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Environmental Assessment

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INTRODUCTION

Background of the Project


The Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GoNCTD) and the Delhi Jal
Board (DJB) are undertaking a comprehensive reform of the water supply and sewerage
sector.

An important element of this reform program is a systematic and sustainable

improvement in the water distribution system, essentially by converting from intermittent to


continuous supply (24-7) through the introduction of appropriate infrastructure, operating
and management practices, and a supporting institutional and policy framework.
A rapid technical assessment carried out by DJB and Water and Sanitation Programme
South Asia (WSP SA) in September 2003 concluded that conversion from intermittent to
continuous water supply in Delhi is both achievable and affordable, and is also essential to
improved sector performance. It also concluded that the technical process for converting
to 24-7 supply is not complicated and is well-suited to a phased implementation. Drawing
on these results, and subsequent analysis and consultations, DJB has identified South II
and South III zones out of twenty one Operational Zones (OZ) for conversion to 24-7 in the
first phase.
Since there is virtually no experience in India in providing 24-7 water supply, the authorities
have decided to outsource operations and management in these three zones to two
qualified operators under 6-year performance-based management contracts, awarded
through a transparent and competitive process.
The principal objectives of Phase 1 are to demonstrate that it is possible to provide a water
distribution service meeting international standards with the currently available water
production, including continuous (24-7) water supply, and to:
a.

introduce modern management information and customer service;

b.

operate and maintain sewerage in the OZ to avoid discharges of raw sewage in the
environment and flooding by sewage;

c.

significantly reduce operating costs, in particular staff and energy costs; and

d.

recover an increasing portion of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs from the
WSS tariff, through a combination of efficiency gains, improved billing and
collection and tariff increases.

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Engineering Consultants
The engineering consultants for this project is a consortium of two companies lead by
GKW Consult, Germany with a local support from Asian Consulting Engineers, New Delhi

1.3

Concept and Need for the Project


As a result of population growth and high water losses from the system, total water
demand of Delhi exceeds available production capacity. To limit total demand and provide
an equitable distribution of available water, the DJB have instituted intermittent or
scheduled water services and reduced system pressures. Hours of available supply vary,
depending on location in the system, from near continuous in areas close to the main water
treatment plants fed directly from the transmission system, to 2 hours per day in some
areas in the south.
To overcome the low pressures and intermittent supplies many residents have developed
compensatory strategies like:
storing municipal water in buckets and informal containers;
storing municipal water in tanks (with or without pumps);
rescheduling activities to coincide with the availability of water;
obtaining water from tube wells;
obtaining water from tankers (operated by the DJB or private contractors).

Some of these strategies have the effect of increasing domestic water consumption as
residents often leave taps open to observe when water is available, allow tanks to overflow
and empty remaining water in storage when fresh supplies become available.
Available pressures in the network are generally low (typically 0m to 5m). This has
encouraged residents to install in-line boosters, a practise that can lead to polluted water
being drawn into the network thus putting public health at risk.
The provision of intermittent water supplies normally leads to a spiral of decline as
management of the system is extremely difficult and customers willingness to pay
declines. Specific problems include:

serious risk to public health, resulting from ingress of contaminated groundwater


into the distribution system;
inability to practice effective supply management;
inability to practice effective demand management;
operational inadequacies, which unduly weaken the physical infrastructure;

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customer inconvenience.

In order to over come these spiral problems, it is to convert existing system from
intermittent to continuous one in a phased manner.

Conversion of South II and South III

zones in to 24x7 water supply in Phase I of this project is the first step towards the larger
goal of improvement of Delhis water supply system to the internationally recognized
standards.

1.4

Objectives of EIA
This EIA study has been undertaken to prepare an Environmental Impact Assessment
report to examine the environmental issues that may arise during the construction and
operation of the project components and their likely impacts. Further, to reduce the
potentially significant adverse impacts to acceptable levels, suggest feasible and cost
effective measures and define them in an Environmental Management Action Plan. These
mitigation measures will be incorporated into the contract conditions of the bid documents
so that the contractors take cognisance and implement them during the construction and
operation phase in accordance to statutory requirement of funding agency, the World
Bank. The study will be conducted as per the World Bank guidelines for conformation of
environmental and social considerations. The objectives of this study are as follows:

i.

To assess the existing status of air (including climate), noise, water environment ,
land environment , natural (biological/ecological) environment,

socio-economic

components of environment including parameters of human interests i.e., public


health and resettlements issues at the project site.

ii.

To identify potential significant impacts on the above environmental components due


to proposed project activities

iii.

To predict significant qualitative and quantitative impacts on the major environmental


components

iv.

To prepare an environmental impact statement based on the identification, prediction


and evaluation of impacts

v.

To delineate Environmental Management Action Plan (EMAP) outlining preventive


and control strategies for minimising adverse impacts due to proposed activities

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Scope of EIA
Preparation of environmental impact assessment report incorporating baseline data along
with an environmental impact statement based on identification, prediction and evaluation
of impacts of the proposed activities related to rehabilitation of water supply and
wastewater infrastructure.
Preparation of an Environmental Management Action Plan (EMP) outlining preventive and
control strategies for minimising adverse impacts due to proposed.

1.6

Environmental Impact Assessment Process Adopted


Incorporation of Environmental considerations into the project planning and design has
been taken up as an integral part of the project preparation.

The EIA preparation led to identification of potential environmental impacts and their
feasible remedial measures (including avoidance, mitigation and enhancements), which
have been included as environmental management plan.

1. 7

Proposed Structure of the Final EIA Report


The EIA report will be prepared as per the requirements of the Environmental Impact
Assessment Notification of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) under the
Environment Protection Act, 1986, and Environmental and Social Guidelines issued by
Japan Bank for International Cooperation (2002). The report will be structured as follows.
Chapter 2: Project Description- In this chapter, the project area and the design of water
treatment and distribution schemes will be discussed from an environmental perspective.
This chapter will also includes the general features, man made features, Land use pattern
and water quality.

Chapter 3: This chapter discusses the Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework
within which the project is set. The major stakeholder departments of the State and Central
Governments with their specific roles are described here along with the applicable Acts
and Laws. This chapter also covers the clearance requirements at various levels and their
current status.

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Chapter 4 details out the Methodology adopted for the Environmental Impact
Assessment. Descriptions are provided for environmental monitoring methodology,
modelling methods and environmental designs.

Chapter 5 reviews the Existing Environmental Scenario. This section includes the
description of the baseline conditions. The meteorology of the area, physical and natural
environment, cultural properties along the project area and quality of life add up to give a
comprehensive picture of the existing environment along the project site and its area of
influence. The data presented in the report is has been gathered from primary and
secondary sources.

Chapter 6 on the Assessment of Impacts determines the extent of the impacts of the
project activity on the existing environment. The focus of section is on the adverse impacts.
The beneficial impacts on the environment due to the project have been detailed in
subsequent chapter under the enhancement measures. The impacts have been detailed in
the same sequence as the existing environmental scenario described in Chapter 5 for ease
of understanding.

Chapter 7 entitled Mitigation, Avoidance and Enhancement Measures forms the basis
of the generation of coherent, comprehensive and concise Environmental Management
Plans for the project area. In addition to the avoidance and mitigation measures for the
physical and natural environmental components, this chapter discusses various
environmental enhancements suggested for the project, including the enhancement of
common property resources.

Chapter 8 reviews the existing Implementation Arrangements and suggests further


institutional strengthening for ease of implementation of the environmental component of
the project. It goes on to describe the set-up required, a reporting system and training
needs to ensure that the environmental expertise required for the effective implementation
of EA provisions is internalised.

Chapter 9 gives Environmental Management Plan for implementation during construction


and operation phase of the project

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

Location
The project is located in Delhi. The rehabilitation, operation and management will be done
in two operation zones namely South II and South III located in southern part of Delhi.
Figure 2.1 shows the location of South II and South III zones with respect to Delhi.

Fig 2.1 : Location of South II and South III Zones

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Existing Water Supply System

2.2.1 South II Zone


The water supply to south II zone is sourced from water treatment plant located outside
this zone. However part of the water supply approximately 15 % is from the tube wells
that are located inside this zone.
The water treatment plant at Sonia Vihar is under commission. The

planned water

volume to be transferred through the transmission canal to Sonia Vihar is 140 MGD or
about 637 000 m/d. During 2004 a treatment capacity of about 182 000 m/d will be
commissioned and the remaining 455 000 m/d will be commissioned during the year 2005.
This Sonia Vihar WTP will provide additional water source to this zone.
The brief outline of water supply to the South II zone is as follows:
o

19 pipelines crossing the boundaries of which 7 have diameters between 700 and
1 000 mm, 2 have diameters between 400 and 600 mm, and 10 have diameters
between 100 and 350 mm;

338 Tube Wells, of which 320 are in excellent to good condition, operating at
optimum to normal efficiency, and 18 are in poor condition, being older than 10
years but still in use. The operational tube wells have to be investigated in order to
assess the water quality and their productivity, an activity to be executed under
Operation of the Management Contract (MC);

170 Deep Bore Hand Pumps (DBHP) mainly of type Mark II, of which 42 units are
defective.

A preliminary estimate of the water inflow in OZ II is 172 161m/d and water outflow is
53 417m/d. The production of the working tube wells located in the OZ South II is
estimated at 21,000 m/d, representing 15% of the actually estimated supply to this OZ.
The yield of the DBHP being an alternative source of water, used only in case of necessity
and not being connected to the distribution network is not quantified and accounted. The
estimated water supply to OZ II is of 139 744 m/d for the year 2003-2004. However the
results of the flow measuring campaign show that water consumption of OZ II is 215 000
m3/day which is approximately 53 % higher than the estimated value. Hence it can only be
concluded that these flows are indicative as the flow measurement was done for very short
period.
2.2.2 South III Zone
The water treatment plants supplying water to this zone are located outside this zone. The
future additional water demand of South III will be met from Sonia Vihar plant as in case of
South II zone.
The existing water supply to this zone is through :

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5 pipelines of which 3 are of 900mm diameter, one of 1 000 mm, and remaining
one of 100mm diameter;

372 Tube Wells, of which 354 are in excellent respectively good condition,
operating at optimum to normal efficiency, and 18 are abandoned. The operational
tube wells have to be investigated in order to assess the water quality and their
productivity, a target to be executed under Operation of the Management Contract
(MC)

63 DBHP type Mark II of which 60 units are out of function classified as E Asset
not in use and waiting disposal and only 3 units are in working condition classified
as C Old asset but in operating condition. The 60 units awaiting disposal require
dismantling and sealing off to avoid any groundwater pollution, a target to be
executed under Operation of the Management Contract (MC).

Historic records of pumping stations indicate that water inflow in OZ III is 143 380 m/d and
outflow 83 650 m/d. The production of the working tube wells located in the OZ South III is
estimated at 20,180 m/d, representing 25% of the actually estimated supply to this OZ.
Hence actual supply to OZ III is 79 875 m/d, for the year 2003-2004. This is confirmed by
the flow measuring campaign results that show that water consumption in OZ III is 59,000
m3/day. The flow measurement does not include the water supply from the tube wells.

2.3

Population and Customer Connection Projections


There are 18 wards in south II zone having 665 267 census 2001 population. It is estimated
that the population is expected to grow to 880 497 in the year 2010. The details are given
below.

