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A pump is an item of mechanical equipment that moves liquid from onearea to another by increasing the pressure of the liquid to the amount needed to overcome the combined effects of friction, gravity and system operating pressures. Pumps are divided into two fundamental types based on the manner in which they transmit energy to the pumped media: kinetic or positive displacement
Different between positive displacement and kinetic:
positive displacement and kinetic (or dynamic or rotodynamic). Positive displacement pumps are batch delivery, periodic energy addition devices whose fluid displacement volume (or volumes) is set in motion and positively delivers that batch offluid from a lower to higher pressure irrespective of the value of that higher pressure. Kinetic pumps are continuous delivery, continuous energy addition devices that buildup kinetic energy in the rotating element or impeller and convert most of that energy intostatic energy to a point where the fluid delivery to the higher pressure level commences.Unlike positive displacement pumps the delivery is affected by the value of the dischargepressure that must be overcome. On the other hand, the kinetic pump will deliver anincreasing amount of liquid as the discharge pressure is lowered, whereas the positive displacement pump delivery is fixed. Types of pumps: 1.1 Displacement pumps: 1.1.1 Gear pump: Operation:
Gear pumps belong to a positive displacement rotary group, and are made by enclosing two or more gears in a close-fitting housing. A driver turns a shaft connected to one of the gears, causing it to rotate. This gear drives the other gear through the meshing of the teeth of the two gears, just as with power transmission gears.As the gears rotate, on one side, the teeth are coming out of mesh with each other .As a tooth is pulled out of the space between two teeth of the other gear, it creates a vacuum. Since the housing forms a seal all around the set of gears, the liquid that rushes into this space to fill this void has to come in through the pump’s suction port. Once the spaces between gear teeth are filled with liquid, the liquid rides in these pockets, trapped in place by the housing, until it reaches the discharge side of the pump. The liquid stays in place between the teeth until it reaches the other side of the gear mesh, where the teeth are coming together. Then, when a tooth from the other gear comes into the space between the teeth, the liquid there is forced out. Since the housing still forms a seal around the gears, the only place for the displaced liquid to go is out the pump’s discharge port. The pump thus operates like a conveyor belt, with the pockets of liquid between the gear teeth being picked up at the gear mesh, carried to the other side, and dropped off at the other side of the mesh.
Type of gear pump: 1. External gear pump: External gear pumps are a popular pumping principle and are often used as lubrication pumps in machine tools, in fluid power transfer units, and as oil pumps in engines. External gear pumps can come in single or double (two sets of gears) pump configurations with spur (shown), helical, and herringbone gears. Helical and herringbone gears typically offer a smoother flow than spur gears, although all gear types are relatively smooth. Large-capacity external gear pumps typically use helical or herringbone gears. Small external gear pumps usually operate at 1750 or 3450 rpm and larger models operate at speeds up to 640 rpm. External gear pumps have close tolerances and shaft support on both sides of the gears. This allows them to run to pressures beyond 3,000 PSI / 200 BAR, making them well suited for use in hydraulics. With four bearings in the liquid and tight tolerances, they are not well suited to handling abrasive or extreme high temperature applications. Operation: 1. As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate. 2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the teeth and the casing -- it does not pass between the gears. 3. Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
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High speed High pressure No overhung bearing loads
Relatively quiet operation Design accommodates wide variety of materials
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Four bushings in liquid area No solids allowed Fixed End Clearances
Applications Various fuel oils and lube oils Chemical additive and polymer metering
• Chemical mixing and blending
2- Internal Gear Pump nternal gear pumps are exceptionally versatile. While they are often used on thin liquids such as solvents and fuel oil, they excel at efficiently pumping thick liquids such as asphalt, chocolate, and adhesives. The useful viscosity range of an internal gear pump is from 1cPs to over 1,000,000cP. In addition to their wide viscosity range, the pump has a wide temperature range as well, handling liquids up to 750°F / 400°C. This is due to the single point of end clearance (the distance between the ends of the rotor gear teeth and the head of the pump). This clearance is adjustable to accommodate high temperature, maximize efficiency for handling high viscosity liquids, and to accommodate for wear. Operation: 1. Liquid enters the suction port between the rotor (large exterior gear) and idler (small interior gear) teeth. The arrows indicate the direction of the pump and liquid. 2. Liquid travels through the pump between the teeth of the "gearwithin-a-gear" principle. The crescent shape divides the liquid and acts as a seal between the suction and discharge ports. 3. The pump head is now nearly flooded, just prior to forcing the liquid out of the discharge port. Intermeshing gears of the idler and rotor form locked pockets for the liquid which assures volume control. 4. Rotor and idler teeth mesh completely to form a seal equidistant from the discharge and suction ports. This seal forces the liquid out of the discharge port.
