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Ductility of Prefabricated Cage Reinforced Concrete Beams Analytical Study

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Volume 2, No 4, 2012

Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing services

Research article

Study

1- Asst. Professor in Civil Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore

641 013

2-Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of

Technology, Vellore 632 002

3-PG Scholar, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 013

chithrajothin@gmail.com

doi:10.6088/ijcser.00202040002

ABSTRACT

Experimental studies have reported that confinement provided by Prefabricated Cage

effectively improves the flexural strength, ductility and deformation characteristics of

Prefabricated Cage Reinforced Composite (PCRC) Beams. This paper presents an analytical

solution to predict the curvature ductility of PCRC beams. An equation for ductility is

proposed in terms of ultimate concrete strain and yield strength of steel. Experimental results

from literature were employed to validate the analytical results. The findings show that the

theoretical analyses are in good agreement with the test data. The theoretical curvature

ductility factor has a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results, which

demonstrates the present closed-form solution is simple yet accurate. The analyses also show

the deformation characteristics of PCRC beams is significantly influenced by the percentage

of tension steel.

Keywords: PCRC Beam; curvature ductility factor; prefabricated cage; equilibrium

equations; strain compatibility.

1. Introduction

A structural member is to be designed with sufficient ductility capacity to avoid brittle failure

in flexure and insure a ductile behaviour, especially for seismic design. The current

philosophy of seismic design of moment-resisting reinforced concrete frames is based on the

formation of plastic hinges at the critical sections of the frame under the effect of substantial

load reversals in the inelastic range. The ability of the plastic hinge to undergo several cycles

of inelastic deformations without significant loss in its strength capacity is usually assessed in

terms of the available ductility of the particular section.

The ductility capacity of a section can be expressed in the form of curvature ductility factor

(). The moment-curvature analysis of performed under monotonically increasing load

represents only the first quarter-cycle of the actual hysteretic behaviour of the plastic hinge

rotation under the earthquake loading. Therefore, of a section calculated under such an

assumption is considered a theoretical estimate of the actual ductility that can be supplied by

the section when subjected to an actual earthquake loading.

However, the theoretical estimation of under monotonic loading is widely used as an

appropriate indicator of the adequacy of the earthquake resistant design of RC members. It is

even used for prediction of the damage level in frames under earthquake loading. Although

the actual response of frame subjected to severe earthquakes is complex and involves large

1026

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

individual members.

Improving the ductility of the materials generally leads to an improvement in the ductility of

the section. Based on a closer examination of published literature, ductility of concrete is

being improved at present by confining it in steel binders, as ties in compression members

and as closely spaced stirrups in beams (Shamim A Sheikh 1982, Mohamed Saafi et al. 1999,

Mohamad M Ziara et al. 1995, Sharim A.Sheikh et al. 1994, Esneyder Montoya et al. 2006,

Guney Ozcebe et al. 1987, Soliman et al. 1967). The ductility of structures can be improved

by adding compression steel in the concrete section or by confining the compression zone

which leads to an improvement in the ductility of the material. The concrete confined in such

a way is called confined concrete or ductile concrete.

Prefabricated cage proposed by Halil Sezen et al. (2006) to reinforce the structural members

and to confine the concrete core. Since the use of prefabricated cage for confinement of

concrete is a relatively a new approach, theoretical work in this area is still limited and the

models originally developed for transverse steel reinforcement are not necessarily applicable

to prefabricated cage reinforcement. In beams reinforced with prefabricated cage known as

Prefabricated Cage Reinforced Concrete (PCRC) Beams, the compression zone is partially

confined by prefabricated cage. This aids in confinement which helps to increase ductility

factor.

The paper presents analytical model for curvature ductility factor for the PCRC beams. The

analytical results are validated with the available experimental results.