Population Details of South II Zone


Total number of wards 18

Pop. 2001
665 267

Pop. 2005
767 785

Pop. 2010
880 497

The data on customer connections was obtained from the study reports prepared in the
past and from the discussions and records from the DJB. Table 2.1 gives existing and
projected number of connections in the South II zone. At present there are 94,252
customer connections that are expected to rise to 157,232 connection in the year 2010.
The present rate of water supply to this zone is 139.744 million litres per day. It is expected
that this rate of water supply will be increased after the commissioning of Sonia Vihar
scheme.
There will also be reduction in physical losses and NRW enabling more
revenue water available in the zone.

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Table 2.1 : Customer Connections in South II Zone

Year
2004
[%]

Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Existing Number of Connections by Type


No. by Type in South_II
Domestic
Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
84 577
1 089
7 701
885
94 252
89.73%
1.16%
8.17%
0.94%
100%
Projection of Number of Connections by Type
No. by Type in South_II
Domestic
Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
To Execute
8 119
92 114
1 095
8 292
870
102 371
19 661
110 744
1 098
9 641
549
122 032
9 932
120 813
1 122
10 029
0
131 964
13 051
133 152
1 131
10 731
0
145 014
6 186
139 150
1 164
10 886
0
151 201
6 031
145 047
1 179
11 006
0
157 232
62 980
Projection of Number of Connections by Type [%]
% by Type in South_II
Domestic
Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
89.98%
1.07%
8.10%
0.85%
100.00%
90.75%
0.90%
7.90%
0.45%
100.00%
91.55%
0.85%
7.60%
0.00%
100.00%
91.82%
0.78%
7.40%
0.00%
100.00%
92.03%
0.77%
7.20%
0.00%
100.00%
92.25%
0.75%
7.00%
0.00%
100.00%

The south III zone has 14 wards with 533 019 population for the census year 2001 that is
projected to increase to 705 466 in the year 2010. The details are given below.

Total Number of wards 14

Pop. 2001
533 019

Pop. 2005
615 159

Pop. 2010
705 466

Customer connections data was obtained from DJB. Table 2.2 shows exiting and
projected customer connections in South III zone in the categories domestic, industrial,
commercial and authorized. The present 70,317 connections will be increased to 125,926
in the year 2010.
2.4

Water and Wastewater Infrastructure


The water and wastewater infrastructure in these two zones consists of
Reservoirs
Main pumping stations
Booster pumping stations
Sewage pumping stations
Transmission mains
Distribution system
Trunk sewers
Secondary and tertiary sewers
Tube wells
Deep bore wells
DJB customer care centers

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A detailed assessment of these above units is given in Rehabilitation Programme for


Water Supply and Rehabilitation Programme for Wastewater reports.

Table 2.2 : Customer Connections in South III Zone


Existing Number of Connections by Type
No. by Type South_III
Domestic Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
64 945
0
5 210
162
70 317
92.36%
0.00%
7.41%
0.23% 100.00%
Projection of Number of Connections by Type
No. by Type South_III
Domestic Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
To Execute
4 702
69 505
0
5 401
113
75 019
8 603
77 610
0
5 954
59
83 622
12 780
89 557
0
6 845
0
96 402
19 786
107 996
0
8 191
0 116 187
4 956
112 663
0
8 480
0 121 143
4 832
117 158
0
8 818
0 125 976
55 659
Projection of Number of Connections by Type [%]
% by Type South_III
Domestic Industrial Commercial Unauthorised
Total
92.65%
0.00%
7.20%
0.15% 100.00%
92.81%
0.00%
7.12%
0.07% 100.00%
92.90%
0.00%
7.10%
0.00% 100.00%
92.95%
0.00%
7.05%
0.00% 100.00%
93.00%
0.00%
7.00%
0.00% 100.00%
93.00%
0.00%
7.00%
0.00% 100.00%

2.5

Components of the Activities of the Management Contractors

The Management Contractor for each of the two OZ will be required to discharge the
contractual obligations and duties involved in 3 separately identifiable but inter related
roles:
A. Role as an Operator
B. Role as Contractor
C. Role as Engineer
The activities involved in each of these roles are set out below.
2.5.1

Role as an Operator
i.

Day-to-day management of all DJB managers and staff assigned to the OZ (excluding
responsibility for their employment, e.g. salaries, benefits, etc., but including their
performance, appraisal, discipline and decisions as to their suitability for continued
involvement within the OZ)
ii. Day-to-day management, operation and maintenance of all assets assigned to the OZ,
including

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a.

Water supply infrastructure within the OZ boundary, including boundary valves


and bulk metering of water supplied to, and exported, from the OZ
b.
Sewerage infrastructure within the OZ boundary
c.
Buildings offices, workshops, garages, etc
d.
Vehicles
e.
Office infrastructure
iii. Procurement of all spare parts, materials and consumables related to ii., including
payment of charges for utility services (power, gas, water, telephone, etc) related to the
management, operation and maintenance of these assets (but excluding the provision
of funding of payments, which will remain the responsibility of DJB).
iv. Advise DJB on the management, negotiation, re-negotiation and cancellation of any
current out-sourcing contracts related to operations within the OZ, should such
contracts exist, and procurement of any out-sourcing arrangements considered
necessary by the MC, having first obtained DJB agreement to such out-sourcing.
v. Providing DJB with a budget for all payments related to ii. iii., and iv. in order that DJB
may make provision for providing the MC with funding of the expenditure.
vi. Perform the services required of the MC to the program, the performance criteria and
service standards specified in the contract documents.
vii. Within a 6-month period commencing 6 months from mobilization, together with the
DJB, review the program, performance criteria and service standards and, where
considered reasonable, modify these in the light of experience gained from the work of
the initial period.
viii. Provision of water supply and wastewater services to the existing DJB customer base
a.
initially, on takeover of OZ, to the best standard provided for the year
immediately prior to takeover, and
b.
progressively improving the service provided in accordance with service levels
and a program established in the contract
ix. Provision of water supply and wastewater services to households and
industrial/commercial premises not presently served to the levels of service established
in the contract, recognizing that there will be different physical infrastructure provisions
and separate programs made for
a.
premises that can afford to pay in accordance with the normal charges of the
DJB, and
b.
premises that are recognized as being unable to pay all of the normal charges,
e.g. authorized and unauthorized colonies, JJ colonies, etc
x. Undertake the activities of customer metering and the billing and collection of water
charges.
xi. Training of DJB managers and staff assigned to the OZ such that they can effectively
discharge their individual duties to the standards required by the MC.
xii. Establishment, operation and maintenance, in accordance with best international water
industry practice, of
a.
a system of infrastructure, operation and maintenance records
b.
management information systems related to all aspects of the operations of the
OZ, including technical, administrative, financial and customer services, and
c.
an asset management register.
xiii. Produce the following and, having agreed them with DJB, implement them.
a.
an energy usage reduction plan
b.
water quality monitoring program
c.
HR management plan
d.
safety and occupational health plan
e.
environmental management plans
xiv. Provide assistance to DJB with respect to tariff design.

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xv.

Liaison with all public authorities and public and private entities affecting, and affected
by, activities involved in discharging their role and the obtaining of all permissions and
permits related to the discharge of their role.
xvi. Coordination with DJB of all activities which affect other OZs not the responsibility of
the MC, e.g. installation of valves to establish the OZ boundary that may cut-off
supplies to areas outside the OZ-with the intention to arrive at a mutually acceptable to
any problems caused by such activity.
xvii. Together with DJBs OZ managers, establish a fair and transparent system the
calculation of bonus payments and their division and disbursement to the DJBs OZ
staff and managers.
xviii. Together with DJB develop baseline operational data for the first year of operation by
the MC.
xix. Together with DJB, to monitor those aspects of operations relating to:
a.
bulk water supplied to the OZ volume and quality
b.
quality of water distributed to customers
c.
service levels, including customer complaints and their resolution
d.
basis of payments to MC, including bonuses and penalties
e.
bonus payments made to staff
xx. For those areas of operations defined in the contract documents as being appropriate
(e.g. GIS, accounting systems, some aspects of MIS), liase with DJB and the other MC
to agree common platforms for IT employed by the MCs in the discharge of their
duties.
xxi. Provide a set of procedural and operations manuals for all operational activities, as
undertaken in the OZ, and for all management systems introduced.
xxii. Compliance with normal reporting requirements of the individual OZ to DJBs central
management with respect to the operations of the OZ.

2.5.2

Role as a Contractor
The activities and responsibilities of the MC as Contractor relate to the procurement and
provision of civil and building works and the procurement and installation of electrical,
mechanical works, instrumentation, telemetry, control and automation for which bill of
quantities have been included in the contract documentation all in accordance with the
contracted value of works.
The quality of materials, equipment and workmanship entailed in the construction and
installation activities will be supervised and controlled by an independent third party
employed by the DJB.
In respect to these works, the MC is required to:
i.

ii.
iii.

Program the works to meet the program, performance criteria and service
standards set out in the contract documents, and within the contracted price for
this category of works, and make such amendments to these as may be
necessitated by subsequent modifications to these agreed with the DJB.
Inform the DJB of this program and expenditure budget and review and modify
this program, keeping the DJB informed, as and if the works dictate.
Design the works to the standard specifications for materials, equipment, labour
and workmanship of the DJB - where they exist and where they do not exist to
the Indian National Standards or, in absence of these, to accepted international
standards (DIN, BS or equivalent).

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iv.

v.
vi.
vii.

2.5.3

Report

Procure the necessary contractors and suppliers of goods and services or,
alternatively, organize and manage the staff of the OZ to undertake those
elements of the works for which they are capable.
Manage the contractors working on the construction and installation works to
ensure their compliance with the standards set out in Bii.
Commission, operate and maintain the works.
Provide a set of as-constructed drawings and records and procedural and
operational manuals for completed works and installed equipment in a format
that complies with the GIS, system records and management information
systems provided under A.

Role as an Engineer
The activities and responsibilities of the MC as Engineer to the DJB relate to the
procurement and provision of civil and building works and the procurement and installation
of electrical, mechanical works, instrumentation, telemetry, control and automation for
elements of infrastructure which could not be adequately quantified in the contract
documentation, including the works related to extending services to the poor.
This category of works therefore relates to the rehabilitation or modification of existing
infrastructure and those elements of new infrastructure that are determined by the MC, in
the course of the contract, to be essential to the achievement of the performance criteria
and service standards set in the contract but which could neither be quantified or
anticipated at the time of contract preparation.
The activities to be undertaken by the MC are similar to those where he acts as C
ontractor but in this case:
the MC has to obtain the approval of the DJB to the type, value and programming of
the works to be undertaken, on an annual or 6-monthly basis, and
the MC and not an independent third party will be responsible for monitoring and
controlling the quality of the works.
Therefore in respect to this category of works, the MC is required to:
i.

ii.
iii.

iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

Identify the works required and undertake sufficient planning and design to develop
a capital works program with justification of the need for each of the infrastructure
elements proposed.
Discuss and agree a capital works program with the DJB.
Design the works agreed with the DJB to the standard specifications for materials,
equipment, labour and workmanship of the DJB where they exist and where
they do not exist to the Indian National Standards or, in absence of these, to
accepted international standards (DIN, BS or equivalent).
Produce the contract documents needed to procure the works in compliance,
dependent upon the source of funding for the works, with DJB and/or the World
Banks standard procedures and documentation requirements.
Assist the DJB with the procurement of the necessary contractors and suppliers of
goods and services.
Supervise construction and installation works to ensure their compliance with the
standards set out in 2.7.3 iii above.
Assist with the commissioning of the works.
Take over the completed works to operate and maintain them.

