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Ghosh - 550

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12/2/2014

Worked Out Examples
(Thermal B.L.)
Example 1 (Convection Coefficient):
Air at a free stream temperature of T = 20  C is in parallel flow over a flat plate of length L
= 5 m and temperature Ts = 90  C. However, obstacles placed in the flow intensify mixing
with increasing distance x from the leading edge, and the spatial variation of temperatures
measured in the boundary layer is correlated by an expression of the form T( C) = 20 +
70e(- 600 x y), where x and y are in meters. Determine and plot the manner in which the local
convection h varies with x. Evaluate the average convection coefficient h for the plate.

1. Statement of the Problem
a) Given
 Free stream air temperature T = 20 C
 Plate length L = 5 m
 Plate surface temperature Ts = 90 C
 Correlated measured temperature in the boundary layer: T(C) = 20 + 70e(- 600 x y),
where x and y are in meters
b) Find
 Determine and plot the manner in which the local convection h varies with x.
 Evaluate the average convection coefficient h for the plate.

2. System Diagram
T = 20C

T  x, y   20  70  e  600 xy 
y
Ts = 90C

x

L=5m

3. Assumptions
 Steady state condition
 Uniform free stream air temperature T = 20 C = constant

1 T h    k f  Ts  T y   kf Ts  T kf Ts  T kf   y 0 y 0  20  70  e 600 xy y  T y  y 0  0  70    600 x   e 600 xy  y 0   70    600 x   1 Ts  T 42000  k f  x  h x   Ts  T Taking the average of the free stream and surface temperatures:  . h varies with the distance x from the leading edge. Governing Equations  Newton's Law of Cooling  q s  h Ts  T  One Dimensional Fourier's Law q    k f On the plate surface y = 0   12/2/2014 q s   k f T y T y y 0 Average Convection Coefficient Definition 1 h  h  dAs As As For the special case of flow over a flat plate. 1 L h   h  dx L 0 5. Thus. q s  h Ts  T    k f Therefore.550   Page 2 Uniform surface temperature Ts = 90 C = constant Constant thermal conductivity 4. h q s  h Ts  T  … Newton's law of cooling q s   k f T y y 0 … One-dimensional Fourier's law on the plate surface Thus.Ghosh . Detailed Solution Local Convection Coefficient.

5 5 Average Convection Coefficient.Ghosh .550 Page 3 T   20  90 2 12/2/2014  55C  kf = 0.02   L 2   8. it becomes: h x   17.5 2 2.5 x (m) 3 3.5 4 4.02837 W/mK After plugging numbers into the expression obtained above.51  L  2  h  42. h The average coefficient over the range 0  x  5 m is 1 L h   h  dx L 0 1 L   17.02  x W/m2K Using MatLab. the variation of local convection coefficient can be plotted as: Variation of Local Convection Coefficient 90 80 70 h (W/m2. the average of the convection coefficient must be obtained by integrating the function over the whole range of the flat plate.K) 60 50 h(x) 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.02   L 2  L 0 1 L   17.5 1 1. Critical Assessment Because the local convection coefficient is a function of x.02  x  dx L 0  1 x2   17.6 W/m2K 6. .

T . T Velocity Profile. 2. u(y) Temperature Profile. Obtain expressions for the friction coefficient Cf and the convection coefficient h in terms of U . T(y) Velocity B. Thermal B.Cy3 and T(y) = D + Ey + Fy2 . 1.550 Page 4 12/2/2014 Example 2 (Velocity and Temperature Profiles): In flow over a surface.Cy3 and T(y) = D + Ey + Fy2 . . velocity and temperature profiles are of the forms u(y) = Ay + By2 .L. and appropriate profile coefficients and fluid properties.Gy3 where the coefficients A through G are constants. T .Gy3 where the coefficients A through G are constants. System Diagram U . and appropriate profile coefficients and fluid properties.Ghosh . b) Find  Expression for the friction coefficient Cf  Expression for the convection coefficient h Both expressions must be in terms of U . Statement of the Problem a) Given  Velocity and temperature profiles u(y) = Ay + By2 .L.

