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Sakhalin (Russia)

Russian Far East, Pacific Ocean

51N 143E


Coordinates: 51N 143E [1]

Total islands

1Wikipedia:Please clarify


72,492km2 (27,989.3sqmi)

Area rank


Highestelevation 1,609m (5,279ft)



Largest city

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk(pop. 174,203)


580,000 (as of 2005)


8/km2 (21/sqmi)

Ethnic groups

Russians, Koreans, Nivkhs, Oroks, Evenks and Yakuts.

Sakhalin (Russian: , pronounced[sxlin]) is a large Russian island in the North Pacific, lying between
4550' and 5424'N. It is Russia's largest island, and is administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. Sakhalin, which is
about one fifth the size of Japan, is just off the east coast of Russia, and just north of Japan.


The indigenous peoples of the island are the Ainu, Oroks and Nivkhs. Sakhalin has been claimed by both Russia and
Japan over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. This has led to bitter disputes between the two countries over
control of the island. Russia seized the island from the Japanese near the end of World War II. Most Ainu moved to
Hokkaid when the Japanese were displaced from the island in 1949.

The island is known in Russian as (Sakhalin). In Chinese it is known as Kuye (simplified Chinese: ;
traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ky) Karafuto (Japanese: , also Sahalin ( ?) ), or Saghalien.
The European names derive from misinterpretation of a Manchu name sahaliyan ula
angga hada ("peak/craggy rock at the mouth of the Amur River"). Sahaliyan, the word that has been borrowed in the
form of "Sakhalin", means "black" in Manchu and is the proper Manchu name of the Amur River (
sahaliyan ula, literally "Black River"; see Sikhote-Alin). Its Japanese name, Karafuto ( ), supposedly comes
from Ainu kamuy kar put ya mosir ( , shortened to Karput
), which means "Land/Island/Country at the Shore of the God-Made (River) Mouth/Confluence."[citation needed]
The name was used by the Japanese during their possession of its southern part (19051945).

Early history
Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age. Flint implements,
like those found in Siberia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in
great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like European
examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonets,
and stone weights for nets. Afterwards a population to whom bronze
was known left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the
Aniva Bay.

De Vries (1643) maps Sakhalin's eastern

promontories, but is not aware that he is visiting
an island (map from 1682).

Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu on the southern
half, the Oroks in the central region and the Nivkhs on the northern
part. Chinese chronicled the Xianbei and Hezhe tribes[citation needed],
who had a way of life based on fishing.

The Mongol Empire made some efforts to subjugate the native people
of Sakhalin starting in about 1264 CE. According to Yuanshi, the official history of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols
militarily subdued the Guwei ( , Gwi), and by 1308, all inhabitants of Sakhalin had surrendered to the
Mongols. The Nivkhs and the Oroks were subjugated earlier, whereas the Ainu people submitted to the Mongols
later.[citation needed] Following their subjugation, Gwi elders made tributary visits to Yuan posts located at Wuleihe,
Nanghar, and Boluohe, until the end of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China (1368). In the early Ming Dynasty
(13681644), the tributary relationship was re-established. Following the introduction of Chinese political and
commercial institutions in the Amur region, by the middle of the 15th century the Sakhalin Ainu were making
frequent tributary visits to Chinese-controlled outposts. The Chinese in the Ming Dynasty knew the island as Kuyi or
Kuwu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Kw), and later (and at present) as Kuye (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ky). There is
some evidence that the Ming eunuch admiral Yishiha reached Sakhalin in 1413 during one of his expeditions to the
lower Amur, and granted Ming titles to a local chieftain.[2] Under the Ming Dynasty, commerce in Northeast Asia
and Sakhalin was placed under the "system for subjugated peoples", or ximin tizhi. These suggest that the island was
at least nominally included under the administration of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission which was set up
by Yishiha near today's village of Tyr on the Siberian mainland in 1411, and operated until the mid-1430s. A Ming


boundary stone still exists on the island.

European and Japanese exploration

According to Wei Yuan's work Military history of the Qing Dynasty
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Shngw J), the Later Jin sent 400 troops
to Sakhalin in 1616, after a newfound interest because of northern
Japanese contacts with the area, but later withdrew as it was considered
there was no threat from the island.

Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout

the 18th century. This map from a 1773 atlas,
based on the earlier work by d'Anville, who in his
turn made use of the information collected by
Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of
Sakhalinbut only assigns to it the northern half
of the island and its northeastern coast (with Cape
Patience, discovered by de Vries in 1643). Cape
Aniva, also discovered by de Vries, and Cape
Crillon (Black Cape) are, however, thought to be
part of the mainland

A Japanese settlement in the southern end of Sakhalin of Ootomari was

established in 1679 in a colonization attempt. Cartographers of the
Matsumae clan created a map of the island and called it "Kita-Ezo"
(Northern Ezo, Ezo being the old name for the islands north of
Honshu). The 1689 Nerchinsk Treaty between Russia and China,
which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as the border, made no explicit
mention of the island. Yet, the Qing Dynasty (16441912) did consider
the island as part of its territory. Policies of the Qing Dynasty followed
a similar pattern to the previous Ming Dynasty, which drew Sakhalin
peoples further into the "system for subjugated peoples". Local people
were forced to pay tribute at Qing posts, and Qing officials granted
some titles to local elders and entrusted them with the task of "keeping
the peace". By the mid-18th century, Qing officials had registered 56
surname groups; of these, Qing sources note that six clans and 148
households were those of Ainu and Nivkh who came under the Qing
administrative umbrella on Sakhalin. However, as the Chinese
governments did not have a military presence on the island, people
from Japan attempted to colonise the island.

The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de

Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643. The Dutch captain, however,
was not aware of their being on an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these pointsand often Hokkaido,
tooas parts of the mainland.
As part of a nationwide Sino-French cartographic program, the Jesuits Jean-Baptiste Rgis, Pierre Jartoux, and
Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli joined a Chinese team visiting the lower Amur (known to them under its Manchu name,
Saghalien Ula, i.e. the "Black River"), in 1709, and learned from the "Ke tcheng" natives of the lower Amur about
the existence of the offshore island nearby. The Jesuits learned that the islanders were said to have been good at
reindeer husbandry. They reported that the mainlanders used a variety of names to refer to the island, but Saghalien
anga bata, i.e. "the Island [at] the mouth of the Black River" was the most common one, meanwhile the name
"Huye" (presumably, "Kuye", ) they had heard in Beijing was completely unknown to the locals.[3]


The Jesuits, however, did not have a chance to visit the island
personally, and the inadequate information about its geography
provided by the Ke tcheng people and the Manchus who had been to
the island would not allow them to identify it with the land visited by
de Vries in 1643. As a result, many 17th century maps showed a rather
strangely shaped Sakhalin, which included only the northern half of the
island (with Cape Patience), while Cape Aniva discovered by de Vries
and the "Black Cape" (Cape Crillon) were thought to be part of the
It was not until the expedition of Jean-Franois de La Prouse (1787),
who charted most of the Strait of Tartary, but was not able to pass
through its northern "bottleneck" due to contrary winds, that the island
on European maps assumed a form similar to what is familiar to
modern readers. A few islanders La Perouse met near what is today
called the Strait of Nevelskoy told him that the island is called
"Tchoka" (or at least that is how he recorded the name in French), and
it was used on some maps thereafter.

La Perouse charted most of the southwestern

coast of Sakhalin (or "Tchoka", as he heard
natives call it) in 1787

The Russian explorer Adam Johann von Krusenstern visited Sakhalin in 1805, but regarded it as a peninsula.
Alarmed by the visits of European powers, Japan proclaimed its sovereignty over the whole island in 1807. The
Japanese say that it was Mamiya Rinz who really discovered the Strait of Tartary in 1809.

Russo-Japanese rivalry
On the basis of its being an extension of Hokkaid,
geographically and culturally, Japan again
proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in
1845, as well as the Kuril Islands, as there were
competing claims from Russia. However, the Russian
navigator Gennady Nevelskoy in 1849 recorded the
existence and navigability of this strait and in
defiance of the Qing and Japanese claims Russian
settlers established coal mines, administration
facilities, schools, prisons, and churches on the
island. Japan proclaimed its sovereignty over
Sakhalin (which they called Karafuto) yet again in
1865 and the government built a stele announcing
this at the northern extremity of the island.

Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday. 1903

In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which declared that both nationals could inhabit the island:
Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clear boundary between. Russia also agreed to dismantle
its military base at Ootomari. Following the Opium War, Russia forced China to sign the Treaty of Aigun (1858) and
Convention of Peking (1860), under which China lost to Russia all claims to all territories north of Heilongjiang
(Amur) and east of Ussuri, including Sakhalin. A katorga labor camp (penal colony) was established by Russia on
Sakhalin in 1857, but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until the 1875 Treaty of Saint
Petersburg, when they ceded it to Russia in exchange for the Kuril Islands.


Divided island
After the Russo-Japanese War, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Portsmouth
of 1905, which saw the southern part of the island below 50th parallel north
reverting to Japan; Russia retained the other three-fifths of the area. During the
Siberian Intervention, Japan briefly held the northern part of the island from
1920 to 1925.
South Sakhalin was administrated by Japan as Karafuto Prefecture (Karafuto-ch
( )), with the capital Toyohara, today's Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, and had a
large number of migrants from Korea.
The northern, Russian, half of the island formed Sakhalin Oblast, with the capital
in Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky.

Second World War

Sakhalin Island with Karafuto
Prefecture highlighted

In August 1945, according to Yalta Conference agreements, the Soviet Union

took over the control of Sakhalin. The Soviet attack on South Sakhalin was part
of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, and earlier sanctioned by the Allies, started on 11 August 1945,
after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and four days before the Surrender of Japan. The 56th Rifle Corps
consisting of the 79th Rifle Division, the 2nd Rifle Brigade, the 5th Rifle Brigade and the 214th Armored Brigade
attacked the Japanese 88th Division. Although the Red Army outnumbered the Japanese by a factor of three, they
were unable to advance due to strong Japanese resistance.
It was not until the 113th Rifle Brigade and the 365th Independent Naval Infantry Rifle Battalion from Sovetskaya
Gavan landed on 16 August at Tro ( ) a seashore village of western Sakhalin that the Soviets broke the
Japanese defence line. Japanese resistance grew weaker after this landing. Actual fighting, mostly skirmishes,
continued until 21 August. From 22 August to 23 August, most of the remaining Japanese units announced a truce.
The Soviets completed the conquest of Sakhalin on 25 August 1945 by occupying the capital, Toyohara, when
Soviet troops swept southward and in nine days defeated 20,000 Japanese defenders.[4]
Out of some 448,000 Japanese residents of South Sakhalin who lived there in 1944, a significant number were
evacuated to Japan during the last days of the war, but the remaining 300,000 or so stayed behind for several more
years. While the predominant majority of Sakhalin Japanese were eventually evacuated to Japan in 19461950, tens
of thousands of Sakhalin Koreans (and a number of their Japanese spouses) remained in the Soviet Union.[5]
No final peace treaty has been signed and the status
of four neighboring islands remains disputed. Japan
renounced its claims of sovereignty over southern
Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Treaty of San
Francisco (1951), but claims that four islands
currently administered by Russia were not subject to
this renunciation. Japan has granted mutual exchange
visas for Japanese and Ainu families divided by the
change in status. Recently, economic and political
cooperation has gradually improved between the two
nations despite disagreements.[6]
Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. 2009


Recent history
On September1, 1983, the Korean Air Flight 007, a South Korean civilian airliner, flew over Sakhalin and was shot
down by the Soviet Union, just west of Sakhalin Island, near the smaller Moneron Island; the Soviet Union claimed
it was a spy plane. All 269 passengers and crew died, including a U.S. Congressman, Larry McDonald.
On May28, 1995, an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale occurred, killing 2,000 people in the town of
Neftegorsk.[citation needed]

Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow
Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and
from Hokkaid, (Japan) by the Soya Strait or La Prouse Strait.
Sakhalin is the largest island in Russia, being 948km (589mi) long,
and 25 to 170km (16 to 106mi) wide, with an area of 72,492km2
Its orography and geological structure are imperfectly known. One
theory is that Sakhalin arose from the Sakhalin island arc. Nearly
two-thirds of Sakhalin is mountainous. Two parallel ranges of
Cape Tihii, Sakhalin
mountains traverse it from north to south, reaching 6001500 m
(20005000ft). The Western Sakhalin Mountains peak in Mount Ichara, 1,481m (4,859ft), while the Eastern
Sakhalin Mountains's highest peak, Mount Lopatin 1,609m (5,279ft), is also the island's highest mountain.
Tym-Poronaiskaya Valley separates the two ranges. Susuanaisky and Tonino-Anivsky ranges traverse the island in
the south, while the swampy Northern-Sakhalin plain occupies most of its north.[7]

Sea of Okhotsk coast, Sakhalin

Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones,

containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites,
occur at Dui on the west coast; and Tertiary conglomerates,
sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, are found
in many parts of the island. The clays, which contain layers of good
coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the Miocene
period, Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north
Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm climate.
The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more Arctic than that
which exists at the present time, indicating that the connection between
the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was probably broader than it is now.

Main rivers: The Tym, 330km (205mi) long and navigable by rafts and light boats for 80km (50mi), flows north
and north-east with numerous rapids and shallows, and enters the Sea of Okhotsk.[8] The Poronai River flows
south-south-east to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the south-east coast. Three other small streams enter the
wide semicircular Gulf of Aniva or Higashifushimi Bay at the southern extremity of the island.
The northernmost point of Sakhalin is Cape of Elisabeth on the Schmidt Peninsula, while Cape Crillon is the
southernmost point of the island.
Sakhalin has two smaller islands associated with it, Moneron Island and Ush Island. Moneron, the only land mass in
the Tatar strait, 7.2km (4.5mi) long and 5.6km (3.5mi) wide, is about 24 nautical miles (44km) west from the
nearest coast of Sakhalin and 41nmi (76km) from the port city of Nevelsk. Ush Island is an island off of the
northern coast of Sakhalin.


At the beginning of the 20th century, some 32,000 Russians
(of whom over 22,000 were convicts) inhabited Sakhalin
along with several thousand native inhabitants. The island's
population has grown to 546,695 according to the 2002
census, 83% of whom are ethnic Russians, followed by
Koreans at about 30,000 (5.5%), Ukrainians and Tatars,
Yakuts and Evenks. The native inhabitants consist of some
2,000 Nivkhs and 750 Oroks. The Nivkhs in the north
support themselves by fishing and hunting. In 2008 there
were 6,416 births and 7,572 deaths.
Nivkh children in Sakhalin around 1903
The administrative center of the oblast, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,
a city of about 175,000, has a large Korean minority,
typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans, who were forcibly brought by the Japanese during World War II to work
in the coal mines. Most of the population lives in the southern half of the island, centered mainly around
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and two ports, Kholmsk and Korsakov (population about 40,000 each).

The 400,000 Japanese inhabitants of Sakhalin (including all indigenous Ainu) were deported following the conquest
of the southern portion of the island by the Soviet Union in 1945 at the end of World War II.

The Sea of Okhotsk ensures Sakhalin has a cold and humid climate, ranging from humid continental (Kppen Dfb)
in the south to subarctic (Dfc) in the centre and north. The maritime influence makes summers much cooler than in
similar-latitude inland cities such as Harbin or Irkutsk, but makes the winters much more snowy whilst remaining
severely cold, only a few degrees warmer than in interior East Asian cities at the same latitude. Summers are also
unpleasantly foggy with little sunshine[9] and the persistently wet conditions are ideal for mosquitoes.
Precipitation is heavy, owing to the strong onshore winds in summer and the high frequency of North Pacific storms
affecting the island in the autumn. It ranges from around 500 millimetres (20in) on the northwest coast to over 1,200
millimetres (47in) in southern mountainous regions. In contrast to interior east Asia with its pronounced summer
maximum, onshore winds ensure Sakhalin has year-round precipitation with a peak in the autumn. Snowpacks can
reach five metres in mountainous areas of the island.

