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REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.

RO
ISBN 2065-6432
NOIEMBRIE 2014

REVISTĂ LUNARĂ
DIN FEBRUARIE 2009

DE PESTE 4 ANI ÎN FIECARE LUNĂ
WWW.MATEINFO.RO
revistaelectronica@mateinfo.ro

COORDONATOR: ANDREI OCTAVIAN DOBRE
REDACTORI PRINCIPALI ŞI SUSŢINĂTORI PERMANENŢI AI REVISTEI
NECULAI STANCIU, ROXANA MIHAELA STANCIU ŞI NELA CICEU

Articole :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Solutins and hints of some problems from the Octogon Mathematical Magazine (III) - pag 2
D.M. Bătineţu-Giurgiu, Neculai Stanciu, Titu Zvonaru
A generalization and solutions of the problem 11670 from AMM - pag 38
D.M. Bătineţu-Giurgiu, Neculai Stanciu, Titu Zvoranu
Other solutions for some problems from MR – 4/2014 - pag 41
Nela Ciceu, Roxana Mihaela Stanciu
Metode de calcul pentru derivata unui determinant - pag 44
Boer Elena Milena

REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

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1. Solutions and hints of some problems from the
Octogon Mathematical Magazine (III)
by D.M. Bătineţu-Giurgiu, Bucharest, Romania
Neculai Stanciu, Buzău, Romania
and
Titu Zvonaru, Comăneşti, Romania

By well-known formulas and Bergström’s inequality we have

ra2 BERGSTROM
r r 
a

 r 
(4 R  r )
(4 R  r )


, q.e.d.
 r  3r 4R  r  3r 2(2R  r )
2

2

a

a

2

2

REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

By well-known formulas and Bergström’s inequality we have
2
2
2
a 
 a 

3




 
a2
b  c  BERGSTROM  b  c  NESBITT  2 

1) 




c
abc
c(b  c) 2
a
9 1
9

 ;
4 2 s 8s
2
2
a 
 a 





BERGSTROM
NESBITT
a2
bc
bc


2) 




( s  b)( s  c)
( s  b)( s  c)(b  c) 2
 (s  b)(s  c)
NESBITT 9
1
9



;
4  ( s  b)(s  c) 4r (4 R  r )
3) As above we deduce that
a2
9
1
9
1
 (r  r r )(b  c) 2  4  r  r  r  r r  r r  r r  4  4R  r  s 2 ;
a
b
c
a b
b c
c a
a
b c
4) As above we deduce that
a2
9
1
9
8R 2
18R 2
;
 
  2


4
4 8R  r 2  s 2 8R 2  r 2  s 2
2
4 A
4 A
(b  c) sin
 sin 2
2
5) As above we deduce that
a2
9
1
9
32 R 3






4
4 (4 R  r ) 3  2s 2 (2 R  r )
2
6 A
6 A
(b  c) cos
 cos 2
2
72 R 3
,

(4 R  r ) 3  2s 2 (2 R  r )
and the proof is complete.

By Bergström’s inequality and AM-GM inequality we obtain
a
a2
( a  b  c) 2


 (a  b  c) 2  bc  a(a  b  c) 2  abc (a  b  c) 2 (a  b  c)  3abc 

(a  b  c) 2
9
,

3
10(a  b  c)
(a  b  c)
3
( a  b  c) 
9

3

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and we are done.We have equality if and only if a  b  c , and the proof is complete.

By Bergström’s inequality we deduce that
a  b  c  x(a  b  c)2 
a2
b2
c2
x 2 ( a  b  c) 2




a  b b  c x(a  b)  ( x  1)c ( x  1)a  x(b  c)
2( x  1)(a  b  c)
(a  b  c)(1  x) 1

 ,
2
2
and we are done.

n

The product

 (2

k 1

 1) it contains the factor 2 at first power (since for any k  2 ,

k 1

2 k 1  1 is odd). If n  4 , then n! contains the factor 2 at the power at least 2. Hence
n  3 . Finally, easily we get n  1,2,3.

The given equation is written successively
1  cos 30 0 1  cos 30 0
2 sin 30 0

 4
1  cos 2 x 1  cos 2 x
sin 2 x
0
0
1  cos 30
1  cos 30
2(sin 2 x  sin 30 0 )

1
1 
1  cos 2 x
1  cos 2 x
sin 2 x
0
0
cos 2 x  cos 30
cos 30  cos 2 x 2(sin 2 x  sin 30 0 )



1  cos 2 x
1  cos 2 x
sin 2 x
0
(cos 2 x  cos 30 )(1  cos 2 x  1  cos 2 x) 2(sin 2 x  sin 30 0 )


sin 2 x
1  cos 2 2 x
0
0
0
2 sin( x  15 ) sin(15  x) cos 2 x 2 sin( x  15 ) cos( x  150 )


sin 2 x
sin 2 2 x
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REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

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 sin(150  x)[sin( x  150 ) cos 2 x  cos( x  150 ) sin 2 x]  0
 sin(150  x) sin( x  150  2 x)  0 .
Therefore we have the solutions
x  150  k  180 0 , 3x  150  p  180 0 , i.e. x  k  180 0  150 and x  p  60 0  50
with k , p  Z .
The solution is complete.

Using

 a(b

 a(b
2

2

 c 2 )  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a) , then

 c 2 )  (a  b)(b  c)(c  a)  AB  BC  CA  4sRr , q.e.d

Solution 1. We can assume that a  b  c . By Chebyshev’ s inequality we deduce that
1
a 4 n  b 4 n  c 4 n  a 4 n1  a  b 4 n1  b  c 4 n1  c  (a  b  c)(a 4 n1  b 4 n1  c 4 n1 ) 
3
1
1
 2 (a  b  c) 2 (a 4 n2  b 4 n2  c 4 n2 )  ...  n (a  b  c) n (a 3n  b 3n  c 3n ) , and because
3
3
3n
a  b 3n  c 3n
 a n b n c n , we obtain the given
by AM-GM inequality we have
3
inequality.
Solution 2. Let f : R*  R* , f ( x)  x 4 n , which is convex on R* , So,

( a  b  c)
abc
4n
4n
4n
f (a)  f (b)  f (c)  3 f 
  a b c 3
3
34n


AM GM

4n

 314 n (a  b  c) n (a  b  c) 3n  314 n (a  b  c) n 3  3 abc
 31n a n b n c n (a  b  c) n .
Hence, 3n1 (a 4n  b 4n  c 4n )  a n b n c n (a  b  c) n .
The solution is complete.

5

3n

REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

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By Bergström’s inequality we deduce that
2
B
C
 A
2 A
 tg  tg  tg 
tg
1 A
B
C
2
2
2
2
 B C    A B C   2  tg 2  tg 2  tg 2  ,
tg  tg
2 tg  tg  tg 
2
2
2
2
 2
A
B
C
but tg  tg  tg  3 (see the item 2.33. from Bottema, Geometric Inequalities,
2
2
2
Groningen, 1969).
Hence
A
tg 2
3
 B 2C 2 ,
tg  tg
2
2
which is an inequality stronger than inequality to prove. The solution is complete.

1
Using the inequality x 2  y 2  z 2  ( x  y  z ) 2 , we have that
3


A B
A B

cos
cos
1
2
 2 2C  3  
C
sin
sin

2
2

so it is enough to prove the inequality
A B
cos
2  6.

