You are on page 1of 51

Introduction to 802.

11ac
and LTE Testing
National Instruments

ni.com

Agenda

Part 1: 820.11ac


Progression of WLAN standards
Overview of 802.11ac standard
802.11ac Test challenges

Part 2: LTE & LTE Advanced


ni.com

Intro to the LTE physical layer
Intro to LTE test specifications
Looking forward to LTE advanced

2

Evolution of Wireless Standards
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Wireless Connectivity
Bluetooth

Bluetooth EDR
802.11a/b

802.11g

BT HS

Low- Energy

802.11n

802.11ac

Cellular and WiMAX
GSM (2G)

EDGE
WCDMA (3G)

EDGE+

HSPA

HSPA+
WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX

HSPA+ Adv
Wave-2

LTE (4ish G)

ni.com

3

LTE Advanced

2013

Opening: Wireless Technologies (conti)
Quoted from Global Suppliers Association (GSA)

ni.com

4

NI PXI RF & Wireless Test Advantage
R&D Boxes

NI PXI RF & Wireless Test

+
-

Good Performance

Very High Cost
Slow Measurement Speed
Less Flexible
Manufacturing Boxes





ni.com

Better Performance
Lower Cost
Faster Measurement Speed
More Flexibility
Broad Wireless Test Coverage

+
-

5

Low Cost & Good Measure Speed

Lower Performance
Limited Wireless Test Coverage
Less Flexible

1+EDR) (FDD/TDD) WCDMA & HSPA+ CDMA2000 GNSS EV-DO GSM/EDGE + FM/RDS GPS.com 6 . GLONASS ni.11 a/b/g/n/ac (2.NI RF Software for Connectivity & Cellular WLAN Bluetooth LTE 802.

11ac .Part 1: 802.

Data Rate: 54 Mbps Use Case: Rich-data Web experience 1999 2000 2001 2002 Data Rate: 54 Mbps Use Case: Web experience 2003 2004 IEEE 802. Enhanced range due to use of MIMO Use Case: Medium-resolution video streaming 8 2010 2011 2012 .com IEEE 802.11ac Up to 6.8 Gbps.802.11b Data Rate: 11 Mbps Use Case: E-mail ni. Use Case: Whole-home coverage for video-consumption age IEEE 802.11 Evolution IEEE 802.11a – Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11g 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 IEEE 802.93 Gbps.11 Data Rate: 2 Mbps Use Case: Internet 1997 1998 starts to become ubiquitous. Most common is 150 Mbps. First solution is < 1.11n Data Rate : Up to 600 Mbps.

128. and 160 MHz 64 (20 MHz).93 Gbps (160 MHz.com 9 . 256 512 (optional) FFT Size 64 Year Introduced 1999 (802. 8x8.11 a/b/g/n and ac comparison 802.11ac Antenna Configuration 1x1 SISO 4x4 MIMO 8x8 MIMO Highest Order Modulation BPSK to 64-QAM BPSK to 64-QAM BPSK to 256-QAM Channel Bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz and 40 MHz mode 20. MCS9. 80 + 80. 128 (40 MHz) 64.93 Gbit/s Note: 1.11a) 2003 (802.802.11n 802. short GI) best case ni. 40.11g) 2009 (draft) 2011 (draft) Maximum Throughput 54 Mbit/s 600 Mbit/s 6.11a/g 802. 80.56 Gbps (80 MHz. 4 Tx. MCS9) is average case 6.

com Smartphones.11ac? - Integration of WLAN into more products - - ni.Why 802. media players. gaming consoles HD Video on multiple devices Download data to mobile phones faster Data sharing between multiple phones / tablets and PCs Better coverage with fewer dead zones 10 . Digital cameras.

11ac Details Operates only in 5-6 GHz band Mandatory 20.40 and 80 MHz channels Optional support for contiguous 160 MHz an non contiguous 80+80 MHz tx and rx • • • 5170 – 5330 MHz 5490 – 5730 MHz 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz Non Contiguous ni.com 11 5735 – 5835 MHz .802.