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Ensure that contractors and supplier provide a set of as-constructed drawings and
records and procedural and operational manuals for completed works and installed
equipment in a format that complies with the GIS, system records and
management information systems provided under 2.7.1

The detailed scope of work as operator, contractor and engineer are outlined in the
following reports

Rehabilitation Programme for Water Infrastructure


Rehabilitation Programme for Wastewater Infrastructure
Performance Targets

2.6 Project Time Schedules


In order to improve the operation and maintenance of water supply and sewage system In
these two operation zones, services of the two management contractor of international repute
will be hired. The first year of the management contract is expected to generate the desired
baseline data. The rehabilitation measures are expected to be completed in first two years.
The MC will operate and maintain of the DJB facilities in these two zones for the five years
in order to improve the quality of services and enhance the performance of the utility. The
total duration of contract of the MC will be six years.

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POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE


FRAME WORK
3.1

Policy, Legal and Administrative Frame Work


A brief discussion on the various institutions involved and their level of responsibilities in
this project implementation is presented in the following sections.

3.2

Institutional Setting for the Project


The Delhi Jal Board
The Delhi Jal Board (DJB) is responsible for water supply and wastewater treatment in
Delhi. It was constituted on 6th April, 1998 through an Act of the Delhi Legislative
Assembly incorporating the previous Delhi Water Supply and Sewage Disposal
Undertaking. DJB supplies water to the entire National Capital Territory (NCT) area of
Delhi, which covers an area of about 1,484 km2 and has an estimated population of 14.7
million (based on 2001 Census data). The entire area is divided into twenty one operational
zones. An executive engineer is the head of each operational zone. The executive
engineers office has three cells viz., administration, technical, and revenue. An zonal
engineer and assistant engineer (mechanical ) help the executive engineer for technical
matter. Both of them are supported by junior engineers (civil and mechanical, respectively).
These junior engineer s are in turn supported by skilled staffs.
DJB, with the help from the World Bank (WB), has decided to improve its water supply
systems in order to provide continuous (24x7) water supply to the citizens and to run it as
one of the most efficient water utilities. Therefore, an international consultancy firm (GKW
consultants GmbH) along with an Indian consultancy firm (Asian Consulting Engineers
(ACE) have been appointed for carrying out the engineering study. This EIA report is a part
of that study.
Project Implementation
The management contractor (MC) will do the actual work of rehabilitation of water supply
and sewer system. An Independent Engineer (IE) will be appointed to supervise the project
implementation work. The IE will coordinate between DJB officials and MC.
The DJB do not have special environmental set to implement the measures related to
environmental mitigation.

MC will also

implement the

environmental mitigation

measures suggested in Environmental management plan under the supervision of IE .


But over all responsibility of implementation of EMP will be of DJB.

3.3

Legal Frame Work

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The Indian constitution makes environmental protection an explicit duty for every
citizen by the inclusion of the following in the fundamental duties of Indian citizens.

It shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the environment
including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.

In addition, Government of India has laid out various policy guidelines, acts and
regulations pertaining to sustenance of environment.

The legal framework for the project is summarized in following sections.

3.3.1 The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and the Environmental Impact Assessment
Notification, 1994
The Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 is the umbrella legislation providing for the
protection of environment in the country. This act provides the Environment (Protection)
Rules, which were formulated in 1986. The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification,
1994 and the various amendments thereto have been notified under this act. As per the
amendment, no formal environmental clearance is required for the water supply project
from the ministry; if they are not pass through environmentally sensitive areas as reserved
forests, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves etc. Under 'The Environment (Protection)
Act', 1986, the developmental project requires clearances from the State Pollution Control
Board and Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi.

3.3.2 The Water and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Acts
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 resulted in the establishment of
the Central and State level Pollution Control Boards (CPCB and SPCB) whose
responsibilities include managing water quality and effluent standards, as well prosecuting
offenders and issuing licenses for construction and operation of certain facilities. The Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, empowers the SPCBs to enforce air quality
standards set by the CPCB.
The project does not require any clearance from the Delhi Pollution Control Committee
pursuant to the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act of 1974, the cess Act of
1977 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981.

3.3.3 The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980


The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 pertains to the cases of diversion of forest area for
non-forestry use. The process of obtaining forest clearance under this varies with the legal
status of the forestland to be diverted.
In case of Reserved Forest:

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If the area of forests to be cleared or diverted exceeds 20 ha (or, 10ha in hilly area) then
prior permission will be granted by MoEF, GoI, New Delhi
If the area of forest to be cleared or diverted is between 5 to 20 ha, then the case would
be put to the state advisory committee for consideration. The committee after studying
the case will recommend to MoEF, GoI for formal approval.
If the area of forest to be cleared or diverted is below or equal to 5 ha, than the MoEF
regional office is empowered to give the approval.
If the area to be clear-felled has a forest density of more than 40%, permission to
undertake any work is needed from the Central Government, irrespective of the area to
be cleared.

In case of Protected Forest


MoEF regional office is empowered to accord Forest clearance for an area up to 5
hectares, which is to be cleared.
In Delhi, for the clearance of roadside plantation developed by the forest department on
the land of the PWD/ NHAI/ MCD the proposal has to be submitted to the regional office of
the ministry irrespective of the area as per the notification (Reference no.4/1/97/FC dated
18/2/98 circulate on 16/7/99) of MoEF. Moreover, it does not require any compensatory
aforestation scheme.
No forestland is involved in this project. Therefore, this act is not applicable for this
project.

3.3.4 The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972


The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 has allowed the government to establish a number of
National Parks and Sanctuaries over the past 25 years, to protect and conserve the flora
and fauna of the state. The act will not be applicable, as the proposed project area does
not pass through any National Park or Sanctuary.

3.3.5 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988


In 1988, the Indian Motor Vehicles Act empowered the State Transport Authority (usually
the Road Transport Office) to enforce standards for vehicular pollution and prevention
control. The authority also checks emission standards of registered vehicles, collects road
taxes, and issues licenses. In August 1997, the Pollution Under Control Certificate (PUC)
programme was launched in an attempt to crackdown on the vehicular emissions in the
States. Since this act is applicable for all states, this will be applicable for this project also.

3.3.6 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains


Act, 1958
According to this Act, area within the radii of 100m and 300m from the protected property
are designated as protected area and controlled area respectively. No development
activity (including building, mining, excavating, blasting) is permitted in the protected area
and development activities likely to damage the protected property are not permitted in the
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controlled area without prior permission of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), if the
site/remains/ monuments are protected by ASI. If excavation is required for rehabilitation of
the water pipe line or sewer line is going to be open which is passing through the area
within such protected area and controlled area, the prior permission is to be taken from
ASI. Moreover, there may be chance find of artefacts or coins, structures, fabrics or any
other archaeological relics during construction phase. In such situation also this act will be
applicable.

3.3.7

State Level Legislation Other Acts


The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 has been amended to include roadside plantations as
protected forest. Under this act, DJB has to obtain clearance from the Forest Department,
government of Delhi if any roadside plant is to be cut for the project.

3.3.8

Other Acts
In addition, with respect to hygiene and health, during the construction period, the
provisions as laid down in the Factories Act, 1948 and the Building and Other Construction
Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 would apply.
With limited possibility, the provisions of the Hazardous Wastes (Management and
Handling) Rules, 1989 and the Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness
and Response) Rules, 1996 would also apply during the construction and the operation
periods.
The applicability of Acts and Rules to the project has been summarised in Table 3.1 below:

Table 3.1: Summary of Relevant Legal Requirements Considered for this Project and
Institution
Responsible for that:
Act

Year

Objective

Responsible Institution

Applicability
to Project

Environmental

1986

To protect and improve

MOEF,

the overall environment.

DPCC

To provide environmental

MOEF, DOF,

Environment

clearance

DPCC

Impact

development

Assessment of

following

Development

impact assessment.

(Protection) Act
Notification

Projects

on

(and

amendments)
(referred as the
Notification

1994

to

new
activities

environmental

DOF,

CPCB,

Yes

CPCB,

No
as per this
notification no
environmental
clearance is
required for
water supply
project

on

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Environmental
Clearance;
To control water pollution

Delhi

(Prevention and

by controlling discharge

Committee (DPCC)

Control

of pollutants as per the

1974

Water

of

Pollution)

Pollution

Control

Yes

prescribed standards

Act

(and
subsequent
amendments)
To control air pollution by

DPCC

and Control of

controlling emission of air

Department.

Pollution)

pollutants

Air (Prevention

1981

Act

as

per

&

Transport

Yes

the

prescribed standards

(and
subsequent
amendments)
Public Hearing
notification

1997

of

To Provide procedure of

DPCC

No

in

Wildlife Division, Forests

No

general and particular to

Department, government

National

of Delhi (GOD)

public hearing

th

MOEF of 10
April, 1997
Wildlife

1972

(Protection) Act

To

protect

wildlife

Parks

and

Sanctuaries
1938

Conservation of Cultural

Archaeological Survey of

Monuments

and

India

and

found in India

Ancient

Archaeological
Sites

historical

remains

and

Department

Yes

State
of

Archaeology

and

Remains Act.

3.4

Institutional Setting in the Environmental Context

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The environmental regulations, legislations, policy guidelines and control that may impact
this project, are the responsibility of a variety of government agencies. In all, as discussed
in the subsequent sections, the following agencies play important roles in this project.

3.4.1 Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)


CPCB is a statutory authority attached to the MoEF and located in New Delhi. The main
responsibilities of CPCB include interalia the following

Plan and implement water and air pollution monitoring programs

Advise the Central Government on water and air pollution monitoring programs

Set air and water standards, and

Co-ordinate with the State Pollution Control Boards.

3.4.2 Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC)


The government agency responsible for ensuring the compliance with the relevant
standards related to discharge of pollutant into the environment. The following activities of
the DPCC will be relevant to the project.

Planning and executing state level air and water quality initiatives
Advising state government on air, water and industry issues
Establishing standards based on National Minimum standards
Enforcing monitoring of all activities within the state under The Air Act, The Water Act
and the Cess Act etc., and
Issuing No Objection Certificate (NOC) for various developmental projects.

3.4.5 Departments of Forests (DoF) Government of Delhi (GOD)


The department of forests, Govt. of Delhi is responsible for the management and administration of
forest resources in the state of Delhi. The roadside plantations in Delhi have been designated as
protected forests. If any, roadside tree is getting affected due to this project, then permission from
state forest department has to be taken for cutting of such tree (s) as per the Forest (Conservation)
Act, 1980. Compensatory plantation will be undertaken in lieu of tree cutting from the designated
protected forests area within this project area. Moreover, permission to cut private trees, if any, also
has to be obtained from the forest department.

3.5

Environmental Clearance Requirements

3.5.1 GOI Requirements


The primary responsibility for administration and implementation of the Govt. Policy
with respect to conservation, ecologically sustainable development and pollution
control rests with the MoEF.

The MoEF is responsible to enforce the regulations

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established pursuant to the National Conservation Strategy, National Forest Policy, the
Policy for Abatement of Pollution (1992) and the Indian Environmental (Protection) Act
1986.
The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 1994 identified water supply project as one of
the projects requiring no prior permission from the MoEF. Therefore, the environmental impact
assessment (EIA) is not statutory requirement for obtaining clearance from MoEF.
In April 1997, MoEF amending Schedule- of the EIA Notification, 1994, which lists projects
requiring Environmental Clearance, issued a circular.

'...Environmental Clearance from the MOEF is not required for Water Supply project '.

Source: Gazette Notification, Government of India, dated April l9, 97

Hence, no environmental clearance is required for this project.

3.5.2 State Level Clearance Requirements


The project also not requires any clearance from any of the state level agencies as
there will be only rehabilitation of existing services.
However the contractor is required to take certain clearances from DPCC under water
and air pollution act during construction work.