C
sin
2
A B
Because cos
 1 , we obtain
2

6

2



 ,


REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

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A B
A B
C
A B
cos
2 cos cos
1
2 
2 
2
2 



C
C
C
C
A B
sin
sin
2 sin cos
cos
2
2
2
2
2
A B
A B
2 sin
cos
sin A  sin B sin A sin B sin B sin C
2
2 







sin C
sin C
sin B sin A sin C sin B
sin C sin A
x y


 2  2  2  6 (we used well-known   2 , true for any x, y  0 ).
sin A sin C
y x
The proof is complete.
cos

1

Let I  
0

ex

n

e x  e (1 x )
n

n

dx where we make the changes of variable x  u(t )  1  t ,
1

u (t )  1, u (1)  0 , u (0)  1 . Therefore, I  

e (1 x )

n

(1 x )
 ex
0 e

1

2I  
0

e x  e (1 x )
n

e

xn

e

n

1

dx   dx  1 , i.e. I 
(1 x ) n
0

n

n

dx , and then

1
, and we are done.
2

s a  s b c
 .
2
2
2
2
2
Applying the well-known x  y  z  xy  yz  zx , yields that
By AM-GM inequality we have

ab

 2

( s  a)(s  b)
Threfore, it suffices to prove that

( s  a)(s  b) 

ab
 a 2b 2  2  abc(a  b  c)  4s .
 2
c
abc
abc

R
R

4s  2s 4     2 , true.
r
r

The proof is complete.
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REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

Using s 2  r 2  4Rr  ab  bc  ca , 2 Rr 

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abc
and squaring the given inequality
abc

we obtain
bca
(b  c  a)(c  a  b)

 a  2
ab

 a ab
abc
 a ab

2( s  a)2( s  b)
bca

 
 2   2

a
ab
abc


1
A
1
A 3
  a  6  4 sin   a   sin  , i.e. the item 2.9. from Bottema,
a
2
a
2 2
Geometric Inequalities, Groningen, 1969. The solution is complete.

For a  b  c  1 is evidently that the inequality to prove is not true. We are done.

The statement, of problem 20224 is not true. The statement of problem 2024 is ’’In all
s 2  7 R 2  4 Rr  r 2
triangle ABC holds  cos( A  B) 
’’ for e.g. if ABC is an
R2
equilateral triangle with the lengths of sides equal with 1 we have
1
1
3
9 7 2 1
,R 
,r 
, and then s 2  7 R 2  4 Rr  r 2      0 , while
s
2
4 3 3 12
3
2 3
LHS is equal with 3. We propose the following statement
s 2  7 R 2  Rr  r 2
’’In all triangle ABC holds  cos( A  B) 
’’
R2
s 2  r 2  2 Rr  2 R 2
Indeed, since  cos( A  B) 
, the last inequality it is write
2R 2
2s 2  14R 2  2Rr  2r 2  s 2  r 2  2Rr  2R 2  s 2  12R 2  3r 2  4Rr .
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By Gerretsen’ s inequality we have s 2  16R 2  5r 2 , so it remains to show that
2R 2  4r 2  2Rr , which yields by R 2  4r 2 and R 2  2Rr ( R  2r , is well-known
Euler’ s inequality). Our proof is complete.

WLOG that A  B  C . Because A  B  C  180 0 we deduce that C  60 0 .
The inequality to prove is written successively
sin( A  B) sin( A  C)  sin( B  C) sin( B  A)  sin(C  A) sin(C  B)  0
 sin( A  B) sin( A  C)  sin( B  C) sin( A  B)  sin( A  C) sin( B  C)  0
AC  B C
AC  B C
 sin( A  B)  2 sin
cos
 sin( A  C ) sin( B  C )  0
2
2
A B
180 0  3C
 2 sin( A  B) sin
cos
 sin( A  C ) sin( B  C )  0
2
2
A B
3C
 2 sin( A  B) sin
sin
 sin( A  C ) sin( B  C )  0 , which is true
2
2
A  B  C and C  60 0 .

Since

since

(3a  b) 2
1 1
36a(a  b)
  
and
2
2
5 5 (3a  b) 2  4b 2
(3a  b)  4b

(3b  a) 2
1 1
36b(b  a)
  
,
2
2
5 5 (3b  a) 2  4a 2
(3b  a)  4a
the inequality to prove becomes


a
b
0
(a  b)

2
2
2
2 
(3b  a)  4a 
 (3a  b)  4b
 (a  b)(4a 3  9ab 2  6a 2 b  a 3  4b 3  9a 2 b  6ab 2  b 3 )  0
 (a  b)[5(a 3  b 3 )  3ab(a  b)]  0  (a  b) 2 (5a 2  2ab  5b 2 )  0 , which is true
because 5a 2  2ab  5b 2  (a  b) 2  4(a 2  b 2 )  0 . The solution is complete.

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(3a  b) 2
8 (a  b)(3a  5b)
We have
, and
 
2
2
3 3 2a 2  ( a  b) 2
2a  ( a  b)

( a  b)
4
(a  b)(5a  b)
.
 
2
2
3
2a  b
3 2a 2  b 2
Then, the given inequality becomes
(a  b)(5a  b) (a  b)(3a  5b)

 0,
3(2a 2  b 2 )
32a 2  (a  b) 2 
which after some algebra becomes
(a  b) 2 (3a  b) 2  5b 2  0 , true. We have equality iff a  b .
2

 

2

Considering the injective function f (t )  2 t  t , t  0 , the given equation is equivalent
with f log 2 2sin x  2tgx  f ( x  1) , and it remains to solve the equation
2sin x  2tgx  2 x1 ,
which we let this the last equations like an exercise to readers ( a solution is x  0 ).



If we consider the injective function f (t )  7 t  t , t  0 , the given equation is written as
follows f log 7 (3 x  5 x )  f log 7 (4 x  2 x  2) , therefore it remaint to solve the

equation 3  5  4  2  2 . For x  1 we have 3 x  5 x  4 x  2 x  2 .
We found x  1, but what happens for x  1 (we let this like an exercise to readers).
x

x

x

x

Using the injective function f (t )  2 t  t , t  0 , then the equation to solve is written as

f log 2 ( x  1) 2  f (3 x  1) , so 2 3

x

1

 ( x  1) 2 , with the solutions x1  0 and x2  1 .

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Written the equation to solve as below

2 2 1  (2 x  1) 2  x  1  log 2 ( x  1) ,
x

2

and than using the injectivity of the function f (t )  2 t  t , t  0 , we obtain that
(2 x  1) 2  log 2 ( x  1) .

Hence, 2 x  x  log 2 ( x  1)  x  1 , and then from the injectivity of the
function g (t )  2 t  t , t  0 , we deduce that 2 x  x  1  2 x  1  x . The last
equation has the solutions x1  0 and x2  1 (because
strictly convex). The solution is complete.

x is strictly concave and 2 x  1 is

Since z 2  1  1 , we deduce x  0 and analogous y, z  0 . If x  1then 3 y  1  2 , so
y  1 and then z  1 . Therefore x, y, z  1 or x, y, z  1 . By squaring and adding the
equations of system we obtain
x 4  2 x 2  3x  y 4  2 y 2  3 y  z 4  2 z 2  3z  0
 x( x  1)( x 2  2 x  3)  y( y  1)( y 2  2 y  3)  z( z  1)( z 2  2 z  3)  0 (1)
We have x 2  2 x  3  0 , y 2  2 y  3  0 , z 2  2 z  3  0 .
If x, y, z  1 , then x( x  1)  0, y( y  1)  0, z( z  1)  0 and (1) has no solution.
If x, y, z  1 , then x( x  1)  0, y( y  1)  0, z( z  1)  0 and (1) has no solution.
Hence ( x, y, z)  (0,0,0); (1,1,1). We are done.

The equation to solve is written as follows
log 6 (3x  2)  (3x  2) 2  log 6 (2 x  3 x )  (2 x  3 x ) 2 .
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Using the injectivity of the function

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f (t )  log 6 t  t 2 , t  0 , we obtain that

2 x  3 x  3x  2 . The last equation has only two solutions, namely x1  0 and x2  1
(since the function 2 x  3 x is strictly convex and the function 3x  2 is linear). The
solution is complete.

