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IRO

14-1977

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
FOR

2 CM THICK BITUMEN AND


TAR CARPETS
(SECOND REV/S/ON)

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


1988
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IRC: 14-1977

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
FOR

2 CM THICK BITUMEN AND


TAR CARPETS
(SECOND REVISION)

Published by
THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
J*mnagar House, Shahjahan Road,
New Delhi-itO 011
1988

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Price Rs 24/(Plus posta~c& p~ckingJ

IRC: 14-1977

First published in 1963


First Revision October, 1970
Second Revision July, 1977
Reprinted: February, 1987
(Incorporates amended sieve sizes)
Reprinted: August, 1988
Reprinted: February, 2000

(Rights of Publication and of Translation are reserved)

<< Printed at DEE KAY PRINTERS, New Delhi-110015


(500 copies)

IRC :14-1977
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR 2 CM THICK BiTUMEN
AND TAR CARPETS
INTRODUCTION

This Standard was originally printed in 1963. The revised


standard which is in metric units after being approved by the
Bituminous Pavements Committee was processed by the Specifications & Standards Committee and then approved by the Executive
Committee before it was approved by the Council of the Indian
Roads Congress in their meeting held at Darjeeling on the 5th and
6th April, 1970 for being issued as the finalised standard of the
Indian Roads Congress.
The present revised standard besides containing a few minor
amendments approved by the Bituminous Pavements Committee
also contains revised tolerances for surface evenness as approved
by the Council of the Indian Roads Congress in their 87th meettng
held at Madras on the 27th August 1976 and incorporated in the
IRC Special Publication 16 Surface Evenness of Highway Pavements.
SCOPE

This is a recommended practice for laying 2 cm thick


bitumen and tar carpets. The type and grade of binder is left to the
discretion of the Engineer-in-charge, so as to be in confcrmity with
climatic, traffic ard terrain conditions and based on past successful
practices.
A. 2 CM THICK BITUMEN CARPET
A.l. Materials
A.l.l. Binder : The birder shall be one of the following:
(i) a straight run bitumen of suitable penetration grade
complying with IS: 731961;
(ii) a cutback bitumen of suitable viscosity complying with
IS: 2171961 or IS: 4541961 or other approved
cutback.
A .1.2. Coarse aggregates : The aggregates shall consist of
angular fragments and be clean, hard, tough, durable and of
uniform quality throughout. They shall be crushed rock, gravel,
river shingle or slag and should be free of elongated or flaky pieces,

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IRC :14-1977

soft and disintegrated material, vegetable or other deleterious


matter. The aggregates shall also satisfy the following properties:
Value

Property
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abrasion value, using Los Angeles


machine
or
Aggregate impact value
Flakiness index
Stripping value
Water absorption (except in case of stags)
Soundness: Loss with sodium sulphate
5 cycles (in case of slag only)
Unit weight or bulk density
(in case of stag only)

Method of test

max. 35% IS: 2386 (Part IV)


max.
max.
max.
max.

30%
-do30% IS: 2336 (Part 1)
25% IS: 6241
2% IS: 2386 (Part III)

max. 12% IS: 2386 (Part V)


mm. 1120
3 kg IS: 2386(Part Ill)
per m

Uncrushed and rounded river gravel or shingle can also be


used but the quantity of binder would be different in their case
from that given under para A.2. Where such rounded aggregates
are used, it may be necessary to add sufficient quantity of coarse
sand and an appropriate quantity of hot bitumen to make the
mixture suitable, for which purpose such a mix will have to be
designed for binder content depending on individual cases.
A.1.3. Fine aggregates or sand: The fine aggregates or
sand shall consist of clean, hard, durable, uncoated, coarse dry
particles, and be free from injurious amounts of dust, soft or flaky
particles or organic matter or other deleterious substances.
A.2. Quantities of Materials Required
A.2.l. Aggregates
A.2.1.1. For carpet
(a) Coarse aggregatesI 3.2 mm size;
passing lS 22.4 mm square mesh,
retained on 15 11.2 mm square
mesh
(b) Coarse aggregatesll.2 mm size;
passing IS 13.2 mm square mesh,
retained on IS 5.6 mm square
mesh

Per 10 m2 of
road surface
0.18 m~

0.09 m3

________________
~

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0.27 m3

IRC : l4.~1977
A.2.I.2. For seal coat
(a) Low rainfall areas (under 150cm
per year)
Medium
coarse
sand 2.5)(fineness
modulus of
more than
or fine
grit passing IS Sieve No. 1.70 mm
and retained on IS Sieve No. 180
microns

0.06 m3

(b) *Hjgh rainfall areas (over 150 cm


per year)
Coarse aggregates 6.7 mm size;
passing IS 11.2 mm square mesh,
retained on IS Sieve 2.8 mm
mesh

0.09 in3

A.2.2. Binder
Per 1Gm2 of
road surface
A.2.2.l.