Cf s   u y y 0    Ay  By 2  Cy 3 y     A  2 By  3Cy  2  Cf  s 1 U 2 2  A 1 U 2 2 y 0 y 0    A  2 B  0   3C  0  A Therefore.  s   u y y 0  Newton's Law of Cooling  One Dimensional Fourier's Law q s  h Ts  T  q    k f On the plate surface y = 0  5. Assumptions  Steady state condition  Constant air properties  Uniform U .Ghosh .  2  u y q s   k f T y T y y 0 . T = constant 4.550 Page 5 12/2/2014 3. Governing Equations  Friction Coefficient Definition Cf   s 1 U 2 2 Shear Stress Definition   On the surface. Detailed Solution Friction Coefficient.

the friction coefficient and convection coefficient. Ts = T(y = 0) = D + E (0) + F (0)2 . h 1 T    k f  Ts  T y y 0 Here. while the bearing material has a thermal conductivity of kb = 45 W/m K. The lubricant properties are  = 0.03 N s/m2 and k = 0. h kf E D  T 6.15 W/m K. Example 3 (Viscous dissipation and Heat Transfer Rate): A shaft with a diameter of 100 mm rotates at 9000 rpm in a journal bearing that is 70 mm long. which implies y = 0 m. A uniform lubricant gap of 1 mm separates the shaft and the bearing. kb Tb 1 Bearing. Twc = 30C Ts . h q s  h Ts  T    k f T y y 0 Thus. an analysis must be done on the surface.G (0)3 = D h     1    k f   D  Ey  Fy 2  Gy 3 D  T y kf D  T kf D  T   0  E  2 Fy  3Gy 2    y 0 y 0  0  E  2 F  0   3G  0  2  Finally. Critical Assessment It is important to recognize (or know) that for both cases.Ghosh . kb 0 Lubricant x Shaft Lubricant Shaft 100 mm diameter 200 mm Water-cooled surface. y (mm) Bearing.550 Page 6 12/2/2014 Convection Coefficient.

07 m  a = 0.15 W/mK  kb = 45 W/mK  Twc = 30 C  Do = 0. in the lubricant. assuming no heat loss through the shaft  Temperatures of the bearing and shaft. Assumptions Tb Shaft Water-cooled surface (Twc) Ts . determine the temperature of the bearing and shaft.03 Ns/m2  k = 0.2 m b) Find  Viscous dissipation in the lubricant. Tb and Ts 2. (c) If the bearing housing is water-cooled.1 m   = 9000 rpm = 942. such that the outer surface of the bearing is maintained at 30  C.  (W/m3).  (W/m3)  Rate of heat transfer (W) from the lubricant. Tb and Ts. assuming that no heat is lost through the shaft.Ghosh . System Diagram Bearing (kb) a 0 Shaft (Di. (b) Determine the rate of heat transfer (W) from the lubricant. Statement of the Problem a) Given  Di = 0. 1. ) Bearing y (mm) 1 Lubricant x Lubricant (.5 rad/s  L = 0.001 m (gap)   = 0. k) D o 3.550 Page 7 12/2/2014 (a) Determine the viscous dissipation.

Ghosh .07 m) / (0. Thus. the viscous dissipation is    u        y  Because p/x = 0 (assumed). .001 m) = 70. but one plate moving with constant speed) U 1  p  2 u( y)  y   y  ay a 2   x     Heat Diffusion Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates 1   T  1   T    T  T  kr    k    k   q  c p r r  r  r 2     z  z  t  Fourier's Law in Cylindrical Coordinates     T  1 T  T  q    kT   k  er  e  ez  r r  z   2-D Energy Equation   T T    T    T  c p  u  v    k    k     q  y  x  x  y  y   x 5. x 2 . Detailed Solution Viscous dissipation in the lubricant Assume v  0 in the gap. Governing Equations  2-D Dissipation Function  u v        y x   2   u   2     x  2  v    y     2    2  u v     3  x y  2 Velocity Distribution in Couette Flow (flow in two infinite parallel plates. and the fully developed flow (assumed) implies  u v        y x  2   u   2     x  2  v      y  2  2  u v       3  x y   2 U 1  p  2 U y y   y  ay  u ( y )  a 2   x  a Therefore. so this is a reasonable assumption] p/x = 0 (flow is symmetric in the actual bearing at no load) 4.550      Page 8 12/2/2014 Steady state condition Constant fluid properties (. and k's) Fully developed flow in the gap (u/x = 0) Infinite width [L/a = (0. the velocity distribution becomes: u( y)  u  0 .

