8 views

Original Title: m12018

Uploaded by AbhimanyuDhawan

- Dtp Manual
- DigitalSignalProcessing.pdf
- Fft Basics 2008
- DSP for Matlab and LabVIEW
- resume(2003)
- Spru422j - Programmer’s Reference
- Dsp Lesson_plan 5-12-12
- S5 EC Syllabus
- data.xls
- Channel Estimation for OFDM Modulated Two- Way Relay Networks
- MScETC
- An Ten A
- Scopus Journal List
- GII GRIN SCIE Conference Rating 1 Giu 2017 10.36.57 Output
- Lab Ex 3
- CIE TN 0062016 Visual Aspects of Time-Modulated Lighting Systems
- Sensor Network Simulation
- chap0sel.pdf
- 17-unikom-p-s
- fu07

You are on page 1of 5

Decimation-in-Frequency (DIF)

Radix-2 FFT

Douglas L. Jones

This work is produced by The Connexions Project and licensed under the

Creative Commons Attribution License

Abstract

The radix-2 algorithms are the simplest FFT algorithms. The decimation-in-frequency (DIF) radix-2

FFT partitions the DFT computation into even-indexed and odd-indexed outputs, which can each be

computed by shorter-length DFTs of dierent combinations of input samples. Recursive application of

this decomposition to the shorter-length DFTs results in the full radix-2 decimation-in-frequency FFT.

The radix-2 decimation-in-frequency and decimation-in-time fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) are the

simplest FFT algorithms . Like all FFTs, they compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

1

X (k)

PN 1

PN 1

n=0

n=0

x (n) e(i

2nk

N

x (n) WNnk

(1)

where for notational convenience WNk = e(i N ) . FFT algorithms gain their speed by reusing the results

of smaller, intermediate computations to compute multiple DFT frequency outputs.

2k

1 Decimation in frequency

The radix-2 decimation-in-frequency algorithm rearranges the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) equation (1)

into two parts: computation of the even-numbered discrete-frequency indices X (k) for k = [0, 2, 4, . . . , N 2]

(or X (2r) as in (2)) and computation of the odd-numbered indices k = [1, 3, 5, . . . , N 1] (or X (2r + 1) as

in (3))

X (2r)

PN 1

n=0

x (n) WN2rn

P N2 1

2r(n+ N2 )

N

2rn

x

(n)

W

+

x

n

+

W

n=0

n=0

N

N

2

N

P N2 1

P

1

2rn

2

=

+ n=0

x n + N2 WN2rn 1

n=0 x (n) WN

rn

P N2 1

x (n) + x n + N2 W N

=

n=0

2

= DFT N x (n) + x n + N2

=

P N2 1

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

2 "Overview of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithms" <http://cnx.org/content/m12026/latest/>

3 "DFT Denition and Properties" <http://cnx.org/content/m12019/latest/>

http://cnx.org/content/m12018/1.6/

(2)

X (2r + 1)

PN 1

(2r+1)n

n=0 x (n) WN

N

(2r+1)n

P N2 1

N

2

=

WN

x

(n)

+

W

x

n

+

n=0

N

2

P N2 1

rn

=

x (n) x n + N2 WNn W N

n=0

2

= DFT N x (n) x n + N2 WNn

(3)

The mathematical simplications in (2) and (3) reveal that both the even-indexed and odd-indexed

frequency outputs X (k) can each be computed by a length- N2 DFT. The inputs to these DFTs are sums or

dierences of the rst and second halves of the input signal, respectively, where the input to the short DFT

2k

producing the odd-indexed frequencies is multiplied by a so-called twiddle factor term WNk = e(i N ) .

This is called a decimation in frequency because the frequency samples are computed separately in

alternating groups, and a radix-2 algorithm because there are two groups. Figure 1 graphically illustrates

this form of the DFT computation. This conversion of the full DFT into a series of shorter DFTs with a

simple preprocessing step gives the decimation-in-frequency FFT its computational savings.

Figure 1: Decimation in frequency of a length-N DFT into two length- N2 DFTs preceded by a preprocessing stage.