Advantages Only two moving parts Only one stuffing box Non-pulsating discharge Excellent for high-viscosity liquids Constant and even discharge regardless of pressure conditions
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Usually requires moderate speeds Medium pressure limitations One bearing runs in the product pumped Overhung load on shaft bearing
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All varieties of fuel oil and lube oil Resins and Polymers Alcohols and solvents Asphalt, Bitumen, and Tar Polyurethane foam (Isocyanate and polyol)
1.1.2 Lobe Pump Lobe pumps are used in a variety of industries including, pulp and paper, chemical, food, beverage, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology. They are popular in these diverse industries because they offer superb sanitary qualities, high efficiency, reliability, corrosion resistance, and good clean-in-place and sterilize-in-place (CIP/SIP) characteristics. These pumps offer a variety of lobe options including single, bi-wing, tri-lobe (shown), and multi-lobe. Rotary lobe pumps are noncontacting and have large pumping chambers, allowing them to handle solids such as cherries or olives without damage. They are also used to handle slurries, pastes, and a wide variety of other liquids. If wetted, they offer self-priming performance. A gentle pumping action minimizes product degradation. They also offer reversible flows and can operate dry for long periods of time. Flow
is relatively independent of changes in process pressure, so output is constant and continuous. Operation: Lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps in operation in that fluid flows around the interior of the casing. Unlike external gear pumps, however, the lobes do not make contact. Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox. Pump shaft support bearings are located in the gearbox, and since the bearings are out of the pumped liquid, pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection. 1. As the lobes come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate. 2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the lobes and the casing -- it does not pass between the lobes. 3. Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
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Pass medium solids No metal-to-metal contact Superior CIP/SIP capabilities Long term dry run (with lubrication to seals) Non-pulsating discharge
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Requires timing gears Requires two seals Reduced lift with thin liquids
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Polymers Paper coatings Soaps and surfactants Paints and dyes
1.1.3 Progressing cavity pump
This type of pump transfers fluid by means of the progress, through the pump, of a sequence of small, fixed shape, discrete cavities, as its rotor is turned. This leads to the volumetric flow rate being proportional to the rotation rate and to low levels of shearing being applied to the pumped fluid. Hence these pumps have application in fluid metering and pumping of viscous or shear sensitive materials. The cavities taper down toward their ends and overlap with their neighbours, so that, in general, no flow pulsing is caused by the arrival of cavities at the outlet, other than that caused by compression of the fluid or pump components.
• High suction lift capabilities Gentle pumping action so thatvery little shear is imparted to the liquid being pumped Ability to handle low or high viscosityproducts with or without solids
Pressure stability over a wide speed range
Flows are directly proportional to the speed,for easy pumping control
* Viscous chemical pumping * Grout/Cement Pump * Lubrication oil pump * Marine Diesel fuel pump * Mining slurry pump * Oilfield Mud motors 1.1.4 Vane Pump While vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity liquids, they excel at handling low viscosity liquids such as LP gas (propane), ammonia, solvents, alcohol, fuel oils, gasoline, and refrigerants. Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal contact and self-compensate for wear, enabling them to maintain peak performance on these non-lubricating liquids.
