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Burnt-on sand

Nature of Defect
Thin sand crusts firmly adhering
to the casting. Defect occurs
more frequently with thickwalled castings at high casting
temperature.
Remedies
Increase amount of lustrous
carbon producers and coke
producers in the moulding sand.
Increase amount of new sand if
sintering point of the sand is low
and oolitization is high.

Moulding Sand

Nature of Defect
Flash-like metal penetration in
the mould, sometimes parts of
the mould are included in the
casting.
Remedies
Add more bentonite to increase
green tensile strength. Raise
compactability of the moulding
sand.

Erosion
Nature of Defect
The sand is washed away, mostly
near to the sprue, often accompanied by sand inclusions.
Bulges arise on the casting near
to the gate.
Remedies
Avoid drying out of the
moulding sand. Increase amount
of bentonite in the sand.
Increase milling time of the
moulding sand. Increase mould
compaction. Use carbonaceous
additive with a high lustrous
carbon producing ability.

Explosion Penetration

Lustrous Carbon Inclusions

Fissure Defects

Nature of Defect
Extensive penetration, when the
mould is filled too quickly.

Nature of Defect
Formation of surface irregularities, inclusions and laps due to
non-wetting characteristic of
lustrous carbon, often associated
with the use of Cold-Box cores.

Nature of Defect
Narrow, crack-like cavities
vertical to the surface. Dendrite
formation in the cavities.

Remedies
Reduce amount of free water.
Increase milling time of the
moulding sand. Increase oolitization rate of the moulding
sand.

Micro-cavities

Remedies
Use dried Cold-Box cores.
Reduce amount of lustrous
carbon producer in the moulding
sand. Use carbonaceous additive
with a higher coking residue.

Scarred Surface

Nature of Defect
Porous structure found in the
area of the casting which is last
to solidify.

Nature of Defect
Scarred casting surface around
hot spots, particularly with SG
cast iron.

Remedies
Defect occurs with alloys having
a wide solidification range.
Little influencing by the moulding sand. Reduction of organic
material and an increase in the
moisture level will improve
thermal conductivity of the
moulding sand.

Remedies
Reduce amount of impurities
present in the sand that are
destroying the oxide skin.

Penetration
Nature of Defect
Roughness caused by the molten
metal penetrating the
immediate sand grains of the
mould surface, particularly in
softly rammed areas.

Nature of Defect
Cavities with smooth walls,
singularly or in groups.
Remedies
Low casting temperatures are
often the cause. Benefits may
be obtained by increasing mould
permeability. Reduce fines or
add coarser new sand. Reduce
organic additions to the sand.

Nature of Defect
Accumulation of small subsurface rounded holes. Defects
appear after annealing and light
machining.

Nature of Defect
Rough casting surface finish due
to coarse sand.

Sand Inclusions

Slag Inclusions

Remedies
Use finer sand. Increase amount
of lustrous carbon producing
material in the moulding sand.
Increase the amount of fines
e.g. coke in the sand.

Scabbing

Nature of Defect
Non-metallic irregular shaped
inclusions, when occurring, tend
to be on upper casting surfaces.

Nature of Defect
Mushroom type defect with
sharp edges parallel to the
casting surface.

Remedies
The defects are caused by slag
being present with the molten
metal in the pouring ladle. If
the formation is due to eroded
sand, reduce the amount of inert
fines and use a more active
lustrous carbon producer.
Increase milling time of the
moulding sand.

Remedies
Increase bentonite level. Use
carbonaceous additive with a
wide softening range. Increase
the amount of carbonaceous
additive in the moulding sand.
Reduce amount of new sand.

Swelling

Metal Penetration

Nature of Defect
Irregular bulges, in most cases
widely spread, sometimes with
rough surface and/or penetration.

Nature of Defect
Firmly adhering agglomerates
of sand/metal at hot spots and
in softly rammed areas.

Remedies
Reduce compactability of the
moulding sand. Ram moulds
better and more evenly. Make
sand less sensitive to over- and
underramming by increasing
the amount of bentonite.

Surface Blowholes

Surface Roughness

Remedies
Normally the defect is of a
metallurgical nature. The mould
material may have a certain
effect. In case of pin holes the
moisture, the organic additions
and the amount of nitrogen in
the moulding sand should be
reduced.

Remedies
Keep the moulding sand sufficiently plastic by good sand
preparation and sand cooling.
Adjust to optimum compactability. Reduce the tendency of
the mould to stick to the pattern
by the use of parting agents.

Remedies
The defect is of a metallurgical
nature due to too much nitrogen
contained in the iron. Reduce
the amount of nitrogen in the
moulding sand. Use low nitrogen
containing carbonaceous additive. Reduce addition of carbonaceous additive in the moulding
sand.

Pinholes

Remedies
Use finer sand. Improve ramming of the moulds. Reduce
compactability of the moulding
sand. Increase amount of
carbonaceous additive. Increase
amount of coke in the moulding
sand.

Nature of Defect
Irregularly formed sand inclusions
just underneath the casting
surface, associated with products
from the metal slag reaction in
other areas.

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45772 Marl
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Broken Mould

Remedies
Reduce compactability of the
sand. Improve ramming of the
moulds. Increase amount of
carbonaceous additive and coke
in the moulding sand.

Blowholes at Angles
Nature of Defect
Smooth wall cavities at the
angles of the casting.
Remedies
The cause is insufficient feeding
and rate of solidification.
Influencing by moulding sand is
possible. Reduce the moisture
content and the organic additions
of the sand. Improve the venting
of the mould.