For tack coat

(a) On a water-bound macadam


surface
(b) On an existing black top surface
Note

7.3 to 9.8 kg
4.9 to 7.3 kg

For emulsions complying with IS: 3 1171965, the same


quantities as given above may be used. In case the existing black top surface .is extremely rich in binder, or fatty
the tack coat can be eliminated in hot climatic regions
at the discretion of the Engineer-in-charge if a good bond
between the existing surface and the superimposed layer
can be ensured.
A.2.2.2. For premixing
(a) For 13.2 mm size coarse aggregates

(b) For 11.2 mm size coarse aggregates

9.5 kg@S2kgperm3
5.1 kg
kg-per in3
@56

*In case emulsions are used, the quantity required will be 50 per cent of

what is indicated.

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1RC: 14-1977

A.2.2.3. For seal coat


(a) Low rainfall areas ~under150 cm
per year)
(b) High rainfall areas (over 150cm
per year)

6.8 kg
9.8 kg

A.3. Constructicu
A.3. 1. Preparation of base: Before the carpet is applied to
the existing base, the road must be free from dust or caked mud.
Where the existing base is potholed or rutted, these irregularities
must be corrected with premixed chippings or coated, macadam,
depending upon the depth of the pothole, laid after applying a tack
coat of binder and well rammed, thereafter. Where the existing
base is extremely porous and absorptive, a suitable primer (vide
LR.C. Tentative Specification for Priming of Base Course with
Bituminous Primers) shall be applied. The surfac~should be
cleaned by:
(a) removing caked earth and other foreign matter with
wire brushes,
(b) sweeping with brooms, and
(c) finally dusting with sacks.
A.3.2. Tack coat: The binder should be heated, wherever
required, to the appropriate temperature as indicated by the manufacturers and applied to the base at the rate specified in para A.2.2.
It is best to use a sprayer. The binder should be evenly brushed, if
need be.
The tack coat should be applied just ahead of the spreading
of the premix.
A.3.3. Preparation of premix: Mechanical mixer should be
preferred. When only improvised
drums and
are available
13.2 mixing
mm chippings
O.014m3
3 of hand
for
premixing,
place
0.028
m
of 11.2 mm chippings in the mixing drum and mix dry thoroughly.
Where straight-run bitumen is used, the aggregates should be suit~
ably heated prior to the adding of bitumen.
Add 2.24 kg of the binder, as per quantities given in para
2.2.2, heated where required. to a temperature suitable to the
*

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In case emulsions are used, quantity


what is indicated.

required will DC 30 per cent 0!

IRC: 14.1977

grade of bitumen used, and mix until the chippings are thoroughly
coated with the binder.
Empty the premif on to stretchers or wheel barrows and
carry to site.
The quantities of chippings and binder per batch as given may
be proportionately increased if proper coating is possible in one
operation.
A.3.4. Spreading of pressix: Immediately after applying the
tack coat, spread the premix with rakes to the desir d thickness and
camber, or distribute evenly by means of a drag spreader. Check
camber by means of a camber board and even out inequalities.
A.3.5. Rolling: As soon as sufficient length, say 15 metres,
of the premix has been laid, rolling should commence with smooth
wheeled rollers (6 to 9 tonnes) or pneumatic tyred rollers. Rolling
should commence at the edges and progress towards the centre
longitudinally except in the case of superelevated sections where
this should commence at the inner edge and proceed towards the
outer edge of the curve.
When the roller has passed once over the whole area, any high
spots or depressions which become apparent should be corrected
by removing or adding premixed chippings. When this has been
done, roll to comapaction. Avoid excessive rolling as this serves no
useful purpose and may spoil the carpet.
Moisten the roller wheels to prevent the premix from
adhering to the wheels and being picked up.
A.3.6. Application of seat coat: In low rainfall areas, i.e.
those having rainfall under 150 cm per year, a premixed sandseal coat mixed preferably in a mechanical mixer after heating
the sand, should be applied immediately after laying the carpet and
rolled. Materials required for this seal coat are- given in paras
A.2.l.2. and A.2.2.3.
In high rainfall areas, i.e., those having rainfall over 150cm
per year, a liquid seal coat preferably with chippings (though
coarse sand can be used), should be applied after laying the
carpet. The binder, heated wherever required to the permitted
tern perature, should be applied to the cleaned surface, blinded
with chippings and rolled.