Operation: begins with the rotating and stationary parts of the pump defining a given volume or cavity of fluid enclosure. This enclosure is initially open to the pump inlet but sealed from the pump outlet and expands as the pump rotates. As rotation continues, the volume progresses through the pump to a point where it is no longer open to the pump inlet but not yet open to the pump outlet.It is in this intermediate stage where the pumping volume or cavity is completely formed.Depending on the particular pump, there can be more than one cavity in existence at any one time. As this happens, fluid also fills the clearances between the pumping elements and
pump body, forming a seal and lubricating the pumping elements as they in turn pump the fluid. Rotation continues and the cavities progress, moving fluid along the way. Soon a point is reached where the seal between the captured fluid volume and outlet part of the pump is breached. At this point the vanes, gears, or lobes force the volume of captured fluid out of the pump. While this is happening, other cavities are simultaneously opening at the inlet port to receive more fluid in a continual progression from suction to discharge ports.
Advantages Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures • Compensates for wear through vane extension • Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG • Can run dry for short periods • Can have one seal or stuffing box • Develops good vacuum
Can have two stuffing
boxes Complex housing and many parts • Not suitable for high pressures • Not suitable for high viscosity • Not good with abrasives Applications
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Aerosol and Propellants Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants LPG Cylinder Filling Alcohols Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia Solvents
1.1.3 Peristaltic pump
A rolling action of a cam that squeezes the liquid through a softplastic or rubber tubegenerates the flow in this pump . Transportingslurries embodies the most common use of this pump.
1.1.4 Reciprocating-type pumps
There are two general types of reciprocating pumps. The piston pump and the diaphragm pump. These types of pump operate by using a reciprocating piston or diaphragm. The liquid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via a outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm.Reciprocating pumps are generally very efficient and are suitable for very high heads at low flows. This type of pump is self priming as it can draw liquid from a level below the suction flange even if the suction pipe is not evacuated.The pump delivers reliable discharge flows and is often used for metering duties delivering accurate quantities of fluid. The reciprocating pump is not tolerant to solid particles and delivers a highly pulsed flow. If a smooth flow is required then the discharge flow system has to include additional features such as accumulators to provide even flows.Reciprocating pumps designed for delivering high pressures must include methods for releasing excessive fluid pressures. The pumps should include for built in relief valves or relief valves should be included in the fluid circuit which cannot be isolated from the pump.
Type of Reciprocating pump: 1-Piston Pumps
piston pump can be based on a single piston or, more likely, multiple parallel pistons. The pistons are reciprocated using cams or crankshafts. The stroke is generally adjustable. This type of pump can deliver heads of up to 1000 bar. The largest sizes of piston pumps
can deliver flows of 40m3 /hr. In practice these pumps are more likely to be used for metering low flow rate fluids at more modest pressures in laboratories and chemical process plants. Piston pumps are not generally suitable for transferring toxic or explosive media.
