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Water temperature variability in

Toronto Waterfront embayments


May 26-30, 2014

Bogdan Hlevca1, Mathew Wells1, Steven Cooke2, Maxime Veilleux2 and Jon Midwood2

Physical and Environmental Sciences - University of Toronto, Canada
Department of Biology and Institute of Environmental Science - Carleton University, Canada


Field observations - Toronto Harbour

T-chain (27 m deep, 5 km offshore)

VEMCO stations, temp loggers
Temperature chain loggers

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Close to surface temp loggers
( not shown)


Toronto Harbour: Restrictions on placement of the instruments Legend Instruments on the longitudinal transect Thalweg ● ● Toronto Harbour is a busy port with restrictions on placement of the instruments inside the shipping channel Some benthic temperature records show anomalies .

Benthic temperatures: advancement of upwelling currents entrance head Upwelling velocities: v = 10-20 [cm/s] entrance September 4-5. 2013 The strongest upwelling event of the stratified season ΔT > 16 ○C in less than 6 hours head .

Determining stratification in Toronto Harbour Eastern Gap 2 km Jarvis Dock .

Lake Ontario and Toronto Harbour show similar variability [ OC] [ OC] .Temperature Variability .

Temperature Variability .Lake Ontario and Toronto Harbour show similar variability 1 2 1 2 [ OC] [ OC] .

Velocities in the harbour East Velocity ● ● Red – outflow from the bay Blue – inflow North Velocity ● ● Red – outflow from the bay Blue – inflow .

Velocities in the harbour East Velocity ● ● Red – outflow from the bay Blue – inflow North Velocity ● ● ● ● ● Red – outflow from the bay Blue – inflow The lighter blue patches match the upwelling periods and suggest baroclinic forcing in most of the water column At the surface velocities are dominated by wind forcing 17 hours oscillation bear the signature of the Poincaré waves .

Ontario .Temperature spectral analysis Surface: Strong diurnal signal mostly in sheltered areas Bottom: Strong Poincaré wave signature mostly in L.

September September-November Max T [OC] Min T [OC] .June June .Benthic temperature maps: Maximum and Minimum ● Can be associated to fish distribution April .

September September-November Temp [OC] Rate [OC/h] .Benthic temperature maps: Mean and Rates of hourly change April .June June .

Rates of hourly temperature change: frequent under 1 OC Outer Harbour Sheltered areas Inner Harbour .

Average temperature profiles during the stratified period Lake Ontario nearshore Scarborough Bluffs Filled areas indicate the preferred temperature ranges: ● cold water fish 10 ± 4 °C (blue) ● cool water fish 21 ± 3 °C (cyan) ● warm water fish 26 ± 4 °C (red) Thin dashed lines represent temperature profiles on September 4 (red) and September 5 (blue). Error bars represent the total temperature range (thin) and standard deviation (thick) Outer Toronto Harbour .

but there are events when the temperature drops more than 5 °C in an hour and up to 17 °C in less then 5 hours. (Liset Cruz Font will elaborate on the subject in the next presentation) Further work: – These results will be used to calibrate a 3D mathematical model that is in process of being developed. Thank you! . There are frequent hourly temperature changes in the Toronto Waterfront area. However.Summary ● ● ● ● ● ● Lake Ontario water temperature and upwelling events are the main influencing factor of the water temperature variability in Toronto Harbour embayments. The lake water intrusion due to the upwelling events can penetrate even in the most remote areas of the harbour. cool water fish has been confirmed to move to areas that are otherwise too warm for them. most under 1-2 °C. The main harbour areas preserve the water column stratification of the neighbouring Lake Ontario. The model can further enhance our understanding about the causes of temperature variability in the harbour through sensitivity analysis. Our expectations that rapid temperature drops would produce thermal stress in warm water fish could not be confirmed.

East velocity spectra .

Counter Clockwise Velocity Wavelet spectrum .

Future Work: 3D modelling Delft3D Model Grid for Toronto Harbour .

3.5.ADCP East velocities bin 0.7 .

and post-restoration movements and habitat use ● Identify habitat selection at seasonal and fine (associated to events) spatio-temporal scales ● Identify habitats favoured native over non-native species ● Determine the factors that influence the fish movements (this study) Acoustic Telemetry VEMCO station Transmitters Temperature logging Hobo Temperature loggers Acoustic tags are implanted into fish and their positions monitored by moored receivers. Toronto Regional Conservation Authority and University of Toronto. .The Project ● Part of an NSERC-funded Strategic Project Grant. Purpose: ● Assess pre. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. a collaborative effort from Carleton University.