Considering the injective function f (t )  2 2t  t , t  0 , the given equation is written as
f log 2 cos(cos x)  f (a cos x) , and it remains to solve the equation 2 a cos x  cos(cos x) ,
which we propose like an exercise to the readers (a solution is cos x  0 ).

Considering the injective function f (t )  a 2t  t , t  0 ,the given equation is written as
f log a (1  a) x  4a  3  f ( x  2) , and it remains to solve the equation
a x2  (1  a) x  4a  3 , which we propose like an exercise to the readers (a solution is
x  3 ).

The given equation is equivalent with
x  7  x 1
log 2
 2 x 2  6 x  7  x 4  4 x 3  8 x 2  10 x  2 .
2
x  2x  2
Considering the injective function f (t )  t 2  log 2 t , t  0 , the given equation is written
as f ( x  7  x  1)  f ( x 2  2 x  2) .
Therefore it remains to solve the equation
x  7  x  1  x 2  2 x  2  x  7  x  1  ( x  1) 2  1 .
Denoting

x  1  t  0 , we obtain successively

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t 4  t  1  t 2  8  (t 4  t  1) 2  t 2  8  t 8  2t 5  2t 4  2t  7  0 
 (t  1)(t 7  t 6  t 5  3t 4  5t 3  5t 2  5t  7)  0 .
The last equation has only one positive solution t  1 .
Hence the given equation has only one solution x  2 .

We considering the injective function f (t )  t  log 5 t , t  0 , the given equation is

written as f 2 x
2

x2  x

3

x2  x

2

x

 3x

 25

x2  x

2

x

  f (2  5

x2  x

) , and it remains to solve the equation

, which has the solutions x1  0 and x2  1 .

We considering the injective function f (t )  32t  t , t  0 , the given equation is written
as f log 3 (9 x  4 x )  f log 3 (5 x  2  6 x ) , and it remains to solve the equation

9 x  4 x  5 x  2  6 x , which has a solution x  2 (we ask the readers there are others?).

The equation to solve is written as
2

log 3  x  3  x    x  3  x   log 3 3  32 ,

 

2
and because the function f (t )  log 3 t  t is injective (since is increasing for t  0 ) we
obtain that

x  3 x  3  3 x  3 x.
Denoting x  t we have to solve the equation 3  t  3  t 2 , with t 2  3 and t  0 .
After squaring the last equation yields that
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t 4  6t 2  t  6  0  (t  1)(t  2)(t 2  t  3)  0 ,

and because t1  2 and t 2 

1  13
2

doesn’t satisfy the relation t 2  3 , and

1  13
 0 , we deduce that the equation has one solution, and this is x  1 .
2
The solution is complete.
t3 

We consider the function f (t )  log 2 t  t 2 , t  0 , which is strictly increasing so is
injective. The equation to solve is written as follows
3
4
4
log2
log2
log2 
 log2 53
5
5
5
  f (1) , with x  0 . Hence x
x
 1 , which has only one
f  x
x



log2

solution x  4 , because the function h(t )  t
(since the exponents are negative). We are done.

3
5

t

log2

4
5

, t  0 , is strictly decreasing

Using the injective function f (t )  2 t  t 2  t , t  0 , the given equation is written like
that

4 

f  log 2  x     f  x 4  7 x 2  4 x  18 ,
x 


so it remains to solve the equation
4
2
4
x   2  x 7 x  4 x 18 .
x
4
2
4
Since x   4 , it must to have 2  x 7 x 4 x18  2 2 , i.e.
x
x 4  7 x 2  4 x  20  0  ( x  2) 2 ( x 2  4 x  5)  0 ,
which that happens only if x  2 , which verify the equation.
Hence, we get the solution is x  2 . The solution is complete.

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Considering the injective function f (t )  4 t  t , t  0 , the equation
x

x
2
x  nx  n  1  2
 4 x 1  log 4 ( x n  nx  n  1) , n  1 , n  N becomes
x 1
 x 
n
f 2
  f log 4 ( x  nx  n  1) .
 x  1
So we must to solve the equation
x
 log 4 ( x n  nx  n  1) .
2
x 1
By AM-GM inequality we obtain
x
x 1

 and x n  n  1  x n  1

1
 ...

1  n  n x n  1  1  ...  1  nx 


2
x  1 2x 2
n 1
1
 x n  nx  n  1  2  log 4 ( x n  nx  n  1)  .
2
Hence x  1, and we are done.
n

We have x  0 . We consider the function f (t )  log 2 t  2 t ( t  0 ) which is increasing
so is injective and the equation to solve becomes

1 

f  log 2  x     f (3x 2  2 x 3 ) .
x 


Therefore, we must to solve the equation
1

log 2  x    3x 2  2 x 3 .
x

1
1

Since x   2 , we have log 2  x    1 . Also we have 3x 2  2 x 3  1 , because the last
x
x

2
inequality is equivalent with ( x  1) (2 x  1)  0 .
Hence, we obtain the only one solution, and this is x  1.
The solution is complete.

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Using the the injective function
f (t )  2 2  t ( t  0 ), and
2 sin x sin 5x  cos 6 x  cos 4x , the given equation is wrriten as follows
f log 2 log 2 (1  cos 4 x)  f (1  cos 6 x) ,
so it remains to solve the equation
t

1  cos 4 x  2

21 cos 6 x

,

which we let it to readers as exercise.

Written the equation to be solved as below
2
4
4

log 22  x    x   ( x 2  4 x  2) 2  2  x  4 x 2 ,
x
x

and using the injectivity of function f (t )  2 t  t 2 , t  0 , we obtain
4

log 2  x     x 2  4 x  2 .
x

We have
4
x   4 and  x 2  4 x  2  2  ( x  2) 2  0 .
x
Hence, we find one solution, and this is x  2 . We are done.

The given equation is writting as
16

the

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x

x
 log 4 x 4  4 x  5  x 4  4 x  5 ,
x 1
and like in the solution of PP.20280 we obtain the solution x  1.
4

x 2 1

2

The equation to be solved is equivalent with the following
4
x 1  4 3  x
log 4
 x  1  2  4  x 2  4 x  3 (1  2 x  1  2 3  x )  3  x 
4
2 x2
 6  x 2  4 x  3  16  36  4 x  2  25 x  2  x  8  4 ( x  2) 3 .
Evidently x  [2,3] .
We consider the injective function
f (t )  log 4 t  t 2  t 4 , t  0 ,
and the equation from above is written as
f ( 4 x  1  4 3  x )  f (2  4 x  2 ) ,
so we must to solve the equation
4
x 1  4 3  x  2  4 x  2 .
Applying the inequality of meens we obtain
x 1111 3  x 111
2  4 x  2  4 ( x  1)  1  1  1  4 (3  x)  1  1  1 
 2,
4
which yields x  2 . Hence the given equation has the solutions x  2 , and we are done.

Using the injective function f (t )  log 2 t  t 2  t , t  0 , the given equation is written as
follows f x 2  2 x  f (2 x1 ) . Hence, x 2  2 x  2 x1  x 2  2 x , with solutions x1  2
and x2  4 . The solution is complete.

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The equation to solve, i.e. 8 x  ( x 3  x 2  x)  2 x  ( x 2  x  1)  4 x  x 3 ,
is written successively as follows
( x 2  x  1)  2 x  (2 x  x)  (2 x  x)(2 2 x  x  2 x  x 2 )  0
 (2 x  x)( x 2  2 x  x  2 x  2 x  2 2 x  x  2 x  x 2 )  0
 (2 x  x)[ x 2 (2 x  1)  2 x (2 x  1)]  0  (2 x  1)(2 x  x)(2 x  x 2 )  0 .
Hence we obtain the solutions x1  0, x2  2, x3  4 . The solution is complete.