See the diagram below.Ghosh .662  107 W/m3 Rate of heat transfer (W) from the lubricant The heat transfer rate from the lubricant volume  through the bearing is qL =   =   ( Di  a  L)  qL = (6.07 m is the length of the bearing normal to the page.1 m)  (0.662  107 W/m3)[()  (0. Then Fourier's law . Do /2 Direction of Heat Transfer r Di /2 Ts Tb Assume that the direction of heat transfer is becomes: Twc in only r direction.550 Page 9  u        y  2 12/2/2014    U     y    y  a   2  U   a 2   where U is the tangential velocity of the shaft. Tb and Ts First. Temperatures of the bearing and shaft. and it is U  Ri    Di  2 Finally. let us find out the bearing temperature (Tb).  = 6.001 m)  (0. the viscous dissipation is  U       a 2  D     i   2a  2 After plugging in values into this expression above.07 m)] = 1465 W where L = 0. which requires considering heat transfer between Tb and Twc.

  T  T T C1  C1   r  0  r   T ( r )  C1 ln(r )  C 2 r  r  r r r The first boundary condition: Tb = C1 ln(Di/2) + C2 The second boundary condition: Twc = C1 ln(Do/2) + C2 After rearranging. because kb = constant. 12/2/2014 T T or q r   kA r r q r  k b   2rL   T … (1) r Heat diffusion equation is (assuming no heat generation in the bearing) 1   T   kr  0 r r  r  In our case. q r  k b   2rL     r  T  Twc 1   Tb  Twc   Twc   k b   2rL   b ln   r  ln  Di Do   Do 2  ln  Di Do  r  Therefore. 1   T  1   T    T   kb r   0  kb  r  0   r  0 r r  r  r r  r  r  r  Boundary conditions for this differential equation are: T = Tb @ r = Di /2 T = Twc @ r = Do /2 Let us solve the differential equation with the boundary conditions. the temperature distribution becomes: T (r )   Tb  Twc r    Twc ln ln  Di Do   Do 2  Substituting this temperature distribution into equation (1).550 Page 10 q r   k In our case.Ghosh . qr  k b   2L    Tb  Twc   qL ln  Di Do  .

because the top and bottom plates are at uniform temperatures. y Tb k& a U Ts x The 2-D energy equation may be simplified for the prescribed conditions (see assumptions) and further assuming v  0 and q  0 . the surface is adiabatic dT dy 0 y 0  C3 = 0 .07m  45W / m  K  Finally. we obtain T ( y)    2k  U    a 2 y 2  C1 y  C 2 The boundary conditions are. in which case ( T/x) = 0. let us find out the shaft temperature (Ts).3C   30C   2Lk b 2  0.Ghosh . it follows that  c p  u   u  T    T    T   k         k   x  x  x  y  y   y  2 However. at y = 0.2m   0. For constant thermal conductivity the appropriate form of the energy equation is then 0k 2  u   2T     y 2  y  The desired temperature distribution may be obtained by solving this equation.1m    81. the temperature field must also be fully developed.550 Page 11  Tb  Twc  12/2/2014 q L  ln  Do Di  1465W   ln  0.  du  d 2T  k     2 dy  dy  2  U   a 2    Integrating twice. Rearranging and substituting for the velocity distribution.

4C 6.15W / m  K   2   Ts  303. The surface has a length of 1 m and a surface area of 1 m2.43  Re 0L. Critical Assessment We have dealt with both heat conduction and convection situation on this problem.550 Page 12 12/2/2014 and at y = a.Ghosh .43  Re 0L.1m  942.4 The air flowing over the surface has a temperature of 290 K.03N  s / m    0. 1.3C    0. Example 4 (Use of Similarity Rules and Correlation Parameters): An industrial process involves evaporation of a thin water film from a contoured surface by heating it from below and forcing air across it. Laboratory measurements for this surface have provided the following heat transfer correlation: Nu L  0. Tb  2   U 2 U   a  0  C 2  C 2  Tb  2k  a  2k 2 T ( a )  Tb   Hence.58  Pr 0. y = 0. the temperature distribution is  2 y2 T ( y )  Tb  U  1  2 2k a     Tb     Di     2k  2  2   1   y2 a2    and the temperature at the shaft. is Ts  T (0)  Tb    Di     2k  2  2   81.58  Pr 0. Make sure you understand the difference between them and how to apply an appropriate equation for a particular case. the temperature is that of the bearing. a velocity of 10 m/s. and is completely dry (  = 0). (c) Determine the rate at which heat must be supplied to the surface for these conditions.5rad / s   2 2 2   0. Statement of the Problem a) Given  Heat transfer correlation equation: Nu L  0. (a) Determine the heat transfer coefficient and the rate at which the surface loses heat by convection.4 . (b) Determine the mass transfer coefficient and the evaporation rate (kg/h) of the water on the surface. Just enough energy is supplied to maintain its steady-state temperature at 310 K.

