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Computer Networks Assignment 2

Bharath Kurumaddali
UFID: 6513-0561
Question1
1. In this case, the ACK based protocol is better. With a NAK-based protocol, a lost packet will
only be detected when a subsequent packet is correctly received by the receiver (which will then
notice a gap in the received sequence numbers). This means that with infrequent data
transmissions, a NAK based protocol can have a long error recovery time. Hence, a NAK-only
protocol would not be desirable.
2. In this case, the NAK based protocol is better. Since errors are rare and the data rate is high, an
ACK-based scheme is not desirable as there is high overhead (for the ACKs).

Question2:
1. If there is a one-to-one relationship between network connections and transport connections then
it is not good to grant credit at the transport level in excess of window size at the network level.
So, in order to be effective, the window size of the transfer protocol must be less than that of
transfer protocol.
2. If one transport connection is split among multiple network connections, then credit or window of
the transport protocol should be less than the sum of the network window sizes.
3. If multiple transport connections are multiplexed on one network connection, their aggregate
credit/window should not exceed the network protocol window.
Question3:

The above graph plotted is against load and normalized goodput, where three different sections of the
graph depict the degrees of congestion.

Case-I:
Phase-I (No Congestion):
Here, the graph is linear and indicates a near ideal performance of the network.
Phase-II (Moderate Congestion):
With increase in load, the growth of normalized goodput decreases when compared to the first phase. The
network faces an overall moderate congestion with severe congestion being caused in some of its nodes.
The routing dynamics and overhead of protocol adaptation decreases the throughput.
Phase-III (Severe Congestion):
If there is further increase in load, the normalized goodput falls flat. There is severe congestion in the
network. The packets are invariably delayed at the senders side, ultimately causing a timeout. Also the
network experiences loss of packets with increase in packet discards at the receivers end. The network
falls into a re-transmission mode and this leads to a chain-reaction bringing the throughput down.
Case-II (TCP):

The approach adopted here is to increase the transmission rate up to the usable bandwidth until the
network experiences any loss. The loss can be found by either timeouts or duplicate acknowledgements.
The congestion can then be controlled with additive increase and multiple decrease of the size of the
congestion window (CongWin). Following is information on slow starts, congestion avoidance and fast
retransmit fast recovery.
Slow Start: The algorithm starts with CongWin = CongWin + 1 with every Ack. The graph faces an
exponential increase with every RTT (round trip time). Thus the initial rate is slow (Similar to the
beginning of Phase-I of the network congestion graph) but ramps up exponentially fast i.e., doubles with
every RTT, until a loss is experienced
Congestion Avoidance: When timeout occurs, we enter congestion avoidance mode, where the ssthresh
(threshold) is set to half of CongWin and CongWin is reset to 1. The graph is slow start until ssthresh and
then increases linearly, i.e., now the CongWin = CongWin + 1 for every RTT or CongWin = CongWin +
1 / CongWin for every Ack. The linear fashion here indicates the Phase-I of the network congestion
graph. With subsequent packet losses, the load increases slowly at end of phase-1 and into phase-II.
Fast Retransmit Fast Recovery: In fast-retransmit, the receiver sends Ack with last in-order segment for
every out-of-order segment received. When the sender receives 3 duplicate Acks, it retransmits the
missing segment.In fast-recovery, when the 3rd duplicate Ack arrives, the ssthresh is set to half of

congestion window (graph follows half way in phase-I). The missing segment is retransmitted with
CongWin = ssthresh + 3. For every duplicate Ack, CongWin = CongWin + 1. The graph then slowly
(linearly) increases towards Phase-II as it was the case with congestion avoidance. After receiver gets the
cumulative Ack, CongWin = ssthresh indicating the end of fast recovery mode.
Question 4:
a. Before congestion avoidance, the network was in slow start mode. In slow start, the congestion
window was doubled with every RTT and so the throughput is exponentially ramped up.
Consider a point, where the network has reached its capacity or threshold, after which the
network goes into congestion. At this point, the doubling of CongWin upon RTT will cause it to
exceed the network capacity and the network experiences packet loss. Since we cannot fathom
the congestion window size, it is ideal to assume the last CongWin size to be the upper limit i.e.,
half of the previous congestion window size. We can now set the ssthresh = CongWin/2. With
this, TCP will exponentially increase till ssthresh and linearly increase after this point.
b. In the basic TCP algorithm, the protocol ignores duplicate ACKs and does not distinguish
between moderate and severe congestion. When a timeout occurs, to immediately alleviate the
congestion, it takes strict measure to set CongWin = 1 after setting ssthresh = CongWin/2. This
facilitates the changes in the dynamics of the networks, allowing for a slow start until ssthresh
followed by linear increase of CongWin.
c. In Fast Recovery algorithm, when the 3rd duplicate Ack arrives, CongWin = ssthresh + 3. The
3rd duplicate Ack indicates that the 3 packets which caused 3 duplicate Acks are removed from
the pipe and buffered at the receivers end. This allows 3 additional packets to be sent over the
pipe beyond the ssthresh. Therefore the CongWin can be safely set to ssthresh + 3
d.

