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Anatomy & Physiology Test #3

Cardiac Cycle- a complete heart beat – events that occur in the heart
chambers that make up a heart beat.
o Consists of contraction (systole) atria and relaxation (diastole)
ventricle of both atria and both ventricles.
o Atrial Systole
 Contraction of atria creates a pressure gradient that pushes
blood out of the atria into the relaxed ventricles.
 Due to pressure gradients AV valves are open; SL valves are
closed.
**Blood flows form a high pressure area to a low pressure area **
o Ventricular Diastole
 Onset of ventricular systole coincides with R wave of the ECG
and the appearance of the first heart sound.
 Occurs between the start of ventricular systole and the opening
of the SL valves.
 Ventricular volume remains constant as the pressure increases
rapidly
**Changes in pressure that open & close the 4 heart valves**
o Ejection:
 SL valves open and blood is ejected form the ventricles when
the intraventricular pressure exceeds this pressure in the
pulmonary artery and aorta
**Lub= closing AV valve. Dub= closing of SL valve. Murmur abnormal**
 Primary Priniciple of Circulation:
o Blood flows because a pressure gradient exists between different
parts of its volume; this is based on Newton’s first and second laws of
motion.
o Blood flows from where pressure is high to pressure is low.
 Arterial Blood pressure
o Blood Pressure Definition: pressure or force that blood creates
against the blood vessel as it is flowing through.
o Rise during systole, falls during diastole
o Pulse is created because walls of artery expand during systole & recoil
during diastole.
o Primary Determinant: Volume determines blood pressure. If we
increase volume of blood in arteries we increase bP. If we decrease
volume blood in arteries we decrease bP
o 2 Factors Vol. of Blood in arteries
 Cardiac Output: regulates volume of blood that is pumped into
arteries
 Peripheral Resistance: regulates volume of blood that flows out
of the arteries.

o Cardiac Output: volume of blood pumped out of the heart per unit of
time. (ml/min or L/min)
 Cardiac Output: determined by stroke volume and heart rate
 Stroke Volume: volume pumped per heart beat
 CO= SVxHR
 Heart rate and stroke volume determine CO, so anything
that changes either also tends to change CO, arterial
blood volume, and blood pressure in the same direction
o Stroke Volume:
 Starling’s law of the heart
 Within limits the longer or more stretched, the heart
fibers at the beginning of the contraction, the stronger
the contraction.
 The myocardium contracts with enough strength to
math its pumping load (within certain limits) with each
stroke- unlike mechanical pumps
o Factors that influence heart rate: SA node normally initiates each
heart beat; however, various factors can and do change the rate of the
heart beat (- FeedBack)
 Peripheral Resistance: resistance to blood flow imposed by the
force of friction between blood and the walls of the vessels
 2 factors that influence peripheral resistance:
o Blood viscosity: the thickness of blood as a fluid
 High plasma protein concentration can
slightly increase blood viscosity
 High Hct can increase blood viscosity
o Diameter of arterioles: changes very little under
normal conditions
 Vasomotor mechanism: (smooth muscle)
muscles in walls of arteriole may constrict
vessel (vasoconstriction) or dilate vessel
(vasodilation), thus changing diameter of
ateriole
 Small changes in blood vessel diameter
cause large changes in resistance, making
the vasomotor mechanism ideal for
regulating blood pressure and blood flow
 How resistance influences blood pressure
o Arterial blood pressure tends to vary directly
with peripheral resistance
o Friction caused by viscosity and small diameter
of arterioles and capillaries

Venous Return to the Heart
o Venous Return: amount of blood returned to the heart by the veins
o Gravity: the pull of gravity on venous blood while sitting or standing
tends to cause a decrease in venous return (orthostatic effect)
o Venous Pump:
 Respirations: inspiration increases the pressure gradient
between peripheral and central veins by decreasing central
venous pressure and also by increasing peripheral venous
pressure
 Skeletal muscle contractions: promote venous return by
squeezing veins through a contracting muscle and milking the
blood toward the heart
o Total Blood Volume: mechanisms that change total blood volume
most quickly are those that cause water to quickly move into or out of
the plasma
 Capillary Exchange: governed by Starling’s law of the
capillaries
 At the arterial end of capillary, outward hydrostatic
pressure is the strongest force; moves fluid out of
plasma and into IF (tissue space)
 At the venous end of capillary, inward osmotic pressure
is strongest force; moves fluid into plasma from IF; 90%
of fluid lost by plasma at arterial end is recovered.
 Changes in total blood volume: mechanisms that change total
blood volume most quickly are those that cause water to
quickly move into or out of the plasma

Measuring Blood Pressure:
o Relation to arterial and venous bleeding
 Arterial bleeding: blood escapes from artery in spurts because
of alternating increase and decrease of arterial blood pressure
 Venous bleeding: blood flow slowly and steadily because of
low, practically constant pressure
Pulse:
o Mechanism:
 Pulse: alternate expansion and recoil of an artery
o Pulse:
 Each pulse starts with ventricular contraction and proceeds as
a wave of expansion throughout the arteries
 Gradually dissipates as it travels, disappearing in the
capillaries