Climate chart (explanation)




Average max. and min. temperatures in C

Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Weather Underground

Imperial conversion



Average max. and min. temperatures in F

Precipitation totals in inches

Flora and fauna

The whole of the island is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous. The Yezo (or Yeddo) spruce (Picea
jezoensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis) and the Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) are the chief trees; on the
upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) and the Kurile bamboo (Sasa kurilensis).
Birches, both Siberian silver birch (Betula platyphylla) and Erman's birch (B. ermanii), poplar, elm, Bird cherry
(Prunus padus), Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther
south the maple, rowan and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron
amurense), the Spindle (Euonymus macropterus) and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance. The
underwoods abound in berry-bearing plants (e.g. cloudberry, cranberry, crowberry, red whortleberry), Red-berried
elder (Sambucus racemosa), wild raspberry and Spiraea.


Bears, foxes, otters and sables are numerous, as are reindeer in the north, and musk deer, hares, squirrels, rats and
mice everywhere. The bird fauna is mostly the common east Siberian, but there are some endemic or near-endemic
breeding species, notably the endangered Nordmann's Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) and the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler
(Phylloscopus borealoides). The rivers swarm with fish, especially species of salmon (Oncorhynchus). Numerous
whales visit the sea coast, including the critically endangered Western Pacific Gray Whale, for which the coast of
Sakhalin is the only known feeding ground. Other endangered whale species known to occur in this area are the
North Pacific Right Whale, the Bowhead Whale and the Beluga Whale.

Transport, especially by sea, is an important segment of the economy.
Nearly all the cargo arriving for Sakhalin (and the Kuril Islands) is
delivered by cargo boats, or by ferries, in railway wagons, through the
SSC train ferry from the mainland port of Vanino to Kholmsk. The
ports of Korsakov and Kholmsk are the largest and handle all kinds of
goods, while coal and timber shipments often go through other ports.
In 1999, a ferry service was opened between the ports of Korsakov and
Wakkanai, Japan.
Sakhalin's main shipping company is Sakhalin Shipping Company,
headquartered in Kholmsk on the island's west coast.

A Japanese D51 steam locomotive outside the

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station

About 30% of all inland transport volume is carried by the island's railways, most of which are organized as the
Sakhalin Railway ( ), which is one of the 17 territorial divisions of the Russian
The Sakhalin Railway network extends from Nogliki in the north to Korsakov in the south. Sakhalin's railway has a
connection with the rest of Russia via a ferry operating between Vanino and Kholmsk.
As of 2004, the railways are only now being converted from the Japanese 1,067mm (3ft6in) gauge to the Russian
1,520mm (4ft11 2732in) gauge. The original Japanese D51 steam locomotives were used by the Soviet Railways
until 1979.
Besides the main network run by the Russian Railways, until December 2006 the local oil company
(Sakhalinmorneftegaz) operated a corporate narrow-gauge (750mm) line extending for 228 kilometers (142mi)
from Nogliki further north to Okha ( ). During the last years of its
service, it gradually deteriorated; the service was terminated in December 2006, and the line was dismantled in



Sakhalin is connected by regular flights to Moscow, Khabarovsk,
Vladivostok and other cities of Russia. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport has
regularly scheduled international flights to Hakodate, Japan, and Seoul
and Busan, South Korea. There are also charter flights to the Japanese
cities of Tokyo, Niigata, and Sapporo and to the Chinese cities of
Shanghai, Dalian and Harbin. The island was formerly served by
Alaska Airlines from Anchorage, Petropavlovsk and Magadan.

Fixed Link Tunnel

A passenger train in Nogliki

The idea of building a fixed link between Sakhalin and the Russian mainland was first mooted in the 1930s. In the
1940s, an abortive attempt was made to link the island via a 10 kilometres (6 miles) long undersea tunnel. The
workers supposedly made it almost to the half-way point[citation needed] before the project was abandoned under
Nikita Khrushchev. In 2000, the Russian government revived the idea, adding a suggestion that a 40-km-long bridge
could be constructed between Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaid, providing Japan with a direct
connection to the Euro-Asian railway network. It was claimed that construction work could begin as early as 2001.
The idea was received skeptically by the Japanese government and appears to have been shelved, probably
permanently, after the cost was estimated at as much as US$50 billion.
In November 2008, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev announced government support for the construction of the
Sakhalin Tunnel, along with the required re-gauging of the island's railways to Russian standard gauge, at an
estimated cost of 300330 billion roubles.