When another duplicate ACK is received, it implies that the receiver has buffered one more
segment. TCP again inflates the congestion window incrementing by one to compensate for the
delivered segment. Therefore the graph follows no exponential increase but a linear one for the
CongWin. Also, if the outstanding packets (the packets that are sent but not yet acknowledged)
are greater in number than the current CongWin, no new packet is sent but only CongWin is
incremented. This allows keeping the total number of packets in the pipe at constant ssthresh
value.

e. In Fast Recovery algorithm, the total number of packets in the pipe is kept constant at ssthresh.
So, it is the increment of CongWin to compensate for any dup Ack that makes setting CongWin =
ssthresh when the Fast Recovery mode exits. Since there are always ssthresh number of packets
in the pipe, the TCP does not lose the self-clocking and can safely continue from there (CongWin
= ssthresh) without falling back(CongWin = 1). This works only when the packets for which we
received duplicate ACKs do not expire and the packet loss is recovered in time. If the timer
expires, CongWin = 1 and congestion avoidance algorithm is followed.
Question 5:
a. Initially, both connections will suffer loss during congestion. UDP will not react and will keep
sending at the same rate, while TCP will sense the loss (using gaps in the ack sequence numbers
and its timeout mechanism) and will back-off by reducing its congestion window. At that point
UDP will gain more bandwidth than TCP, which will be squeezed out by the non-congestionsensitive UDP flow. Since UDP does not slow down, it is likely to suffer more losses, especially
if it exceeds the channel capacity. TCPs back-of will reduce the amount of loss suffered.

b. The least available bandwidth or the bottleneck link is between Router-B and Router-C of
1.5Mbps. To harm the TCP flows, the UDP traffic should be injected at Router-B since it takes
the least amount of traffic to overwhelm the link. Also, the UDP traffic at router-B should be
directed towards D because the size of the ACK packets is less than the size of the TCP data
packets.
c. Since the short TCP flows spend most of their time in slow start phase, they need to have
available bandwidth to receive acks and open their window size. So, if the short TCP flows are
injected at Router-B like in case b), then they will not have enough bandwidth to increase its
CongWin size. They too will fight like the long TCP flows eventually experiencing packet loss
and timeouts. Therefore it is not wise to inject short TCP flows into the Router-B to Router-C link
as fewer packets of these can hardly do any damage. Therefore the short TCP flows have to be
injected at routers supporting higher bandwidth links so that they can expand their window size
and restrict the long TCP flows. Choosing any link after router-C is wise i.e., consider the RouterC to Router-D link (CD) toward D which allows congestion window of short TCP flows to
expand causing more packet loss of the long TCP flows. Injecting short TCP flows at Router A
will do no good because eventually BC link will be overwhelmed and the short TCP flows will
itself face packet loss. But if the short TCP packets can be restricted to terminate at B i.e.,
jamming only the AB traffic, then our purpose is fulfilled to expand the short TCP window size
and restrict the long TCP flows eventually causing congestion in both the flows.
Question 6:
TCP cannot differentiate between losses due to congestion and losses due to bit error. A loss would lead
TCP to cut down its window size where in fact there may not be congestion. So the end result is
performance degradation of TCP. Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) provides TCP with an
indication of congestion, so when a packet is lost and there is no notification of congestion it is likely to
be due to BER on the wireless links. TCP can be modified to take advantage of this explicit notification in
the following way. The receiver side would have to be modified to include the ECN bit in the acks. The
sender side would check the ECN field in the acks. So long as ECN bits are included in the acks, TCP
could acts as the basic TCP. If, on the other hand, loss occurs while ECN bits are not observed in the
acks, then no window cut is performed by the sender.Another modification could be to have the sender
cut back its window size (say by half) when it observes ECN bits in the acks. Drawbacks should consider
confusion of the TCP sender because it doesnt know whether the packets are crossing a wireless network
or not. ECN work fine during partial deployment, but they will not be very useful if the most congested
elements in networks are the last to support them. Access network support is one of the weakest parts of
this deployment story.
Question 7:
If CI=0 and NI=0 then the rate increases using the following equation rate = rate + PCRxRIF [additive
increase] until the rate reaches PCR, then it saturates PCRxRIF = 32x1/4=8, so we increase in increments
of 8 until 32 If CI=1 then the rate decreases using the following equation rate = rate rate x RDF we will
have rate = 32 8 = 24, then rate = 24 6 = 18, then rate = 18 18/4 = 13.5, then rate = 13.5 13.5/4 =
10.125.