Diaphragm pumps are a class of displacement pumps featuring flexible membranes in combination with check valves that are used to move fluids into and out of pumping chamber.These pumps are used extensively in transfer and metering applications requiringflows of up to 300 gallons per minute (1150 liters per minute). They are quite versatile,handling a wide variety of fluids including chemicals, dry powders, food additives, glues,paints, pharmaceutical products, slurries, tailings, and wastewater. A distinguishing feature of all diaphragm pumps is the absence of seals or packing, meaning they can be usedin applications requiring zero leakage. There are three main categories of diaphragmpumps: 1) mechanically driven, 2) hydraulically driven, and 3) air-operated. Hydraulically operated diaphragm pump The hydraulically operated diaphragm metering pump is used for similar duties as the piston pump.It has some significant advantages compared to the piston pump in that he design does not require glands or piston seals The diaphragm in the hydraulically operated diaphragm pump shown below is actuated using a plunger pump arrangement. This provides full support of the diaphragm allowing high pressure operation. The pump can include for duplex diaphragms with the interface being monitored for failure of the diaphragm in contact with the fluid. This type of pump can be used for pumping toxic and explosive fluids. The pump can deliver heads of up to 700 bar and transfer flows of up 20 m 3 /hr. These pumps require continuous monotoring as the diaphram is under high fatigue loading and the inlet and outlet valves are subject to erosion and blocking Air Operated Pump The air operated pump is generally a low cost work horse pump used for transferring any type of liquid including sludge. The inlet and outlet valves are often low cost easily replaced flap or ball valves. The pump is comprises two circular chambers each split by a large elastomeric diaphagm. The two diaphragm centres are mechanically coupled together with a shaft. An interlocked valve admits air pressure to one side of one of the chambers and exhaust the air from the opposite side of the other chamber. This causes both diaphagms to move. One diaphragm pushing fluid out through a non return valve. The other diaphragm drawing fluid in through a non return valve. On completion of a full stroke the valve reverses the air supply and exhaust directions causing the diaphragms to move back. The diaphragm which was
pushing fluid out of the pump now sucks fluid and the diaphragm admitting fluid now pushes fluid out. The system is therefore double acting. The pump capacity is limited by the air pressure available (generally 7 bar) and the design of the diaphragm. An elastomeric diaphragm has a limited life and will only operate for a few million cycles. A flow rate of about 40 m3 /hr is a reasonable maximum achievable flow with a larger pump. For any air operated diaphragam pump the higher the flow the lower the discharge head possible. Advantages
asily transfers high viscosity fluids. Can easily suck in from a depth of four metres. Does not need pre-filling with fluid. Is air operated and therefore explosion-proof. Does not spoil the properties of chemicals.
1.2.1 Dynamic pumps (Kinetic pumps)
1.2.1 centrifugal pump:
is a rotating machine in which flow and pressure are generated dynamically. The inlet is not walled off from the outlet as is the case with positive displacementpumps, whether they are reciprocating or rotary in configuration. Rather, a centrifugalpump delivers useful energy to the fluid or “pumpage” largely through velocitychanges that occur as this fluid flows through the impeller and the associated fixed passagewaysof the pump; that is, it is a “rotodynamic” pump. All impeller pumps are rotodynamic, including those with radial-flow, mixed-flow, and axial-flow.
A centrifugal pump consists of a set of rotating vanes enclosed within a housing or casing that is used to impart energy to a fluid through centrifugal force. Thus, stripped of all refinements, a centrifugal pump has two main parts: (1) a rotating element, including animpeller and a shaft (2) a stationary element made up of a casing, casing cover, andbearings. In a centrifugal pump, the liquid is forced by atmospheric or other pressure into a set of rotating vanes. These vanes constitute an impeller that discharges the liquid at its periphery at a higher velocity. This velocity is converted to pressure energy by means of a volute or by a set of stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller periphery. Pumps with volute casings are generally called volute pumps, while those with diffusion vanes are called diffuser pumps. Diffuser pumps were once quite commonly called turbine pumps, but this term has become more selectively applied to the vertical deep-well centrifugal diffuser