2. Experimental Program

Nine beam specimens were made in this study were 150mm x 200mm x 2500mm in size. The

geometrical details of beams are shown in Table 1. The parameters considered in the study

are the thickness of the sheet and Grade of Concrete. The yield strength of cold formed steel

used for making the Prefabricated Cage and compressive strength of concrete are given in

Table 2. The details of the Prefabricated Cage beams are shown in Figure 1.

Table 1: Geometrical Details of Beam Specimens

Sl. Beam

No Id

t

mm

B

mm

D

mm

Length

m

Yield

Strength

of Steel

(N/mm2)

Ast

(mm2)

Grade

of

concrete

A1

1.6

150

200

2.50

245.0

208

M20

A2

2.0

150

200

2.50

262.0

260

M20

A3

2.5

150

200

2.50

279.0

325

M20

B1

1.6

150

200

2.50

245.0

208

M25

B2

2.0

150

200

2.50

262.0

260

M25

B3

2.5

150

200

2.50

279.0

325

M25

C1

1.6

150

200

2.50

245.0

208

M30

C2

2.0

150

200

2.50

262.0

260

M30

Profile of the

Cage

P1

1027

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

C3

2.5

150

200

2.50

279.0

325

M30

Series

A

Material

0.238 x10

2.74

27.86

0.264 x10

3.11

32.23

0.284x10

3.32

CR sheet (1.6mm)

245.0

1.84 x 105

CR sheet (2.0mm)

262.0

1.81 x 105

CR sheet (2.5mm)

279.0

1.83 x 105

Concrete

B

C

A, B,C

fck

Ec

ft

fy

22.75

2.1. Testing of Specimens

All the specimens were tested in a 100ton capacity Reaction Frame. The test set up is shown

in the Figure 2. In order to record the applied load precisely, a proving ring of 30ton capacity

with a least count of 0.01ton was used. A special steel frame arrangement was fabricated for

measuring the longitudinal strains. Three dial gauges having a travel of 50mm were used to

record the vertical deflection at the bottom of mid span and under the loading points. The

behaviour of the beams was keenly observed from the beginning till the collapse. The

appearance of the first crack, the development and propagation of cracks due to the increase

of load were also recorded. The loading was continued upto the peak load.

1028

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

3. Methods of Defining Ductility

The term ductility is generally, quantitatively described by a parameter called ductility

factor or ductility ratio. The most common measures of ductility are displacement

Ductility factor and curvature ductility factor.

a) Displacement ductility factor ( = u / y).

where,

u is the displacement at ultimate load and

y is the displacement at which tension steel yields.

b) Curvature ductility factor ( = u / y)

where,

u is the curvature corresponding to u and

y is the curvature at which tension steel yields.

3.1 Cross sectional ductility of PCRC beam

The ductility of beams may be defined in terms of the behaviour of individual cross sections

or the behaviour of entire beams. The cross sectional ductility is widely used as a measure of

beam ductility represented as ductility factor.

3.1.1 Calculation of Yield and Ultimate Curvatures

A typical PCRC beam section with its corresponding strain distribution at the yield and

ultimate stages are shown in Figures 3 and 4. As all the beams exhibit nearly full shear

connection at ultimate, for the calculation of ductility factor, slip in these beams is ignored.

The curvature calculations are given by the following equations:

a) At Yield Stage

Yield Curvature

y =

y

Ny

----- (1)

1029

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

where Ny can be determined by assuming the linear stress distribution and satisfying the

equilibrium condition of forces. This leads to:

The neutral axis (Ny) at the yield state is obtained from the equilibrium condition which is

given in equation 2.

C =T

f ck BNy = 2 f yts [dt + bt ]

2t s f y ( d t + bt )

Ny =

Bf ck

----- (2)

Where,

At Ultimate Stage

Ultimate Curvature u =

u

Nu

----- (3)

where

Nu = Depth of compression zone at ultimate, can be determined by satisfying

equilibrium equation of forces.