3.5.3 World Bank Requirements


The World Bank environmental assessment (EA) requirements vary based on
classification system of the projects such as Category A, Category B and Category
C. A project designated as Category A, requires a full environmental assessment
(EA), Category B projects require a lesser level of environmental investigation where
as Category C projects require no environmental analysis beyond the determination of
possible impacts.

This project can be designated as


magnitude of environmental

Category B project, due to its cumulative

impacts and therefore, an environmental and social

assessment is mandatory for this project. The Engineering Consultants (EC) have
verified conformance of the World Bank Operational Policies in the project and have
consolidated the EA and EMP accordingly. The emphasis of the World Bank is on
integration of the mitigation measures into the project design and mainstreaming
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environment in all stages of planning, implementation and operation. The separate


social impact assessment study is not necessary as there is no resettlement of any
population due to the project.

3.6

Summary of Mandatory Clearances From GOI and DPCC


The project would need the following clearances from GOI and DPCC
1.
Permission from state forest department for private tree cutting
2.

Delhi Forest Department clearance for cutting of road side trees

3.

Consent from Delhi Pollution Control Committee for setting up construction


workers camp, and setting up construction equipments , if any.

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4.1

Report

APPROACH & METHODOLOGY


INTRODUCTION
The environmental assessment in this project employed an interactive approach in which
potential environmental issues have been examined in successive levels of detail and
specificity at each step in the process. This chapter presents the methodology adopted for
the EIA preparation for the project Implementation Support for Achieving 24 hours Water
Supply in Delhi Phase-I Distribution Improvement for the mainstreaming of the
environmental considerations in this project.

4.2

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


The environmental impact assessment was undertaken for the project. The important
recommendations of the EIA study will form the part of the Environmental Management
Plan (EMP). It will help the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) to incorporate the measures to mitigate
adverse impacts during execution of the project. It will also help the DJB to carry out
careful supervision during construction and operational phase of the project. The features
studied included settlement facilities, land use, drainage pattern of the area, flora, fauna,
ecosystems within project area. The study of the above helped in enumerating areas of
concern and identifying critical issues.
The stepwise methodology adopted for the EIA is as follows:

4.3

SCOPING
The statutory requirements for the area of influence required by the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, World Bank and consultations with experts determined the
scope of the assessment for this study.

4.4

SURVEY AND DATA COLLECTION


The study team visited entire project area and information on various aspects of the project
was collected. Maps of the project area also provided valuable information regarding area
adjacent to the sites of overhead and ground level reservoirs and booster pumping
stations, waster distribution mains. The features studied included settlement facilities, land
use, drainage pattern of the area, ecosystems within the project area, other utility services,
cross roads, etc. The study of the above helped in enumerating areas of concern and
identifying critical issues.

4.2.3

Collation and Analysis of Data


The data collected from various sources and from surveys was used for analysis.
Supplementary information was collected from digitised maps, census handbooks and
other government publications as well as reports prepared for this water supply project.

4.2.4

Documentation of Baseline Conditions

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The documentation of the baseline conditions was completed for the entire project areas.
Data was collected with respect to ambient air quality, and noise levels to have an idea of
prevailing air and noise levels in the area. In addition to this data from secondary sources
was collected related to land use pattern, ground cover, drainage, settlements, other utility
services, cultural properties, archaeological monuments/ historical places.
4.2.6

Assessment of Potential Impacts


Potential and significant impacts were identified on the basis of analytical review of
baseline data; review of land uses and other environmental factors; analytical review of the
socio-economic conditions within the project area; and impact on other utility services
present in the project area particularly during the construction period.

4.2.7

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS:


MAINSTREAMING THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT
The design and decision-making process integrated environmental issues and prompted
the early identification of appropriate actions. Such actions included, for example,
suggestion of noise limits for the new pumps.

4.2.8

IDENTIFIED MITIGATION AND ENHANCEMENT MEASURES


Positive and suitable actions were determined, not only to avoid adverse impacts, but also
to capitalize on opportunities and to correct environmental degradation or improve
environmental conditions.

4.2.10

PREPARATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLANS

Environmental management plans have been prepared for construction and operational
phase of the project as part of the Environmental Assessment. Responsibilities have been
assigned for the various actions identified to limit the adverse impacts of the project. The
environmental management plans have been prepared for three phases namely Pre
Construction, Construction and Operation (Post Construction) phase.
4.5

Finalising the Environmental Assessment


The baseline environmental setting, the potential impacts and the plausible mitigation
measures have been supplemented based on the survey, and data collected from different
sources.

4.3.1

COMPLETING THE BASELINE


The baseline condition of the project area has been depicted based on the data collected
through field survey and literature review (documents and maps). The data included
ambient air and noise level in the area of influence of project , water resources, drainage,
land use pattern, soil condition, ecology, settlements, public utility etc. from various
government departments.

4.3.2

IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MODELLING


Impact assessment was carried out for key environmental parameters, which have been
documented in baseline environmental quality. In addition, the updated baseline and other
information collected about sensitive receptors during the subsequent site visits by the

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project team provided the basis of making more concrete assessment of impacts. Detailed
monitoring methodology for individual environmental component i.e., air, water, noise etc is
given in Environmental Monitoring Plan.
4.3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP)
Since the EMP are to become a part of the contract documents, therefore, it must contain all
the information that may be required for the successful implementation of the mitigation
and/or enhancement measures envisaged as part of the assessment. The summary impacts
for construction phase has been given in EMP. Mitigation and enhancement measures have
been specified along with a clear demarcation of responsibilities of the various institutions
responsible. A monitoring plan have been established to ensure ease of follow-up activities.

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5.1

Report

DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT

Baseline Environmental Status


The existing environmental set-up of the south II and South III project area has been
studied and described in subsequent sections.

5.2

Physical Resources

5.2.1

Meteorological / Climatic Conditions


Delhi is located at a latitude of 28o34 N and a longitude of 77o 07E having an elevation of
233 m above the mean sea level. The temperature of Delhi varies from 45oC in the
summer month of May to nearly 1oC in the winter month of January. The average mean
temperatures based on the observations from 1952 to 1980 are 31.60C (max) and 17.60C
(min). The mean relative humidity is 66%.
The months of July, August and September are monsoon months. The total annual rainfall
is about 800 mm out of which about 650 mm (80%) occurs in the monsoon month from
July to September.

5.2.2

Air Quality
The baseline ambient air quality to asses the project impacts has been collected from
the data base of National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Project of Central Pollution
Control Board, Delhi.
The data on ambient air quality for the locations situated in South II and South III zones is
presented in Table 6.1 for January 2004 ( Winter season) and in Table 6.2 for May 2004
(summer season)

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Table 5.1: Ambient Air Quality of Study Area ( January 2004)

PARAMETERS
/LOCATIONS

Siri Fort ( R )
Nizamuddin (R
)

SO2

NO2

SPM

(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)


Min. Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
5
9
7
0
7
11
8
0

(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)


Min Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
26
43
35
0
32
50
41
0

(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)


Min Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
141 369
241
86
187 381
294
75

PM 10

(24 HOURLY AV
Min. Max Mean
72
93

167
171

105
127

Table 5.2 : Ambient Air Quality of Study Area (May 2004)


PARAMETERS
/LOCATIONS

Siri Fort ( R )
Nizamuddin (R )

SO2
(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)
Min. Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
5
9
7
0
8
15
10
0

NO2
(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)
Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
21
44
35
0
32
56
42
0

Min

SPM
(24 HOURLY AVERAGE)
Max Mean Percentage
Exceedence
265 837
428
100
241 1008 508
100

Min

Source: .National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme, Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi

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(24 HOURLY AV
Min. Max Mean
119
114

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National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The permissible air quality standards for particulate
and gaseous pollutants are presented in Table 6.3 as stipulated by CPCB.

Table-5.3: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (CPCB, 1997)


Concentration in Ambient Air g/m3
Pollutant
Rural and
Industrial
Sensitive
Residential
Annual Average*
80
60
15
Sulphur Dioxide(SO2)
24 hr**
120
80
30
Oxides of Nitrogen (as
Annual Average*
80
60
15
NO2)
24 hr**
120
80
30
Suspended Particulate
Annual Average*
360
140
70
Matter (SPM)
24 hr**
500
200
100
Respirable Particulate
Annual Average*
120
60
50
Matter(<10m) (RPM)
24 hr**
150
100
75
Annual Average*
5
2
1
Carbon Monoxide mg/m3
24 hr**
10
4
2
*Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken for a week 24 hourly at
uniform interval.
** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should meet 98 percent of time in a year
Source: Central Pollution Control Board (1997) National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Series,
NAQMS/a/1996-97
Time Weighted
Average

It is observed from the baseline data that the parameters SO2 and NOx are with in the
prescribed standards for both the seasons. However SPM and Repairable particulate
matter (RSPM 10) are higher than the stipulated standards. SPM and RSPM 10 are
higher in summer compared to winter season because of increased dust generation in
Delhi in summer season.

5.2.3 Noise Environment


National Noise Standards: CPCB has specified ambient noise levels for different zones
for day and night times. Importance was given to the timing of exposure and areas
designated as sensitive. Table 5.4 gives the standards for noise levels. The noise level
at select locations in the project area are given in Table 5. 5

Table- 5.4: National Ambient Noise Level Standards (as per CPCB, India)
Area Code

Category

Limits in Decibels (dB(A))

Day Time
Night Time
A
Industrial
75
70
B
Commercial
65
55
C
Residential
55
45
D
Silence
50
40
Note : (1) Daytime : 6 AM to 10 PM, Night Time: 10 PM to 6 AM : (2) Silence zone is an
area up to 100 m around premises as hospitals, educational institutions and courts.
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi

Table 5.5 Noise Levels at Few Project Locations

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Noise Levels,
(dBA)

Standard (dBA)

All India Institute of Medical 60


sciences
2
Lajpat Nagar
66
3
New Friends Colony
57
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi
Noise Monitoring Time: 1800 hours to 2300 hours (Date 5th Nov 2005)

55
55
55

It is observed that ambient noise levels in Delhi including South II and South III project
zones is higher than the prescribed standards. The noise levels in the pumping
stations in South II and South III operation zone are expected to be much higher as most
of the pumps are old and inefficient causing high noise.

5.2.4 Water Environment:


5.2.4.1 Surface Water :
The River Yamuna flows from north to south and divides the city of Delhi into eastern
and western parts. A hard rocky ridge running from the Southern border of Delhi in the
south west in a north easterly direction to the western banks of River Yamuna near
Wazirabad Barrage forms the main watershed of Delhi. The topography created a
drainage system that carries rain and storm water from the higher elevations of the West
to the Yamuna. While this was the situation on the West of the Yamuna, the Eastern low
lying side was originally a part of the flood plain of the river and considered uninhabitable due to frequent floods. However, settlements in this area also began with the
immigration after year 1947. Today, this Eastern wing which is also known as the Trans
Yamuna area houses about 20% of the total population of Delhi.
There are 19 storm water drains which outfall into the Yamuna from Delhi region .
These are Supplementary drain, Najafgarh drain, Magazine Road Drain , Sweepers
Colony Drain , Kheybar Pass Drain, Metcalf House Drain, Qudsia Bagh , Mori Gate
Drain, Moat Drain , Civil Mill Drain , Rajghat / Delhi Gate Drain, Sen-Nursing Home
,Drain No. 14, Bara Pula Drain, Maharani Bagh Drain , Kalkaji Drain Tehkhand Drain,
Tuglakabad Drain and Trans Yamuna drain.
Out of these 19 drains, 15 drains outfall
into the Yamuna between Wazirabad and Okhla barrages along its right bank. Three
drains namely, the Kalkaji drain, the Tehkhand drain and the Tuglakabad drain outfall
into the Agra canal, downstream of Okhla weir and the 19th drain, the Trans Yamuna
drain or Shahadra drain outfalls from the left bank downstream of Okhla barrage.
These drains were originally constructed to carry storm water of Delhi. However, over
the years due to non functioning of the trunk sewers in most parts of the city and due to
non provision of sewerage system for nearly 45% of the population of Delhi living in
unauthorized colonies, slums and JJ clusters, all these drains are now carrying
untreated sewage from these areas and finally discharging it into the Yamuna.
Some of these drains like Bara pula drain, Maharani bag drain, Kalkaji drain, Tehkhand
drain etc get contribution of sewage generated from South II and South III zones. The
discharge and water quality of the select drains generating from South II and South III
zone are given in Table 6.6.

