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HELP WITH KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS

Each question contains three parts: a lead-in sentence, a key word, and a second sentence of which
only the beginning and end are given. You have to fill the gap in the second sentence so that the
completed sentence is similar in meaning to the lead-in sentence. The gap must be filled with between
two and five words, one of which must be the key word. The key word must not be changed in any
way.
Key Word Transformations focus on grammar and vocabulary. The ability to express a message in
different ways shows flexibility and resource in the use of language.
The questions look like this:
It was impossible for Pepito to become accustomed to living in England. (used)
Pepito couldnt ________________ living in England
Here they are testing the phrase get used to something, so they will expect the answer to be:
Pepito couldnt get used to living in England.
Heres another example:
Luis asked me to collect him from the airport. (pick)
Luis asked me _________________________________ from the airport.
This is testing a phrasal verb to pick up;
Luis asked me to pick him up from the airport.
Hints
Ask yourself what they are testing in the question. Are they testing vocabulary, maybe a phrasal verb? Is it
an idiomatic expression? Are they testing grammar? If so, what grammar are they testing? Verb tense?
Comparatives and superlatives? Reported speech? Gerunds and infinitives? Active and passive? Modal
verbs?

If the verb tense in the first sentence is continuous, try to keep the second sentence continuous (if
possible). If its a perfect tense, try to keep the second sentence perfect. Keep the second sentence as
similar to the first as possible. Try to use the same words if you can. For example, dont change John to
he, or Maria to she, unless you have to.

You need to write between two and five words in the space and you must use the word given without
changing it. Contractions count as two words (e.g. Ive = I have).

EXERCISES
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do
not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
VERB TENSES
1) We haven't seen each other for ages. (last)
Its ages ___________________________________ each other.
2) The last time I went sailing was last month. (gone)
I ___________________________________ a month.
(For more on Verb Tenses refer to page 163/4/5/6/7 in your FCE Result Students Book and to Units 110 in your Macmillan English Grammar in Context)
VERB PATTERNS: GERUND OR INFINITIVE?
3) He didnt want to take the books back to the library. (feel)
He ___________________________________ the books back to the library.
4) Do you think you will pass the exam? (expect)
Do you ___________________________________ the exam?
5) That overcoat costs too much for me to buy. (afford)
I ___________________________________ that overcoat.

(For more on Verb Patterns refer to page 167 in your FCE Result Students Book)
PHRASAL VERBS
6) We discussed the problem but nobody had a solution. (came)
We discussed the problem but ___________________________________ a solution.
7) The manager had the respect of everyone in the office. (up)
Everyone in the office ___________________________________ the manager.
8) Do you have a good relationship with your neighbours? (well)
Do you ___________________________________ your neighbours?
LINKERS
9) You should take a towel because you may want to go swimming. (in)
Take a towel ___________________________________ go swimming.
10) Although he is already at university he is still very childish. (despite)
He is very childish ___________________________________ university.
11) During the walk home from work, my dad always makes phone calls. (as)
My dad always makes phone calls ___________________________________ from work.
IDIOMS
12) Stubborn people often find it difficult to apologise for their mistakes. (sorry)
Stubborn people often find it difficult ___________________________________ their mistakes.
13) Will you promise that you wont tell anybody? (word)
Will you ___________________________________ that you wont tell anybody?
14) In all probability he will arrive late for class. (bound)
He ___________________________________ arrive late for class.
15) My views on this subject are exactly the same as yours. (difference)
There ___________________________________ my views on this subject and yours.
16) Jack found it difficult to control his skis on the steep slope. (control)
Jack found it difficult to ___________________________________ on the steep slope.

ITEMS SEEN IN UNITS 1-3


Complete the second sentence so that it has similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given and other
words to complete each sentence. You must use between two and five words.You cannot change the word given.