Lymphatic System

Overview:
o Two most important functions:
 Maintain fluid balance in the internal environment and
immunity; a third function is to collect absorbed fat from the
intestines and transport it to the systemic veins
 Lymph vessels act as “drains” to collect excess tissue fluid and
return it to the venous blood just before it returns to the heart
 Lymphatic system: component of the circulatory system; made
up of lymph, lymphatic vessels, and isolated structures
containing lymphoid tissue: lymph nodes, aggregated
lymphoid nodules, tonsils, thymus, spleen and Red Bone
Marrow. (more lymph nodes then anything)
 Transports tissue fluid, proteins, fats and other substances to
general circulation
 Lymphatic vessels began blindly in the intercellular spaces of
soft tissues; do not form a closed circuit AKA capillary.
o Lymph & Interstitial Fluid
 Lymph (lymphatic fluid): once tissue fluid hits lymph cap
called lymph
 Interstitial Fluid:
o Lymphatic Vessels:
 Lymphatic Capillaries: microscopic blind-end vessels/sac. Wall
consists of a single layer flattened endothelial cells; networks
branch and anastomose freely
 Lymphatic capillaries merge to form larger lymphatic and
eventually form the main lymphatic trunks, the right lymphatic
ducts and the thoracic duct.
 Lymph from upper right quadrant empties into right lymphatic
duct and then into right subclavian vein. (25% of lymph)
 Lymph from rest of the body empties into the thoracic duct,
which then drains into the left subclavian vein; thoracic duct
originates as the cisterna chyli (75% of lymph)
o Structure of lymphatic system:
 Similar to veins except lymphatic vessels have thinner walls,
have more valves, and contain more lymph nodes.
 One way valves are present every few millimeters in large
lymphatics and even more frequently in small lymphatics
o Functions of lymphatic vessels
 Remove high molecular weight substances and even
particulate matter from interstitial fluid
 Lacteals absorb fats and other nutrients from the small
intestines

Circulation of Lymph:
o From lymphatic capillaries, lymph flows through progressively larger
lymphatic vessels to eventually reenter blood at the junction of the
internal jugular and subclavian veins.
o Lymphatic pump:
 Lymphokinesis: the movement of lymph
 Breathing movements and skeletal muscle contractions
establish a fluid pressure gradient, as they do with venous
blood
 Lymph Nodes:
o Structures:
 Lymph nodes are oval-shaped structures enclosed by a fibrous
capsule
 Cortical and medullary sinuses are lined with macrophages
o Location:
 Most lymph nodes occur in groups
 Groups with greatest clinical importance are preauricular
lymph nodes, submental and submaxillary groups, and
superficial cervical, superficial cubital, axillary, iliac, and
inguinal lymph nodes.
** Only can palpate lymph nodes, when swollen and very superficial**
o Functions:
 Defense functions: (immunity)
 Filtration
o Mechanical filtration: physically stopping
particles from progressing further in the body
o Biological filtration: biological activity of cells
destroys and remove particles
 Phagocytosis
 Hematopoesis: lymphoid tissur is the site for the final stages of
maturation of some lymphocytes and monocytes (lymphocyte
formation)
 Breast:
o More than 85% of the lymph from the breast enters the lymph nodes
of the axillary region
o Remainder of lymph enters lymph nodes along the lateral edges of the
sternum (parasternum 15%)
 Tonsils:
o “Mastastisis”  spread: tonsils throat  pharynx & mouth
o Formation a broken ring under the mucous membrane in the mouth
and back of throat.
 Palatine Tonsils- located on each side of the throat
 Pharyngeal Tonsils- located near the posterior opening of the
nasal cavity  connected to pharynx
 Lingual Tonsils- located near the base of the tongue

 Tubal Tonsils- located near the openings of the auditory tube
o Protect against bacteria that may invade tissues around the openings
between the nasal and oral cavities; bacteria are trapped in tonsillar
crypts and put in close contact with immune system cells
Thymus
o Single, unpaired organ located in the mediastinum, extending upward
to the lower edge of the thyroid and inferiorly as far as the fourth
intercostal cartilage
o Thymus is pinkish gray in childhood; with advancing age, becomes
yellowish as lymphoid tissue is replaced by fat
o Shortly after birth, thymus secretes thymosin and other regulators,
which enables lymphocytes to develop into T-cells
Spleen
o Structure of spleen
 Ovoid in shape
 White Pulp
 Red Pulp
o Functions of the spleen
 Defense: macrophages lining the sinusoids of the spleen
remove microorganisms from the blood and phagocytose them
 Hematopoiesis: monocytes and lymphocytes complete their
development in the spleen
 RBC and platlet destruction: macrophages remove worn out
RBCs and imperfect platelets and destroy them by
phagocytosis; also salvage iron and globin from destroyed
RBCs
 Blood Reservoir: pulp of spleen and its sinuses store blood