1030

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

----- (4)

where,

Ast = Area of tension reinforcement

ts = thickness of Prefabricated cage

(a)

(b)

(c)

From strain compatibility conditions,

cu

s

=

N u (d N u )

----- (5)

----- (6)

From equilibrium conditions,

C = T1 + T2

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International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

f ck BNu = f y Ast

----- (7)

----- (8)

aNu2 + bNu c = 0

----- (9)

The addition of compression reinforcement in the form of continuous sheet to a beam will

shift the neutral axis upwards and increase the ultimate curvature substantially, although it

has little effect on its yield strength or yield curvature. Hence the curvature ductility factor is

defined as,

u

y

----- (10)

cu (d N y )

Es

f sy

N u

----- (11)

Using eq.11, curvature ductility factor (CDF) for the PCRC beams was evaluated and are

presented in Table 3. The experimental results (Chithra et. al, 2011) were used to validate

the theoretical predictions. The ratio between the experimental and theoretical ductility factor

shows the accuracy of the equation.

Table 3: Theoretical and Experimental ductility factor

Neutral axis

Sl.No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Beam

ID

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

C1

C2

C3

Nu

(mm)

Ny

(mm)

Theory

Expt.

( ,T )

( , E )

37.03

40.49

44.72

35.42

38.76

42.84

34.30

37.55

41.53

14.93

19.96

26.57

12.19

16.30

21.70

10.54

14.09

18.76

12.19

9.91

8.12

12.98

10.61

8.78

13.55

11.11

9.24

12.93

10.88

8.65

13.93

11.03

8.97

14.34

11.28

9.58

Ratio

, EXP

,THE

1.06

1.10

1.07

1.07

1.04

1.02

1.06

1.02

1.04

1032

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

5. Conclusions

From the analytical investigations carried out in the present study, the following major

findings can be arrived at.

1. The flexural behaviour and curvature ductility of PCRC beams made of materials of

widely varying strengths have been studied.

2. From equilibrium forces and strain compatibility conditions at yield and at ultimate

the equation for curvature ductility factor was arrived.

3. The experimental and theoretical ductility factors are in good agreement.

4. From equilibrium forces and strain compatibility conditions at yield and at ultimate

the equation for curvature ductility factor was arrived.

6. References

1. Chithra R, Thenmozhi R., (2011), Studies on prefabricated cage reinforced

steel- concrete composite beams, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building

and Housing), 12(1), pp 27-37.

2. Esneyder Montoya; Frank J. Vecchio; Shamim A. Sheikh., (2006),

Compression Field modeling of Confined Concrete: Constitutive Models,

Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(4), pp 510-517.

3. Guney Ozcebe; Murat Saatcioglu., (1987), Confinement of concrete columns

for seismic loading, ACI Structural Journal, 84(4), pp 308-315.

4. Halil Sezen; Mohammad Shamsai., (2006), Behaviour of normal strength

concrete columns reinforced with prefabricated cage system, Structures

Congress 2006, p 74.

5. Halil Sezen; and Mohammad Shamsai., (2008), High-strength concrete

columns reinforced with prefabricated cage system, Journal of Structural

Engineering, ASCE, 134(5), pp 750-757.

6. Mohamed M.Zaira; David Haldane; Atallah S.Kuttab., (1995), Flexural

Behavior of Beams with Confinement, ACI Structural Journal, 92(1), pp 103114.

7. Mohamed Saafi; Houssam A. Toutanji; Zongjin Li., (1999), Behavior of

Concrete Columns confined with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tubes, ACI

Structural Journal, 96(4), pp 500-510.

8. Shamim A. Sheikh., (1982), A Comparative Study of Confinement Models,

ACI Structural Journal, 79(4), pp 296-306.

9. Sharim A.Sheikh, Dharmendra V.Shah, and Shafik S.Khoury., (1994),

Confinement of High-Strength concrete columns, ACI Structural Journal,

91(1), pp 100-113.

1033

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

Chithra.R, Thenmozhi. R, Ravathi.M.C

concrete confined by rectangular transverse reinforcement, Magazine of

Concrete Research, 19(61), pp 223-238.

1034

International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012

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