You are on page 1of 3



Buyers' Guide













Computer-Designed Feeding Systems for Iron Castings

Recent Articles

Understanding the solidification mechanisms of graphitic iron alloys is critical to

correct design of feeding systems
L.E. Smiley and D.C. Schmidt


Jan 17, 2014


OSHAs Quicker Reporting Regulations Start

January 1
Comparing Warm-Box Binders VOC Emissions

Graphite expansion during solidification
Determining Casting Modulus
Understanding Transfer Modulus
Single-feeder success

What is in this article?:

Computer-Designed Feeding Systems for
Iron Castings

Accuride, UAW in Four-Year Deal for Rockford

Aluminum Foundry Cited by OSHA After
Workers Death

Case study: Ductile iron control arm

New 3D Printer Following Manufacturing Trends


FMT White Papers

See the Possibilities with Data Visualization
Simulating Feeding Systems
for a Ductile Iron Control Arm

Many iron foundries do not

take into account the
A cast ductile iron part for control arm. The foundry originally
solidification characteristics
approached the feeding design for this casting by placing two
symmetrical feeders, but that arrangement produced excessive porosity
of iron when designing
in the part, and no acceptable castings were produced with that
feeding systems; feeders for
iron castings are designed
essentially as feeders for steel castings, resulting in defects in production castings. Often
the suggested remedies for these defects worsen the situation, due to the same lack of
The design methods are generally quite easy to implement and require only a minimal
investment of time. Most of these problems could have been prevented had the foundry
engineers applied correct design methodology from the beginning. Spending a short
amount of time up front to prevent ongoing problems in foundry production over months
or years results in an extremely high return on investment.
Design principles for cast iron

The biggest difference between iron and other alloys is graphite expansion during
solidification. This is significant because in most situations the casting becomes selffeeding after the onset of expansion, and no further feeding is required. The objects of
feeding systems for iron castings are 1) to provide feed metal only for contraction of the
liquid alloy and 2) the contraction of the solidifying iron prior to the start of expansion.
Once expansion begins, a feeding system should control the expansion pressure to ensure
that the casting is self-feeding from that point forward. With shrinking alloys, feed metal
must be supplied during the entire solidification time.
Another difference has to do with the piping mechanism in the feeder. Cast irons
(particularly ductile iron) do not readily form a solid skin during solidification; the
freezing mechanism is often described as mushy or pasty. This renders atmospheric

Social Business: Big Benefits for Manufacturers

Employee Engagement: What Drives It? How Do
You Nurture It?

Sign-up to receive our free newsletters

Foundry M&T Weekly Update (Weekly) View Sample
3D Printing 360 - (Twice-Monthly) View
Quick Manufacturing News - (Daily)
View Sample
IndustryDeck - (Every other month)
View Sample

United States

Enter your email above to receive messages about

offerings by Penton, its brands, affiliates and/or thirdparty partners, consistent with Pentons Privacy Policy.

Ask the Expert

cores ineffective with these alloys.

For blind feeders to pipe effectively, atmospheric pressure must be able to collapse the
weak plastic skin after the internal pressure drops below atmospheric. Once one riser
punctures, the pressure is equalized so there is no longer a higher external pressure to
cause other feeders to pipe. This means that only one feeder should be used on each
feeding zone in an iron casting; if multiple feeders are used, one feeder will begin piping
while the others will not. Often, porosity will be seen at the contact point of non-piping
The requirement for a single feeder within a single zone of the casting is the rule that is
violated most often in iron foundries. Designs where two or more feeders are feeding the
same zone a casting results in porosity, often at the contact point of one of the feeders.
The tendency of many foundry engineers to add more feeders to try to resolve the porosity
issue is, in fact, exactly the wrong approach and will worsen the situation.

NOV 30, 2014


Comparing Warm-Box
Binders VOC
A new laboratory method
for VOC estimates
suitable for warm-box
binder systems is
OCT 31, 2014

To correctly design a feeder system for iron castings, it is necessary to analyze the cast
shape and determine the location and size of feed zones in the casting. To make this
determination, we use the Transfer Modulus.

