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Anatomy Chapter 36 Review

Growth and Development

o Prenatal period- period beginning with conception (fertilization) and
ending at birth
o Postnatal period- period beginning with birth and continuing until
o Human Developmental biology- study of changes occurring during the
cycles of life from conception to death

A new Human Life
o Production of sex cells- spermatozoa are produced by
spermatogenesis (FSH); ova are produced by oogenesis
 Meiosis
 Special form of cell division that reduces the number of
chromosomes in each daughter cell to one half of those
in the parent cell (23  haploid) (46  diploid)
 Mature ova and sperm contain only 23 chromosomes,
half as many as other human cells
 Meiotic division- two cell divisions that occur one after
another in succession
o Meiotic division 1 and Meiotic division 2
o Both divisions made up of an interphase,
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
 During prophase 1 of meiosis, “crossover” occurs in
which genetic material is “shuffled”
 Spermatogenesis- process by which primitive male sex cells
become transformed into mature sperm; begins at
approximately puberty and continues throughout a mans life
 Meiotic division 1- one primary spermatocyte forms
two secondary spermatocytes, each with 23
 Meiotic division 2- each of the two secondary
spermatocytes forms a total of four spermatids
 Oogenesis – process by which primitive female sex cells
become transformed into mature ova.
 Mitosis- oogenia reproduce to form primary oocytes;
most primary oocytes being meiosis and develop to
prophase 1 before birth; there they stay until puberty
 Once during each menstrual cycle, a few primary
oocytes resume meiosis and migrate toward the surface
of the ovary; usually only one oocyte matures enough
for ovulation, and meiosis again halts at metaphase 2

Meiosis resumes only if the head of a sperm cells enters
the ovum

o Ovulation and inseminations
 Ovulation- expulsion of the mature ovum form the mature
ovarian follicle, into the abdomenopelvic cavity, and then into
the uterine (fallopian) tube
 Insemination- expulsion of seminal fluid from the male into the
female vagina; capacitation renders sperm able to fertilize;
sperm travel through the cervix and uterus and into the
uterine (fallopian) tube
o Fertilization- also known as conception  beginning of life
 Most often occurs in the outer one third of th uterine tube
 Thermotaxis- sperm are attraced to warmth of uterine tubes
 Chemotaxis- ovum attracts and “traps” sperm with special
 Acrosome reaction permits he release of enzymes
 23 chromosomes from the sperm head and 23 chromosomes in
the ovum make up a total of 46 chromosomes
 Zygote- fertilizated ovum; genetically complete

Prenatal Period
o Begins with conception and continues until the birth of a child
o Cleavage and implantation- one zygote is formed, it immediately
begins to divide
 Morula- sold mass of cells formed from zygote; takes
approximately 3 days; continues to divide
 Blastocyst- a hollow ball of cells that develops b the time the
embryo reachers the uterus, where it implants into the uterine
 A store of nutrients in the ovum supports embryonic
development until implantation has occurred (approx. 10 days
form fertilization to implantation)
 Blastocyst has an outer layer of cells and an inner cell mass
 Trophoblast- outer wall of the blastocyst
 Inner cell mass- as blastocyst develops, yolk sac and
amniotic cavity formed
o In humans, yolk sac’s functions are largely nonnutritive
o Amniotic cavity becomes a fluid-filled, shockabsorbing sac (bag of waters) in which the
embryo floats during development
 Chorion develops from trophoblast to become an
important fetal membrane in the placenta

Placenta Anchors fetus to the uterus and provides a “bridge” for
the exchange of nutrients and waste products between
mother and baby
 Also serves as an excretory, respiratory, and endocrine
 Placental tissue normally separates material and fetal
blood supplies
 Has important endocrine functions- secretes large
amounts of hCG, which stimulate the corpus luteum to
continue its secretion of estrogen and progesterone
Period of development
 Gestation period- approx. 39 weeks; divided into three 3
month segments called trimesters
 Embryonic phase extends from fertilization until the end of
week 8 of gestation
 Fetal phase- weeks 9-39
Stem Cells
 Stem cell- unspecialized cell that produces lines of specialized
cells’ has a certain level of potency (range of types it can
 Totipotent stem cell- can produce any type of cell; found in
 Pluripotent stem cell- embryonic stem cell that can produce a
broad range of cell types; found in embryonic germ layers
 Multipotent stem cell- adult stem cell found in some tissues can
produce a few cell types and thus maintain functional
populations of specialized germ layers
Formation of primary
 Each germ layers
 Endoderm- inside layer (gi, resp, glands)
 Ectoderm- outside layer (CNS, epididymus)
 Mesoderm- middle layer (most organs, skeletal muscles,
parts of circulatory system)
Histogenesis & organogenesis
 Histogenesis- process why which primary germ layers develop
into different kinds of tissues
 Organogenesis- how tissues arrange themselves into organs