Considering the injective function f (t )  log 3 t  2 t  t , t  0 , the equation to solve, i.e.
3
cos 5 x  8 cos 3 x
 8cos x  3 cos x  2 cos 5 x 8 cos x  cos 5 x  8 cos 3 x  1 , it is written
cos x
successively
f (cos 5x  8 cos 3 x)  f (3 cos x)  cos 5x  8 cos 3 x  3 cos x
 cos 5x  4 cos x  2 cos 2 x  3 cos x  0  cos 5x  4 cos x(1  cos 2 x)  3 cos x  0
 cos 5x  cos x  4 cos x cos 2x  0  2 cos 3x cos 2 x  4 cos x cos 2 x  0
 cos 2 x(cos 3x  2 cos x)  0  cos 2 x cos x(4 cos 2 x  3)  2 cos x  0
 cos x cos 2 x(4 cos 2 x  1)  0  cos x cos 2 x2(1  cos 2 x)  1  0
 cos x cos 2 x(2 cos 2 x  1)  0 .
1
Hence, cos x  0 , or cos 2 x  0 , or cos 2 x   .
2
 
  
  

We obtain the solutions x    2k k  Z     k k  Z     k k  Z  .
 2
  4
  6

The solutions is complete.

log 3

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We have
x 3  6 x 2  11x  6  ( x  1)( x  2)( x  3) , x 3  8x 2  9 x  12  ( x  1)( x  3)( x  4) and
x 3  9 x 2  23x  15  ( x  1)( x  3)( x  5) .
The condition of existence is
x  (,1]  [2,3] (,1)  [3,4] (,1)  [3,5]  (,1]  3.
The equation is
 ( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)   ( x  1)( x  3)( x  4)   ( x  1)( x  3)( x  5) ,
so we obtain the solutions x1  1, x2  3 and remains to solve the equation

2  x  4  x  5  x  2 (2  x)(4  x)  x  1 ,
which has no solutions in condition x  1 , and we are done.

The equation to solve is written as follows
( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)( x  5)( x  6)  0 ,
so it has the solutions x1  1, x2  2, x3  3, x4  4, x5  5, x6  6 . The solution is
complete.

From given equation, i.e.
4
2  x  4 15  y  4 2  y  4 15  z  4 2  z  4 15  x  3 ,
we have
4
2  x  3  4 15  y ,

4

which yields that x  2  3  4 15  y .

4

Denoting f (t )  2  3  4 15  t we obtain that x  f ( y), y  f ( z), z  f ( x) .
So x  ( f  f  f )( x) , and because the function f is increasing yields that the fixed
points of the function f  f  f is the same with the fixed points of the function f .
Hence, we have to solve the equation

x  2  3  4 15  x

4

 3  4 15  x

and denoting x  t 4  15 , then
19

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(3  t ) 4  17  t 4  t 4  6t 3  27t 2  54t  32  0
 (t  1)(t  2)(t 2  3t  16)  0 .
Hence t1  1, t 2  2 . Finally we get x  y  z  1 and x  y  z  14 .
The solution is complete.

Considering the injective function f (t )  t  2  3t  3  32t , t  0 , the equation

x 4  3  2  3x

4

5 x 2  3

 3 9x

4

5 x 2  3

 5x 2 

x(2 x 2  3x  4)
x
,
 log 3 2
2
2
( x  2)
x 2

is written
x 

4
2
f  log 3 2
  f ( x  5 x  3) .
x  2

Therefore, it remains to solve the equation
x
log 3 2
 x 4  5x 2  3 , x  0 .
x 2
x
1
x
If x  (1,2) , then x 4  5x 2  3  1 and 2
  log 3 2
 1 ;
x 2 3
x 2
x
1
x
If x  (0,1)  (2, ) , then x 4  5x 2  3  1 and 2
  log 3 2
 1 .
x 2 3
x 2
Yields that the only possible x1  1 and x2  2 which are indeed solutions.
This completes the proof.

For to solve the equation
3x
,
x 2
we consider the injective function f (t )  log 2 t  2t  2t 2 , t  0 .
Then the equation to solve is written as
f ( x 2  2)  f (3x) .
So, x 2  3x  2  0 , and we get the solutions x1  1, x2  2 .
The proof is complete.
2 x 4  9 x 2  3x  10  log 2

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The given equation is equivalent with
x 3  11x
log 6 2
 121  22 x  135 x 2  2 x 3  42 x 4  3x 6 .
x 1
Considering the injective function
f (t )  log 6 t  2t  3t 2 , t  0 ,
the equation to solve is written as
f ( x 3  11x)  f (6 x 2  6) .
So we must to solve the equation x 3  11x  6 x 2  6 .
We get the solutions x1  1, x2  2 , x3  3 . The proof is complete.

Considering the injective function f (t )  log 2 t  log 3 t  t , the equation

x  7  log 2
2

x 2  5x  8
x2

 log 3

x 2  5x  8
2 x2

 5x  2 x  2 ,

becomes
f ( x 2  5x  8)  f (2 x  2 ) .
So we must to solve the equation
x 2  5x  8  2 x  2 ,
which by squaring becomes
x 4  10 x 3  41x 2  84 x  72  0  ( x  3) 2 ( x 2  4 x  8)  0 .
Hence x  3 , and we are done.

Considering the injective function f (t )  log 2 t  log 3 t  t , the equation

1
1


3x 3  log 2  x 2    log 3  x 2    1  3x ,
3x 
3x 


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Becomes
f (3x 3  1)  f (3x) .
So it remains to solve the equation 3x 3  1  3x , which has all roots real for e.g.
 1
1 
x1   0,  , x 2   ,1 . So, you find the solutions using Cardano’ s formulas.
 2
2 

We prove the given inequality, i.e.
n

 k!  3

n ( n 1)( 2 n 1)
24

,

k 1

by mathematical induction (MI).
First, is easily demonstraded by (MI) that
(1) 32k 1  (k  1) 4 .
Second we prove by (MI) that
k2
4

(2) k! 3 .
For k  1,2 it is verify that (2) is true.
We suppose that k! 3

k2
4

is true and by (1) yields that
k2
4

k2
4

2 k 1
4

( k 1) 2
4

.
(k  1)! k!(k  1)  3 (k  1)  3  3
3
n
n(n  1)(2n  1)
Using (2) and the identity  k 2 
, we obtain what we must to prove.
6
k 1
The proof is complete.

Using the inequality 3s 2  (4R  r ) 2 (see for e.g. the item 5.5. from Bottema) to show
that
4r 2 (2R  r )  3s 2 (2R  r )  (4R  r ) 3 ,
it suffices to prove
4r 2 (2R  r )  (4R  r ) 2 (2R  r )  (4R  r ) 3
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 4r 2 (2R  r )  (4R  r ) 2 (4R  r  2R  r )  16R 3  8R 2 r  2r 3  3Rr 2 ,
which is true because 8R 2 r  16Rr 2  R  2r . The proof is complete.

Since s 2  r 2  4Rr   ab and Rr 

abc
the given inequality becomes
2 a



  ab  6  abc (4 R  r )  2 R a 2

2 a 



6abc 
3abc 
2
 2 R  a   2 ab 
  r   ab 

 a  
 a 
R 1
 a ab  3abc

 
, and because R  2r , it is enough to prove that
2r 4  a 3  2 a  ab  6abc

4 a   8 a ab  24abc   a ab  3abc
3

 4 a   9 a ab  27abc
3

 4 a 3  12 a 2 b  12 ab 2  24abc  9 a 2 b  9 ab 2  27abc  27abc

 4 a 3  3 a 2 b  3 ab 2  30abc , which is true because

a

3

 3abc ,  a 2 b  3abc ,  ab 2  3abc , and we are done.

If y  3 , then y! M 4 , so y!2  M 4  2 , and from the first equation we get x  1 , then
y! 0 , contradiction. Therefore y  3 . We obtain the solutions
( x, y, z)  (2,2,2); (3,3,3), and we are done.