Channel BW for 802.733 Gbps 160 MHz 8 256 QAM 5/6 512 468 24960 6.11ac and Data Rates Calculation Channel Bandwidth (MHz) 20 Subcarrier Spacing (kHz) 312.7 Mbps 40 MHz 2 256 QAM 5/6 128 108 1440 400 Mbps 80 MHz 4 256 QAM 5/6 256 234 6240 1.5 128 108 6 80 312.com 12 .5 256 / ch 234 / ch 8 /ch 160 312.5 256 234 8 80 + 80 312. Data Rate 20 MHz 1 256 QAM 3/4 64 52 312 86.5 Total Subcarriers (IFFT Size) 64 Data Subcarriers Pilot Subcarriers 52 4 40 312.933 Gbps Note: Number of data bits per subcarrier NDPSC = Bits per Symbol X Number of Data Subcarriers X Code Rate ni.5 512 468 16 Channel BW Spatial Streams Modulation Scheme Code Rate Total Subcarriers Data Subcarriers NDPSC Max.

com Up to 4X4 8X8 possible 13 Modulation Coding Rate RMS EVM BPSK 1/2 -5 dB QPSK 1/2 -10 dB QPSK 3/4 -13 dB 16 QAM 1/2 -16 dB 16 QAM 3/4 -19 dB 64 QAM 2/3 -22 dB 64 QAM 3/4 -25 dB 64 QAM 5/6 -27 dB 256 QAM 3/4 -30 dB 256 QAM 5/6 -32 dB .Test Challenges for 802. -28 for 64 QAM Better EVM requires better linearity and phase noise 80 MHz mandatory (calibration and equalization algorithms are important) MIMO capabilities • • ni.11ac • 256 QAM requires better EVM • • • Wider bandwidths are required • • Tranmitter relative EVM is -32 dB for 256 QAM vs.

connectivity and navigation standards in a single tester Industry leading speed 4-5X faster than boxed instruments APIs API for LabVIEW.11 signals ni. .com Industry leading performance -47 dBc EVM for 80 MHz 802. C.11ac Leading competitor is at -44 dBc 15 .Why PXI for Wireless LAN Testing? Flexibility Combine cellular.NET and LabWindows Soft Front Panels SFPs for generating and analyzing 802.

Higher Performance & Faster Measurements VST residual EVM & test time compared with Agilent MXG and PXA ni.com 16 .

com 17 .Fraction of the Size of Traditional Solutions ni.

com 18 .11ac (80 MHz) system with both RF and Baseband IQ 160 MHz (via 80+80 MHz) and multi-stream EVM measurements support ni.11ac including MIMO • • Expandable to 4x4 MIMO 802.Support for 802.

11ac Tests • Transmitter • • • • • • Transmit Spectrum Mask Spectral Flatness Center Frequency Tolerance Packet Alignment Symbol Clock Frequency Tolerance ModAcc o o • Receiver Tests • • • • ni.802.com Center frequency leakage Constellation EVM Minimum input level sensitivity Adjacent channel rejection Nonadjacent channel rejection Receiver maximum input level 19 .

40.80 and 160 MHz ni.Transmit Spectrum Mask - 160/80 MHz mask is extension of 40 MHz mask Measured with 100 kHz rbw For 80 + 80 mask is linear sum of the separate 80 MHz masks for values from -20 dBr to -40 dBr Channel Size A (MHz) B (MHz) C (MHz) D (MHz) 20 MHz 9 11 20 30 40 MHz 19 21 40 60 80 MHz 39 41 80 120 160 MHz 79 81 160 240 Spectrum Mask for 20.com 20 .

com -200 -160 -121 -119 -80 -41 -39 39 41 21 80 119 121 160 200 .80 + 80 MHz Non-contiguous Spectrum Mask Values 80+80 MHz Non Contiguous Cf separated by 160 MHz Frequency overlap – Both masks have values between 20 and -40 dBr Neither between 0 and -20 dBr -25 dBr In MHz ni.

802.com 22 .11AC 80+80 Test Solution (160Mhz Bandwidth) Dual PXIe-5644R Dual Splitter + Combiners ni.

com 23 .802.11AC 80 + 80 Video ni.

11ac - ni.Demo Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) for 802.com Test instrument specification needs to be at least -42 dB (10 dB better than spec) 24 .

com 25 . MCS 9 Test Value Std Deviation Time Taken EVM -47 dB 0. 256 QAM.WLAN Test Times 802.6 7 ms ModAcc Carrier Frequency Offset + Carrier Frequency Leakage + Spectral Flatness + Number of spatial streams Multiple Multiple 295 ms ni.9 16 ms Spectral Mask NA NA 350 ms Transmit Power -10 dB 0.11ac 80 MHz.

Part 2: LTE & LTE Advanced 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 GSM (2G) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 EDGE WCDMA (3G) 2011 2012 EDGE+ HSPA HSPA+ LTE (4ish G) ni.com 2010 26 HSPA+ Adv LTE Advanced 2013 .

