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A Seminar Report


Smart Braking System

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
Submitted by

Gaurav A. Patil
Vinit P. Mali
Raees H. Bedekar
Rameez Bedekar
Saish V. Hirlekar
Under the guidance of

Prof. Sanjay Naikwade

(Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering)



YEAR 2013-14

This is to certify that the Seminar entitled Smart
Braking System is a bonafide work of Gaurav Patil, Raees
Bedekar, Rameez Bedekar, Vinit Mali, Saish Hirlekar submitted
to the university of Mumbai in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering
in Mechanical Engineering.

(Prof. Sanjay Naikwade)


(Prof. Sanjay Naikwade)

(Dr.Ajoy Kumar)

We would like to express our sincere gratitude towards our guide








encouragement he provided during the Stage-I Project. This work

would have not been possible without his valuable time, patience
and motivation. We thank him for making my stint thoroughly
pleasant and enriching. It was great learning and an honor being
his student.
We are deeply indebted to Prof. Sanjay Naikwade and the entire
team in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. They
supported us with scientific guidance, advice and encouragement
they were always helpful and enthusiastic and this inspired us in
our work.
We take the privilege to express our sincere thanks to Dr.Ajoy
Kumar our Principal for providing the encouragement and much
support throughout our work.

This project deals with the braking system which is
100% full proof & which help to reduce the drivers effort while
driving on slope. Smart braking system which can also be called
as reverse locking system is designed to increase the comfort
level of the driver while driving on hills or on sharp slopes. If this
system will be implemented practically in automobile industries
then there will be revolution in auto industries.
The beginner driver will get the driving technique in
more easier way than the conventional driving technique while on
hill or slope. Hence introducing the smart braking system in
automobile industry for four wheelers will bring a high level of

2.1 How we park and drive on slope
2.2 Hillside / Slope / Inclined Terrain Driving technique

4.1 Forward Condition
4.2 Reverse condition
4.3 Actuation system




INTRODUCTION:For a human being travelling has become an important part of life. In order to
sustain in this world, he must travel from one place to another. It is very essential that
his journey takes as less time as possible. Also it should be economical and available
To comfort all these problems, 20th century saw much important invention such
as car bus and Trucks etc. Here we are going to develop a smart braking system in
which person does not have any tension of braking of vehicle during up hill road. Where
during driving if pick up of vehicle goes down or it will stop at that time it is very
difficult to start and drive car at that position. The chance of car to move back word
causes danger accident. For that purpose we design smart braking in which solenoid
controlled valve make wheel axel lock in reverse direction moment with the help of
double acting ratchet mechanism.
Whenever the car is having forward drive at that time the sprocket wheel
installed on the engine gear box output shaft drives the rear axle through chain drive but
when vehicle is idle on the forward slope it tends to come back during gear change or
break release condition.

Hence additional ratchet wheel is installed with plunger

arrangement, which will resist the back motion or reverse ring of the automobile at


PROBLEM STATEMENT:How we park and drive on slope

Parking is usually with hand brake on and in first or reverse gear, whichever is
against the slope (meaning gear would be as if you want to go uphill)

When you want to leave from the parking, press clutch and brake.

Start the engine.

Double check if the gear is in the right position. If you want to go uphill (up the
slope), the gear would be already in place if you had followed step-1.

Release hand brake.

From now on, it is your skill of releasing the clutch and releasing the brake

gradually (assuming your car does not have hill holder or something like that).While
doing this exercise making sure that vehicle does not roll down if intention is pulling
up and also making sure that engine does not go off. Older generation people would
easily do it by pressing the acceleration as well while depressing the brake with the
same feet.
HILLSIDE / SLOPE / INCLINED TERRAIN DRIVING TECHNIQUE:Suppose you are about to drive a 4-wheeler(any) uphill on a hillside road(which
is say 65 degree inclined).First you apply the foot brake then release the handbrake.
Get the gear lever to neutral position, then start the engine with the foot brakes
applied. Your left foot should be on the clutch, totally pressed down engaging it and
your right toe should be on the brake and right ankle should be on the accelerator, i.e.
in a diagonal way. To rev the engine you just press your right ankle as required while
continuously keeping your right toe pressed down the brake pedal, engaging it totally.
Now engage your gear by moving the lever to 1st gear, without disturbing the
above mentioned setup of all pedals. Now press the right ankle little bit on the
accelerator, revving the engine, then slowly release your left foot releasing the clutch
(dont do it fast),give attention to the engine sound, you will notice that the engine
sound changes as it gets engaged to the gear and the rpm decreases a bit, at that very
moment start releasing the right toe which releases the brake gradually and dont

release the accelerator from its previous position. Now the vehicle starts moving
gradually, you keep on releasing the clutch(left foot) and the brake(right toe) and press
the accelerator (right ankle) a bit so that the engine dont stop and move the vehicle in
the uphill direction. As soon as you have released the clutch(left foot) and brake(right
toe) totally,
rest the left foot on the floor and twist the right foot ,turning the right toe from the brake
to the accelerator pedal totally resting the right foot on the accelerator and pressing it as
desired, to move the vehicle in a desired speed. This way you can drive any vehicle on
hillside/slope roads of any degree of inclination.
Dont try to drive on inclined terrains/roads with combining handbrakes other than
footbrakes. Its dangerous. Suppose you are using handbrakes other than footbrakes in
all the procedure I have mentioned above, Then the brakes will be applied only on the
rear wheels and not on the 4 wheels equally, so when you are releasing your clutch and
pressing your accelerator and at the same time combining handbrakes, then if by-chance
your clutch is released earlier to the handbrake-release, then the front wheels will start
rolling and as the rear wheels are not moving due to brakes then the vehicle will turn
sideward and the % of its turn will depend how fast is your front wheels rolling.This










