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Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics


Question Bank
2 Marks
Unit I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Discuss briefly about thermodynamic system and its types.


When is work said to be done by a system?
Define indicated power and brake power of an engine.
What is meant by Thermodynamic Substance and Thermometric Property?
Define Zeroth law of thermodynamics.
Define extensive and intensive property.

Unit II
7. State Second law of thermodynamics.
8. State the Clausius Inequality theorem and what its inference is?
9. What is a PMM2? Why is it impossible?
10. Prove that COPHP=COPR+1.
11. Define the Coefficient of Performance for a Refrigerator.
12. What are the causes of entropy increase?
Unit III
13. Show the P-V diagrams of two stroke and four stroke engines.
14. For a given compression ratio; the air standard Diesel cycle is less efficient than air
standard Otto cycle. Explain.
15. Define Compression ratio, Pressure ratio.
16. Compare the combustion process of Otto, Diesel and Dual cycles.
17. What are cyclic and non-cyclic heat engines? Give examples.
18. State the four processes of the Diesel cycle.
19. Define the Break Mean Effective Pressure for any IC Engine.
20. Plot the Ideal Otto cycle on a P-V diagram.
Unit IV
21. What is a pure substance?
22. What is normal boiling point?
23. Define the Critical Point.
24. What is meant by Specific Steam Consumption in a Rankine cycle?
25. Name the different process of Rankines cycle T-s diagram.
26. Sketch the diagram of Components of Rankines cycle.
Unit V
27. Define Specific Impulse.
28. Define critical pressure ratio and super saturated flow with reference to flow through
a steam nozzle.
29. Define propulsive power and propulsive efficiency.
30. What are Nozzles and Diffusers?
31. Define Mach number and state the condition for subsonic flow.
32. What do you understand by chocking in nozzle flows?
33. What are air breathing and non-air breathing engines? Give examples.
Gurunath K AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics | 1

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

16 Marks
Unit I
1. Air flows steadily at the rate of 0.5 kg/s through an air compressor, entering at 7 m/s
velocity, 100 kPa pressure and 0.95 m3/kg volume and leaving at 5 m/s, 700 kPa and
0.19 m3/kg. The internal energy of the air leaving is 90 kJ/kg greater than that of the
air entering. Cooling water in the compressor jackets absorbs heat from the air at the
rate of 58 kW. (a) Compute the rate of shaft work input to the air in kW. (b) Find the
ratio of the inlet pipe diameter to outlet pipe diameter.
2. (a)
(b)

Show that heat is a path function and not a property.

(6)

A stationary mass of gas is compressed without friction from an initial state of


0.3 m3 and 0.105 MPa to a final state of 0.15 m3 and 0.105 MPa, the pressure
remaining constant during the process. There is a transfer of 37.6 kJ of heat from
the gas during the process. How much does the internal energy of the Gas change. (10)

3. (a)

Derive the expression for the work done in an adiabatic process for a closed
system.
(8)

(b)

An insulated and evacuated rigid tank of 15 litres capacity contains a 0.5 litre
balloon containing water at 500 kPa and 150 C. The balloon bursts and its
contents occupy the entire volume of the tank. Find out the end pressure and also
the temperature.
(8)

4. 1500 kJ of heat transferred to 1 m3 of air at 15 bar and 220 C. Find (a) the final
temperature and pressure if the volume remains constant, (b) the final temperature and
volume if the pressure remains constant. After which process, the internal energy of
the air has the greater value? (c) After the heating process, if the air is expanded
isothermally to a pressure of p3 = 5 bar, what is the final volume in each case. Take
Cp = 1005 J/kg-K, Cv = 718 J/kg-K and R = 287 J/kg-K.
5. Derive the steady flow energy equation and deduce it for a heater and a nozzle.
6. 0.4 m3 of air at 3.2 bar and 110 C is contained in a system. A reversible adiabatic
expansion takes place till the pressure falls to 1.02 bar. The gas is then heated at
constant pressure till enthalpy increases by 74.5 kJ. Calculate the network done, change
in specific enthalpy, specific internal energy and specific entropy.