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Newspapers informed the population that bird-hunting had been banned. (know)
Newspapers ________________________________________________ that bird-hunting had been banned.
The last time I saw Anne was on Thursday. (not)
I ________________________________________________ Thursday.
Kate liked books very much when she was a kid and she still enjoys reading them. (enjoyed)
Kate __________________________________________________ she was a child.
John and Marys wedding happened last year. (married)
Mary __________________________________________________ one year.
I cant stand people trying to be funny all the time. (up)
I __________________________________________________ trying to be funny all the time.
Although she made me experience very bad moments, I still love her. (through)
Although __________________________________________________ very bad moments, I still love her.
Many teenagers cannot resist the temptation of Internet chat rooms. (hooked)
Many teenagers __________________________________________________ Internet chat rooms.
People who smoke are in danger of developing serious health problems. (risk)
People who smoke ________________________________________________ developing serious health problems.
Scientists are investigating how laughter affects our health. (into)
Scientists __________________________________________________ the effects of laughter on our health.
Before arriving home, he went to the bakery. (already)
When he arrived home, __________________________________________________ the bakery.
Of course I didnt want to break your Chinese vase! (mean)
Of course I did __________________________________________________ break your Chinese vase!
High-tech gadgets are terribly addictive. (get)
People __________________________________________________ high-tech equipment very easily.
Although they were lazy, they passed the test. (spite)
They passed the test __________________________________________________ lazy.
If we dont get to the station in five minutes, well miss the train. (unless)
We will miss the train __________________________________________________ to the station in five minutes.
The recent protest do not affect the way the majority of people think. (effect)
The recent protest _________________________________________________the way the majority of people think.
As soon as he realised there was a fire, he extinguished it. (out)
As soon as he realised there was a fire, __________________________________________________.
Watching bloody films makes me want to stop eating. (off)
Watching bloody films __________________________________________________ eating.
Only those who have run in this marathon understand how hard it is. (part)
Only those who have ____________________________________________ this marathon understand how hard it is.
It is impossible to contact Peter when he is not at home. (touch)
Trying to __________________________________________________ Peter is impossible when he is not at home.
Two of his brothers agreed to help us with the preparations. (hand)
Two of his brothers agreed to __________________________________________________ with the preparations.
If you consider that he only started the course last week, he is doing well (account)
If you __________________________________________ that he only started the course last week, he is doing well.
He told me that he had decided to abandon the course. (know)
He __________________________________________________ that he had decided to abandon the course.

23. Stubborn people often find it difficult to apologise for their mistakes. (sorry)
Stubborn people often find it difficult to ________________________________________________ their mistakes.
24. Katy has argued with her boyfriend again. (row)
Katy has __________________________________________________ her boyfriend again.
25. Hes got so many relatives that sometimes he forgets their names. (track)
Hes got so many relatives that sometimes he _______________________________________________ their names.
26. At the age of one, a baby is just starting to understand the world around him. (sense)
At the age of one, a baby is just starting to _________________________________________ the world around him.
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27. Illegal safaris are the cause of the extinction of some rare species. (part)
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Illegal safaris __________________________________________________ the extinction of some rare species.