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Table 5.6 : Flow and Waste Load of Drains Flowing Through South II and South III
Zones
No.

Drain Name

Discharge
(mld)

BOD
(mg/l)

Total BOD
(t/day)

1
2
3

Sen-Nursing Home
Drain No. 14
Bara Pula Drain

100
153
255

280
320
165

28
49
42.1

Drainage
(Sewerage)
Zone
Okhla
Okhla
Okhla

Maharani Bagh Drain

64

370

23.7

Okhla

5
6

Kalkaji Drain
Tehkhand Drain

11
34

210
310

2.3
10.5

Okhla
Okhla

Tuglakabad Drain

150

1.2

Okhla

The highest load of 49 tons/day is generated by drain no 14 where as the lowest load of
1.2 tons/day is generated by Tugalkabad drain.
Poor condition of trunk sewers, shortage of sewage treatment capacity and lack of
sanitation facilities in unsewered areas of Delhi which account for nearly 50% of
population are responsible for sewage flowing in natural drains that causes continued
pollution of Yamuna in Delhi region. The problem is compounded by lack of minimum
perennial fresh water flow in the river along the 22 km stretch between Wazirabad and
Okhla.
The sewerage system in Delhi was constructed soon after New Delhi was built in year
1912 with the establishment of a sewage farm near Kilokari village where pumped
sewage was used for irrigation. In year 1938, first STP of 82 mld capacity was
constructed at Okhla. By year 1956, capacity of this plant was augmented to 164 mld.
Additional STPs were later constructed at Coronation Pillar (91 mld) and Keshopur (54
mld) in year 1957 and 1960, respectively. The treatment capacity increased from 257
mld in year 1961 to 1,290 mld in year 1993. At present there are 17 STPs of total
installed capacity of 2307 MLD out of which 67.5 MLD capacity STP at Rohini is under
construction.

Delhi has been divided into five drainage zones based on topography. They are as
follows:
1) Shahdara
2) Rithala-Rohini
3) Okhla
4) Keshopur
5) Coronation Pillar
Beside these, there are newly developed areas of Papankala (Dwarka), Vasant Kunj,
Sarita Vihar and Nerala.
The south II and South III OZs fall in the Okhala sewerage zone. Okhla zone is the
largest sewerage zone of Delhi. There are 12 trunk sewers in this zone measuring 57.3
kms. Out of this, the single largest Ring Road trunk sewer measures 13.5 kms. The
sewers were constructed at different times, the oldest one being the sewer from Delhi
Gate to Kilokari pumping station constructed in year 1919 and the most recent one being
the Masjid Moth trunk sewer and the Madangir trunk sewer both constructed in year
1978. The sizes vary from 1100 mm to 2740 mm.

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Yamuna river is the major surface water body in the Delhi region. The river is divided in
to five distinct hydraulic zones from origin to confluence with Ganga at Allahabad due
to construction of barrages and changes in water quality . Zone III Delhi stretch is the
most critically polluted stretch of Yamuna. The data obtained from Central Pollution
Control Board show that BOD ranges between 15 -33 mg/L , DO ranges between 0
0.9 mg/L and coliform count is more than 1 million in this highly polluted stretch of Delhi.
Overall this stretch of Yamuna river approximates an elongated sewage lagoon or
oxidation pond.
The permissible water quality for surface water which are source for drinking water
without treatment but after disinfection, outdoors bathing, drinking water source with
conventional treatment, propagation of wildlife, fisheries and for irrigation are presented
in Table 6.7 as lay down by CPCB.

S.No
1
2
3

4
5

7
8
9
10

11
12

Table 5.7 Indian Standard for the Surface Water (CPCB Standard)
B@
C@
D@
E@
Parameter
A@
pH
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.0
Colour ,Hazen
10
300
300
unit, max
Total
Not
Not
Not
Not
Not
Suspended
specified
specified
specified
specified
specified in
Solid
in
in
in
In
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Standard
Total Dissolved 500
1500
2100
Solid, mg/l,max
Free Ammonia
1.2
(as N),mg/l,
max
Sulphate
400
400
1000
(as SO4), mg/l,
max
Total Hardness
Not
Not
Not
Not
Not
as CaCO3
specified
specified
specified
specified
specified
Total Alkalinity
Not
Not
Not
Not
Not
as CaCO3
specified
specified
specified
specified
specified
Lead(as Pb)
0.1
0.1
mg/l, max
Dissolved
6
5
4
4
Oxygen, mg/l,
max
BOD, mg/l, min
2
3
3
COD
Not
Not
Not
Not
Not
specified
specified
specified
specified
specified

@
A- Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection.
B- Outdoors bathing
C- Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection.
D- Propagation of wildlife, fisheries.
E- Irrigation, Industrial cooling, controlled, controlling waste disposal.

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The water quality of Yamuna in Delhi stretch is designated as Class C however the
existing water quality is exceeding the criteria given for Class E.
5.2.4.2 Ground Water Resources
There are 396 tube wells in South II zone of which 338 are working. From these 338 ,
320 are in good condition, operating at optimum to normal efficiency. Only 18 nos. of
338 tube wells are in poor condition and are older than 10 years. These tube wells are
producing about 21,000 m3/day of water approximately 15% of the total water available
this zone. There is no chlorination facility on these tube wells.
South III zone has 372 tube wells of which 354 are working and 18 are abandoned by
DJB. All the 354 tube wells are operating at optimum to normal efficiency. The
estimated rate of production of ground water from these tube wells is about 20,000
m3/day, approximately 25% of the total available water for this OZ. No historical data
is available about the water quality with respect to physico chemical, bacteriological,
heavy metals and pesticides parameters of these wells
5.3

Land Environment
Delhi located at an altitude of 220m above MSL. The total area of Delhi is 1484 sq.km .
Delhi is situated on the banks of the river Yamuna, surrounded in the North, West and
South by the state of Haryana and in the East by the state of Utter Pradesh. The
Yamuna, which bisects Delhi, was its perennial source of water in earlier time.
New Delhi was planned as the capital of India in year 1912, taking into account the fact
that Delhi was located between the Ridge - a green lung that also acted as a buffer
against the dry winds from the Western dessert - and the Yamuna, which provided a
good flow of clean water. The topography created a drainage system that carried rain
and storm water from the higher elevations of the West to the Yamuna, providing a
natural drainage. The South II and South III zone are located in Southern part of Delhi
. The topography of the area is relatively flat and slope of drainage is eastwards towards
Yamuna. The entire South II and South III area is urban development with few gardens
and parks like Jahapanha forest and Siri forte garden located in between to act as a
breathing space

5.4

Economic Development
Okhala industrial estate is the major industrial area in the two OZs . The other parts of
South II and South III are mainly residential colonies with few commercial
establishments like Lajpatnagar market, M Block market and kalkaji market etc.

5.5

Socio-economic Environment
Delhis population has grown from 0.4 million in the year 1901 to around 14.54 million in
the year 2002. The projected population for the year 2032 is around 25.84 million. The
growth rate has exceeded 50% during the last two decades, while at present the
population influx is assessed at the rate of 0.5 to 0.6 million persons per year. The
census 2001 population along with estimated population for the year 2005 and
forecasted population for the year 2010 are given below.

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Zone
South II Zone
South III Zone

Report

2001
665 267
533 019

2005
767 785
615 159

2010
880 497
705 466

The economic condition of the people in two zones can be said as higher than the
average economic condition Delhi . However both the operation zones have slum
population.
A research study was commissioned with the Centre for Urban and Regional Excellence
(CURE) to determine the features of poor settlements. The population poor settlement
in each OZ was calculated using information from the CURE Focus Group Discussions
on the number of households and the household size in each settlement . From these
findings, an estimates of the number of people connected to the water supply network
for South III zone is made. The details of the location of poor settlements in South II
zone and South III zone are given in following Table 6.8 and 6.9 respectively.

Table 5.8 : Population of Poor Settlements in South II


Type of Settlement

Jugghi Jhopri Clusters


JJC
Resettlement Colonies RC
Unauthorised,
Regularised Colonies
URC
Unauthorised, Nonregularised Colonies
UNRC
Urban Villages UV
Total

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Number of
Settlement
s
48

Estimated
No of HH

Estimated Total
Population

45,000

230,000

3
10

4,000
31,000

20,000
170,000

20,000

150,000

9
79

40,000
140,000

240,000
810,000

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Table 5.9 : Poor Settlements in South III Zone


Type of Settlement

Tenure

Number of
Settlements

Estimate
d No of
HH

illegal

18

14,000

Estimated
number of
unconnected
(%)*
100%

Jugghi Jhopri
Clusters JJC
Resettlement
Colonies RC
Unauthorised,
Regularised Colonies
URC
Unauthorised, Nonregularised Colonies
UNRC
Urban Villages UV
Total

legal

23,000

0%

mixed

legal

14,000

0%

mixed

legal

900

10%

mixed

legal

18
52

35,000
86,900

0%

low

Extent
of
Poverty*
*
high

* To legal connections
** Extent of poverty:
High: Majority of HHs in most settlements have income of under Rs 2500/month
Mixed: Some HHs in most settlements have income of under Rs 2500/month, most
above
Rs 5000/month
Low: Most households have income of above Rs 5000/month

5.5

Cultural / aesthetic Environment


Humayun tomb and Siri forte are the important archeological structures in the two OZs.
However there are also many small, less prominent structures of archeological
importance in these two OZs.

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6
6.1

Report

ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS

Introduction
This chapter of the report provides an assessment of the potential impacts on different
identified environmental components, which are likely to occur during the preconstruction, construction and operational phase of the project. However, the majority of
the assessed impacts can be mitigated through the incorporation of appropriate
measures at appropriate stages of the project. This will ensure minimum damage to the
environment due to the said project.

6.2

Physical Environment

6.2.1

Meteorological Parameters
The entire project area is in a sub-tropical region with three prominent seasons
(summer, monsoon, and winter). No change in the macro-climatic setting (precipitation,
temperature and wind) is envisaged due to the project.

6.2.2

Air Environment
Design and Pre Construction Phase
In the pre-construction phase the activities like opening the pipelines, movement of
workers and materials, movement of vehicles carrying construction machinery and
materials will generate dust. In the pre- construction stage dust would be the
predominant pollutant due to these activities.
Construction Phase
The important activities during the construction phase that produce gaseous pollutants
and particulate matter and affect the air quality are listed below:
Digging trenches for laying pipes. Material storage, transportation and handling of
construction materials like cement, sand, and aggregates are the activities due to
which suspended particulate matter will increase. Movement of construction vehicles will
generate gaseous pollutants and particulate matter.
Besides, laying of pipelines, construction works like repair of reservoir and over head
service reservoir will affect its surrounding residents. Appropriate mitigation measure will
be employed during this stage to reduce the pollution level to acceptable limit.
Operational Phase
During operational stage chemicals like chlorine are used in water treatment plant in the
form of gas. Chlorine gas could be emitted into the atmosphere due to leakage at
chlorination facility and pollute the surroundings. It is recommended to install chlorine
sensors to check leakages from chlorine cylinders to the surrounding air.