pumps usually referred to as vertical turbinepumps. operating at rated capacity (the capacity at which best efficiency is obtained). Impellers are classified according to the major direction of flow in reference to the axis of rotation. Thus, centrifugal pumps may have the: • Radial-flow impellers • Axial-flow impellers • Mixed-flow impellers, which combine radial- and axial-flow principles. Pump CONTROLS: Pump control in the broadest sense gives the pump user (1) the flow rate, pressure or liquid level (2) protection for the pump and system against damage from the pumped liquid (3) administrative freedom in decisions on operations and maintenance. Control System Types : Pump control systems range in complexity from single handoperated valves to highly advanced, automatic flow control or pump speed control systems. Pump type and drive type are factors in control system choice. For centrifugal pumps, either change of speed or change of valve setting can control the desired variable. For positive displacement pumps, whether reciprocating, rotary, screw, or other type, control is by change in speed, change in setting of bypass valve, or change in displacement. The lastmentioned method is found in metering and hydraulic drive pumps. Although this chapter considers only control systems having valves as final control elements, the sensing elements discussed also serve in pump speed control systems. Pump control systems divide readily into two types: on-off and modulating. The on-off system provides only two conditions: a given flow (or pressure) value or a zero value. Avalve is therefore either open or closed, and a pump driver is running or not. The modulatingsystem, on the other hand, adjusts valve setting or speed to the needs of the moment. Either type of system can be automatic or manual. System Essentials:
All control systems have 1. A sensing or measuring element 2. A means of comparing the measured value with a desired value 3. A final control element (a valve) to produce the needed change in the measured variable 4. An actuator to move the final control element to its desired position 5. Relaying or force-building means to enable a weak sensing signal to release enough force to power the actuator OPEN-LOOP CONTROL: The simplest mode of automatic control is open-loop control, in which the pump speed (or displacement in some pump types) or the control valve setting is adjusted to and held at a desired value calculated or calibrated to produce the required output of flow, level, or pressure. The calculation can result in a cam for the controller or positioner or a particular characterization of a valve plug. In operation, only the deviationof the input variable from its desired value is measured and the control system adjusts the input variable to eliminate the deviation. Because the output variable is not measured, a change in the conditions on which calculation or calibration was based will introduce output errors. Change of input variable can be done manually or by another control system. CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL : closed-loop control system eliminates much of the error of the openloop system. In the basic closed-loop, or feedback, system, the output variable is measured and the value compared with an arbitrary desired or set value. If the comparison reveals an error, the pump speed or control valve setting is changed to correct the error.Large-capacity water tanks or lag in the control system can introduce delays in stablishmentof the new output value, and the system can therefore overcorrect and oscillate back and forth unless design prevents this. ON-OFF CONTROL: The simplest closed-loop systems operate on-off between fixed limits,such as water level or pressure. The on-off action is at the extremes of a wide or narrow band that can be set at any point in
the range. For example, a tank level control may work in an on-off band of 1 in (2.54 cm) or 10 in (25.4 cm) at any level in a tank that is 5 ft (1.5m) deep.
FIGURE 2.1 - Pump classification.
Progressive cavity pump
This pump has been referred to as a single-end, single-rotor type of screw pump where the pumping elements comprise a single rotor and a stator. The stator usually has a double helical internal thread with a pitch twice that of the single helical stator. This results in two leads on the stator, and one on the rotor. As the rotor rotates inside the stator, two cavities form at the suction end of the stator, with one cavity closing as the other opens. The cavities progress in a spiral from one end of the stator to the other. The result is a flow with relatively little pulsation, and the shear rates will also be low in comparison to radial pump styles. The compressive fit between the rotor and stator creates seal lines where the two components contact. The seal lines keep the cavities separated as they progress through the pump with each rotation of the rotor. The elastomeric stator and stainless steel rotor allow the pump to handle large solid particles in suspension and a certain percentage of abrasives. The manner in which the rotor turns within the stator complicates the mechanical design of PC pumps. As the rotor turns in the stator, the centerline of the rotor orbits about the centerline of the stator. This
eccentric motion means the pump must be fitted with universal joints to transmit power from the concentric rotation of the drive shaft to the eccentrically rotating rotor. These joints must transmit torsional and thrust loads. Designs of this drive mechanism range from simple ballandpin mechanisms to heavy-duty sealed gear couplings.
Advantages of centrifugal pumps: 1-Generate a steady flow of liquid 2-high flow rates are possible 3-Low cost of replacement parts 4-Slurries can be pumped by it 5- can be operated against a closed discharge valve Disadvantages of centrifugal pumps: 1-Not self-priming 2-cannot be used for viscous liquids 3-cavitation can cause wear and loss of efficiency