16-QAM.5 to 20 MHz Single-Carrier Modulation WCDMA OFDMA (DL) TD-SCDMA (UL) Up to 473.6 kbps (DL-EDGE) Up to 42.com 27 . 16-QAM. 64QAM Channel BW 200 kHz 5 MHz Variable from 1. 64QAM QPSK.Overview of 3GPP Standards GSM/EDGE WCDMA / HSPA / HSPA+ 3GPP LTE 1991 (GSM) 2003 (EDGE) 2001 (WCDMA) 2008 (HSPA) 2010 (Trial) Modulation GMSK . QPSK. 8-PSK.2 Mbps (DL-HSPA+) Up to 300 Mbps (4x4 MIMO) FDD (TDMA) FDD (CDMA) FDD & TDD Evolved EDGE HSPA+ LTE Advanced Deployment Date Carrier Structure Peak Downlink Data Rate Duplexing Next Evolution ni.

1. MBMS Rel 6 Rel 7 HSPA+ and MIMO. LTE Enhancements . Evolved EDGE (EGPRS2) DC-HSPA. LTE + SAE Rel 8 Rel 9 ni. IP Multimedia System (IMS) Rel 5 HSUPA.com GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System HSPA: High-speed Packet Access DC-HSPA: Dual-Carrier HSPA LTE: Long-Term Evolution SAE: System Architecture Evolution MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services 28 DC-HSPA+MIMO.3GPP Releases Overview GSM + UMTS (WCDMA) Rel 99 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).28Mcps TDD Rel 4 HSDPA.

16-QAM. and 64-QAM Multiple Access Downlink: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Uplink: Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) Peak Data Rate Downlink: 300 Mbps (4x4 MIMO. 20 MHz) Uplink: 75 Mbps (20 MHz) ni.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz Subcarriers Used 72 180 300 600 900 1200 # Resource Blocks 6 15 25 50 75 100 Modulation Downlink: QPSK. and 64-QAM Uplink: QPSK.com 29 .LTE PHY Layer Overview Channel bandwidth 1. 16-QAM.

Sec 5.4.521-1.OFDMA Basics Groupings of 12 sub-carriers are called resource blocks • Each UE is allocated specific RB’s and timeslots • Transmission BW can be limited to active RB’s • Unused RBs Active RBs Transmission BW 5 MHz LTE Channel BW (25 RB) 3GPP TS 36.com 30 .2 ni.

…….……..……. ………….LTE Frame Structure One Sub-Frame = 1 ms #0 #1 One Radio Frame = 10 ms ………….……... ni.. #18 #19 One Slot = 0.. 6 if long cyclic prefix Frequency …………..com 31 12 sub-carriers per resource block Time .5 ms ………….. 7 symbols per slot . .

LTE Signals Suffer from High PAPR (Classic Linearity Problem) Ideal Amplifier Pin vs.com 32 . Pout = 1:1 Pout Non-Linear Region Actual Amplifier Behavior (non-linear) Higher PAPR means Lower AVG Power Linear Region Pin ni.

LTE Uplink Solution: SC-FDMA • Uses Single-Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) • • Nearly Identical to OFDM & OFDMA FFT pre-coding helps reduce PAPR • Enables better RF front end efficiency Time Domain Subcarrier Mapping M-point IFFT 0’s ni.com Time Domain 33 Serializer Deserialize r N-point FFT Frequency Domain Cyclic Prefix Insertion .

com 34 .SC-FDMA Improves PAPR ni.

C.11 signals ni.com Industry leading performance -52 dB EVM for LTE 35 .NET and LabWindows Soft Front Panels SFPs for generating and analyzing 802. . connectivity and navigation standards in a single tester Industry leading speed 4-5X faster than boxed instruments APIs API for LabVIEW.The NI Cellular Test System Flexibility Combine cellular.

1 and above • API for C.NET API • ni.LTE Measurement Suite Based on 3GPP.6. C++. release 9 • Interactive Soft Front Panels • TestStand Support • API for LV 8.com 36 . and .

6 Output RF spectrum emissions  6.5.5.5.5.5 Transmit signal quality  6.3 Reference sensitivity level 37 Out-of-channel conformance testing .5.com In-channel conformance testing 6.LTE UE Conformance Testing • 3GPP TS 36.2 Out of band emission  • 6.2 UE Maximum Output Power  6.2 Transmit Modulation     •   ni.2.1 Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) 6.2.5.2.3 Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio (ACLR) 7.2.2.521-1 • • • 6.2.3.2.2.6.1 Frequency Error  6.4 EVM equalizer spectrum flatness 6.2.3 In-band emissions for non allocated RB 6.6.6.6.3.3 Maximum Power Reduction  6.4 ON/OFF time mask 6.1 Occupied bandwidth (OBW)  6.3 Output Power Dynamics  6.2 Carrier leakage 6.6.2.2 Additional Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) 6.1 Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) 6.2 Transmit power  6.2 Minimum Output Power  6.4 Additional Maximum Power Reduction 6.