Unit II
7. An air turbine forms part of an aircraft refrigerating plant. Air at a pressure of 295 kPa
and a temperature of 58 C flows steadily into the turbine with a velocity of 45 m/s.
The air leaves the turbine at a pressure of 115 kPa, a temperature of 2 C, and a velocity
of 150 m/s. The shaft work delivered by the turbine is 54 kJ/kg of air. Neglecting
changes in elevation, determine the heat transfer per unit mass of air flowing. For air,
take cp = 1005 J/kg-K and the enthalpy h = cpT.

Gurunath K AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics | 2

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

8. A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5 C and
delivers heat to a reservoir at 60 C. The heat pump is driven by a reversible heat engine
which takes in heat from a reservoir at 840 C and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60 C.
The reversible heat engine also drives a machine that absorbs 30 kW. If the heat pump
extracts 17 kJ/s from the 5 C reservoir, determine (a) the rate of heat supply from
840 C source and (b) the rate of heat rejection to 60 C sink.
9. (a)
(b)

Prove that the Kelvin-Plank Statement and Clausius Statements are equivalent.

(8)

A particular gas having a specific heat at constant volume of 1.25 kJ/kg-K, is


expanded reversibly and adiabatically from a specific volume of 0.06 m3/kg and
a temperature of 600 K to a specific volume of 0.18 m3/kg, while its temperature
drops by 165 K. when the gas is expanded into an evacuated space from its same
initial state to the same final specific volume, the temperature drop is only 50 K.
Calculate the entropy change in each of the two processes.
(8)

10. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperature of 600 C and
40 C. The engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at
temperature of 40 C and -20 C. The heat transfer to the heat engine is 2000 kJ and
the network output of the combined engine refrigerator plant is 360 kJ. (a) Evaluate the
heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to the reservoir at 40 C.
(b) Reconsider (a) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the COP of the
refrigerator are each 40 % of their maximum possible values.
11. Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series. A rejects heat directly to
B. A receives 1200 kJ at 427 C from the hot source while B rejects heat to cold sink
at 15 C. Work output of A is twice that of B. Find the intermediate temperature
between A and B, efficiency of each engine and heat rejected to the sink.
12. A heat engine operating between two reservoirs at 1000 K and 300 K is used to drive
a heat pump which extracts heat from the reservoir at 300 K at a rate twice that at which
the engine rejects heat to it. If the efficiency of the engine is 40 % of the maximum
possible and the COP of the heat pump is 50 % of the maximum possible, what is the
temperature of the reservoir to which the heat pump rejects heat? What is the rate of
heat rejection from the heat pump if the rate of heat supply to the engine is 50 kW?

Unit III
13. An engine working on the Otto cycle is supplied with air at 0.1 MPa, 35 C. The
compression ratio is 8. Heat supplied is 2100 kJ/kg. Calculate the maximum pressure
and temperature of the cycle, the cycle efficiency and the mean effective pressure.
Take Cp, Cv and R as 1005 J/kg-K, 718 J/kg-K and 287 J/kg-K respectively.
14. Find the air standard efficiency for the Otto and Diesel cycles on the basis of equal
compression ratio of 10 and equal heat rejection of 840 kJ/kg. The suction conditions
are 1 bar and 328 K.

Gurunath K AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics | 3

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

15. Drive the Thermal Efficiency and the Mean Effective Pressure of an Ideal Diesel Cycle
in terms of the compression ratio, pressure ratio and the adiabatic index.
16. In an engine working on a dual cycle the temperature and pressure of beginning of
cycle are 100 C and 1 bar. The compression ratio is 10. The maximum pressure is
limited to 70 bar and total heat supplied per kg of air is 1680 kJ. Find the following
(a) Pressure and Temperature at salient point, (b) Efficiency of the cycle and (c) Mean
Effective Pressure.
17. In an air standard diesel cycle the condition of air at the beginning of compression is
1.2 bar and 303 K. The compression ratio is 16. The heat supplied is 900 kJ/kg.
Determine (a) p, V, T at all points, (b) Thermal Efficiency, (c) Mean Effective Pressure.
18. An ideal air-standard Brayton cycle operates with air. At compressor inlet, the air is at
300 K and at the turbine inlet the gas is at 1100 K. The pressure ratio of the cycle is 6.
Accounting for the variation of specific heats with temperature, determine (a) The gas
temperature at the compressor and turbine exits, (b) Thermal efficiency, (c) Heat
supplied to air, (d) Work output and (e) Heat rejected in the cooler.

