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UNIT 5

1. Time varying fields


2. Faradays law of Electro Magnetic Induction & Its integral and point forms.

3. Maxwells fourth equation Curl E

B
.
t

4. Statically & Dynamically induced e.m.f s & Simple problems.


5. Modification of Maxwells equation for time varying fields.
6. Displacement current.
1. Time varying Fields:
The field which are vary w.r. to time, that means alternating w.r. to time are known as time
d dB E
,
,
.....
dt dt t

varying fields for Ex: 1)

2) The field around current carrying conductor.


2. Faradays Law of E.M.I:
First Law: If the conductor cuts the magnetic flux (or) magnetic flux cuts by the conductor
e.m.f will be induced in the conductor.
Second Law: The magnitude induced e.m.f can be found using N

d d

dt
dt

e.m.f. nothing but voltage (or) potential.


=V=

d
SayN 1
dt

(1)

and we know that V E.dl

(2)

Equalate equation (1) & (2)

E.dl

d
dt

We know that

(3)

B.ds

(4)

Substitute equation (4) in equation (3)


d

(3) E.dl = dt

B.ds

(5)

If the conductor (circuit) is stationary constant and the flux is changing w.r. to time then the
d
d

can be modified as
when
is bringing inside integral.

t
dt
dt

(5) E.dl
S

B ds
t

(6)

Apply stokes theorem here


i.e.

(6)

E.dl Curl E ds
S

Curl E ds

B
ds
t

Apply inverse surface integral Curl E =

B
B
(or) x E
t
t

Time varying magnetic field (B) produces electric field (E)


This equation is called as Maxwells fourth equation in differential form.
Equation (6) is a general for (or) point form (or) integral form of Faradays Law.
3) Types of induced e.m.fs:
1) Statically induced e.m.f
i) In this type conductor is stationary,

2) Dynamically induced e.m.f

magnetic flux is varying.

i) In this type conductor is moving, magnetic

Ex:

flux is stationary.

1) e.m.f induced in a winding (Transformer

Ex:
1) Generators

winding)
2) = -N

2) = Blu Sin

d
dt

Moving conductor (Circuit) in a constant field (Invariant with time) {dynamically induced
e.m.f}
If we place a charge (q) in an electric field it will experiences a force. i.e. F = EQ.
If we place current carrying conductor, it (charges are moving) with velocity u
experiences force
F = BIl Sin
=B

Q
l Sin
t
l

= Q U B Sin u
t

F=Q

UxB

F
U X b , E = U x B , E = V B Sin
Q

We know that E

V V
V E.l
d
l

V = E.l = (UB) l Sin


Faraday Disc Generator: -

Area

OA time t1
Afferdt

1
a ad
2
1 2
= a d
2

OB dt
=

d
dt

= B. ds
d = B. ds

1 2
1
d
a d
Ba 2
= Ba 2
=
2
2
dt
2
2dt

= 2 N/60

Modification of Maxwells equations for time varying fields: Maxwell stated that Amperes law is not valid for time varying fields and it is valid only for
time invariant fields. For Maxwell modified Amperes Law as

H.dl I I
Q) Prove that

(or) Curl H = J + Jd

H.dl I I

Ans. We know that

(or) Curl H = J + Jd = J +

D
dt

Maxwells first equation is .D


Maxwells second equation is .B 0
Maxwells third equation is .H J

B
t

Maxwells fourth equation is x E


Now come to main topic,
According to Amperes Law H.dl = I
H.dl =
Implement stokes theorem here

(1)

J.ds

Curl H ds =

J.ds

(2)

Curl H = J
xH=J

Take divergence on both sides

So original imperes Law is too valid for time

. ( x H) = . J

variant fields it is valid only for time

W.k.t Div. of curl of anyvector = 0

invariant fields.

i.m. ( x H) = 0
.J = 0

(3)

So Maxwell has modified Amperes Law as


follow.

(4)

But from continuity equation we know that So Maxwell has modified Amperes Law as
follow.
Div J =

.J =

(5)

.J =

(6)

= 0 that means for time invariant


t

fields

(.D)
t

.J = .

.J + .

=0
t

(7)

[_]=0

.J + .

0
= 0 . J
t
t

is called as Displacement current density. (Jd)


t

.J + .Jd = 0
(8)

. (J+Jd) = 0

We know that .( x H) (9)


Comparing equations (8) & (9)
(10) (Curl H = J + Jd) this is called Maxwells fifth equation

x H = J + Jd
x H=J+

D
t

Take surface integral on both sides

curl H.ds =

J. ds +

JD ds

Implement stoles theorem here.