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Materials required are given in paras A.2.l.2. and A.2.2.3~


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IRC :14-1977

A~3.7. Surface finish: The finished surface shall be uniform


and conform to the lines, grades and typical cross-sections specified.
When tested with a 3 metre straight edge. the longitudinal profile of
the finished surface shall have no undulation greater than 10 mm,
and in any 300 metre length the number of undulations of 6 mm
size shall not exceed 30. The cross profile, when checked with a
camber template, shall not show a variation of mor than 6 mm
from the specified profile.
The checking of longitudinal and transverse profile shall be
carried out in accordance with the methods and procedures described in IRC Special Publication 11 Handbook of Quality Control
for Constructkm of Roads and Runways.
A.4. Opening to Traffic
Traffic may be allowed on the road preferably 24 hours after
providing the seal coat. This should be considered the minimum
period when the binder used is a cutback or emulsion.
B. 2 CM THICK TAR CARPET
B.l. Materials
B.1.l. Binder: The binder shall be a road tar of grade
R.T.3 or RT.4 (No. IS: 2151961).
B. 1.2. Coarse aggregates: The aggregates shall consist of
angular fragments and be clean, hard, tough, durable and of uniform quality throughout. They shall be crushed rock, gravel, river
shingle or slag and should be free of elongated or flaky pieces, soft
and disintegrated material, and vegetable or other deleterious
matter. The aggregates shall also, satisfy the following properties

Property
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abrasion
machine

value, using Los

Angeles

or
Aggregate impact value
Falkiness index
Stripping value
Water absorption (except ii case of
slags)
Soundness: Loss with sodium sulphate
5 cycles (in case of slag only)
Unit weight or bulk density
(in case of slag only)

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Value

Method of test

max. 35%

IS: 2386 (Part IV)

max. 3O%
max. 30%
max. 25%
max. 2A~

IS : 2386 (Part IV)


IS: 2386 (Part I)
IS : 6241
IS: 2386 (Part III)

max. 12%

IS : 2386 (Part V)

mm. 1120
kg IS: 2386
per m3

IPart III]

IRC: 14-1977

13.1.3. Fine aggregate or sand: As in para A.1.3.


B.2. Quantities of Materials Required
B.2.1. Aggregates
13.2.1.1.

Per 10 m2
of road surface

For carpet

(a) Coarse aggregates 13.2 mm size


passing IS 22.4 mm square mesh
and retained on (S 11.2 mm

square mesh
(b) Coarse aggregates 11.2 mm size
passing
IS 13.2
mm square
mesh and retained on IS 5.6
mm square mesh

0.18 m3

0.09 m3

0.27 m3

B.2.l2.

For seal coat


Per 10 m2
of road

surface
Medium coarse sand or fine grit
(passing on IS Sieve No. 1.70 mm
and retained
1 80 microns)

on

IS

Sieve

No.

0.060 &

B.2.2. Binder
(a) For priming coat (on water~
bound macadam surface)

(h) For tack coat (on an


existing black-top surface)

12.2 to
14.7 kg
73 to

9.8 kg
98 kg
19.7 kg

(e) For seal coat


(d) For premixing

@72 kg per m3

B.3, Construction
13.3.1. Preparation of base: As in para A.3.1.
B.3.2. Tack coat: The binder should be heated to l~5o to
1150 C and should be applied at the rates specified in para B.2.2.

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IRC :14-1977

It is best to use a sprayer. The binder should be evenly brushed,


if need be.
The tack coat should be applied just ahead of the spreading of
the mix.

B.3,3. Preparation of premix: Mechanical mixers should


be preferred. When only improvised3 of
hand
drums and
are
13.2mixing
mm chippings
available
for
premixing,
place
0.028
m
0.014 m3 of 11.2 mm chippings in the mixing drum and mix thoroughly dry.
Add 3

kg of road tar heated to 105 to 115Cand

mix until chippings, preheated if necessary, are thoroughly coated


with the binder.

Empty the premix on to stretchers or wheel barrows and carry


to site.
The quantities of chippings and binder per batch may be proportionately increased

if proper coating is possible in one operation.

B.3.4. Spreading premix: As in para A.3.4.


B.3.5. Rolling: As in para A.3.5.
B.3,6. Application of seal coat: Immediately after laying
the carpet, the seal coat should be applied in the manner detailed
below:
Road tar IS grade R.T.3, heated to 105C should be sprayed
9.8 kg per 10 sq. m. and then it should be blinded evenly
with medium coarse dry sand as fine grit at the rate of 0.06 m3
per 10 m2.
evenly at

B.3.7. Surface finish: As in para A.3.7.


B.4. Opening to Traffic
Traffic may be allowed on the road 24 hours after providing
the seal coat.

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