Unit IV
19. In a Rankine cycle steam enters the first stage turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C, expands
to 0.1 MPa. It is then reheated to 450 C before expansion in the LP turbine. It then
expands to a condenser pressure of 0.01 MPa. Net power developed is 100 MW. Both
the turbines have an efficiency of 80 %. Calculate (a) Thermal Efficiency of the cycle,
(b) Mass flow rate of steam.
20. In a reheat cycle, the initial steam pressure and the maximum temperature are 150 bar
and 550 C respectively. If the condenser pressure is 0.1 bar and the moisture at the
condenser inlet is 5 % and assuming ideal processes, determine (a) The reheat pressure,
(b) The cycle efficiency and (c) The steam rate.
21. (a)

Describe a simple ideal Rankine cycle with a schematic diagram. Explain the
processes involved by T-s diagram.
(8)

(b)

A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 4 MPa and 300 C and
a condenser pressure of 50 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle
assuming the cycle to be a simple ideal Rankine cycle.
(8)

22. Rankine Cycle works between the Pressure of 30 bar and 0.04 bar. The initial condition
of steam being dry saturated. Calculate the cycle efficiency, work ratio and specific
steam consumption. Also find the cycle efficiency when the pump is neglected.
23. Steam at 20 bar, 360 C is expanded in a steam turbine to 0.08 bar. It is then enters a
condenser, where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. The pump feeds back the
water into the boiler. Assuming ideal processes, find the network per kg of steam and
Rankine cycle efficiency. Also determine the percentage reduction in network and
efficiency if the turbine and the pump each have 80 % efficiency.
Gurunath K AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics | 4

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College, Perambalur 621 212.

AUC R2013

24. Dry saturated steam expands isentropically in a nozzle from 1 bar to 0.7 bar with the
help mollier diagram (a) Find the velocity and dryness fraction of steam issuing from
the nozzle if the friction is neglected. (b) Also find the velocity and dryness fraction of
steam if 15 % of heat drop is lost in friction.

Unit V
25. Explain the working principle of turbofan engine with a neat sketch.
26. A turbojet engine flies with a velocity of 300 m/s at an altitude where the air is at
0.35 bar and - 40 C. The compressor has a pressure ratio of 10, and the temperature
of the gases at the turbine inlet is 1100 C. Air enters the compressor at a rate of
50 kg/s. Estimate (a) The temperature and pressure of the gases at the turbine exit,
(b) The velocity of gases at the nozzle exit and (c) The propulsive efficiency of the
cycle.
27. Derive the efficiencies of each component of a non-ideal jet engine.
28. In an ideal Brayton cycle, air from the atmosphere at 1 atm, 300 K is compressed to
6 atm and the maximum cycle temperature is limited to 1100 K by using a large
air-fuel ratio. If the heat supply is 100 MW, find (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle,
(b) work ratio, (c) power output and (d) exergy flow rate of the exhaust gas leaving the
turbine.
29. Explain the working principle of turbo jet engine with a neat sketch and derive the
thrust equation.
30. In an ideal jet propulsion cycle, air enters the compressor at 1 atm, 15 C and leaves at
a pressure of 5 atm. The maximum temperature is 870 C. The air expands in the
turbine to such a pressure that the turbine work is equal to the compressor work. On
leaving the turbine the air expands isentropically in a nozzle to 1 atm. Determine the
velocity of the air leaving the nozzle.

Gurunath K AE 6301 Aero Engineering Thermodynamics | 5