H.dl = I + Id

(11)

This equation is called is modified Amperes Law


Work done is the sum of conduction current and displacement current.
Displacement current: The current flowing through a capacitor is called as displacement current. Which is
designated with Id.
Id = I d A
We know that displacement current density (Jd)
Jd

D dD

[ there is a single variable]


t
dt
dD
A
dt

Id
Id

dD
d
A Q/A A
dt
dt

Id

dQ
But Q = CV
dt

Id =

V
t

Hence it can be seen that displacement current is the current through the capacitor.
Conduction current & Displacement current Density: I

V VA

R
l
I

EA

E
l

I
V 1

A
l

Case (1) Current density J =


Where Jm =

Vm
l

V Sin wt
V
m
l
l

(1)

Last
By observing equations (1) & (2) peak value of conduction current is independent of
frequency where as peak value of displacement current (Id) depends on w.
Case (2) Displacement current density

Jd

dD
dE dV d

Vm Sin wt
dt
dt
l dt
l dt

Jd=

Vm w
Vm w
Cos wt
Cos wt
l
l

J = Jdm Cos wt
Vm w
l

Where Jdmax =

(2)

V. Imp
1) Maxwells equations for time varying fields:
1. Div D =
2. Div B = 0
B
t

3. Curl E =

4. Curl H = J
5. Div J =

D
t


(Continuity equation)
t

2) Maxwells equations for time invariant filed (or) Static fields


1. Div D =
2. Div B = 0
3. Curl E = 0
4. Curl H = J
5. Div J = 0
3) Maxwells equations for dielectrics (or) Free space dielectric have no free charges so =0
&=0J=E=0
4) Maxwells equations for Good conductor:
1) For good conductors Jd = 0, bcz displacement current flows through the capacitor,
not flow through the conductors and = 0 bcz amount of positive & negative charges are
equal.
1. Div D =

2) Div B = 0

4) Curl H = 0

5) Div J = 0

3) Curl E =

5) Maxwells equations for harmonically varying fields:


What is meant by harmonically varying field:

B
t

A field (F) with amplitude (F0) and rotating in anticlock wise direction with an angular
velocity of w is called harmonically varying field
F = F0 ejwt
= F0 (cos wt + j sin wt)
D = D0 ejwt

Similarly

D
D 0 (e jwt )jw
t
D
jwd [ D D 0 e jwt ]
t
B
jwb
t

Similarly
*** Imp.

1. Div D =
2. Div B = 0
B
jwb
,
3. Curl E = t

4. Curl H = J + JD = J+

D
j jwd
t

= E + jw E
= E ( + jw)
5. Div J +


jw
t

Free space Electro Magnetic wave equation:


Q) Prove 2 H = 00

2H
2E
2

&
E
=

0
0
t 2
t 2

Sol: We know that for free space = 0, = 0


We know that

We know that

Curl H = J + Jd
=E+
xH=

Curl E =
dD
dt

dD
dt

xH=

J=E=0

dE
dt

Take curl on both sides

xE=

B
[ M.W 4th equation
t
H
t

Take curl on both sides


x ( x E) = -

xH
t

.
D

.E
t t

x ( x H) =

d
( x E)
dt

x H = J (0) + Jd

d
xE

.H
dt

( .E) - 2E = -

d
xE
( .H) - H =
dt
2

xE

H
t

(1)

We know that .B = 0 .H = 0 and


we know that curl E =

B
t

2E
D E
t 2

.B = 0
.H=0 .E=0

- 2E = -

2E
t 2

2E
(r = 1, r = 1 for
t 2

2E = 0 0

t t

- 2 H = -

D
t

2H
H = 0 0
t 2

free space)
(2)

2 E = 0 0

2E
t 2

(3)

This is called as free space E.M wave

r = 1, r = 1, for free space


This is called as free space E.M wave

equation.

equation in terms of H.
Maxwell stated that time varying magnetic field (or) time varying electric field produce a
field called electro magnetic field.
The E.M. wave equation in physics is in the form of 2 f =
on comparing equations (2), (3) with (4) u =

1
0 0

1 2f
u 2 t 2

(4)

3x10 8 m/Sec

Maxwell has theoretically proved that E.M waves travel with the velocity of light, between
transmitter & Receiver.

Pointing Vector

What Pointing vector is the cross product of E & H vector.


Why 1. Poynting vector gives power per unit area.
2. It gives magnitude and direction of power flow in electromagnetic fields.
3. It is used to explain the power flow in a dielectric.
Where In all field applications.
How

How the paynting vector will be related to power?


According to definition

=ExH

Let us consider a parallel plate capacitor.


W\Here E & H are mutually perpendicular between two oppositely charged plates.

S = E x H
= E H Sin 90
= EH
V

= l 2 r
VI
2 rl

Power
S = Area Cylindrical Capaicty

S =

Power
from this equation poyting vector gives power per unit area.
Area

The direction of power flow at any point is normal to both E & H vectors, that means S is I r
to the plane containing the vectors E & H.

. S = .(E x H )

= H. Curl E E . Curl H
B
E. Curl f
t

. S = H.

d
H

E. J

. S =H.
t
t

= H.

. ( A x B = B. Curl A A. Curl B

S = E x H

H
E
E.J E
t
t

R 1
1

2
E 2 E.J
H
t 2
t 2

r 1
1
2
2
H E E.J
t 2
2