There is another danger in using handbrake, when you use it your left hand will be on
the handbrake and only your right hand will control the steering, so if the above
situation(danger) occurs it will take time to leave the handbrake and hold the steering.
So I request all, infact I insist all not to use handbrake at any cost in Hillside driving.
While driving downhill direction, drive only in 1st or 2nd gear, so that you can control
your vehicle in emergency situation. Utmost you can drive in 3rd gear but in rare
situations only. Always give way to uphill traffic if you are moving downhill either it is
night or day. Its a rule in Hillside driving.


LITERATURE REVIEW:This project is carried out in two stages:First stage: - The initial stage is focused to plan an actual model and had a literature
survey regarding electronic braking system.
In Future Second Stage: - This stage contributed to develop a model along with the
interfacing hardware and software-operating programme in C++. For this I will conduct
test on that actually developed model. In this stage the real time data will be collected
and analyzed using the real time hardware and interfacing programme.
In the second phase of our project we are going to develop an anti accident avoidance
accelerator cum braking system. The number of lever provided with us in our
automobile system is
1. Accelerator
2. Break
3. Clutch





CONSTRUCTION & WORKING PRINCIPLE:The model consists of a frame on which the entire concept is mounted. It consists of a
worm n wheel motor, a pulley, a gear, a shaft, two Plummer blocks, a belt driving the
pulley by the motor, two solenoids actuating the fork and an electric circuit including
the battery eliminator of 12V.
The frame is 3foot wide, 3 foot long and 2.5 foot high as shown in the figure.The
fork is fixed on the shaft and it is actuated by a spring which is fitted to a metal strip and
is welded to the main frame. The action of the fork is controlled by the tension in the
spring. The spring is fitted with a lock nut and the tension in the spring is adjusted by
adjusting he lock nut. The adjustment of the tension in the spring is the most important
factor. If the tension is not accurate the weld will break due to the force of the motion.
The fork is held by two solenoid actuators. These actuators are actuated by the current
supplied to them by the battery supply. These are actuated by switches.


When we switch on the power supply, the battery supplies current to the
reversible motor and the forward motion starts. The worm and wheel type motor also
rotates the pulley through the V-belt, which in turn rotates the shaft. The forward motion
When u reverse the switch the motor starts rotating in the reverse direction but the shaft
doesnt move. The fork gets engaged with the gear mounted on the shaft and prevents
its reverse motion.
Lets compare this to a car moving on the slope. Suppose the axle of the car is the
shaft and it is mounted with the gear and having the fork arrangement. When the car
applies brakes on the slope the solenoid no.1 gets actuated and the fork gets engaged
with the gear. As the fork is engaged with the gear the reverse motion of the axle is
obstructed. This prevents the car from moving back and thus we can prevent accidents


When we switch on the power supply again the motor starts moving and
we get the drive. The motor rotates the pulley using the V-belt, and the shaft is set in
motion. But this time we change the polarity and the shaft starts moving in the opposite
This time the solenoid polarity also changes and the solenoid 2 is actuated. The forward
motion of the shaft is prohibited now. Lets take an example of a car moving in the
reverse direction. When the reverse gear is applied the solenoid 2 gets actuated and the
reverse motion which was locked in the previous case gets free now. Now the car is free
to move back in direction it wants.


The switches are used to actuate the motion of the shaft. The switch has 6
terminals out of which two are connected to the battery terminal. The terminals of the
battery are connected to the switch to the two ends of the switch. And the middle two
terminals are connected to the motor. And the other two terminals are connected to the
battery again. But this time the wires are connected in the reverse polarity. This is how
the switch for the motor is connected.
Again now for the switch for the solenoid valve, the switch contains four
terminals. Each two terminals are connected to one solenoid. The positive is connected
to one switch, and the negative is connected to the negative terminal.
For solenoid 2, the polarity is changed. The wires are connected in the opposite
direction. This makes the reverse motion of the solenoid.


CONCLUSION:First and foremost, we would like to state that SMART BRAKE ASSISTANCE has
turned out to be a rich gold mine of CONCLUSION & technical information for us and we
are extremely glad for it.
We experienced the best, one can while dealing with the different analysing & designing
processes which will definitely help us stand in good stage for the more challenging years to
Since project requires active involvement of many different people from the department.
Project also improved our skills of dealing with people in a professional manner. Moreover,
we felt that this project has helped us understand the practicalities an engineer has to face.



Machine Design, Mr. R.S. Khurmi.

Workshop Technology , Mr. A.K. & S.K. Hajara Chaudhary.
Production Technology, Mr. M.S. Mahajan
Design Data Book