Ghosh . Governing Equations  Reynolds Number: Re L   Prandtl Number: Pr   Schmidt Number: Sc     V  L   D AB T  Ts  300 K 2 .58  Pr 0.4 Surface Ts L As Air T U  3.43  Re 0L. Pr   Thin water film Sh  f 2  Re L . System Diagram Heat transfer correlation: Nu L  0.    Assumptions Steady state condition Constant properties Heat-mass analogy applies: Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Nu  f 1  Re L . Sc  Correlation requires properties evaluated at Tmean  4.550 Page 13 12/2/2014  Forcing air properties:  T = 290 K (temperature)  U = 10 m/s (velocity)   = 0 (completely dry)  Surface dimensions and property:  L = 1 m (length)  As = 1 m2 (area)  Ts = 310 K (temperature) b) Find  Heat transfer coefficient  Rate at which the surface loses heat by convection  Mass transfer coefficient  Evaporation rate (kg/h) of the water on the surface  Rate at which heat must be supplied to the surface for these conditions 2.

4  0.89  10 6 m 2 / s  and substituting into the prescribed correlation for this surface.43  6. evaluate ReL at Tmean to characterize the flow Re L  UL 10m / s   1m   6.26  10-4 m2/s Saturated water (at Ts = 310 K)  A.707   864.293  10 5   15.   First Law of Thermodynamics (for steady flow process): E in  E out  0 5.0263W / m  K  1m  0 .Ghosh .89  10-6 m2/s  kf = 0.4  864.293  10 5   0. Detailed Solution Properties: Air (at Tmean = 300 K.53 Nu L  k f L   Pr 0.72 W/m2K Rate at which the surface loses heat by convection qconv  h  As   Ts  T    22.550 Page 14 12/2/2014 hL kf  Average Nusselt Number: Nu   Average Sherwood Number: Sh   Newton's Law of Cooling: q conv  h  As   Ts  T  hm L D AB  Convection Mass Transfer Equation: m  hm  As    A.04361 kg/m3  hfg = 2414 kJ/kg Heat transfer coefficient First of all.1   0. find Nu L  0.93 m3/kg = 0. 1 atm)  DAB = 0.707 Air-water mixture (at Tmean = 300K. sat = 1/vg = 1/22.71W / m 2  K   1m 2     310 K    290 K    454. s   A. 1 atm)   = 15.0263 W/mK  Pr = 0.58   0.1   22.2W hL kf .43  Re L h  0.

s   A.12  10  2 m / s L 1m hm L D AB Evaporation rate (kg/h) of the water on the surface The evaporation rate. E in  E out  0 q in  q conv  q evap  0 where qin is the heat supplied to sustain the losses by convention and evaporation.6112  0.43  Re 0L.4 Mass: Sh L  0.04361kg / m 3  0kg / m 3   9.26  10  4 m 2 / s Substituting numerical values.12  10 2 m / s  1m 2  0.s = A.89  10 6 m 2 / s   0.4 where Sc   15.  .58  Sc 0. is       m  hm  As    A.4  0.43  6.2   0.4  815.550 Page 15 12/2/2014 Mass transfer coefficient Using the heat-mass analogy.327 kg / h Rate at which heat must be supplied to the surface for these conditions Air qconv qevap qin Applying the first law of thermodynamics.293  10 5  0. with A.Ghosh .6112 D AB 0. Heat: Nu L  0.26  10 4 m 2 / s   2.2   Sh L  D AB  815.58  Pr 0.43  Re 0L. and find Sh L  0.   2.53   Sc 0.43  Re L hm  0.58    0.243  10 m 4 kg / s  3.sat (Ts).

The End . Note that convection mass transfer can be analyzed like convection heat transfer. Equations are very similar to each other.3W  q in  2685W 6.550 Page 16 12/2/2014 q in  q conv  q evap  h fg q in  h  As   Ts  T   m q in   454.  Notice that the heat loss from the surface by evaporation is nearly 5 times that due to convection. Critical Assessment  Heat-mass analogy has been applied in this problem.Ghosh .2W    9.2W    2231.243  10  4 kg / s    2414  10 3 J / kg  q in   454.