Whereas direct computation of all N DFT frequencies according to the DFT equation would require N 2

complex multiplies and N 2 N complex additions (for complex-valued data), by breaking the computation

into two short-length DFTs with some preliminary combining of the data, as illustrated in Figure 1, the

computational cost is now

4

4 "DFT

http://cnx.org/content/m12018/1.6/

2 N2

2 N2

2

+ N = N2 + N2 complex multiplies

N

N2

2 1 + N = 2 complex additions

2

This simple manipulation has reduced the total computational cost of the DFT by almost a factor of two!

The initial combining

operations for both short-length DFTs involve parallel groups of two time samples,

x (n) and x n + N2 . One of these so-called buttery operations is illustrated in Figure 2. There are N2

butteries per stage, each requiring a complex addition and subtraction followed by one twiddle-factor

2n

multiplication by WNn = e(i N ) on the lower output branch.

It is worthwhile to note that the initial add/subtract part of the DIF buttery is actually a length-2

DFT! The theory of multi-dimensional index maps shows that this must be the case, and that FFTs of any

factorable length may consist of successive stages of shorter-length FFTs with twiddle-factor multiplications

in between. It is also worth noting that this buttery diers from the decimation-in-time radix-2 buttery

in that the twiddle factor multiplication occurs after the combining.

5

The same radix-2 decimation in frequency can be applied recursively to the two length- N2 DFT s to save

additional computation. When successively applied until the shorter and shorter DFTs reach length-2, the

result is the radix-2 decimation-in-frequency FFT algorithm (Figure 3).

7

6 "Decimation-in-time (DIT) Radix-2 FFT", Figure 2 <http://cnx.org/content/m12016/latest/#g2>

7 "DFT Denition and Properties" <http://cnx.org/content/m12019/latest/>

http://cnx.org/content/m12018/1.6/

The full radix-2 decimation-in-frequency decomposition illustrated in Figure 3 requires M = log2 N stages,

each with N2 butteries per stage. Each buttery requires 1 complex multiply and 2 adds per buttery. The

total cost of the algorithm is thus

N2 log2 N complex multiplies

N log2 N complex adds

This is a remarkable savings over direct computation of the DFT. For example, a length-1024 DFT would

require 1048576 complex multiplications and 1047552 complex additions with direct computation, but only

5120 complex multiplications and 10240 complex additions using the radix-2 FFT, a savings by a factor

of 100 or more. The relative savings increase with longer FFT lengths, and are less for shorter lengths.

Modest additional reductions in computation can be achieved by noting that certain twiddle factors, namely

N

N

N

3N

WN0 , WN2 , WN4 , WN8 , WN8 , require no multiplications, or fewer real multiplies than other ones. By

implementing special butteries for these twiddle factors as discussed in FFT algorithm and programming

tricks , the computational cost of the radix-2 decimation-in-frequency FFT can be reduced to

8

3N log2 N 3N + 4 real additions

The decimation-in-frequency FFT is a ow-graph reversal of the decimation-in-time FFT: it has the same

twiddle factors (in reverse pattern) and the same operation counts.

9

Note:

9 "Decimation-in-time (DIT) Radix-2 FFT" <http://cnx.org/content/m12016/latest/>

http://cnx.org/content/m12018/1.6/

written as a binary number, the order is that binary number reversed. The bit-reversal process is

illustrated here .

10

It is important to note that, if the input data are in order before beginning the FFT computations, the

outputs of each buttery throughout the computation can be placed in the same memory locations from

which the inputs were fetched, resulting in an in-place algorithm that requires no extra memory to perform

the FFT. Most FFT implementations are in-place, and overwrite the input data with the intermediate values

and nally the output.