6.2.3

Noise and Vibrations


Pre Construction Phase

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Noise level during this phase will increase due to the activities like movement of
construction machinery and vehicles, clearing of obstruction and breaking the black top
of the road during opening the water supply and sewer pipelines. But these activities are
not likely to generate high noise levels.
These activities during this phase will prevail only for the short duration and therefore,
noise pollution is not likely to be significant.
Construction Phase
During the construction phase, operation of concrete mixers, power shovels for digging
trenches for laying pipes would generate appreciable amount of noise. But all such
impacts will be temporary in nature and will cease as soon as the construction work is
over. The main sources of noise during construction period are:
Site preparation, movement of vehicles during the construction period for the
transportation of construction materials; operation of power shovels, concrete mixing
plants, if required.
The construction traffic for loading and unloading, fabrication, handling of equipment
and materials is likely to cause an increase in the ambient noise levels. The areas
affected are those, close to the site.

At the peak of the construction an increase of about 10 dB(A) (Canter, 1977) is


expected to occur.
The peak noise levels for non-continuous construction activity may be as high
as 90 dB(A) (Canter, 1977). For the sake of understanding, typical noise levels
generated by some of the construction equipment are given Table 7.6.

Table 6.6 Noise Levels Generated By Some of the Construction Equipment


Equipment
Earth Movers
Front Loaders
Backhoes
Tractors
Scrapers, Graders
Pavers
Trucks
Material Handlers
Concrete Mixers
Concrete Pumps
Cranes
Stationary
Generators

Noise Level
(dB (A)

Reference Distance

72-84
72-93
76-96
80-93
86-88
82-94

0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m

75-88
81-83
75-86

0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m

71-82

0.9 m

On the whole, the impact of generated noise on the environment will not be significant,
reversible and local in nature and mainly confined to the hours of construction activity.
Operational Phase
During the operation phase, noise will be generated due to the operation of the pumps.
Pumps will be used for pumping water to reservoirs and intermediate boosting locations
for pumping into distribution system .

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The operation of pumps (assumed two in no. per pump house) will result in an
insignificant increase in noise levels in the surrounding background noise. It is expected
that under the rehabilitation programme new efficient , less noise generating pumps will
replace old, obsolete, inefficient and high noise generating pumps. This in turn will
reduce the ambient noise levels near the pumping stations.
In order to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the operation of pumps on the
surrounding noise levels, propagation modelling has been resorted to. The description of
the propagation modelling, methodology and the results of the same are presented in
subsequent sections.
Propagative Modelling
A propagation model has been used to predict the noise levels at various distances
around a single source or multiple sources. The model takes into account that
propagation and attenuation of noise pressure wave are dependent on many factors,
important amongst them being the medium of travel and the ambient conditions. The
model uses the following formula as a basis for such predictions.
(Lob)

(Lr) - (LDiv) - (LAtm)

Where
(Lob)
(Lr)

=
=

Observed noise level at distance R from source.


Noise level of source measured at reference distance r.

(LDiv)

Loss due to divergence at Distance R from source.

The three terms are further defined as :


(LDiv)
Where,
R

20 Log (R/r)

Distance at which noise level is to be computed.

(LAtm)

=
Attenuation due to atmosphere at distance R from
source
=
a x R/100

Where a is atmospheric attenuation coefficient in dB(A)/100m.


The total impact (Lob) of all the sources at particular place is then estimated by
adding as the contribution of noise from each of the following sources, as

( Leq ) = 10 log ii==1n [ 10( Lob )i /10]


follows:
Where n

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The calculated noise levels are further superimposed (logarithmically) on the


background noise levels. The model assumes that the noise spectrum is mainly
centered around a spectrum of 1000 Hz and does not account for attenuation due to
building materials.
Noise Modelling

The incremental increase in noise levels due to the operation of the pump house
has been done considering the running of two pumps. The noise generated by
each of the pumps is taken as 85 dB (A). For the sake of simplicity, both the
pumps are assumed to be installed side by side with an inter-distance of 2 m.

Based on the above, noise propagation modeling was carried out to assess the
post project noise scenario using NOISE" model. The result of the model was
superimposed on the baseline noise levels representing the background noise
levels of the area to predict the resultant noise level. The resultant noise level
represents the conservative estimate of the cumulative impact of the operation
of the pumps on the surrounding noise environment. This resultant noise level at
the battery limit of the pump house has been evaluated vis--vis Ambient Noise
Quality Standards in respect of Noise specified under Noise Pollution (regulation
and control) Rules, 2000.

The model considered monitored background noise level of the project area as
55 dB (A). Within the near vicinity of the pumps, model results show maximum
increment in the baseline ambient noise level in order of 19 dB(A) occurring in
the vicinity of the source. There after the noise level gets attenuated rapidly and
within a distance of 25 m from the pumps, there will be negligible impact (3 dBA)
in the baseline noise level. This shows that as we go radially outwards from the
noise source, the impact becomes insignificant and the resulting noise levels
can be assumed to be approaching the background noise level of 55 dB(A).

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The isopleths of the predicted noise levels are shown in Figure 7.1.

Fig 7.1 Isopleths of Noise Levels


Noise will also be generated due to movement of traffic i.e. movement of vehicles for
transporting chemicals and movement of staff at treatment plant locations during
operation phase. Appropriate mitigation measures are suggested in Environment
Management plan.
6.2.4

Water and Drainage


Construction Phase
Due to construction activity water will be required for mixing of raw materials. This could
affect marginally on water demand but for a limited period.
Operational Phase
There will be increase in water demand due to increase number of supply hours and
increase in customer connections. This will be met from additional water available from
new water treatment plant being constructed at Sonia Vihar.
The ground water table in south Delhi is likely to improve as the existing tube wells
will be phased out over a period of time.

Drainage

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The sewerage system in the project area is in dismal condition due to silting and
settlement of trunk, secondary and tertiary sewers. The large portion wastewater at the
moment overflows in the natural drains that meet the Yamuna river. Implementation of
this project will improve the carrying capacity of sewer network and reduce discharge of
untreated sewage into Yamuna river. This is a positive development that has larger
positive impacts on public health.
6.3

Land Environment

6.3.1

Disposal of Excess Earth


Rehabilitation of water transmission lines and sewer lines would require excavation and
disposal of excess earth would be an important environmental issue. However these
strips of excavated earth will be spread over a large area .The excess earth can be used
as filling earth for the project construction activities and remaining earth can be used as
for filling low lying areas in the vicinity.

6.3.2

Contamination of the Soil


Contamination of soil during construction phase is primarily due to allied activities. The
sites where construction vehicles are parked and serviced are likely to be contaminated
because of leakage or spillage of fuel and lubricants. Contamination of soil during
construction might be a major long-term residual negative impact. Unwarranted disposal
of construction spoil and debris will add to soil contamination.

6.4

Ecological Resources
No wild life has been recorded from the project influenced area. Hence, proposed
project will not have any impact on wildlife.
No impact on the flora or other ecological setting of the area is envisaged in this project

6.5

Human Use Values

6.5.1

Health and Safety


Design and Pre-construction Phase
No impact on health and safety has been envisaged in design phase. In the pre
construction phase dust will be produced due to site clearance, which may lead to
respiratory trouble to the construction labour or other person in exposure.
Construction Phase
During the construction period the dust released around the construction sites may lead
to a number of respiratory diseases. Excessive production of noise during construction
may cause disturbance to the residents living in the nearby areas (if exposed for a very
long period).
Operational Phase
In the operational phase the constant noise produced by the pumps could create hearing
problems to the workers. The positive impact of the project will be the supply of safe
drinking water quality to the people that will reduce health problems to the local
population and bring in economic prosperity.

6. 5.2 Land Acquisition

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No land acquisition is envisaged in this project. The construction phase will trigger job
opportunities for local labours and business potential for material suppliers.
7.6

Aesthetics
The construction activity will involve activities like excavation, transport of materials to
construction site and dumps of construction material at site,. All these activities will
generate dust, noise and fumes, which will give a unaesthetic look to the project site.
The deterioration in aesthetic look of the project site cannot be avoided during
construction phase proper mitigation measures are suggested to minimise the same.
However after completion of construction phase the excavated areas will be leveled up.
New plantations and gardens at the reservoir sites will improve the aesthetics of the
area.

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MITIGATION, AVOIDANCE AND


ENHANCEMENT MEASURES
In the Impact Chapter it has already been discussed that the implementation of
Implementation Support for Achieving 24 hours Water Supply in Delhi Phase-I
Distribution Improvement project will have certain negative impacts on various
environmental components, during pre-construction and construction stages of the
project. Though conscious efforts have been made to minimise the impacts on various
environmental components, certain adverse impacts are inevitable.
The formulation of mitigation as well as avoidance of adverse impacts of the proposed
project has been an iterative process. The reduction in magnitude of the adverse
impacts during various stages of the project can be achieved through:
Avoid adverse impacts; and
Suitable mitigation measures for unavoidable negative impacts on the environmental
components.
These measures have been incorporated into the various stages of the project. Based
on their applicability, both general and case specific measures were incorporated as
follows:
General measures: To avoid or mitigate impacts on environmental components,
general mitigation measures have been identified.
Generic: For various adverse/negative impact mitigation measures have been prepared
at a generic level so that they could be applied to the strategic locations. The mitigation
measures suggested to minimize the adverse impacts envisaged due to the project is
described in the following sub sections.

7.1

Avoidance and Mitigation Measures


The avoidance and mitigation measures are discussed in the same order as impacts
identified in Chapter 6 where impacts have been assessed for each of the environmental
components.

7.1.1

Meteorological Parameters
As no significant impact on the local meteorological conditions has been identified in the
impact analysis chapter therefore, no particular measures has been suggested.

8.1.2

Air
Mitigative, Preventive and Enhancement Measures

For suggesting different preventive and mitigative measures, for all the three stages of the
project implementation (pre-construction, construction and operational stage) the first
preference shall be given to preventive measures and control at source or point of pollution
generation and the last preference is for the measures for protection from exposure of
different receptors. The analysis of expected levels of pollutants emitted from different
sources over and above the contribution from back ground sources reflected that major air
pollutant of concern are dust generated during construction stage.

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Pre-construction Stage

The activities like site clearance and excavation for rehabilitation work would generate
considerable amount of dust. Water should be sprinkled to settle the dust generated.

Construction Stage

During construction stage, the major sources of air pollution are construction activities,
movement of trucks for unloading raw materials or transporting construction debris, which
cause primarily dust emission. The mitigation measure is restricting loading and unloading of
construction materials/ debris in the prominent down wind direction. If possible, confine the
storage of construction materials at a significant distance away from houses (where ever
possible). Moreover, the specific measures include:

Vehicles delivering loose and fine materials like sand and fine aggregates shall be
covered to reduce spills on roads.

Watering of all the temporary roads and construction site shall be done to reduce the air
born dust emission within limits so that good visibility is maintained. The guidelines that
can be adopted are given in Table 7.1.

Water will be sprayed on earthworks, temporary haulage and detour roads on a regular
basis.

To ensure the control of exhaust gas emissions from the various construction activities,
the contractor shall also take up the following mitigation measures:

To ensure the efficiency of the mitigation measures suggested, air quality monitoring should
be carried out at least once a month during the period of the hot mix plant is in operation.

All vehicles, equipment and machinery used for construction will be regularly maintained to
ensure that the pollution emission levels conform to the central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB) norms. A vehicle management schedule prepared by the contractor and approved
by the Independent Engineer shall be adhered to.