Question 8:
a. For high RDF the response will be fast, potentially causing oscillations. If RDF is low then the
response will be slow.
b. The response is very similar to part a. Note that there is no difference in the mechanism if we
put alpha=1-RDF. We get Ratenew=Rateold-Rateold*RDF= Rateold (1-RDF) =Rateold*alpha.
The rate of response will be reversed (as compared to part a above), i.e., when alpha is high (close
to 1) the response will be slow, but when alpha is low (closer to 0) then the response is fast.
Question 9:
When the network fails a number of packets that cross that link may be lost. When the network heals,
packets/flows may cross relatively shorter paths to get to the destination. Shorter paths have a delaybandwidth product less than longer paths, and hence can hold fewer bytes in the pipe. Having a TCP
connection with a high CongWin go over a shorter path may also cause packet loss, since the shorter
paths will get congested, and buffers may overflow causing multiple (sometimes severe) packet losses.
Question 10:
Given the probability of a cell arriving on first flow is P1 = 0.1
P2 = 0.2
P3 = 0.3
Each flow or virtual path receives a fraction of the bandwidth.
A.
Let f1 be the fraction of bandwidth given to first flow or virtual path
Let f2 be the fraction of bandwidth given to second flow or virtual path
Let f3 be the fraction of bandwidth given to third flow or virtual path
Such that the sum of all fractions i.e., f1 + f2 + f3 = 1
Given, Average cell delay = Probability of cell arrival at each flow = constant
Fraction of bandwidth given to the flow
Hence, P1/f1 = P2/f2 = P3/f3
0.1/f1 = 0.2/f2 = 0.3/f3 = (0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3) / ( f1 + f2 + f3) = 0.6/1

f1 = 1/6 & f2 = 2/6 & f3 = 3/6


f1 = 1/6 & f2 = 1/3 & f3 = 1/2
B.
Now, P1 = 0.05
P2 = 0.05
P3 = 0.5
Applying formula P1/f1 = P2/f2 = P3/f3, =>
0.05/f1 = 0.05/f2 = 0.5/f3 = (0.05 + 0.05 + 0.5) / ( f1 + f2 + f3) = 0.6/1
Hence, f1 = 1/12, f2 = 1/12 and f3 = 10/12
f1 = 1/12, f2 = 1/12 and f3 = 5/6

Lab-2:
SET-1

No. Time
Source
Destination
Protocol Length Info
91 7.622905000 10.136.39.197
128.119.245.12
HTTP 545 GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file1.html HTTP/1.1
Frame 91: 545 bytes on wire (4360 bits), 545 bytes captured (4360 bits) on interface 0
Ethernet II, Src: HonHaiPr_c4:b3:69 (b8:76:3f:c4:b3:69), Dst: All-HSRP-routers_01 (00:00:0c:07:ac:01)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 10.136.39.197 (10.136.39.197), Dst: 128.119.245.12 (128.119.245.12)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 16265 (16265), Dst Port: 80 (80), Seq: 1, Ack: 1, Len: 491
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file1.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
Host: gaia.cs.umass.edu\r\n
Connection: keep-alive\r\n
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8\r\n
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.124
Safari/537.36\r\n
Referer: http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~helmy/F14/Wireshark_HTTP_v6.1.pdf\r\n
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8\r\n
Cookie: _ga=GA1.2.70567451.1413759913\r\n
\r\n
[Full request URI: http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file1.html]
[HTTP request 1/2]
[Response in frame: 93]
[Next request in frame: 95]
Len: 428
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n
Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 20:37:55 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.2.3 (CentOS)\r\n
Last-Modified: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 20:37:01 GMT\r\n
ETag: "8734d-80-249d3540"\r\n
Accept-Ranges: bytes\r\n
Content-Length: 128\r\n
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8\r\n
\r\n
[HTTP response 1/2]
[Time since request: 0.050437000 seconds]
[Request in frame: 91]
[Next request in frame: 95]

[Next response in frame: 96]


Line-based text data: text/html

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

HTTP 1.1 is run by both browser and server.


