
of
Pinus
genera of
trees in the northern
trees
northern hemisphere.
hemisphere. Its
Its range
range extends
extends

from the polar region


region to the
the tropics
tropics and
and includes
includes
from

and North
NorthAmerica,
America,Europe
Europeand
and Asia.
Asia. Pines
Pines
Central and
are among
among the
the most
most widely
widely planted exotics for
are
timber and
pulppurposes,
purposes, and
and large
largeareas
areas of
ofthese
these
timber
and pulp

trees
natural range
range
trees are
are therefore
therefore found
found outside their natural
in South America, Africa
Africa and
and Australasia.
Australasia. Pine
Pine trees
trees
are
only for
for wood,
wood, but
butalso
also as
as a
are important
important not only
valuable source
products. They
source of non-wood forest products.
be tapped
can then
then be
be distilled
distilled
can be
tapped for resin, which can
to produce
produce gum
gum turpentine
turpentine and
and gum
gum rosin.
rosin.

from pine
pine
Gum naval stores: turpentine and rosin from
resin provides
provides information
information on the technical and
resin
economic aspects
of pine
pine resin
resin production
production including
aspects of

of trees and
of the
the resin.
resin.
the tapping of
and the
the distillation of
It also reviews
recent trends
trends in
in world production
reviews recent
production
and markets
markets for
for gum
gum turpentine and
and
and gum rosin. The
is intended
intended for prospective
prospective producers
producers of
of
book is
turpentine
turpentine and
and rosin
rosin and
and for
for organizations
organizations and
and

individuals appraising
projects involving their
appraising projects

is particularly
particularly intended
intended for
for readers
readers in
production. ItIt is
developing countries.

Itkt
over

441

iirel-fISSI" 92-5-103684-5
92-5-103684-5
ISBN

Aiint-

ISSI'J

020-3370

111111111111111111111111
110ID
0

1111 1111

6
9 -7788925
9 2 5 11 003
3 6684
8 4 6M-37
M-37

V6460E/1/5 95/2000

f>.-

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