The Advantages of
Floating Cover Lids
vs. Hot Toppings
Hot toppings are

Feed zones are defined by knowing where it is possible for liquid metal to flow from one
point to another in response to expansion pressures. If metal cannot flow from one area
of the casting to another, then each of these areas forms a separate feed zone and will
require its own feeder (but no more than one.)
Begin with M<sub>c</sub>
Analysis of a casting begins with the Casting Modulus (Mc). This is defined as the
volume-to-surface area ratio for various areas of the casting, and has been used for many
years to estimate the order of solidification of different parts of the casting. The Casting
Modulus allows us to estimate which part of the casting will solidify first, and which will
solidify last. In steel castings, the modulus of the feeder should be greater than the
modulus of the casting. In iron castings, the Casting Modulus is used to estimate when
expansion will begin.
Prior to development of computers and software, calculating Mc was time-consuming and
not very accurate; it required the foundry engineer to estimate volumes and surface areas
by approximating various parts of the casting with relatively simple shapes. With casting
simulation software, solidification of a casting can be predicted in a matter of minutes.
The data from this simulation can be converted to Modulus values in the casting.
Modulus data is available at every point in a the casting and the data is more accurate, as
time-related effects such as local superheating of the mold material are effectively taken
into account by the simulation, which is not possible with manual methods.

frequently under-applied or inconsistently applied.

Floating cover lids fit inside open risers with consistent
thickness, for maximum coverage and optimal
View Morel

Featured Products
Metallurgy Training: Corrosion of
Learn about the physics of seven
common types of corrosion and
methods for controlling corrosion.

Metallurgy Training: Precipitation

Learn about precipitation strengthening
heat treatment processes and their
effects on alloy metallurgy and strength.

Metallurgy Training: Principles of

Learn how metal composition and
various microscopic structures are
modified to modify metal strength.

With the Modulus data for the casting, as well as the chemistry and temperature data, the
point at which expansion begins can be calculated. The point at which expansion begins
is expressed as a percent of full solidification and is referred to as the Shrinkage Time


Knowing the ST point for a casting, you can calculate the Modulus value at which
contraction stops and expansion begins. This is known as the Transfer Modulus (MTR),
because it defines the areas of the casting where liquid metal transfer is possible. MTR is
calculated as:
MTR = SQR ( ST /100) * MC
By plotting the value of MTR in our simulation, we can determine whether the entire
casting is a single feed zone (MTR is continuous throughout the casting) or whether there

Connect With Us

are multiple zones (MTR is discontinuous). This allows us to determine the number of
required feeders, using the rule of one feeder per feed zone.

MTR can be understood as the point at which the iron becomes self-feeding due to
expansion. MTR is critical in designing the feeding system for the casting. The basic
premise for feeding iron castings is that the expansion pressure must be controlled.
Assuming the mold is rigid enough, all contacts with the casting (gates and riser contacts)
should be solid enough to ensure that the expansion pressure is contained in the casting.
This leads to another rule: The Modulus of the feeder contact neck should be equal to

MTR. This ensures that feeding of the liquid contraction will be able to occur, and that
expansion pressure will be contained in the casting due to freezing of the feeder contact at
just the correct point in solidification. In-gates should be thin so that they freeze off
shortly after filling.
Case study: Ductile iron control arm

1 2 Next




Please Log In or Register to post comments.

Related Articles
Understanding Contamination From Feeding Aids In Cast Steel
Mini-Risers are a Big Improvement for Feeding Performance
Licensed to Solve
Dotson Iron Castings Verifies its Simulation Investment
Computer Optimization of Vertical Gating System Designs

Foundrymag Marketplace - Buy a Link Now





Site Features

Foundrymag Corporate


Privacy Policy


Terms of Service

Site Archive



Follow Us

View Mobile Site





Foundry Management & Technology Related Sites

New Equipment Digest IndustryWeek Material Handling & Logistics Welding Design & Fabrication American Machinist Forging
EHS Today Business Finance

Copyright 2014 Penton