US English is the language indicated.
IP address of computer: 10.136.39.197 ; IP address of server: 128.119.245.12
200 OK
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 20:37:01 GMT is the Last modified date and time
Content-Length : 128 bytes
No all of the headers can be found in the raw data.

SET-2
No. Time
Source
Destination
Protocol Length Info
285 6.467093000 10.136.39.197
128.119.245.12
HTTP 506 GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1\r\n]
Request Method: GET
Request URI: /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Host: gaia.cs.umass.edu\r\n
Connection: keep-alive\r\n
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8\r\n
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.124 Safari/537.36\r\n
Referer: http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~helmy/F14/Wireshark_HTTP_v6.1.pdf\r\n
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8\r\n
\r\n
[Full request URI: http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html]
[HTTP request 1/9]
[Next request in frame: 294]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n]
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Status Code: 200
Response Phrase: OK
Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 21:48:01 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.2.3 (CentOS)\r\n
Last-Modified: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 21:47:01 GMT\r\n
ETag: "d6c96-173-1ef41f40"\r\n
Accept-Ranges: bytes\r\n
Content-Length: 371\r\n
[Content length: 371]
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8\r\n
\r\n
[HTTP response 7/9]
[Time since request: 3.139315000 seconds]
[Prev request in frame: 303]
[Request in frame: 315]
[Next response in frame: 394]
Line-based text data: text/html
\n

<html>\n
\n
Congratulations again! Now you've downloaded the file lab2-2.html. <br>\n
This file's last modification date will not change. <p>\n
Thus if you download this multiple times on your browser, a complete copy <br>\n
will only be sent once by the server due to the inclusion of the IN-MODIFIED-SINCE<br>\n
field in your browser's HTTP GET request to the server.\n
\n
</html>\n

No. Time
Source
Destination
Protocol Length Info
417 48.918996000 10.136.39.197
128.119.245.12
HTTP 550

GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1

Hypertext Transfer Protocol


GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html HTTP/1.1\r\n]
Request Method: GET
Request URI: /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Host: gaia.cs.umass.edu\r\n
Connection: keep-alive\r\n
Cache-Control: max-age=0\r\n
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8\r\n
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.124 Safari/537.36\r\n
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8\r\n
If-None-Match: "d6c96-173-5f539d40"\r\n
If-Modified-Since: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 22:05:01 GMT\r\n
\r\n
[Full request URI: http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file2.html]
[HTTP request 1/1]
[Response in frame: 421]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified\r\n]
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Status Code: 304
Response Phrase: Not Modified
Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 22:05:35 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.2.3 (CentOS)\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
ETag: "d6c96-173-5f539d40"\r\n
\r\n
[HTTP response 1/1]
[Time since request: 0.056297000 seconds]
[Request in frame: 417]

8. No, there is no IF-MODIFIED-LINE


9. Yes because we can see the contents in the Line-based text data field.
10. Yes, there is a if-modified-since and the value is : If-Modified-Since: Fri, 24 Oct 2014
22:05:01 GMT
11. The status code and phrase returned from the server is HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified. The
server didnt return the contents of the file since the browser loaded it from its cache.
SET-3

No.

Time

Source

Destination

7 3.975230000 10.136.39.197

Protocol Length Info

128.119.245.12

HTTP

506

GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file3.html HTTP/1.1

Frame 7: 506 bytes on wire (4048 bits), 506 bytes captured (4048 bits) on interface 0
Ethernet II, Src: HonHaiPr_c4:b3:69 (b8:76:3f:c4:b3:69), Dst: All-HSRP-routers_01 (00:00:0c:07:ac:01)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 10.136.39.197 (10.136.39.197), Dst: 128.119.245.12 (128.119.245.12)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 19941 (19941), Dst Port: 80 (80), Seq: 1, Ack: 1, Len: 452
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file3.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): GET /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file3.html HTTP/1.1\r\n]
Request Method: GET
Request URI: /wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file3.html
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Host: gaia.cs.umass.edu\r\n
Connection: keep-alive\r\n
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8\r\n
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.124 Safari/537.36\r\n
Referer: http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~helmy/F14/Wireshark_HTTP_v6.1.pdf\r\n
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8\r\n
\r\n
[Full request URI: http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/wireshark-labs/HTTP-wireshark-file3.html]
[HTTP request 1/1]
[Response in frame: 14]

No.