• Minimum Requirements: The period of measurement shall be at least one sub frame (1ms).com 38 . Always partial RB allocation Band 20.508 Ex. EARFCN 24300 (847MHz) 1RB@RB#0 and 8RB@RB#0 Test Configurations ni.2.  • Allocated RB DC image Power class 3 : 23 dBm ± 2 dB IQ image Test Description => TS 36.2 UE Maximum Transmit Power • Test Purpose: To verify that the error of the UE maximum output power does not exceed the range prescribed by the specified nominal maximum output power and tolerance.6.

com 39 .5.2 Carrier leakage ni.2.5 Transmit Signal Quality.3 In-band emissions for non allocated RB 6.2.1 Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) 6.5. Overview 6.4 EVM equalizer spectrum flatness 6.6.5.1 Frequency Error 6.5.2.2.5.

1ppm = 84.5.1 Frequency Error • Test Purpose: This test verifies the ability of both.   • Receiver: extract downlink signal from BS Transmitter: derive the modulated carrier frequency from the results. gained by the receiver.com 40 . the receiver and the transmitter.1 PPM observed over a period of one time slot (0. Minimum Requirements: within ±0.7Hz ) ni. to process frequency correctly.5ms) ( 847MHz x 0.6.

5.2.1 Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) • Test Purpose: The Error Vector Magnitude is a measure of the difference between the reference waveform and the measured waveform. • Minimum Requirements: EVM measurements are evaluated for 10 uplink sub-frames (20 slots) Complicated test configurations -> Multiple combinations of RB allocation ni.6.com 41 .

6.6 Output RF spectrum emissions • Spectrum emissions ~ “Operating band unwanted emissions” • Caused by Tx modulation and non-linearity ACLR OOB (Out-of-Band) SEM ni.com 42 .

• Minimum Requirements: Complicated test configurations -> Multiple combinations of RB allocation ni. Please recall A-MPR as for Additional Spectrum Emission Mask.2.2 Additional Spectrum Emission Mask • Test Purpose: To verify that the power of any UE emission shall not exceed specified level for the specified channel bandwidth.6.6.2.com 43 .1 Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) 6.6.

6.2.3 Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio • Test Purpose: To verify that UE transmitter does not cause unacceptable interference to adjacent channels in terms of Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio (ACLR).com UTRAACLR1 UTRAACLR1 (3.6. • Minimum Requirements: Symmetrical limits E-UTRAACLR1 (channel BW) ni.84 MHz) (3.84 MHz) Active RBs 44 .

under conditions of low signal level. • Minimum Requirements: The throughput shall be ≥ 95% of the maximum throughput of the reference measurement channels (RMCs).3 Reference sensitivity level (REFSENS) All requirements shall be verified by using both (all) antenna ports simultaneously. ideal propagation and no added noise.7.com 47 . • Test Purpose: To verify the UE's ability to receive data with a given average throughput for a specified reference measurement channel. A UE unable to meet the throughput requirement under these conditions will decrease the effective coverage area of an e-NodeB. Provide Tx -Rx isolation (> 20dB) ni.

com 48 . time Support for UL (FDD or TDD) ni.Generating LTE Signals (SFP) Up to 8 Phase Synchronized Generators Preview Generated Waveform Load predefined configurations CCDF Power vs Time I & Q vs.

01 3.09 ms 49 .49ms Channel Power (ChP) -10 dBm 0.06 2.99 dB 0.18 18.31 8.LTE Test Times with the NI Cellular Test System 10 MHz Fully Filled PUSCH Signal Measurement Fully Filled PUSCH EVM Value Std Deviation Average MeasTime -56.6ms ACP 10 MHz BW Spectral Emissions Mask Total Test Time ni.14 dB 0.18 @ 10 averages 155 ms -65 dBc 0.com 249.46ms Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) 8.64 ms NA NA 69.9MHz 0.5ms CCDF (PAPR) 6.

com 50 .LTE Demo ni.

com 51 .Looking Ahead to LTE Advanced • Carrier aggregation • • • Allows for up to five 20 MHz carriers (100 MHz total BW) Enables downlink data rates of up to 1 Gbps Enhanced MIMO support • • • Up to eight downlink transmission antennas (currently four) Up to four uplink transmission antennas (currently one) Ability to beam-steer specific downlink resource blocks 20 MHz Channels 100 MHz Total BW ni.

com 802.Summary • Wireless standards continue to evolve • • • RF test equipment must meet increasingly difficult requirements • • • ni.11n  802.11ac LTE  LTE Advanced Higher-order modulation requires better SNR Wider bandwidth & carrier aggregation National Instruments offers industry-leading test time & performance 52 .

com/seminarsurvey ni. please take 5 minutes and complete our survey.com . www. To help us improve the quality of our events.ni.Thank you for attending a National Instruments seminar.

com .ni.