Sakhalin is a classic "primary sector of the economy" relying on oil
and gas exports, coal mining, forestry, and fishing. Limited quantities
of rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables are grown, although the
growing season averages less than 100 days.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and economic
liberalization, Sakhalin has experienced an oil boom with extensive
petroleum exploration and mining by most large oil multinational
corporations. The oil and natural gas reserves contain an estimated 14
billion barrels (2.2km) of oil and 96 trillion cubic feet (2,700km) of
gas and are being developed under production-sharing agreement
contracts involving international oil companies like ExxonMobil and

At the ceremony marking the opening of a

liquefied natural gas production plant built as part
of the Sakhalin-2 project. (

In 1996, two large consortiums signed contracts to explore for oil and gas off the northeast coast of the island,
Sakhalin-I and Sakhalin-II. The two consortia were estimated to spend a combined US$21 billion on the two projects
which almost doubled to $37 billion as of September 2006, triggering Russian governmental opposition. The cost
will include an estimated US$1 billion to upgrade the island's infrastructure: roads, bridges, waste management sites,
airports, railways, communications systems, and ports. In addition, Sakhalin-III-through-VI are in various early
stages of development.
The Sakhalin I project, managed by Exxon Neftegas Limited (ENL), completed a production-sharing agreement
(PSA) between the Sakhalin I consortium, the Russian Federation, and the Sakhalin government. Russia is in the
process of building a 136-mile (219km) pipeline across the Tatar Strait from Sakhalin Island to De-Kastri terminal



on the Russian mainland. From De-Kastri, the resource will be loaded onto tankers for transport to East Asian
markets, namely Japan, South Korea and China.
The second consortium, Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd (Sakhalin Energy), is managing the Sakhalin II
project. It completed the first ever production-sharing agreement (PSA) with the Russian Federation. Sakhalin
Energy will build two 800-km pipelines running from the northeast of the island to Prigorodnoye (Prigorodnoe) in
Aniva Bay at the southern end. The consortium will also build, at Prigorodnoye, the first ever liquefied natural gas
(LNG) plant to be built in Russia. The oil and gas are also bound for East Asian markets.
Sakhalin II has come under fire from environmental groups, namely Sakhalin Environment Watch, for dumping
dredging material in Aniva Bay. The groups were also worried about the offshore pipelines interfering with the
migration of whales off the island. The consortium has (as of January 2006) re-routed the pipeline to avoid the whale
migration. After a doubling in the projected cost, the Russian government threatened to halt the project for
environmental reasons. There have been suggestions that the Russian government is using the environmental issues
as a pretext for obtaining a greater share of revenues from the project and/or forcing involvement by the
state-controlled Gazprom. The cost overruns (at least partly due to Shell's response to environmental concerns), are
reducing the share of profits flowing to the Russian treasury.[10]
In 2000, the oil and gas industry accounted for 57.5% of Sakhalin's industrial output. By 2006, it is expected to
account for 80% of the island's industrial output. Sakhalin's economy is growing rapidly thanks to its oil and gas
industry. By 2005, the island had become the largest recipient of foreign investment in Russia, followed by Moscow.
Unemployment in 2002 was only 2%.[citation needed]
As of April18, 2007, Gazprom has taken a 50% plus one share interest in Sakhalin II by purchasing 50% of Shell,
Mitsui and Mitsubishi's shares.

International partnerships

Gig Harbor, Washington, United States

Jeju-do, South Korea

[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Sakhalin& params=51_N_143_E_region:RU_type:isle_scale:5000000
[2] Link is to partial text.
[3] The people whose name the Jesuits recorded as Ke tcheng ta tse ("Hezhen Tatars") lived, according to the Jesuits, on the Amur below the
mouth of the Dondon River, and were related to the Yupi ta tse ("Fishskin Tatars") living on the Ussuri and the Amur upstream from the
mouth of the Dondon. The two groups might thus be ancestral of the Ulch and Nanai people known to latter ethnologists; or, the "Ke tcheng"
might in fact be Nivkhs.
[4] Gargan, Edward, " Island a Focus of Russian-Japan Disputes (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1983/ 09/ 02/ world/
island-a-focus-of-russian-japan-disputes. html)", The New York Times, September 2, 1983.
[5] Sandford, Daniel, " Sakhalin memories: Japanese stranded by war in the USSR (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/
world-asia-pacific-14278362)", BBC, 3 August 2011.
[6] http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ World/ Europe/ 2013/ 0429/ Japan-and-Russia-want-to-finally-end-World-War-II-agree-it-is-abnormal-not-to
[7] Ivlev, A. M. Soils of Sakhalin. New Delhi: Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre, 1974. Pages 9-28.
[8] Tym (http:/ / slovari. yandex. ru/ ~/ / ) - an article in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. (In Russian, retrieved 2012-08-21.)
[9] Sakhalin Hydrometeorological Service, accessed 19 April 2011 (http:/ / sakhmeteo. ru/ en/ )
[10] Citations for the date:


Further reading
C. H. Hawes, In the Uttermost East (London, 1903). (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)
A Journey to Sakhalin (1895), by Anton Chekhov, including:
Saghalien [or Sakhalin] Island (18911895)
Across Siberia
Sakhalin Unplugged (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2006) by Ajay Kamalakaran

External links

Sakhalin travel guide from Wikivoyage

Map of the Sakhalin Hydrocarbon Region (
hydrocarbon-province-maps/sakhalin.pdf)at Blackbourn Geoconsulting
TransGlobal Highway ( Sakhalin-Hokkaid Friendship
Steam and the Railways of Sakhalin (
Maps of Ezo, Sakhalin and Kuril Islands ( from 1854


Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors

Sakhalin Source: Contributors: -js-, 1dragon, ACSE, AaronRichard, Aeusoes1, Ahoerstemeier, Akradecki, Alertedlevel2, Alexandersam,
Altenmann, Anandks007, Andres, Andris, Andron35, Anonymous from the 21th century, Arashi, Archivian, ArielGold, Ariobarzan, Art LaPella, Ash Crow, Astuishin, Atitarev, Avicennasis,
BD2412, BabelStone, Backspace, Badgerpatrol, Bardsandwarriors, Bark, Bathrobe, Bcameron54, Beaber, Beardo, Beland, Belligero, Bendono, Benjamin Trovato, Bert Schlossberg, Big
Adamsky, Bkell, BlackMarket, Blaylockjam10, Bobblewik, Boleslav1, BrightLights, Btibbets, CTPao, Calcwatch, CalicoCatLover, CaliforniaAliBaba, Canderson7, Cantus, Chanueting, Charles
Matthews, Chinyin, Chipmunkdavis, ChrisO, Christian75, Cla68, Cmdrjameson, CommonsDelinker, Costesseyboy, Cpenwell, Csnewton, Cuaxdon, Czyrko, D6, DHBoggs, DO'Neil,
DabMachine, Daisi145, Damian Yerrick, Darwinek, David Stewart, DavidA, DavisGL, Dbuchfink, Dcoetzee, Dia^, DocWatson42, Docu, DonaldDuck, Drett, Drew R. Smith, Droll, Dsol,
EamonnPKeane, Ebizur, Ed Poor, EdwardLane, Enerelt, Entirelybs, Erianna, Ezhiki, Falcanary, Fanatix, Filt, Flowerparty, Fluffernutter, Fred Bauder, FunkyCanute, Funlake, GCarty,
GagHalfrunt, Gamera1123, Gargolla, Gene Nygaard, Gestumblindi, Ghostreveries, Gil Dawson, Gilgamesh, Gillalbert, Glossologist, Gmcomp, Gob Lofa, Goudzovski, Graham87, Grant65,
Gsklee, Gw2005, Gymnophoria, Hadlock, Hamiltondaniel, Harveyqs, Haymaker, Hesperion21, HisSpaceResearch, Hmains, Hunnjazal, Hutcher, Ideyal, Ilyushka88, Imars, Imzogelmo,
Infrogmation, Instantnood, Ipsoko, Iritakamas, Isfisk, JFHJr, JPMcGrath, JackofOz, JamesAM, Jarble, Jaxl, Jayanta Sen, Jaywubba1887, Jdforrester, JeR, Jiang, Jiyuukaminari, Jllm06, Joelr31,
John259, Johnxsmith, Jondel, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jusjih, Justanother, KMJKWhite, KNewman, Kain Nihil, Keith Edkins, Ken304, Kgrad, Kintetsubuffalo, Kleinzach, Knyaz, Koavf,
Kr-val, Kross, Ksl7, Ktsquare, Kuru, Kusunose, Kwamikagami, Laze, Lenineleal, Lets Enjoy Life, Leutha, Lightmouse, Lij12345, Little Savage, Look2See1, Luokehao, Lysis rationale, MBisanz,
MER-C, MPF, Marek69, Mashford, MatthewVanitas, Mboverload, Menchi, Mightyhansa, Mike Dillon, Mikko Paananen, Minesweeper, Mkill, Mohonu, Monedula, Mr Tan, Mrg3105, Naniwako,
Nanshu, NatureA16, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, NewLion, Nick Number, Nihonjoe, Nik42, Niohe, Nisada, Niteowlneils, Nobuts, Northamerica1000, Nrwilk, Nsxtasy, Olivier,