We have ma2  s(s  a)  2b 2  2c 2  a 2  (b  c) 2  a 2  (b  c) 2  0 .
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Denoting by F the are of triangle ABC , and using the well-known formulas
abc
,  ab  s 2  r 2  4Rr ,
F  sr  s( s  a)(s  b)(s  c) 
4R
we obtain
ab
ab
ab( s  c)
ab( s  c)
 m 2 m 2   s(s  a)s(s  b)   s  s  (s  a)(s  b)(s  c)   s  F 2 
a b
1
abc 
1  2
3abc 

2
 2   ab 
  2  s  r  4 Rr 

s  F 
s 
F

1  2
12 Rsr  s 2  r 2  8Rr
2
, q.e.d.
s

r

4
Rr



s 
F2 
s2r 2

Adding the equations of the system we obtain
( x  3) 2 ( x 2  4 x  8)  ( y  3) 2 ( y 2  4 y  8)  ( z  3) 2 ( z 2  4 z  8)  0 ,
and because
x 2  4 x  8  ( x  2) 2  4  0 ,
we have the solution x  y  z  3 . The solution is complete.

We prove first that for any a  R we have a 4  a 2  2a  2  0 . Indeed,
a 4  a 2  2a  2  a 2 (a  1)(a  1)  2(a  1) 
 (a  1)(a 3  a 2  2)  (a  1) 2 (a 2  2a  2)  0 ,
with equality for a  1 .
Adding the equations of the system we obtain
 ( x 2  9x  22  2 x  4 )  0  [ x 2  8x  16  x  4  2 x  4  2]  0

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 [( x  4) 2  ( x  4)  2 x  4  2]  0

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  ( x  4)4  ( x  4)2  2 x  4  2  0 .
Therefore, by above we deduce that
x  4  y  4  z  4  1.
Hence x  y  z  5 . The solution is complete.

If we consider the injective function
f (t )  log 3 t  t 3  t 2  t ,
the equation
x 3 
log 3     819  6 x  226 x 2  216 x 3  28 x 4  x 6 ,
 6 2x 
it is written in the form
f ( x 2  9)  f (6 x) . So, x 2  9  6 x , i.e. x  3 , and we are done.

We have
(3  sin 2 x cos 2 x) cos 2 x  3(sin 2 x  cos 2 x) 2  sin 2 x cos 2 x cos 2 x

 (3 sin x  3 cos x  5 sin x cos x)(cos x  sin x)
 3 cos 6 x  3 sin 6 x  2 sin 4 x cos 2 x  2 sin 2 x cos 4 x
 3 cos 6 x  2 cos 4 x(1  sin 2 x)  3 sin 6 x  2 sin 4 x(1  sin 2 x)
 cos 6 x  2 cos 4 x  sin 6 x  2 sin 4 x .
If we consider the injective function f (t )  2t  t 3  2t 2 , then the given equation, i.e.
4

4

2

2 cos x  2sin
becomes f (cos x)  f (sin x) .
2

2

2

x

2

2

 (3  sin 2 x cos 2 x) cos 2 x  0 ,

Therefore, cos x  sin x , which yields x 


4

 k , k  Z .

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The condition of existence is LHS  0  x  7 , and also RHS  0 
x  1,12.
Because 7 and 12 no verify the given equation the solutions is in interval (7,12) .
Squaring the equation we deduce
x 4  27 x 3  212 x 2  432 x  396  0
 ( x  11)( x 3  16 x 2  36 x  36)  0 ,
and because
x 3  16 x 2  36 x  36  ( x  12)( x  2)( x  6)  180  0 , for any x  (6,12) ,
we obtain x  11. The solution is complete.

Denoting a  tgx , b  tgy , c  tgz the given system becomes
3(1  a )
 a 1 3

1  1  a  b
b 
2


3(1  b)
 b 1 3

.
  c 
1 
2
 1 b c

3(1  c)
 c 1 3

1  1  c  a
a 
2


 3  3a 
31 

2  3(3a  1)

We obtain c 
, which yields

2
4
 9a  3 
31 

3
4 

a
a .
2
5
3
Therefore, the system has the solution x  y  z  arctg . We are done.
5

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If we make the substitutions x  x  1, y  y  1, z  z  1 , we obtain the system from
the problem PP.20316. Proceed as there we obtain the solutions
x  y  z  0 , x  y  z  15 . The solution is complete.

Denoting x 2  6 x  5  a and x 2  9 x  14  b , the given ecuation, i.e.
( x 2  6 x  5) 5  ( x 2  9 x  14) 5  (2 x 2  15x  19) 5 ,
becomes successively
a 5  b 5  (a  b) 5  a 5  b 5  a 5  5a 4 b  10a 3b 2  10a 2 b 3  5ab 4  b 5
 5ab(a 3  b 3  2a 2 b  2ab 2 )  0  5ab(a  b)(a 2  ab  b 2  2ab)  0
2

b
3b 2 
 5ab(a  b)  a   
  0.
2
4 

Square brackets is canceled if a  b  0 , what does not happen.
Hence ( x 2  6 x  5)( x 2  9 x  14)(2 x 2  15x  19)  0 , so we obtain solutions


15  3 7 15  3 7 
x  1,5,2,7,
,
 , and we are done.
4
4

The given equation has no solution, because LHS  (1  1)(1  1  1  1)  8 .

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The equation 9 x  15 x  25 x  3  49 x  3(21x  35 x ) is writing
(3 x  5 x ) 2  3(7 x  3 x )(7 x  5 x )  0 , and because 7 x  3 x respectively 7 x  5 x have the
same sign, follows that (7 x  3 x )(7 x  5 x ) is positive. Therefore, we get the only one
solution, x  0 .

Writting the equation on the form
x 5  6 x  log 6 ( x 5  6 x)  x 2  3 x  x 3  2 x  log 6 ( x 2  3 x  x 3  2 x ) ,
and using the fact that the function f (t )  log 6 t  t , we obtain
x 5  6 x  x 2  3 x  x 3  2 x  (2 x  x 2 )(3 x  x 3 )  0 .
Hence we obtain the solutions
x1  2, x2  3, x3  4 . The solution is complete.

 x
Let f : 0,    R , f ( x)   tg  , convex on (0,  ) , and then by Jensen’s inequality
 4
we have
B
C
A B C
 A B C 
 A
 tg   tg   4  tg 

f ( A)  f ( B)  f (C )  3 f 
  tg
4
4
4
12
3


*

 3  tg 

12

 3(2  3 )  , q.e.d.

The given inequality is not true in all triangle, for e.g. if we take an equilateral triangle
3
3
3
with the length side 1, then s  , R 
,r 
, and we have
2
3
6
9 7 14
s 2  7r 2  14 Rr   
 27  7  28 , false, and this completes the proof.
4 12 6
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The inequality to prove is written
1
2(a 2  2ab)
1
b
 2
 
0
2
3 9a  (a  2b)
6 2(b  2a)

4(a  b) 2
a b

 0  (a  b)[4ab  8a 2  4b 2  8ab  10a 2  4ab  4b 2 ]  0
2
2
b  2a
9a  (a  2b)

 (a  b)18a 2  0 , which is true with the condition a  b  0 . The solution is complete.

The inequality from the statements is equivalent with
(i) a  b  2(a 2  b 2 ) and (ii)

a

2

 b2

 2  1 

2 (a  b) .

(i)  a  2ab  b  2(a  b )  a  2ab  b  0  (a  b) 2  0 , true.
2

2

2

2

2

2

(ii) (3  2 2 )(a 2  b 2 )  2(a 2  2ab  b 2 )  a 2  b 2  2 2 (a 2  b 2 )  4ab , true, and we
are done.

