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Electro Magnetic Fileds Unit -5

Electro Magnetic Fileds Unit -5

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2. Faradays law of Electro Magnetic Induction & Its integral and point forms.

B

.

t

5. Modification of Maxwells equation for time varying fields.

6. Displacement current.

1. Time varying Fields:

The field which are vary w.r. to time, that means alternating w.r. to time are known as time

d dB E

,

,

.....

dt dt t

2. Faradays Law of E.M.I:

First Law: If the conductor cuts the magnetic flux (or) magnetic flux cuts by the conductor

e.m.f will be induced in the conductor.

Second Law: The magnitude induced e.m.f can be found using N

d d

dt

dt

=V=

d

SayN 1

dt

(1)

(2)

E.dl

d

dt

We know that

(3)

B.ds

(4)

d

(3) E.dl = dt

B.ds

(5)

If the conductor (circuit) is stationary constant and the flux is changing w.r. to time then the

d

d

can be modified as

when

is bringing inside integral.

t

dt

dt

(5) E.dl

S

B ds

t

(6)

i.e.

(6)

E.dl Curl E ds

S

Curl E ds

B

ds

t

B

B

(or) x E

t

t

This equation is called as Maxwells fourth equation in differential form.

Equation (6) is a general for (or) point form (or) integral form of Faradays Law.

3) Types of induced e.m.fs:

1) Statically induced e.m.f

i) In this type conductor is stationary,

Ex:

flux is stationary.

Ex:

1) Generators

winding)

2) = -N

2) = Blu Sin

d

dt

Moving conductor (Circuit) in a constant field (Invariant with time) {dynamically induced

e.m.f}

If we place a charge (q) in an electric field it will experiences a force. i.e. F = EQ.

If we place current carrying conductor, it (charges are moving) with velocity u

experiences force

F = BIl Sin

=B

Q

l Sin

t

l

= Q U B Sin u

t

F=Q

UxB

F

U X b , E = U x B , E = V B Sin

Q

We know that E

V V

V E.l

d

l

Faraday Disc Generator: -

Area

OA time t1

Afferdt

1

a ad

2

1 2

= a d

2

OB dt

=

d

dt

= B. ds

d = B. ds

1 2

1

d

a d

Ba 2

= Ba 2

=

2

2

dt

2

2dt

= 2 N/60

Modification of Maxwells equations for time varying fields: Maxwell stated that Amperes law is not valid for time varying fields and it is valid only for

time invariant fields. For Maxwell modified Amperes Law as

H.dl I I

Q) Prove that

(or) Curl H = J + Jd

H.dl I I

(or) Curl H = J + Jd = J +

D

dt

Maxwells second equation is .B 0

Maxwells third equation is .H J

B

t

Now come to main topic,

According to Amperes Law H.dl = I

H.dl =

Implement stokes theorem here

(1)

J.ds

Curl H ds =

J.ds

(2)

Curl H = J

xH=J

. ( x H) = . J

invariant fields.

i.m. ( x H) = 0

.J = 0

(3)

follow.

(4)

But from continuity equation we know that So Maxwell has modified Amperes Law as

follow.

Div J =

.J =

(5)

.J =

(6)

t

fields

(.D)

t

.J = .

.J + .

=0

t

(7)

[_]=0

.J + .

0

= 0 . J

t

t

t

.J + .Jd = 0

(8)

. (J+Jd) = 0

Comparing equations (8) & (9)

(10) (Curl H = J + Jd) this is called Maxwells fifth equation

x H = J + Jd

x H=J+

D

t

curl H.ds =

J. ds +

JD ds

H.dl = I + Id

(11)

Work done is the sum of conduction current and displacement current.

Displacement current: The current flowing through a capacitor is called as displacement current. Which is

designated with Id.

Id = I d A

We know that displacement current density (Jd)

Jd

D dD

t

dt

dD

A

dt

Id

Id

dD

d

A Q/A A

dt

dt

Id

dQ

But Q = CV

dt

Id =

V

t

Hence it can be seen that displacement current is the current through the capacitor.

