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Mller AO Classication of fractures

The Mller AO Classication of fractures is a system 2 AO

pediatric comprehensive
for classifying bone fractures initially published in 1987[1]
classication of long bone fracby the AO Foundation as a method of categorizing injuries according to their localization and severity, and so
giving surgeons options for treatment and a prognosis of
the patients anatomical and functional outcome. AO A pediatric version of the long-bone classication was
is an initialism for the German Arbeitsgemeinschaft fr published in 2006[4] to further classify fractures of imOsteosynthesefragen, the predecessor of the AO Foun- mature bone and so the eects on future growth:
It is one of the few complete fracture classication systems to remain in use today after validation.[2]

3 OTA/AO Classication unifying


Comprehensive classication of
the long bones

The Orthopaedic Trauma Association Committee for

Coding and Classication initially published their classication system covering the whole skeleton in 1996.[5] In
2006[6] they published a revision, unifying the Muller/AO
The English language version of the system[3] allows con- and OTA systems into a single alphanumeric classicasistent in detail description of a fracture in dened termi- tion:
nology by creating a 5-element alphanumeric code:

4 References

[1] Mller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P (1987). Classication
AO des fractures. Tome I. Les os longs. Berlin: SpringerVerlag.

First, each fracture is given to 2 numbers to describe

which bone it aects, and where in the bone:


[2] Audig L, Bhandari M, Kellam J (2004). How reliable are reliability studies of fracture classications? A
systematic review of their methodologies. Acta Orthop
Scand 75 (2): 18494. PMID 15180234.


[3] Mller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P, et al (1990). The Comprehensive Classication of Fractures of Long Bones. New
York: Springer-Verlag.

Each fracture is next given a letter (A, B or C) to describe

the joint involvement of the fracture:
The exceptions to this step include:


[4] Slongo T, Audig L, Schlickewei W, Clavert JM, Hunter

J; International Association for Pediatric Traumatology
(2006). Development and validation of the AO pediatric
comprehensive classication of long bone fractures by the
Pediatric Expert Group of the AO Foundation in collaboration with AO Clinical Investigation and Documentation
and the International Association for Pediatric Traumatology. J Pediatr Orthop 26 (1): 439. PMID 16439900.

Groups & Subgroups

Finally, the fracture is given 2 further numbers to denote

the fracture pattern and geometry.
For segment 2 (diaphyseal) fractures:

[5] Orthopaedic Trauma Association Committee for Coding

and Classication (1996). Fracture and dislocation compendium. J Orthop Trauma 10 (Suppl 1:v-ix): 1154.
PMID 8814583.

For segment 1 and 3 (epiphyseal and metaphyseal) fractures:

Subgroups are then used to describe the fractures in terms
of displacement (versus apposition, which is the degree to
which the parts are in contact with each other), rotation,
angulation and shortening.

[6] Orthopaedic Trauma Association (2007). Fracture and

Dislocation Classication. J Orthop Trauma 21 (Suppl):
S1S133. PMID 18277234.


[7] Magerl F, Aebi M, Gertzbein SD, Harms J, Nazarian S

(1995). A comprehensive classication of thoracic and
lumbar injuries. Eur Spine J. 3 (4): 184201. PMID
[8] Tile M (2003). Fractures of the Pelvis and Acetabulum.
Philadephia: Williams & Wilkins.
Fractures of the acetabulum: classication and surgical
approaches for open reduction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 46:
161546. PMID 14239854.
[10] Petraci B, Siebert H (Jan 1998). AO Classication of
fractures of the hand bones. Handchir Mikrochir Plast
Chir 30 (1): 4044. PMID 9541837.
[11] Zwipp H, Baumgart F, Cronier P, Jorda E, Klaue K, Sands
AK, Yung SW (Sep 2004). Integral classication of injuries (ICI) to the bones, joints, and ligaments application to injuries of the foot. Injury 35 (Suppl 2): SB39.
PMID 15315874.
[12] Buitrago-Tllez CH, Schilli W, Bohnert M, Alt K, Kimmig M (Oct 2002). A comprehensive classication of
craniofacial fractures: postmortem and clinical studies
with two- and three-dimensional computed tomography.
Injury 33 (8): 65168. PMID 12213415.
[13] Spiessl B (ed) (1989). AO Classication of Mandibular
Fractures. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

See also

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