The random ambient air monitoring shall ensure that the significant impacts are being
mitigated adequately. If not then the Independent engineer shall also enforce certain
additional control measures.
Table- 7.1. Percentage Reduction to Emission Factor during Construction Phase

Mitigation Measure
Watering- periodic spraying

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Factor of Reduction (%)


35

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Watering wind activated spraying


system

65

Chemical wetting agent or foam

70

Surface crusting Agent

80

Source: US - EPA 1985

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Operation Stage

7.1.3

Accidental release of chlorine from chlorine cylinders can be source of pollutant


in operation phase. It is suggested that chlorine sensors to deploy in chlorine
rooms. Sensors will activate alarm in case chlorine leakage

Noise
Mitigation, Avoidance and Enhancement Measures of Noise Environment
An integrated noise mitigation strategy is proposed, which include preventive and control
measures at different stage while noise propagates from sources to receptors. The first
among the preferences is to control emission of noise at the source itself then comes
noise control within the sound transmission pathway.
Noise levels measured during base line studies as well as predicted noise levels for the
operation phase of the project at different locations of the receptors at different distances
reflected that the noise level exceed the CPCB standards.
The WHO guidelines given in Table 7.2, besides CPCB Standards are considered for
evolving the extent of noise attenuation required.
Table - 7.2: WHO Guideline for Community Noise in Specific Environments

Specific
Environment
Outdoor living area

Dwelling, indoors

Inside bedrooms
Outside bedrooms
School class rooms
and pre-school,
indoors
Pre-school
bedrooms, indoors
School, playground
outdoor
Hospital, ward
room, indoors

Leq
(dB)
55

Time base
(hours)
16

La max, fast
(dB)
-

Moderate
annoyance,
daytime and evening
Speech intelligibility and
moderate
annoyance,
daytime and evening

50

16

35

16

Sleep Disturbance, nighttime


Sleep disturbance, window
open (outdoor values)
Speech
intelligibility
disturbance of information
extraction,
message
communication
Sleep disturbance

30

45

45

60

35

During
class

30

45

55

Sleeping
time
During play

30

40

30

16

As low
as
possible
70

24

110

Critical Health Effect(s)


Serious
annoyance,
daytime and evening

Hospitals, treatment
room, indoors

Annoyance
(external
source)
Sleep disturbance, nighttime
Sleep disturbance, daytime
and evenings
Interference with rest and
recovery

Industrial,

Hearing impairment

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commercial
shopping and traffic
areas, indoors and
outdoors
Outdoors in
parkland and
conservation areas

Report

Disruption of tranquility

Construction Phase
Noise emission control at the source is the prime focus of mitigation planning strategy
during construction phase. Because during construction stage the workers on the job are
the first to be protected from occupational exposure, for that, proper selection of low
noise emitting equipment machinery or plants to be selected. Further, in case, the
required low noise equipments are not available then insulation barrier of adequate
design should be used for enclosing them. During construction, the personal protection
of workers by adopting earmuff needs to be adopted. Besides careful planning on
scheduling of operation or locating noisy plants, construction yards etc., at a safe
distance with respect to the sensitive receptors like schools, hospitals etc. shall also be
able to avoid or reduce unwanted noise exposure. Detail mitigation measures are:

For procuring equipments, the noise emission standards (in absence of suitable
Indian norms the appropriate international guideline on the subject will be
considered) in the case of all vehicles, plants, equipments and construction
machinery selection shall be taken into consideration. First priority shall be is to
avoid occupational exposure and keep emission to safe levels of 90dB(A) for
eight hours.

Equipments, machinery and vehicles will be operated and monitored with


particular attention to minimize noise mission adopting silencers and mufflers.

For mitigating noise exposure from construction plants during its propagation
pathway, a safe distance between noise source and receptor (more than 200
mts) in addition to enclosing these plants by barriers (through temporary) to
enclose the whole construction zones shall be done.

Mitigation measures to protect worker from exposure will include providing


earplugs to workers.

Operational Phase
The specific measures proposed for this phase is limiting noise emission from pumps.
This is done selecting pumps with maximum noise emission levels of 85 dBA.
7.1.4 Water Resources and Drainage

No negative impacts on surface water bodies have been envisaged.


Drainage
The contractor will remove obstructions that may cause any temporary flooding of local
drainage channels during construction. No spoil or construction material will be stored
outside the proposed construction sites or at places obstructing the natural drainage
system.

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In sections along watercourses, the contractor will ensure that earth; stone or any other
construction material shall be disposed off immediately at the designated landfill site so
as to avoid blocking the flow of water along those channels.
All necessary precautions will be taken to construct temporary or permanent devices to
prevent inundation. Temporary drains for collection and disposal of runoff into natural
drainage system will be constructed. The contractor will take all the necessary measures
to prevent temporary or permanent flooding of the work site or any adjacent area.
7.1.5

Land Environment
With an increase in the traffic volume due to transport of raw material to the construction
sites, the contamination of the soil adjacent to the roads used is likely, even though the
effect due to this will be very localised.
At the various construction sites, the vehicles and equipment will be maintained and
refuelled in such a fashion that oil/diesel spillage does not contaminate the soil. All
spills and petroleum products shall be disposed off suitably.
It will be required that the cut and fill works are carried out strictly in accordance to the
design drawings. All spoils will be disposed off and the site will be fully cleaned before
handing over. The construction wastes will be dumped in Delhi municipality dumping
site/ approved by the MCD.

7.1.11 Safety Measures


Construction sites will be provided with First Aid boxes. Protective equipment will be
provided for work force as safety measures.
During construction phase, workers will be provided personal protective equipments,
which are listed below:
masks to avoid dust
earplug to avoid high noise level
gum boot, gloves and helmets for general safety.
Traffic Safety Plans
Construction Stage: Construction activities cause hindrance to traffic movement and are
also hazardous for the traffic. Traffic management plans shall be prepared and temporary
diversion routes will be identified to divert traffic from construction locations. There will be
barricades for diverting the traffic. Signboards indicating construction sites on the road and
flags shall be erected. All the signboards will have caution.
7.2

Environmental Enhancements
Environmental Enhancements specifically refer to these positive actions to be taken up
during the implementation of the project for the benefit of the users and the communities
living close to project. The enhancements have been suggested with the objective to
enhance the appeal and aesthetics quality of the project.

7.2.2

Plantation Around Sites


The ambience around the pumping stations shall be enhanced, principally through
plantation of various types of shade and ornamental trees along with shrubs. Beside the
aesthetic value tree plantations have manifold benefits. They may help in reducing the

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air pollution levels, especially SPM in the surrounding area. A marginal decrease of 3 to
4 dB(A) in noise levels may also be expected due to the plantation used for landscaping.
The contractors will do the plantation around the sites (pump houses) wherever space is
available. DJB will supervise survival rate of trees. Later DJB themselves or through
private operator will maintain the plantation.
7.3

Environmental Management Plans


Environmental Management Plans have been prepared intended to become a part of the
contract documents so that implementation of all the environmental measures can be
ensured. The implementation actions, responsibilities and timeframes have been
specified for each component and adverse impact anticipated. Separate sections detail
out the monitoring plan, a comprehensive monitoring system.

7.3.1

Reporting System
The Monitoring and Evaluation of the management measures envisaged are critical
activities in implementation of the project. The rationale for a reporting system is based
on accountability to ensure that the measures proposed as part of the Environmental
Management Plan get implemented in the project.

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IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENT

Introduction
The Monitoring and Evaluation are critical activities in implementation of the Project.
Monitoring involves periodic checking to ascertain whether activities are going according
to the plans. It provides the necessary feedback for project management to keep the
program on schedule. The rationale for a reporting system is based on accountability to
ensure that the measures proposed as part of the Environmental Management Plan get
implemented in right time. This chapter summarizes the existing institutional structure
and proposed reporting structure.

8.2

Existing Institutional Arrangements


The existing organization structure of DJB and other stakeholders is summarized in the
following section. DJB has an organization structure at the corporate and project level.
The reporting structure between the two levels is shown in the Figure 8.1.

8.2.1

Corporate Level
In the DJB organisation structure, in the project implementation level (at each
operational zone) executive engineer heads the team and will be responsible for
effective implementation of the project activities. He is assisted by
zonal engineer and assistant engineer (mechanical). Zonal engineer and assistant
engineer (mechanical) are assisted by Junior engineers (civil) and Junior engineers
(mechanical). Skilled supporting staffs are there to help these junior engineers. The
structure of DJB has been shown in Figure 8.1.

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Executive Engineer

Administration

Technical Unit

Zonal Engineer

Junior Engineers (civil)

Skilled Technical Staff

Revenue

Assistant Engineer

Junior Engineers (Mechanical)

Skilled Technical Staff

Figure 8.1: Organizational Chart of the Operational Zone


8.3

Other Stakeholders
The other stakeholders, who assist DJB, include Management Contractor, and
Independent Engineer.

8.3.1

Independent Engineer (IE)


The IE will have the powers and responsibility for the approval of quality of work of the
contractor.

8.3.2

Management Contractor (MC)


The execution of the works will be responsibility of the MC. The contractors will be
appointed through Competitive Bids. It is expected that the same contractors who will do
construction work will also implement the environmental measures. It will be ensured
that each contractor will have enough environmental expertise to incorporate
environmentally benign construction practices. Though each contractor will have a setup for executing works specified in the EMP, it is expected that staff will be appointed to
implement EMP for the successful completion of the works entrusted. The contractors
are recommended to employ Environmental Engineer/s. The roles and responsibilities of
these engineers are given below.

Ensuring that proper environmental safeguards are being maintained at


construction sites.

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Ensure that proper facilities are available for the monitoring of ambient air quality
and collection of water and soil samples as mentioned in the environmental
monitoring plan
Ensure analysis and reporting of monitoring results

Environmental Reporting System (ERS)


Environmental monitoring will involve periodic checking to ascertain whether
environmental activities are going according to the EMP. It provides the necessary
feedback for project management to keep the program on schedule. The evaluation is
essentially a summing up of the project assessment of whether those activities have
actually achieved their outcomes. The important features of ERS are summarised below.

The reporting system will operate linearly with the contractor who is at the lowest
rank of the implementation system. The contractor will report to the IE and
executive engineer.

All reporting by the contractor shall be on a quarterly basis throughout the


construction period.

The IE shall monitor all subsequent reporting by the contractor as per the targets
set by them before the contractor move on to the site.

The compliance monitoring and the progress reports on environmental components


may be clubbed together and submitted to the DJB, periodically during the
implementation period for each construction locations in the entire operational zone.

During the implementation period, a compliance report may include description of


the items of EMP, which were not complied with by any of the responsible
agencies. This would help in rationalising the implementation of the EMP during
the remaining duration of implementation. Solutions for further effective
implementation should also come out as a result of the compliance monitoring
reports.

Photographic records will also be established to provide useful environmental


monitoring tools.

A full record will be kept as part of normal contract monitoring. Reporting and
Monitoring Systems for various stages of construction and related activities have
been proposed to ensure timely and effective implementation of the EMP.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Mitigation Measures
This chapter summarizes the mitigation measures that form part of environmental
management plan for the potential significant impacts identified for the 24 hours
Water Supply in Delhi Phase-I Distribution Improvement project.