Omicronpersei8, Onorem, Papamejo, PaperTruths, Patrick, Paukrus, Pekinensis, Percederberg, Peterlin, Piotrus, Plasticspork, Plastikspork, Poetaris, Poli, Polylerus, Ppa, Pvmoutside, Quadell,
Quandapanda, R0a73, RScheiber, Ran, RapidR, Raulasturias, Readeraml86, RedWolf, Reenem, Rei, ResearchRave, ResidueOfDesign, Rhatsa26X, Rich Farmbrough, Riverhugger, Rjwilmsi,
Rmschne, Roadrunner, Robwingfield, Rolypolyman, Romanskolduns, Russian Luxembourger, Ryoung122, Ryulong, SD6-Agent, Sam Hocevar, Saraalan, SarahStierch, Sf5xeplus, Shanem431l,
Shizhao, Shoo tsukino, SidP, Sijo Ripa, Simon-in-sagamihara (usurped), Sir Edgar, SirIsaacBrock, Skew-t, Snow storm in Eastern Asia, Socrates2008, Sonofthebeach, Stefan2, Stevenmitchell,
Suhardian, Supersexyspacemonkey, Svenlafe, Tabletop, TakuyaMurata, Tea with toast, Theelf29, Theodore Kloba, Tlhslobus, Tobby72, Tokek, Tomchiukc, Tuscumbia, Ufwuct, Unyoyega,
Vacio, Vmenkov, Volphy, Vsmith, Wadim, Waltloc, Wattsie, Wavelength, Wayne Miller, Wbfergus, Wfgiuliano, WhisperToMe, WikiDon, Will Beback, WilliamJE, Woohookitty, WooteleF,
Xiaoyu of Yuxi, Youssefsan, Ypacara, Zaharous, Zithan, Zoicon5, Zondor, Zsinj, Zuxy, , , , 330 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Sakhalin (detail).PNG Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: edited by M.Minderhoud
file:Russia edcp location map.svg Source: License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
Uwe Dedering
File:CEM-36-NE-corner.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Giacomo Cantelli (1643-1695), Giovanni
Giacomo de Rossi (17th century)
File:Kitchen-21-Russia-Sahalin-2820.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: and Thomas
Kitchen (or his staff)
File:La-Perouse-Chart-of-Discoveries.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: en:Jean-Franois
de Galaup, comte de La Prouse
File:V.M. Doroshevich-Sakhalin. Part I. Settlers Way of Life. Near Cathedral at Holiday.png Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Uncredited
File:Karafuto map.png Source: License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Nihonjoe
File:Downtown Yuzhno.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Btibbets
File:Cape Tihii. Sakhalin coast of Sea of Okhotsk.JPG Source: License: Public Domain
Contributors: Vihljun
File:Okhotskoye beach 1.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Vihljun
File:V.M. Doroshevich-Sakhalin. Part II. Nivkh Children.png Source: License:
Public Domain Contributors: Uncredited photographer
File:Japanese SL D51-22.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Harveyqs at
File:Sakhalin Train.jpg Source: License: Public domain Contributors: Ymblanter
File:Sakhalin-II LNG production plant opening.jpg Source: License: Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported Contributors: Presidential Press and Information Office
File:Flag of the United States.svg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie
File:Flag of South Korea.svg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Various
file:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0


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