Time

Source

Destination

14 4.064859000 128.119.245.12

Protocol Length Info

10.136.39.197

HTTP

477

HTTP/1.1 200 OK (text/html)

Frame 14: 477 bytes on wire (3816 bits), 477 bytes captured (3816 bits) on interface 0
Ethernet II, Src: Cisco_4b:18:00 (00:21:a1:4b:18:00), Dst: HonHaiPr_c4:b3:69 (b8:76:3f:c4:b3:69)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 128.119.245.12 (128.119.245.12), Dst: 10.136.39.197 (10.136.39.197)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 80 (80), Dst Port: 19941 (19941), Seq: 4381, Ack: 453, Len: 423
[4 Reassembled TCP Segments (4803 bytes): #9(1460), #10(1460), #12(1460), #14(423)]
[Frame: 9, payload: 0-1459 (1460 bytes)]
[Frame: 10, payload: 1460-2919 (1460 bytes)]
[Frame: 12, payload: 2920-4379 (1460 bytes)]

[Frame: 14, payload: 4380-4802 (423 bytes)]


[Segment count: 4]
[Reassembled TCP length: 4803]
[Reassembled TCP Data: 485454502f312e3120323030204f4b0d0a446174653a2046...]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n
[Expert Info (Chat/Sequence): HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n]
Request Version: HTTP/1.1
Status Code: 200
Response Phrase: OK
Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 22:18:29 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.2.3 (CentOS)\r\n
Last-Modified: Fri, 24 Oct 2014 22:18:01 GMT\r\n
ETag: "d6c97-1194-8dd17840"\r\n
Accept-Ranges: bytes\r\n
Content-Length: 4500\r\n
[Content length: 4500]
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8\r\n
\r\n
[HTTP response 1/1]
[Time since request: 0.089629000 seconds]
[Request in frame: 7]
Line-based text data: text/html
<html><head> \n
<title>Historical Documents:THE BILL OF RIGHTS</title></head>\n
\n
\n
<body bgcolor="#ffffff" link="#330000" vlink="#666633">\n
<p><br>\n
</p>\n
<p></p><center><b>THE BILL OF RIGHTS</b><br>\n
<em>Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution</em>\n
</center>\n
\n

<p>The Conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of adopting\n


the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction\n
or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses\n
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the\n
Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution; </p><p> Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United\n
States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring,\n
that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several\n
States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any\n
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures,\n
to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution,\n
namely:

</p><p><a name="1"><strong><h3>Amendment I</h3></strong></a>\n

\n
<p></p><p>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of\n
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or\n
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the\n
right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition\n
the government for a redress of grievances.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="2"><strong><h3>Amendment II</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security\n
of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear\n
arms, shall not be infringed.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="3"><strong><h3>Amendment III</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house,\n
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but\n
in a manner to be prescribed by law.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="4"><strong><h3>Amendment IV</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,\n
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,\n
shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon\n
probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and\n

particularly describing the place to be searched, and the\n


persons or things to be seized.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="5"><strong><h3>Amendment V</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise\n
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand\n
jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces,\n
or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war\n
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the\n
same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;\n
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness\n
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,\n
without due process of law; nor shall private property be\n
taken for public use, without just compensation.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="6"><strong><h3>Amendment VI</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right\n
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state\n
and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which\n
district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and\n
to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation;\n
to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have\n
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor,\n
and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="7"><strong><h3>Amendment VII</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall\n
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be\n
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise\n
reexamined in any court of the United States, than according\n
to the rules of the common law.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="8"><strong><h3>Amendment VIII</h3></strong></a>\n

\n
<p></p><p>Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines\n
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="9"><strong><h3>Amendment IX</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p><p>The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall\n
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.\n
\n
</p><p><a name="10"><strong><h3>Amendment X</h3></strong></a>\n
\n
<p></p>\n
<p>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited \n
by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.</p>\n
</body></html>

SET-4
12. There was one HTTP get request sent.
13. As we can see above its 14.
14. 200 OK are the status code and phrase associated.
15. There are 4 data containing TCP segments which contained 1460,1460,1460,423 bytes
respectively for a total of 4803 bytes.