10 "Decimation-in-time

http://cnx.org/content/m12018/1.6/

- Dtp ManualUploaded bycuami
- DigitalSignalProcessing.pdfUploaded bySeamap Vietnam
- Fft Basics 2008Uploaded bydrpeffers
- DSP for Matlab and LabVIEWUploaded byAmaniDarwish
- resume(2003)Uploaded byCare Puddoc
- Spru422j - Programmer’s ReferenceUploaded byCarlos Mejías
- Dsp Lesson_plan 5-12-12Uploaded bysudhasesh2000
- S5 EC SyllabusUploaded bySrikanth Kodoth
- data.xlsUploaded byvivekanand_bonal
- Channel Estimation for OFDM Modulated Two- Way Relay NetworksUploaded byitsmeboovar
- MScETCUploaded bysitu_elec
- An Ten AUploaded byAhsanul Hoque
- Scopus Journal ListUploaded byANKESH SHRIVASTAVA
- GII GRIN SCIE Conference Rating 1 Giu 2017 10.36.57 OutputUploaded byfaizihaid
- Lab Ex 3Uploaded byNgô Như Tuyến
- CIE TN 0062016 Visual Aspects of Time-Modulated Lighting SystemsUploaded bymauricio polanco
- Sensor Network SimulationUploaded byashish88bhardwaj_314
- chap0sel.pdfUploaded byGuilherme E Tamira Lopez
- 17-unikom-p-sUploaded byMow Mowq
- fu07Uploaded byDwi Agustiyani
- Vdecyk Adaptable Pic GpusUploaded byqutfizik
- Cad Aaisgnment vlsiUploaded bysridhar
- Solution 2Uploaded byShivani Patel
- 00000Uploaded byImad A Shaheen
- econometrics (1)Uploaded bybakinden
- Dimension Reduction ForUploaded byLewis Torres
- Experiment 1Uploaded byAnkita_Chauhan_3505
- Oct 13Uploaded bytheoawilson
- time-cost-tradeoff.docxUploaded byLuke Hanselman
- Lecture 14Uploaded byWedad Al Saad

- My resumeUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- SISO Tool Exercise a KCC Voice OverUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Solenoid DriversdfvUploaded byBethany Wells
- UEE801Uploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Abhimanyu TranscriptUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Europe Package (4)Uploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Capacitive Sensor SquareUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Manyu Bond Graph ProjectUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- sid memsUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Project ProposalUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- RequirementsUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- PolyMUMPs_03092015Uploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- MOEMSUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Uee504 Power ElectronicsUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Digit Encyclopedia Technica_Vol-I Dec 2012Uploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan
- Abhimanyu CVUploaded byAbhimanyuDhawan

- sumnima rai - hw 2 2f7 2f18Uploaded byapi-391498428
- Experimental and Numerical Study of a Steel Bridge Model through Vibration Testing Using Sensor NetworksUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Updated Mqc ManualUploaded byssselva
- Factors+Affecting+Rates+of+Reaction+Lab+Report (2).docxUploaded byjohnson_tranvo
- Solving Differential Equations Through Means of Deep LearningUploaded bySyed Beeban Basha
- ODS & Modal Case Histories 022009Uploaded byrfriosEP
- Cfd Analaysis of Flow Through a Conical ExhaustUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- PROJECT1.docxUploaded byRobert Browning
- Post Launch Report for Apollo Mission A-004 (Spacecraft 002)Uploaded byBob Andrepont
- Numerical Optimization and Wind-Tunnel Testing of Low Reynolds-Number Airfoils.pdfUploaded byyongky
- Paneles_VientoUploaded byeduper3
- [10]STANASEL IULIAN3Uploaded bymantra2010
- Stabilization of Marine Clay Soil Using Polyurethane.pdfUploaded bySamaila Saleh
- Chen 11 Springer EHD StabilityUploaded byAaron Sanders
- Detection of Low-Speed Layer (Lvl) In Seismic Refraction Survey Using Combined Geophysical MethodsUploaded byIOSRjournal
- FRP Confined ConcreteUploaded byÇağatay Tahaoğlu
- Mathematical Analysis of the Energy and Relaxation of Grain Boundaries in MetalsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- SurfadoneLPUploaded bySohaib Brazi
- Panchromatic and Multispectral Remote Sensing Image Fusion Using Machine Learning for Classifying Bucolic and Farming RegionUploaded byDr.P.S.Jagadeesh Kumar, Research Scientist, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States
- geometric solutions of quadratic equationsUploaded byapi-334491054
- Howto Octave c++Uploaded bySimu66
- Large Binocular Telescope 2004Uploaded by王轩
- Sand CastingUploaded byjethwa999_62474255
- Anscombe-G-E-M-Causality-and-Determination-from-Methaphysics-and-the-Philosophy-of-Mind.pdfUploaded byJulian Ortiz
- m4l30 Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane FramesUploaded byVitor Vale
- BEL-Cat2014-Final.pdfUploaded byararref
- Duval 2005Uploaded byDaniel Lucho
- COSICO-29Uploaded byDereje Feleke
- Brinell Test ReportUploaded byAbdul Rahman Hilmi
- 3.Metallography ExprimentUploaded byVicky Noom