After multiply with

2 the inequality to prove becomes

 (a  b)

(2a)(a  b)   (2b 2 )(a 2  b 2 )  6 a 2 .
By AM-GM inequality we obtain that
(a  b)(2a  a  b)

 (a  b) (2a)(a  b)   (2b 2 )(a 2  b 2 )  
2
2b 2  a 2  b 2 1
1

  (3a 2  b 2  4ab  a 2  3b 2 )   (4a 2  4b 2  4ab) 
2
2
2
2
2
2
  2a   2a  2 ab  4 a  2 ab , so it is suffices to prove that
4 a 2  2 ab  6 a 2   ab   a 2 , which is true.
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The equality occurs iff a  b  c . Q.E.D.

3
a2 a
2s( s 2  3r 2  6 Rr ) s 2  3r 2  6 Rr
Because 
,



bc
abc
4 Rrs
2 Rr
a 2 2(2 R  r )

then the given inequality, i.e. 
, is equivalent with
bc
R
s 2  3r 2  6 Rr 4 R  2r

 s 2  3r 2  6 Rr  8Rr  4r 2  s 2  14 Rr  r 2 .
2 Rr
R
By Gerretsen inequality we have s 2  16Rr  5r 2 , so it is suffices to show that
16Rr  5r 2  14Rr  r 2  2Rr  4r 2  R  2r , i.e. Euler’s inequality. Q.E.D.

Since, cos 2 kx  1 and,

n

 cos

2

kx  n , we deduce that

k 1

cos 2 kx  1  cos kx  1 . Therefore, kx  Z  x 


k

Z x

n
, k  1, n , n  Z .
k

Denoting x  2  a 5 , 2 x  1  b 5 , 4 x  7  c 5 , the given equation, i.e.

5

x  2  5 2x  1  5 4x  7

5

 3x  8 , is written successively

( a  b  c)  a  b  c  ( a  b  c ) 5  c 5  a 5  b 5
5

5

5

5

 (a  b)[(a  b  c) 4  c(a  b  c) 3  c 2 (a  b  c) 2  c 3 (a  b  c)  c 4  a 4  a 3b 
 a 2 b 2  ab 3  b 4 ]  0 . We obtain a  b  0  x  2  2x  1 , so x1  1 and it remains to

solve [a  (b  c)]4  c[a  (b  c) 3 ]  c 2 [a  (b  c)]2  c 3 [a  (b  c)]  c 4  a 4 
 a 3b  a 2 b 2  ab 3  b 4  0   4a 3 (b  c)  6a 2 (b  c) 2  4a(b  c) 3  (b  c) 4 
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 a 3 c  3a 2 c(b  c)  3ac(b  c) 2  c(b  c) 3  a 2 c 2  2ac 2 (b  c)  c 2 (b  c) 2  ac 3 
 c 3 (b  c)  c 4  a 3b  a 2 b 2  ab 3  b 4  0 . Since,
a 3 c  a 2 c 2  ac 3  c 4  a 3b  a 2 b 2  ab 3  b 4   (b  c)(b 3  b 2 c  bc 2  c 3 ) 
 a 2 (b  c)(b  c)  a 3 (b  c) , we obtain b  c  2 x  1  4 x  7 , which yields x2  3 ,
and it remains 4a 3  6a 2 b  6a 2 c  4ab 2  8abc  4ac 2  b 3  3b 2 c  3bc 2  c 3  3a 2 c 
 3abc  3ac 2  b 2 c  2bc 2  c 3  2ac 2  bc 2  c 3  c 3  b 3  b 2 c  bc 2  c 3  ab 2 
 abc  ac 2  a 2 b  a 2 c  a 3  0
 5a 3  5c 3  10a 2 c  10ac 2  5a 2 b  10abc  5bc 2  5ab 2  5b 2 c  0
 5(a  c)(a 2  ac  c 2  2ac  ab  bc  b 2 )  0 (1)
9
Hence, a  c  x  2  4 x  7  0 , so we obtain x3   .
5
The second bracket from (1) is written (a  b) 2  (b  c) 2  (a  c) 2  0 , so a  b , b  c
and a  c , i.e. a  b  c  0 , which does not exists.
9

Therefore, we obtain x  1,3,  , and the solution is complete.
5

Using the well-known formulas cos 2 x  1  2 sin 2 x and respectively
sin 3x  3 sin x  4 sin 3 x , then the given equation is written as follows
3
3
3
.
8 sin 3 x  6 sin x  3 . So, 8 sin 3 x  6 sin x  3  sin 3x 
2
 k
Hence, x  (1) k 
, where k is positive integer. We are done.
9
3

 

Adding up the equations of the system to solve we obtain
x 2  4x  7  y 2  4 y  7  z 2  4z  7  0

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 ( x  2) 2  3  ( y  2) 2  3  ( z  3) 2  7  0 ,
which doesn’t solutions in real numbers, so the system doesn’t solutions in the set of real
numbers. The solution is complete.

Adding up the equations of the system to solve we obtain
 2x 2  18  2 2  x  4 x   x 2  ( 2  2) x  3  0 . Because the equation

x 2  ( 2  2) x  3  0 , has the discriminate negative, we get that the system doesn’t real
solutions, and we are done.

(sin 3 x  sin 2 x  sin x)(sin x  cos x)
dx , where we make the changes of
Let I  
2  sin x cos x
0
2

variable x 


2

 t , and we deduce that

(cos 3 x  cos 2 x  cos x)(sin x  cos x)
dx . Therefore,
2  sin x cos x
0
2

I

(sin 3 x  cos 3 x  sin 2 x  cos 2 x  sin x  cos x)(sin x  cos x)
dx 
2

sin
x
cos
x
0
2

2I  

2
(sin x  cos x) (sin x  cos x  sin x cos x)
sin x  cos x
dx + 
dx =
2  sin x cos x
2  sin x cos x
0
0
2



2

2

2

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2

2
sin x  cos x
sin x  cos x
dx =  (1  2 sin x cos x)dx + 
dx =
2  sin x cos x
2  sin x cos x
0
0
0

2

2

  (sin x  cos x) 2 dx + 
0

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x

 sin x
2

2
0

2
0

sin x  cos x

dx =  1  J
2  sin x cos x
2
0
2

+

(1)

2
2(sin x  cos x)
sin x  cos x
sin x  cos x
dx  
dx = 2 
dx ,
Where J  
2
4  2 sin x cos x
2  sin x cos x
0
0 3  (sin x  cos x)
0
and we make the change of variable
2

2

t
 
dt  0 ,
t  u ( x)  sin x  cos x, u ( x)  cos x  sin x, u (0)  1, u   1 , so J  2 
2
3

t
2
1
1 

which yields that 2 I   1 . Hence, I   .
2 4
2
1

Denoting with F the area of triangle ABC , and using the well-known formula
 ab  s 2  r 2  4Rr , we obtain

 a 
 4 Rr 

2

3s  r  4 Rr  2s  s  r
2

2

 a   a 

2

2

2

2

2

 2 ab
2

2

 a    a
2

2

2

4s 2  2( s 2  r 2  4 Rr )

2

  a 2   ab .