Birth or Parturition
o Transition between prenatal and postnatal periods of life
o Cortisol triggers labor by reducing hCG and thus also progesterone,
removing the “brake” on OT, which stimulates the uterine muscles to
produce labor contractions

o Stages of Labor
 Stage One- period from onset of uterine contractions until
cervical dilation is complete
 Stage Two- period from maximal cervical dilation until the
baby exits through the vagina
 Stage Three- process of expulsion of the placenta through the
o Multiple births- birth of two or more infants from the same
pregnancy, twins are most common
 Identical twins result from the splitting of embryonic tissue
from the same zygote early in development
 Fraternal twins result from the fertilization of two different
ova by two different spermatozoa

Postnatal Period
o Begins at birth and continues until death; commonly divided into a
number of periods
o Infancy begins at birth and lasts until approximately 18 months
 Neonatal Period- first 4 weeks of infancy, dramatic changes
occur at a rapid rate
 Apgar score assesses general condition of a newborn infant
 Criteria: HR, RR, muscle tone, skin color, response to
stimuli  each one graded 0-2. Perfect score is a 10
o Childhood extends from end of infancy to sexual maturity, or puberty
 Early childhood- growth continues at a rapid pace but monthto-month gains are less consistent
 By age 6 years, child looks more like a preadolescent than an
infant or toddler
 Nervous and muscular system develop rapidly during the
middle years childhood
 Deciduous teeth are lost during child hood, beginning at
approximately 6 years of age
 Permanent teth have erupted by age 14 years, except for the
third molars (wisdom teeth)
o Adolescence and adulthood
 Adolescence is considered to be the teenage years (from 1319); marked by rapid and intense physical growth, resulting in
sexual maturity
 Puberty- stage of adolescence during which a person
becomes sexually mature
 Changes triggered by increases in reproductive
 Primary sexual characteristics- maturation of gonads
and reproductive tract

Secondary sexual characteristics- fat and hair
distribution, skeletal changes, etc.
 Adulthood- characterized by maintenance of existing body
o Older Adulthood and senescence (process of growing old)
 As a person grows older, a gradual decline occurs in every
major organ system in the body
 Gerontologists theorize a number of different aging
mechanisms, all of which may be involved in the processes of
 Limit on cell reproduction
 Environmental factors
 Viruses
 Aging genes
 Degeneration of mitochondria- perhaps associated with
progressive damage by oxygen free radicals

Effects of Aging
o Common degenerative changes frequently characterize senescence
o Skeletal System
 Bones decrease in BMD
 Decreased BMD can be avoided by exercise and adequate
calcium intake
o Muscular System
 Muscle mass decreases by 10% by age 50 and 50% around age
 The number of muscle fibers decreases as we age but can be
offset by an increase in muscle fiber size through exercise
 Ratio of “fast” to “slow” functioning in muscle fibers decreases,
slowing the function of muscle organs
o Integumentary System
 Skin becomes dry, thin and inelastic
 Pigmentation changes and thinning hair are common problems
associated by aging
o Urinary System
 Number of nephron units in the kidney decreases by almost
50% btwn the ages of 30 -75 years old
 Diminished muscle tone in bladder results in decreased
capacity and inability to empty, or void, completely
o Respiratory System
 Costal cartilages become calcified
o Cardiovascular System
 Degenerative heart and blood vessel disease- one of the most
common and serious effects of aging

Atherosclerosis- buildup of fatty deposits on blood vessel walls
narrows the passageway for blood
 Arteriosclerosis- hardening of the arteries
 Hypertension- high blood pressure
o Special Senses
 Presbyopia- farsightedness cause by hardening of lens
 Cataract- cloudy lens, which impairs vision
 Decreased hearing
 Decreased taste & smell
o Reproductive System
 In females, menopause occurs between ages 45 and 60 years

Causes of Death
o In developed countries such as the United States, hear disease, cancer
and stroke (CVA) are among the leading causes of death
o In developing countries, heart disease and stroke are also leading
causes of death along with infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS,
diarrheal disorders and malaria