16. There were 3 HTTP GET requests sent to the following Internet addresses :a. 128.119.245.12
b. 128.119.240.90 c. 165.193.140.14
17. Yes, it can be determined by checking the TCP ports we can see if our files were downloaded
serially or in parallel. In this case the 2 images were transmitted over 2 TCP connections
therefore they were downloaded serially.

SET-5

18. Status code: 401 , Phrase: Authorization Required


19. The authorization is included which is as follows.
Authorization: Basic d2lyZXNoYXJrLXN0dWRlbnRzOm5ldHdvcms=\r\n

LAB 1(BONUS):

1. The three different protocols that were listed are:


1. TCP
2. HTTP
3. ARP
2. The time to send and receive message is as follows:
Time since request: 0.040189000 seconds
3. The net.cs.umass.edu has the IP address : 128.119.245.12
The computer IP address is: 10.24.79.73
4. The output printed is as follows:
No. Time
Source
Destination
Protocol Length Info
43 21:12:08.380315000 10.242.79.73
128.119.245.12
HTTP 508
/wireshark-labs/INTRO-wireshark-file1.html HTTP/1.1

GET

Frame 43: 508 bytes on wire (4064 bits), 508 bytes captured (4064 bits) on interface 0
Ethernet II, Src: Sony_5b:f9:fe (3c:07:71:5b:f9:fe), Dst: Cisco_ee:40:ff
(50:87:89:ee:40:ff)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 10.242.79.73 (10.242.79.73), Dst: 128.119.245.12
(128.119.245.12)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 30422 (30422), Dst Port: 80 (80), Seq: 1, Ack:
1, Len: 454
Source Port: 30422 (30422)
Destination Port: 80 (80)
[Stream index: 2]
[TCP Segment Len: 454]
Sequence number: 1 (relative sequence number)
[Next sequence number: 455 (relative sequence number)]
Acknowledgment number: 1 (relative ack number)
Header Length: 20 bytes
.... 0000 0001 1000 = Flags: 0x018 (PSH, ACK)
Window size value: 256
[Calculated window size: 65536]
[Window size scaling factor: 256]
Checksum: 0x42b9 [validation disabled]
Urgent pointer: 0
[SEQ/ACK analysis]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
GET /wireshark-labs/INTRO-wireshark-file1.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
Host: gaia.cs.umass.edu\r\n
Connection: keep-alive\r\n
Accept:
text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8\r\n
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36
(KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.124 Safari/537.36\r\n
Referer: http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~helmy/F14/Wireshark_Intro_v6.0.pdf\r\n
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8\r\n
\r\n
[Full request URI: http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/wireshark-labs/INTRO-wiresharkfile1.html]
[HTTP request 1/1]
[Response in frame: 45]
No. Time
Source
Destination
Protocol Length Info
45 21:12:08.420504000 128.119.245.12
10.242.79.73
HTTP 434
HTTP/1.1 200 OK (text/html)

Frame 45: 434 bytes on wire (3472 bits), 434 bytes captured (3472 bits) on interface 0
Ethernet II, Src: Cisco_ee:40:ff (50:87:89:ee:40:ff), Dst: Sony_5b:f9:fe
(3c:07:71:5b:f9:fe)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 128.119.245.12 (128.119.245.12), Dst: 10.242.79.73
(10.242.79.73)
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 80 (80), Dst Port: 30422 (30422), Seq: 1, Ack:
455, Len: 380
Source Port: 80 (80)
Destination Port: 30422 (30422)
[Stream index: 2]
[TCP Segment Len: 380]
Sequence number: 1 (relative sequence number)
[Next sequence number: 381 (relative sequence number)]
Acknowledgment number: 455 (relative ack number)
Header Length: 20 bytes
.... 0000 0001 1000 = Flags: 0x018 (PSH, ACK)
Window size value: 54
[Calculated window size: 6912]
[Window size scaling factor: 128]
Checksum: 0x1e88 [validation disabled]
Urgent pointer: 0
[SEQ/ACK analysis]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n
Date: Sat, 25 Oct 2014 01:12:16 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.2.3 (CentOS)\r\n
Last-Modified: Sat, 25 Oct 2014 01:12:01 GMT\r\n
ETag: "8734b-51-fc173a40"\r\n
Accept-Ranges: bytes\r\n
Content-Length: 81\r\n
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8\r\n
\r\n
[HTTP response 1/1]
[Time since request: 0.040189000 seconds]
[Request in frame: 43]
Line-based text data: text/html