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Introduction to Anatomy: Anatomical Terminology

Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body:
(a) Gross anatomy (macroscopic) – structures seen under naked eye
 Regional anatomy – build up of body by registering relationships between adjacent parts & elements
 Systemic anatomy – systems of the body
 Surface anatomy
(b) Microscopic anatomy (histology) – minuscule
structures of cells, tissues & organs in relation to
their function
Gross Anatomy:
Cervical – refers to the neck
Thoracic (chest)
Lumbar (lower back)
Sacral – region superior to the buttocks
Abdominal (stomach)
Regional anatomy:

Surface anatomy:

vessels and covers of the body surface Muscle – capable of contraction Organs – two or more tissues combined to perform complex tasks Example: stomach walls are muscular. ducts. parts (b) Medial – closer to midline (c) Lateral – further away from midline (d) Superficial or Deep – their closeness to the body surface)  Prone – body horizontal. lined with epithelial cells. held with connective tissues and innervated (supplied with nerves) by nervous tissue Systems – certain organs working together. face down  Supine – body horizontal. directions are given:  Superior/Cranial –above or near head  Inferior/Caudal – below or toward feet  Anterior/Ventral – closer to front side of body  Posterior/Dorsal – closer to back side of body  Midline (a) Median/Midsagittal Plane – divides body into r. face up . with each organ performing a specific part of the human body system Nervous system – consists of the brain. & l. spinal cord. lines of various body cavities.           Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Basic Structural Levels:        Cells – simplest structural level Tissues – groups of similar cells joined together to carry out specific functions Epithelium – outer protective layer of the body. nerves & sense organs Surface Anatomy is directly palpated on the body surface (underlying bone or muscle):    Anatomical Position: All anatomical descriptions are in reference to the anatomical position: Standing erect Arms by the sides Palms of hands facing forward In this position.

   Coronal/Frontal plane – vertically divides body into front and back parts Sagittal plane – any plane parallel to median plane Median plane/Midsagittal – vertically separates body into r. & l. parts  Transverse/Horizontal plane – divides body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts .Terms of Orientation: In anatomy. it is necessary to visualize the body being sectioned in planes of reference.

Directional Terminology – Paired terms:           Superior/Cranial – above and closer to head Inferior/Caudal – below and closer to feet Anterior/Ventral – towards the front Posterior/Dorsal – towards the back Medial – near or toward midline Lateral – away from the midline Proximal – closest part near trunk/head Distal – farthest end from trunk/head Palmar – palm side of the hand Plantar – sole of the foot .

from now on. It would no longer be appropriate to say the left atrium is in the front of the esophagus and part of the aorta. . anatomical terminologies i.e. the left atrium of the heart is anterior to the esophagus and descending portion of the aorta.Anatomical Relations: All organs are anatomically related to one another. It is important to note that you must use.

The aorta is medial to the right kidney Body Divisions and Body Cavities: The body can be divided into two divisions:   Axial skeleton – head. hips & legs Axial skeleton .The right kidney is lateral to the aorta. neck & trunk Appendicular skeleton – shoulder. arms.

Body cavities are divided into anterior and posterior cavities:  Anterior cavity – thoracic cavity & abdominal pelvic cavity  Posterior cavity – cranial cavity & spinal cavity Terms of Movement:  Flexion – bending movement that decreases the angle between the body parts  Extension – straightening movement that increases the angle between the body parts  Abduction – draw away from the medial plane  Adduction – draw toward the medial plane  Rotation – a bone revolving around its longitudinal axis toward (medial rotation) or away (lateral) from midline  Circumduction – movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle (sequence of flexion. adbudction.Body Cavities: Viscera lie in the axial portion of the body in the body cavities. extension and adduction)  Opposition – brings similar surfaces to touch each other. such as the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger  Plantar flexion – increases the angle between foot and leg  Dorsiflexion – (extension) decreases the angle between superior surface of foot and leg. .

LEARNING OUTCOMES:         Defining anatomy Understand the ways in which anatomy can be studied List the systems of the body Understand the basic structural elements in the body Understand the various planes of orientation of the body Understand the terms used in movements of the body Understand the terminology used in discussing the relationship between various organs within the body Define the anatomical position Basic structural elements of the body: Various planes of orientation of the body: Terminology used in discussing the relationship between various organs within the body: .

Anatomical position is .