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Anatomy & Physiology Test 5 Review Part 1

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Organization of the Digestive System
o Organs of the digestive system
 Main organs of the digestive system form the GI tract
(alimentary canal) that extends through the abdominopelvic
o Wall of the GI tract
 Mucosa- innermost layer
 Submucosa- contains numerous glands, blood vessles and
parasympathetic nerves
 Muscularis- thick layer of the muscle tissue
 Serosa- outermost layer

o Structure of the oral cavity
 Lips
 Covered externally by skin and internally by mucous
 Cheeks
 Lateral boundaries of the oral cavity, continuous with
the lips and lined by mucous membrane
 Formed in large part by the buccinators muscle covered
by adipose tissue
 Hard palate and Soft palate
 Hard palate consists of portion of four bones: two
maxillae and two palatines
o Anterior & Posterior
 Soft palate (lined with mucous membrane) forms the
partition between the mouth and nasopharynx and is
made of muscle arranged in an arch
 Suspended from the midpoint of the posterior border of
the arch is the uvula
 Tongue – solid mass of skeletal muscle covered by a mucous
membrane; extremely maneuverable
 Has three parts: root, tip, and body
 Lingual frenulum anchors the tongue to the floor of the
 Intrinsic muscles important for speech and mastication;
extrinsic muscles
 Salivary Glands Secrete approximately 1 liter of saliva each day
 Parotid Glands- largest of the paired salivary glands;
produce watery saliva containing enzymes

Submandibular glands- compound glands that contain
enzyme- and mucus-producing elements
 Sublingual glands- smallest of the salivary glands;
produce a mucous type of saliva
Teeth- organs of mastication
 Deciduous teeth- 20 baby teeth, which appear early in
 Permanent teeth- 32 teeth, which replace the deciduous

o Tube through which a food bolus passes when moved from the mouth
to the esophagus by the process of deglutition

o Tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
o Each end encircled by muscular sphincters
o Upper esophageal sphincter- closed when breathing, open when
o Lower esophageal spincter: cardiac sphincter; open to move food

o Size & position
 Size varies according to factors such as gender and amount of
 Stomach location: upper part of the abdominal cavity under the
liver and diaphragm
o Divisions
 Cardia- collar like region at junction with esophagus
 Fundus- enlarged portion to the left and above the opening of
the esophagus into the stomach
 Body- central portion of the stomach (largest)
 Pylorus- lower part of the stomach
o Curvatures
 Lesser Curvature- upper right curve of the stomach (top)
 Greater Curvature- lower left curve of the stomach (bottom)
o Stomach Wall
 Gastric Mucosa
 Epithelial lining has rugae marked by gastic pits
 Gastric glands- found below the level of the pits; secrete
most of the gastric juice
 Chief Cells- secretory cells found in the gastric glands,
secrete the enzymes of gastric juice

Parietal cells- secretory cells found in the gastric glands;
secrete hydrocloric acid; thought to produce intrinsic
factor needed for vitamin b12 absorption
 Gastric Muscularis
 Feeling of hunger
o Functions of the Stomach
 Reservoir for food (main function)
 Helps protect the body from pathogenic bacteria swallowed
with food

Small Intestines
o Connected to the Pylorus
o Division of S.I
 Duodenum- uppermost division; approc 25 cm (10 inch) long,
shaped roughly like the letter C
 Jejunum- approximately 2.5m (8ft) long
 Ileum- approximately 2.5m (12ft) long
o Wall of S.I
 Intestinal lining has plicae with villi
 Villi- important modifications of the mucosal layer
 Covered by a brush border made up of 1700 ultrafine
microvilli per cell
 Villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the small
intestine hundreds of times
 Crypts- located between villi; containing stem cells from which
other cell types are produced and then migrate upward to
cover the villi, where they eventually slough off

Large Intestines
o Divisions of the L.I
 Cecum- first 5 to 8 cm of the large intestine; blind pouch
located in lower right quadrant of the abdomen
 Colon Ascending Colon- vertical position on the right side of
the abdomen
 Transverse Colon- passes horizontally across the
 Descending Colon- vertical position on the left side of
the abdomen
 Sigmoid colon joins the descending colon to the rectum
 R. Colic Hepatic, L. Colic Hepatic
 Rectum
 Last 7-8 inches of the intestinal tube

o Wall of the L.I
 Intestinal mucous glands produce lubricating mucus that coats
feces as they are formed
 Uneven distribution of fibers in the muscle coat

o Large, continuous sheet of serous membrane
 Many organs are covered with visceral peritoneum; parietal
peritoneum then lines the wall of the abdomino pelvic cavity

o Location & Size
 Largest gland in the body, weighs approximately 1.5kg
 Lies under the diaphragm; occupies most of the right
hypochondrium and part of the epigastrium
o Liver Lobes & lobules- 2 lobes separated by the falciform ligament
 Left Lobe- forms about one sixth of the liver
 Right lobe- forms about five sixths of the liver; divides into
right lobe proper, caudate lobe, and quadrate lobe
 Hepatic Lobules- anatomical units of the liver; a small branch
of the hepatic vein extends through the center of each lobule
o Bile Ducts – biliary tree
 Small bile ducts form right and left hepatic ducts
 Right and left hepatic ducts immediately join to form one
hepatic duct
 Hepatic Duct merges with the cystic duct to form the common
bile duct, which opens into the duodenum
o Functions of the liver Detoxifcation by liver cells- ingested toxic substances
 Bile secretion by liver- bile salts are formed in the liver from
cholesterol and are the most essential part of bile; liver cells
secrete approximately 1 pint of bile per day
 Liver metabolism- carries out numerous important steps in
metabolizing proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
 Storage of substances such as iron and some vitamins
 Production of important plasma proteins

o Size and Location
 Pear-shaped sac 7-10 cm long and 3 cm wide at its broadest
o Structure
 Serous, muscular, and mucous layers compose the gallbladder

The mucosal lining has rugae that expand to allow storage of
o Functions
 Storage of bile
 Concentration of bile fivefold to tenfold
 Ejection of the concentrated bile into the duodenum
o Gallstones
 Often made of cholesterol; can form when bile becomes

o Location
 Behind the stomach
o Structure
 Exocrine portion makes up the majority of the pancreas; has a
compound acinar arrangement; tiny ducts unite to form the
main pancreatic duct, which empties into the duodenum
 Endocrine portion- embedded between exocrine units; called
pancreatic islets; constitute only 2% of the total mass of the
pancreas; made up of alpha cells and beta cells; pass secretions
into capillaries
o Function
 Acinar units secrete digestive enzymes
 Beta cells secrete insulin
 Alpha cells secrete glucagon