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organizing Arranging and structuring work to accomplish the

organization’s goals.

organizational structure The formal arrangement of jobs within an


organizational design Developing or changing an organization’s structure.

work specialization Dividing work activities into separate job tasks.

departmentalization The basis by which jobs are grouped together.

functional departmentalization Grouping jobs by functions performed.

product departmentalization Grouping jobs by product line.

geographical departmentalization Grouping jobs on the basis of geographical region.

process departmentalization Grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer


customer departmentalization Grouping jobs on the basis of specific and unique

customers who have common needs.

cross-functional teams Work teams composed of individuals from various

functional specialties.

chain of command The line of authority extending from upper

organizational levels to the lowest levels, which
clarifies who reports to whom.

authority The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell

people what to do and to expect them to do it.

responsibility The obligation to perform any assigned duties.

unity of command The management principle that each person should

report to only one manager.

span of control The number of employees a manager can efficiently

and effectively manage.

centralization The degree to which decision making is

concentrated at upper levels of the organization.
decentralization The degree to which lower-level employees provide
input or actually make decisions.

employee empowerment Giving employees more authority (power) to make


formalization How standardized an organization’s jobs are and the

extent to which employee behavior is guided by
rules and procedures.

mechanistic organization An organizational design that’s rigid and tightly


organic organization An organizational design that’s highly adaptive and


unit production Producing items in units or small batches.

mass production Producing items in large batches.

process production Producing items in continuous processes.

simple structure An organizational design with low

departmentalization, wide spans of control,
centralized authority, and little formalization.

functional structure An organizational design that groups similar or

related occupational specialties together.

divisional structure An organizational structure made up of separate,

semiautonomous units or divisions.

team structure An organizational structure in which the entire

organization is made up of work groups or teams.

matrix structure An organizational structure that assigns specialists

from different functional departments to work on
one or more projects.

project structure An organizational structure in which employees

continuously work on projects.

boundaryless organization An organization whose design is not defined by, or

limited to, the horizontal, vertical, and horizontal
boundaries imposed by a predefined structure.
virtual organization An organization that consists of a small core of full-
time employees and that hires outside specialists
temporarily as needed to work on projects.

network organization An organization that uses its own employees to do

some work activities and networks of outside
suppliers to provide other needed product
components or work processes.

learning organization An organization that has developed the capacity to

continuously learn, adapt, and change.

organizational chart A visual drawing of an organization’s structure.