Conduction current & Displacement current Density: I

V VA

R

l

I

EA

E

l

I

V 1

A

l

Where Jm =

Vm

l

V Sin wt

V

m

l

l

(1)

Last

By observing equations (1) & (2) peak value of conduction current is independent of

frequency where as peak value of displacement current (Id) depends on w.

Case (2) Displacement current density

Jd

dD

dE dV d

Vm Sin wt

dt

dt

l dt

l dt

Jd=

Vm w

Vm w

Cos wt

Cos wt

l

l

J = Jdm Cos wt

Vm w

l

Where Jdmax =

(2)

V. Imp

1) Maxwells equations for time varying fields:

1. Div D =

2. Div B = 0

B

t

3. Curl E =

4. Curl H = J

5. Div J =

D

t

(Continuity equation)

t

1. Div D =

2. Div B = 0

3. Curl E = 0

4. Curl H = J

5. Div J = 0

3) Maxwells equations for dielectrics (or) Free space dielectric have no free charges so =0

&=0J=E=0

4) Maxwells equations for Good conductor:

1) For good conductors Jd = 0, bcz displacement current flows through the capacitor,

not flow through the conductors and = 0 bcz amount of positive & negative charges are

equal.

1. Div D =

2) Div B = 0

4) Curl H = 0

5) Div J = 0

3) Curl E =

What is meant by harmonically varying field:

B

t

A field (F) with amplitude (F0) and rotating in anticlock wise direction with an angular

velocity of w is called harmonically varying field

F = F0 ejwt

= F0 (cos wt + j sin wt)

D = D0 ejwt

Similarly

D

D 0 (e jwt )jw

t

D

jwd [ D D 0 e jwt ]

t

B

jwb

t

Similarly

*** Imp.

1. Div D =

2. Div B = 0

B

jwb

,

3. Curl E = t

4. Curl H = J + JD = J+

D

j jwd

t

= E + jw E

= E ( + jw)

5. Div J +

jw

t

Q) Prove 2 H = 00

2H

2E

2

&

E

=

0

0

t 2

t 2

We know that

We know that

Curl H = J + Jd

=E+

xH=

Curl E =

dD

dt

dD

dt

xH=

J=E=0

dE

dt

xE=

B

[ M.W 4th equation

t

H

t

x ( x E) = -

xH

t

.

D

.E

t t

x ( x H) =

d

( x E)

dt

x H = J (0) + Jd

d

xE

.H

dt

( .E) - 2E = -

d

xE

( .H) - H =

dt

2

xE

H

t

(1)

we know that curl E =

B

t

2E

D E

t 2

.B = 0

.H=0 .E=0

- 2E = -

2E

t 2

2E

(r = 1, r = 1 for

t 2

2E = 0 0

t t

- 2 H = -

D

t

2H

H = 0 0

t 2

free space)

(2)

2 E = 0 0

2E

t 2

(3)

This is called as free space E.M wave

equation.

equation in terms of H.

Maxwell stated that time varying magnetic field (or) time varying electric field produce a

field called electro magnetic field.

The E.M. wave equation in physics is in the form of 2 f =

on comparing equations (2), (3) with (4) u =

1

0 0

1 2f

u 2 t 2

(4)

3x10 8 m/Sec

Maxwell has theoretically proved that E.M waves travel with the velocity of light, between

transmitter & Receiver.

Pointing Vector

Why 1. Poynting vector gives power per unit area.

2. It gives magnitude and direction of power flow in electromagnetic fields.

3. It is used to explain the power flow in a dielectric.

Where In all field applications.

How

According to definition

=ExH

W\Here E & H are mutually perpendicular between two oppositely charged plates.

S = E x H

= E H Sin 90

= EH

V

= l 2 r

VI

2 rl

Power

S = Area Cylindrical Capaicty

S =

Power

from this equation poyting vector gives power per unit area.

Area

The direction of power flow at any point is normal to both E & H vectors, that means S is I r

to the plane containing the vectors E & H.

. S = .(E x H )

= H. Curl E E . Curl H

B

E. Curl f

t

. S = H.

d

H

E. J

. S =H.

t

t

= H.

. ( A x B = B. Curl A A. Curl B

S = E x H

H

E

E.J E

t

t

R 1

1

2

E 2 E.J

H

t 2

t 2

r 1

1

2

2

H E E.J

t 2

2

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