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Anatomy Review Part 2

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Structural Plan of the respiratory system:
o Structure determined by respiratory system functions of air
distributor and gas exchanger  supplying oxygen & removing
carbon dioxide from cells
 Alveoli: sacs that serve as gas exchangers
 Respiratory organs involved in speech, homeostasis of body
pH, and olfaction
o The respiratory system is divided into two structural divisions:
 Upper Respiratory Tract: the organs are located outside the
thorax and consist of  located in head
 Nose
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Laryngopharynx
 Larynx
 Lower Respiratory Tract: the organs are located within the
thorax and consist of
 Trachea
 Bronchial Tree
 Lungs
 Accessory structures include
 Oral cavity
 Rib Cage
 Diaphragm

Upper Respiratory Tract
o Nose
 Structure of the nose- external portion consists of bony and
cartilaginous frame covered by skin containing sebaceous
 Two nasal bones meet and are surrounded by the
frontal bone to form the root.
 Internal Portion of the nose (nasal cavity) lies over the roof of
the mouth, separated by the palatine bones  nasal cavity lies
over roof of mouth
 Cleft Palate- condition where the palatine bones fail to
unite completely
 Cribriform Plate- separates the roof of the nose from the
cranial cavity
 Septum- separates nasal cavity into right and left
cavities. It consists of four structures:
o Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

o Vomer Bone
o Vomeronasal cartilages
o Septal Nasal Cartilage
 Each nasal cavity is divided into three passageways:
 Superior Meatuses
 Middle Meatuses
 Inferior Meatuses
 Anterior (external) nares – external openings to the nasal
 Paranasal sinuses:
 Four pairs of air-containing spaces that open or drain
into the nasal cavity
 Each is lined with respiratory mucosa
 Functions of the Nose: air distribution
 Provides a passageway from air traveling to and from
the lungs
 Filters the air, aids speech, and makes possible the
sense of smell
o Pharynx (throat)
 Structure of Pharynx
 Tube like structure extending from the base of the skull
to the esophagus
 Made of muscle and divided into three parts:
o Nasopharynx
o Oropharynx
o Laryngopharynx
 Pharyngeal Tonsils
 Located in the nasopharynx
 Called adenoids when they become enlarged
 Oropharynx contain two pairs of organs
 Palatine tonsils  most commonly removed
 Lingual Tonsils
 Functions of the pharynx:
 Pathway for the respiratory (air) and digestive tract
(fluid & food)
o Larynx (Voice box)  organ of speech and air passage
 Location of Pharynx- positioned between the root of the
tongue and the upper end of the trachea
 Structure of Larynx
 Lined by a ciliated mucous membrane, which forms two
pairs of folds
o Vestibular Fold
o Vocal Folds

Carilages (frame work) of the larynx
 Single laryngeal cartilage (3) - the 3 largest cartilages
o Thyroid Cartilages
o Epiglottis
o Cricoid Cartilages
 Paired laryngeal cartilage (6) – 3 pairs of smaller
o Arytenoid
o Carniculate
o Cuneiform
Functions of the larynx- forms part of the airway to the lungs
and produces the voice

Lower Respiratory Tract
o Trachea- often called “windpipe”
 Extends from larynx to the primary bronchi
 Functions of the trachea- furnishes part of the open airway to
the lungs; obstruction cause death by asphyxiation
o Bronchi & Alveoli
 Structure of Bronchi
 Lower end of the trachea divides into primary bronchi,
one on the right and one on the left; right one is larger
and more vertical then left
 Primary bronchi enter the lung and divide into
secondary bronchi, which branch into bronchioles and
eventually divide into alveolar ducts and alveoli
 Structure of Alveoli  primary gas exchange structures
 Respiratory membrane- the barrier between which
gases are exchanged by alveolar air and blood
 Respiratory membrane consists of the alveolar
epithelium, the capillary endothelium, and their joined
basement membrane
 “Pulmonary” Surfactant- a component of the fluid
coating the respiratory membrane that reduces surface
 Functions of bronchi & alveoli
 Distributes air to the lung’s exterior
o Lungs
 Structure of the lungs: Cone-shaped organs extending from the
diaphragm to above the clavicles
 Hilum- slit on the lung’s medial surface where the
primary bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels enter
 Base- the inferior surface of the lung that rests on the
 Costal Surface- lies against the ribs

Left lungs is divided into two lobeso Superior
o Inferior
Right lung is divided into three lobeso Superior
o Middle
o Inferior
Lobes are further divided into functional units- broncho
pulmonary segments  functional units of lungs
o Ten segments into right lung
o Eight segments into left lung

o Thorax
 Structure of the thoracic cavity- 3 divisions divided by the
 Pleural Divisions- the part occupied by the lungs
 Mediastinum- part occupied by the esophagus, trachea,
large blood vessels, and heart
 Functions of the throrax- brings about inspiration and
 Due to changes in size of thorax