2
abc F 2
8s 2 Rr ( s 2  r 2  2 Rr )  8s 2 
 ( s  r 2  4 Rr  2 Rr ) 
4F s
abc 

2 2 2
 2sabc  ab 
  abc a ab  a b c
2s 

2
 abc a b  abc ab 2  2a 2 b 2 c 2 .
Since,
1
 a 2   ab

 (a 2  bc)(b 2  ca) 2a 2b 2 c 2  a 3b 3  abc a 3 ,


then the inequality to prove, i.e.
1
3s 2  r 2  4 Rr

 (a 2  bc)(b 2  ca) 8s 2 Rr (s 2  r 2  2Rr ) ,
becomes

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 a   ab
 a   ab

abc a b  abc ab  2a b c
2a b c   a b  abc a
 abc a   a b  abc a b  abc ab
 abc a  3abc   a b   ab    a b  3a b c   0 , which is true, because
2

2

2

2

3

2

3 3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

3 3

2

2

2

the first bracket is positive by Schur inequality and the second bracket is also positive by
AM-GM inequality.

a n1  1
b n1  1
c n1  1
,y 
,z 
we have x  y  0 and
a 1
b 1
c 1
x  y  a n  b n  a n1  b n1  ...  a  b  (a  b) Eab , with Eab  0 .
We have
ax
x(a  b  c  a)
 x ( a  b) x ( a  c ) 
 b  c  a   x   b  c  a    b  c  a  b  c  a  
x ( a  b)
y (b  a)
x
y




  (a  b)


bca
ca b
bca c a b
(a  b) 2 ( x  y)  c(a  b) 2 Eab
x ( a  b)  y ( a  b)  c ( x  y )
  ( a  b) 

 0.
(b  c  a)(c  a  b)
(b  c  a)(c  a  b)
We have equality if and only if a  b  c . The solution is complete.
Denoting x 

A
2 and cos A  s( s  a) , we obtain that
Since, wa 
2
bc
bc
2
2
2
(b  c) wa
(b  c)
4b 2 c 2 s( s  a)


 bc
 bc (b  c) 2  bc  4s (s  a)  4s 2 .
Hence the statement is true in a weaker condition, i.e. the perimeter of given triangle to
be natural number. The solution is complete.
2bc cos

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By usual formulas we obtain
4 ama2   a(2b 2  2c 2  a 2 )  2 a 2 b  2 ab 2  4abc  4abc   a 3

 2(a  b)(b  c)(c  a)  16Rrs   a 3  4s(s 2  r 2  2Rr )  16Rrs  2s(s 2  3r 2  6Rr )
 2s(s 2  5r 2  2Rr ) , and then we have that

 am

2
a

 9srR  2s(s 2  5r 2  2Rr )  36srR  s 2  5r 2  16Rr , and we are done.

The inequality s 2  5r 2  16Rr , is well-known inequality of Gerretsen. The solution is
complete.

Since  a 3  2s(s 2  3r 2  6Rr ) , the inequality to prove is written
successively
a3
r

r

2
 a(1  2 sin A)  2s R  1  2s  2 4R 2  2s R  1

s 2  3r 2  6 Rr r
  1  4 R 2  s 2  3r 2  6 Rr  2 Rr
2
R
2R
2
2
2
 s  4R  3r  4Rr , which is true (see for e.g. the item 5.8. from Bottema). The
solution is complete.
 1

Adding up the equations of system we obtain
2 x 2  2 y 2  2 z 2  2 xy  2 yz  2 zx  4 x  4 y  4 z  6  2 xy  2 yz  2 zx
 x 2  y 2  z 2  2 x  2 y  2 z  3  0  ( x  1) 2  ( y  1) 2  ( z  1) 2  0 .
Hence x  y  z  1 , and we are done.
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By AM-GM inequality we have


1
1
 n


a  3
 4  4   a k3  


a

a

a
a

a

a
k 1
cyclic 1
 k 1  cyclic 1
2
3
2
3 
By J. Radon’s inequality we have
n

3

3
k

(1)

3

 n

  ak 
n
a k3   k 1 2 

n
k 1
Also by H. Bergström’s inequality we have
1
n2



cyclic a1  a 2  a 3
 (a1  a2  a3 )
cyclic

(2)

n2
n

3 a k
k 1

By (1), (2) and (3) we obtain
3

 n

a



k
n
1
k 1

 
3
ak  3 
 44

2
n
k 1
cyclic a1  a 2  a 3

 44

By AM-GM inequality we have

 n

3   ak 
 k 1 

3

3

n 4 4n 4

3 , q.e.d.
3
33

x  2 y  x  2z
 x  y  z , so
2
x
x

 1 , and we are done.
x yz
( x  2 y )( x  2 z )

( x  2 y)( x  2 z ) 

n6

36

(3)

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By AM-GM inequality we have

x  2 y  x  2z
 x  y  z  x.
2
Writing other two similar inequalities yields that it suffices to prove that
 x( x 2  yz )  ( x)( x 2   xy) .
The last relation yields from well-known identity
 x 3  3xyz  ( x)( x 2   xy) , and the proof is complete.
( x  2 y)( x  2 z ) 

n

By well-known identity X n   Fk  Fn  2  1 , the inequality to prove becomes
k 1

 Fk


k 1  X n  Fk
By H. Bergström’s inequality we have
n

2

2


n
 
.
(n  1) 2

2

 Fk 
Fk 
1 n



 , but

(1)  


n  k 1 X n  Fk 
k 1  X n  Fk 
n
n
n
Fk
Fk
1
Sn  
 Sn  n   (
 1)  X n 
k 1 X n  Fk
k 1 X n  Fk
k 1 X n  Fk
n

 Xn 

n2
n

(X
k 1

n

 Fk )

BERGSTROM

n2
n2
n2
n
 Xn 

 (2) S n 
n 
.
nX n  X n n  1
n 1
n 1

From (1) and (2) we get the inequality to prove, and we are done.

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2. A GENERALIZATION AND SOLUTIONS
OF THE PROBLEM 11670 FROM AMM
by D.M. BĂTINEŢU-GIURGIU, ’’Matei Basarab’’ National College,
Bucharest,
NECULAI STANCIU, ’’George Emil Palade’’ General School, Buzău,
and
TITU ZVONARU, Comăneşti, ROMANIA

Let M   (i, j ) i  j, i, j  1, n and M   (i, j ) i  j, i, j  1, n .
n

Proposition. If n  N *  1, a  R , b  R * , xk  R* , k  1, n, X n   xk , then:

 (2aX

( i , j )M 

n

 b( xi  x j )) 

 (2aX

( i , j )M 

k 1

n

 b( xi  x j ))  (n  1)(na  b) X n , n  N * .

Proof. We observe that in M  every k  1, n is in (k  1) pairs (i, k ) with i  k and is in

(n  k ) pairs (k , j ) with k  j , so k is in (n  1) pairs (i, j ) with i  j , i, j  1, n .
Also in M  every k  1, n is in (k  1) pairs (k , i) with k  i and is in (n  k ) pairs
( j, k ) with j  k , so k is in (n  1) pairs (i, j ) with i  j , i, j  1, n .
Therefore:
 (2aX n  b( xi  x j ))   (2aX n  b( xi  x j )) 
( i , j )M 

( i , j )M 

 (aX

( i , j )M 

n

n

 bxi  aX n  bx j ))  (n  1) (aX n  bxk ) 
k 1

n

 (n  1)(naX n  b xk )  (n  1)(na  b) X n ,
k 1

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and the proof is complete.
n

Theorem. If n  N *  1, a  R , b  R * , xk  R* , k  1, n, X n   xk , such that
k 1

aX n  b max xk  R , then:
*

1 k  n

(n  1)(an  b) X n  4 
(n  1)(an  b) X n  4 

a 2 X n2  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 xi x j

2aX n  b( xi  x j )

( i , j )M 

a 2 X n2  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 xi x j

2aX n  b( xi  x j )

( i , j )M 

, n  N * ,
, n  N *

with equality if and only if xi  x j , i. j  1, n .
Proof. By the above proposition the inequality to prove is equivalent with:

 (2aX

( i , j )M 

n

 b( xi  x j ))  4 

a 2 X n2  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 xi x j

2aX n  b( xi  x j )

( i , j )M 


a 2 X n2  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 xi x j 

0
  2aX n  b( xi  x j )  4 


2
aX

b
(
x

x
)
( i ., j )M  
n
i
j

2
2
2
2
2aX n  b( xi  x j )  4 a X n  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b xi x j
 
0
2aX n  b( xi  x j )
( i ., j )M 

4a 2 X n2  4ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 ( xi  x j ) 2  4a 2 X n2  4ab( xi  x j ) X n  4b 2 xi x j
2aX n  b( xi  x j )

( i ., j )M 

 b2 

( xi  x j )

( i ., j )M 

2aX n  b( xi  x j )

 0 , which is true,

with equality if and only if xi  x j , i. j  1, n .
If we taking account that:
 (2aX n  b( xi  x j ))   (2aX n  b( xi  x j )) , n  N * ,
( i , j )M 

( i , j )M 

we also obtain that:

(n  1)(an  b) X n  4 

a 2 X n2  ab( xi  x j ) X n  b 2 xi x j
2aX n  b( xi  x j )

( i , j )M 

with equality if and only if xi  x j , i. j  1, n .
Observation. For a  0, b  1 we obtain the problem 11670 from AMM.