Joe tends to feel superior to people who dont earn as much money as he does. (down)
Joe tends to ___________________________________________ people who dont earn as much money as he does.
Richard gives the impression of being quite arrogant. (across)
Richard __________________________________________________ being quite arrogant.
I thought his remark was terribly unfair and offended me. (belt)
His remark __________________________________________________, I thought.
I haven't heard anything from Mark for ages. (touch)
I haven't __________________________________________________ Mark for ages.
You should not laugh at other peoples problems.(fun)
You should __________________________________________________ other peoples problems.
These new shoes cost her a fortune. (nose)
She __________________________________________________ for these new shoes.
Carl was very unfriendly to Tanya this morning. (shoulder)
Carl __________________________________________________ this morning.
He was very uncomfortable when he heard his mothers voice. (teeth)
His mothers voice __________________________________________________.
Rachel sold the car without her fathers knowledge. (back)
Rachel sold the car __________________________________________________.
He was raised by his grandparents. (up)
He __________________________________________________ by his grandparents.
I promise you that it won't happen again. (word)
I __________________________________________________ that it won't happen again
I started to learn Chinese over a year ago. (learning)
I __________________________________________________ over a year.
The thieves got away before the police arrived. (already)
By the time the police arrived, the thieves __________________________________________________ away.
If Rose doesnt change, theres a possibility her boyfriend might leave her. (risks)
Rose __________________________________________________ boyfriend if she doesnt change.
One of my friends became a famous singer after school. (went)
After school, one of my friends __________________________________________________ a famous singer.
So that you dont get wet, take an umbrella with you. (order)
Take an umbrella with you __________________________________________________ get wet.
An aspirin might cure your headache. (try)
If youve got a headache, __________________________________________________ aspirin.
When I first saw her I thought she was Japanese. (sight)
__________________________________________________ I thought she was Japanese.
We played tennis despite the cold weather. (even)
We played tennis __________________________________________________ cold
Could you look after my cat while Im on holiday? (care)
Would you mind __________________________________________________ my cat while Im on holiday?
I havent smoked for three years. (gave)
I __________________________________________________ three years ago.
Do you think you will pass the exam? (expect)
Do you __________________________________________________ the exam?
He really doesnt want to spend the holiday at home. (face)
He __________________________________________________ the holiday at home.

KEY
Verb Tenses
1) since we last saw
2) have not gone sailing for
Linkers
1) with you in case you
2) despite already going to
3) as he walks home

Verb Patterns
1) did not feel like taking
2) expect to pass
3) cannot afford to buy
Idioms
1) to say sorry for
2) is bound to
3) is no difference between
4) bring / keep his skis under control

Phrasal Verbs
1) came up with
2) looked up to
3) get on well with

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Newspapers let the population know that bird-hunting had been banned.
I have not seen Anne since Thursday.
Kate has enjoyed reading since she was a child.
Mary has been married to John for one year.
I cant put up with people trying to be funny all the time.
Although she put me through very bad moments, I still love her.
Many teenagers are hooked on Internet chat rooms.
People who smoke are at risk of developing serious health problems.
Scientists are looking into the effects of laughter on our health.
When he arrived home, he had already been to the bakery.
Of course I did not mean to break your Chinese vase!
People get addicted to high-tech equipment very easily.
They passed the test in spite of being lazy.
We will miss the train unless we get to the station in five minutes.
The recent protest have no effect on the way the majority of people think.
As soon as he realised there was a fire, he put it out.
Watching bloody films puts me off eating.
Only those who have taken part in this marathon understand how hard it is.
Trying to get in touch with Peter is impossible when he is not at home.
Two of his brothers agreed to give us a hand with the preparations.
If you take into accountthat he only started the course last week, he is doing well.
He let me know that he had decided to abandon the course.
Stubborn people often find it difficult to say sorry for their mistakes.
Katy has had a row with her boyfriend again.
Hes got so many relatives that sometimes he loses track of their names.
At the age of one, a baby is just starting to make sense of the world around him.
Illegal safaris play a part in the extinction of some rare species.
Joe tends to look down on people who dont earn as much money as he does.
Richard comes across as being quite arrogant.
His remark was beyond the belt, I thought.
I haven't been in touch withMark for ages.
You should make fun of other peoples problems.
She paid through the nose for these new shoes.
Carl gave Tanya a cold shoulder this morning.
His mothers voice set his teeth on edge.
Rachel sold the car behind her fathers back.
He was brought up by his grandparents.
I give you my word that it won't happen again
I have been learning Chinese for over a year.
By the time the police arrived, the thieves had already got away.
Rose risks losing her boyfriend if she doesnt change.
After school, one of my friends went on to become a famous singer.
Take an umbrella with you in order not to get wet.
If youve got a headache, try taking an aspirin.
At first sight I thought she was Japanese.
We played tennis even though the weather wascold
Would you mind taking care ofmy cat while Im on holiday?
I gave up smokingthree years ago.
Do you expect to passthe exam?
He cant face spendingthe holiday at home.
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