39

, n  N * ,

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Solution 1:
In the set of the pairs (i, j ), i  j, i, j  1, n the element k  1,2,.., nis in (k  1) pairs with
i  k and is in (n  k ) pairs with k  i , i.e. is in n  k  k  1  n  1pairs, and then:
n

n

i , j 1
i j

k 1

 ( xi  x j )  (n  1) xk

(1)

By the AM-HM inequality we have that:
x y
2 xy

, x, y  R*
2
x y
Therefore:
xi x j
xi  x j  4 
, i, j  1, n
xi  x j
Yields that:
n
n
xi x j
(
x

x
)

4

, n  N *


i
j
x

x
i , j 1
i , j 1 i
j
i j

(2)

(3)

(4)

i j

By the above we deduce that:
n

(n  1) xk 
k 1

n

n

i . j 1
i j

i , j 1
i j

 ( xi  x j )  4  

xi x j
xi  x j

, n  N * ,

and because in AM-HM inequality we have equality if and only if xi  x j , i, j  1, n ,
the problem 11670 from AMM is proved.

Solution 2:
We use the AM-HM inequality, i.e.:
2ab a  b
1
11 1


    , with equality iff a  b .
ab
2
ab 4a b
Hence,
 1
a j ak
1
1  1

a j ak    


 (a j  a k ) 
a

4 1 j k n
1 j  k  n a j  a k
 j a k  4 1 j k n
1
 ((n  1)a1  (n  2)a2  ...  2an2  an1  a2  ...  (n  3)a n2  (n  2)an1  (n  1)an )
4
n 1 n

 ak .
4 k 1
The equality holds iff all a j are equal.

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3. Other solutions for some problems from MR4/2014
By Nela Ciceu, Roşiori, Bacău, Romania
and
Roxana Mihaela Stanciu, Buzău, Romania

Solution:
It is well-known the fact that for any n  0,1,4,7(mod 9) there is a perfect square whose
sum of digits is equal to n (see for e.g. the book ’’Mathematical Olympiad Challenges’’ ,
p. 243, by Titu Andreescu and Răzvan Gelcă or Crux Mathematicorum no. 3/2013, p.
128).
On the other hand we have
3p
4  1  64 p  1  M (64  1)  M 9 , 4 3 p 1  4  4 4 3 p  1 and 43 p 2  7  16 43 p  1  9 .
The conclusion of the problem yields now easily
 for n of the form 3 p we choose a perfect square with the sum of digits 9k  1 ,

43 p  1
;
9
for n of the form 3 p  1 we choose a perfect square with the sum of digits 9k  4 ,
where k 

4 3 p 1  4
;
9
for n of the form 3 p  2 we choose a perfect square with the sum of digits
where k 

43 p2  7
.
9k  7 , where k 
9

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Solution:
We denote
x

XB
YC
ZA
.
,y 
,z 
XC
YA
ZB

We have
BX 

ax
, and by Ceva’s Theorem yields that
x 1
xyz  1 .

If YZ BC , then yz  1 , i.e. X  M and we have nothing to prove.
We assume that YZ  BC  N  such that we have the order N  B  C .
Applying the Theorem of Menelaus in triangle ABC with the transversal N  Z  Y we
obtain
NB YC ZA
NB
1
a
, so NB 
.


1

NC YA ZB
NB  a yz
yz  1
Using the power of point N with respect to circumcircle of the triangle ABC we obtain
NU  NV  NB  NC .
The concyclicity of the points M , X ,U ,V is successively equivalent to
NX  NM  NU  NV
 NX  NM  NB  NC
 ( NB  BX )( NB  BM )  NB( NB  BC )

 a

ax  a
a
a  a


 

  
 a 
 yz  1 x  1  yz  1 2  yz  1  yz  1

( x  1  xyz  x)(2  yz  1)

 yz
2( x  1)
yz  1

 yz  yz  1  xyz  yz , true, and the proof is complete.
x 1

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Solution:

Solution:

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4. Metode de calcul pentru derivata unui
determinant
Prof. Boer Elena Milena, Școala Gimnazială Vulcan, Jud. Brașov

Metoda 1.
Teoremă
Fie

Atunci

funcții derivabile pe

iar

este o funcție derivabila pe

și

Demonstrație: Faptul ca funcția
este derivabilă pe R rezulta din aceea că
dacă funcțiile
sunt funcții derivabile pe R, atunci funcția
este derivabila pe și

În continuare, conform formulei lui Leibniz, avem:

unde,
reprezintă funcția signum (semn), adică
este numărul de inversări în permutația .
Din (1), prin derivare rezultă:

adică tocmai relația de demonstrat.
44

, unde

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Metoda 2
O altă metodă de aflare a derivatei unui determinant pentru o matrice A, este să
folosim formula lui Jacobi bazată matricea reciprocă a matricei A și pe derivata acesteia.
Lemă: Fie A și B două matrici pătratice având dimensiunea n. Atunci:
(1)

- fiind transpusa matricei A.
Demonstrație:

Teoremă (formula lui Jacobi) : Fie o matrice pătratică A, având dimensiunea n. Vom
nota cu det(A) determinantul asociat matricei A. Diferențiala lui det(A) este data de
relația:
(2)

Unde
al matricei A.

reprezintă matricea adjunctă :

, C fiind complementul algebraic

Demonstrație:
Pe baza formulei lui Laplace
(3)

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Determinantul matricei A poate fi considerat ca fiind o funcție de elementele matricei A :

Prin urmare, diferențiala determinantului poate fi scris sub forma:

Pe baza relației de mai sus:
(4)

Ținând seama de derivata produsului obținem:
(5)

Dar,

, deoarece elementul ij al matricei adjunct, sigur nu conține nici un

element de pe linia i sau coloana j a matricei originale A.
Pe de alta parte:
(6)

Notam cu

simbolul lui Kronecker

Din relațiile (4) și (5) rezultă:
(7)

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REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

Pentru diferențiala determinantului A obținem astfel:

Ținând cont de lema demonstrată mai sus

Astfel teorema este demonstrată
Calculul derivatei unui determinant folosind ambele metode:
Enunț : Să se calculeze derivata determinantului pentru matricea :

Rezolvare:
Metoda 1

=

Metoda 2

În matricea B am derivat fiecare element al matricei A.

(

Se înmulțește fiecare element din
cu fiecare element corespunzator din
) și se obține derivata determinantului:
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REVISTA ELECTRONICĂ MATEINFO.RO ISSN 2065-6432 – NOIEMBRIE 2014

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Bibliografie:
1. Bușneag D., Maftei I., “Teme pentru cercurile și concursurile de matematică ale
elevilor”, Editura Scrisul Românesc, Craiova, 1983.
2. Pop V., Lupșor V., “Matematică pentru grupe de performanță, cls.a XI-a”,
Editura Dacia Educațional, Cluj-Napoca, 2004
3. Bellmann, R „Introduction to Matrix Analysis”, SIAM Philadelphia, 1997
4. Magnus, Jan R.; Neudecker, Heinz “Matrix Differential Calculus with
Applications in Statistics and Econometrics”, Wiley & Sons ,1999

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