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____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 9.1 Environmental Management Action Plan


Environmental
Issue
PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE
P. 1 Tree Cutting
(Throughout the
Project area)
P. 2 Relocation of
Community utilities

Mitigation Measures

Required permission from the nodal agency like Forest


Department will be obtained by the contractor, if required.
Disposal of the trees will be done as per the existing MCD norm
in consultation with Independent Engineer and DJB officials.
All community utilities i.e., Transformers, Low Tension line, High
Tension lines, telecommunication lines, and electric poles which
exist at overhead and ground level reservoir locations and
pipeline routes which are going to be effected due to this project
will be shifted prior to the commencement of the work.

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB
Officials

Contractor,
Independent
Engineer
and
DJB
Officials

Independent
Engineer and DJB
Officials

Contractor

Independent
Engineer

All these structures will be relocated with prior approval of the


concerned agencies before construction starts.
The contractor will relocate these properties in consultation and
agreement with the concerned agencies under the supervision of
Independent Engineer.
P.3 Other
Construction
Vehicles, Equipment
and Machinery

All vehicles, equipment and machinery to be procured for


construction will confirm to the relevant Bureau of India Standard
(BIS) norms.
The discharge standards promulgated under the Environment
Protection Act, 1986 will be strictly adhered to.
Noise limits for construction equipments will not exceed 75 dB
(A), measured at one meter from the edge of the equipment in
free area, as specified in the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

P.4 . Disposal of
excavation debris
and surplus earth, if
any

Contractor will make all efforts to use excess earth generated due
to excavation of pipeline trenches for refilling the trench.
However, if additional soil is required for filling it will be done by
excavation from burrow areas. Contractor to identify area for
disposal of surplus earth and burrow area for filling and will obtain
approval of Independent Engineer before commencement of
work.

Contractor

The asphalt debris generated due to the excavation of road top to


open the pipeline (water as well as sewer ) will be disposed off to
the municipality disposal ground or may be used by the
contractor elsewhere or MCD may use it in the solid wastes
dumping ground for haul road construction.
CONSTRUCTION STAGE
Construction Stage Activities by Contractor
C.1 Construction
The pre-identified dump locations will be a part of
Wastes Disposal
comprehensive solid waste management plan to be prepared by

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Environmental
Issue

Mitigation Measures
the Contractor in consultation with Independent Engineer.

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision
Officials

Location of disposal site will be finalized prior to commencement


of the excavation on any section of the project location. The
Independent Engineer will approve the disposal site. If wastes
are to be disposed to municipality solid waste ground then, prior
permission need to be taken from competent authorities.
Contractor will ensure that any spoils of material unsuitable will
not be disposed off in any roadside municipality waste disposal
place along the project area.
C.2. Planning for
Traffic Diversions
and Detours

While laying the pipe lines through the road temporary traffic
diversions will be arranged with the approval of the Independent
Engineer.

Contractor

Independent
Engineer
and DJB Official

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Detailed Traffic Control Plans will be prepared and submitted to


the Independent Engineer for approval. The necessary
permission required from local traffic police and the contractor will
obtain local municipal authorities. The traffic control plans shall
contain details of temporary diversions, details of arrangements
for construction under traffic, details of traffic arrangement after
cessation of work each day, safety measures for transport of
hazardous materials and arrangement of flagmen. Public would
be inform through sign boards and local press five days prior to
commencement of work regarding traffic diversion.
The Contractor will ensure that the diversion/detour is always
maintained in running condition to avoid disruption to traffic flow.
The contractor will also inform of changes to traffic routes,
conditions and pedestrian access arrangements. The temporary
traffic detours will be kept free of dust by frequent sprinkling of
water.
The contractor will take all necessary measures for the safety of
traffic during construction work i.e. laying pipeline on the road and
provide, erect and maintain barricades, including signs, marking,
flags, lights, fluorescent construction site marking tapes and
flagmen as may be required by the Independent Engineer for the
information and protection of traffic approaching or passing
through the section of any existing cross roads.
The contractor will ensure that all signs, barricades, pavement
markings are provided.
C.3 Procurement of Construction Materials
C.3.1 Transporting
Contractor will maintain all roads (existing or built for the project),
Construction
which are used for transporting construction materials, equipment
Materials and Haul
and machineries.
Road Management
All vehicles delivering construction materials to the site will be
covered to avoid spillage of materials thus preventing pollution of

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Environmental
Issue

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision

environment.
All existing highways and roads used by vehicles of the
contractor, or any of his sub-contractor or suppliers of materials
and similarly roads, which are part of the works, will be kept clean
and clear of all dust/mud or other extraneous materials dropped
by such vehicles.
Contractor will arrange for regular water sprinkling at least twice a
day (i.e., morning, and evening) for dust suppression of the
construction sites.
The unloading of materials at construction sites close to
settlements will be restricted to daytime only.
C.3.2 Construction
Water

Contractor will arrange adequate supply and storage of water for


the whole construction period at his own costs.

Contractor.

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor.

Independent
Engineer, DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer
DJB

The contractor will identify source of water for construction and


seek permission from Independent Engineer before finalization.
He will be also responsible for taking permission from statutory
agency, if required. The contractor will take all precaution to
minimize the wastage of water in the construction process.
C.4 Construction work

C.4. 1 Leakage of
water pipeline or
sewer line and its
Control

Contractor will take all necessary measures to prevent the


leakage of water from pipe line or sewer line under construction
(rehabilitation).
Contractor is required to provide cross drainage pipes of
appropriate capacity that would be approved by Independent
Engineer wherever transmission line are laid on embankment
above ground. This will be required to provide smooth passage to
drainage.
In addition to the design requirements, the contractor will take all
required measures as directed by the Independent Engineer to
prevent flooding of the site or any adjacent area.

C. 5 Pollution
C.5.1 Water Pollution
C.5.1
The Contractor will take all precautionary measures to prevent
Water Pollution from the wastewater during construction to accumulate anywhere.
Construction
Wastewater
All waste arising from the project is to be disposed off in the
manner that is acceptable to the Independent Engineer and
conforming to Delhi Pollution Control committee norms.

and

C. 5. 2 Air and Noise Pollution


C.5.2.1 Dust
Pollution from
construction sites

The contractor will take every precaution to reduce the level of


dust at all construction sites due to various construction activities
by frequent sprinkling of water.

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor will use dust screens around the construction site,


i.e., opening excavation of trenches for laying pipeline/ or

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C.5.2 .2 Emission
from Construction
Vehicles, Equipment
and Machineries

C5.2.4.3 Noise
Pollution:
Noise from Vehicles,
Plants and
Equipments

reopening the pipeline.


Contractor will ensure that all vehicles, equipment and
machinery used for construction are regularly maintained and
confirm that pollution emission levels comply with the relevant
requirements of Delhi Pollution Control Committee. The
Independent Engineer will be required to inspect regularly to
ensure the compliance.
The Contractor will conform the following:

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision
Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

All plants and equipment used in construction shall strictly


conform to the MoEF/CPCB noise standards.
All vehicles and equipment used in construction will be fitted
with exhaust silencers.
Servicing of all construction vehicles and machinery will be
done regularly and during routine servicing operations, the
effectiveness of exhaust silencers will be checked and if
found defective will be replaced.

C. 6 Safety
C.6.1 Personal
Safety Measures for
Labour

Contractor will provide:


Protective footwear, and gloves to all workers employed for
the work on mixing, cement, lime mortars, concrete etc. and
opening water pipeline/sewer line
welders protective eye-shields to workers who are engaged
in welding works
Earplugs to workers exposed to loud noise, and workers
working in crushing, compaction, or concrete mixing
operation.
Safety belts to the labours working at higher platforms like
over head reservoirs etc.

The contractor will strictly follow the statuary child labour act.
The contractor will also ensure that no paint containing lead or
lead products is used except in the form of paste or readymade
paint.
Contractor will provide facemasks for use to the workers when
paint is applied in the form of spray.
C.6.2 Precautionary
/ Safety Measures
during Construction

The contractor will comply with all the precautions as required for
the safety of the workmen as per the International Labour
Organization (ILO) Convention No. 62 as far as those are
applicable to this contract.
The contractor will make sure that during the construction work:

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Environmental
Issue

Mitigation Measures

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision

All relevant provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 and the


Building and other Construction Workers (regulation of
Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1996 will be
adhered to.
Adequate safety measures for workers during handling of
materials at site will be taken up.
The contractor will comply with all regulations regarding safe
scaffolding, ladders, working platforms, gangway, stairwells,
excavations, and safe means of entry and exit .
C.6.3 Risk from
Electrical Equipment

The contractor will comply the relevant industrial electrical safety


legislations.

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

The Contractor will take adequate precautions to prevent danger


from electrical equipment i.e.,
no material will be so stacked or placed as to cause danger or
inconvenience to any person or the public.
all necessary fencing and lights will be provided to protect the
public .
all machines to be used in the construction will conform to the
relevant Indian Standards (IS) codes, will be free from patent
defect, will be kept in good working order, will be regularly
inspected and properly maintained as per IS provision and to
the satisfaction of the Independent Engineer.
C.6.4 First Aid

The contractor will arrange for

C.5.5 Informatory
Signs and Hoardings

A readily available first aid kit including an adequate supply of


sterilized dressing materials and appliances as per the
Factories Rules of Delhi at every workplace
Suitable transport to take injured or sick person(s) to the
nearest hospital.
The contractor will provide, erect and maintain informatory/
safety signs, hoardings written in English, and Hindi wherever
required or as suggested by the Independent Engineer.

C. 7 Plantation/ Preservation/ Conservation Measures


C.7.1 Flora
Protection

The contractor will take reasonable precaution to prevent his


workmen and employees from removing and damaging any flora
(plant/vegetation) from the project area.

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

C.7.2 Chance Found


Archaeological
Property

All fossils, coins, articles of value of antiquity, structures and


other remains or things of geological or archaeological interest
discovered on any project location during excavation/
construction shall be the property of the Government, and shall
be dealt with as per provisions of the relevant legislation.

Contractor

Independent
Engineer and DJB

The contractor will take reasonable precaution to prevent his


workmen or any other persons from removing and damaging any
such article or thing. He will, immediately upon discovery thereof
and before removal acquaint the Independent Engineer of such

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Mitigation Measures

Responsibility
Implementation
Supervision

discovery and carry out the Independent Engineers instructions


for dealing with the same, till then all work shall be stopped.
DJB will seek direction from the Archaeological Survey of India
(ASI) before instructing the Contractor to recommence the work
in the same site.
Construction activities by Environmental Cell
Con.1 Tree
Trees should be planted wherever space is available at the
Plantation
reservoir/ pump sites so as to compensate the trees lost by
cutting the road side trees due to the opening the sewage/ water
line.
The contractor will do the plantation wherever space is available
around the water pumping stations/ sewage pumping stations/
reservoirs. Minimum 80 percent survival rate of the saplings will
be acceptable otherwise the contractor will replace died plants at
own cost. The contractor will maintain the plantation till they
handover the project site to DJB.
The Independent Engineer will inspect regularly the survivability
of the plants.
OPERATIONS STAGE
Operation stage activities by Environmental cell
O.1 Pollution
The periodic monitoring of the ambient noise levels, water
Monitoring
(ground water) quality, soil pollution/ contamination in the select
location that would be suggested in pollution monitoring plan in
EMP.

O.1.1 Atmospheric
Pollution

O.1.2 Noise
Pollution

Orientation of
Implementing
Agency and
Contractors

Accidental Chlorine emission into air should be checked and


proper safety measures should be taken.

Noise pollution will be monitored as per monitoring plan that


would be suggested in EMP in each pumping stations.

The DJB shall organize orientation sessions during all stages of


the project. The orientation session shall involve all staff of
Environmental Cell, field level implementation staff of DJB,
Independent Engineer and Contractor.

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DJB

DJB

Pollution
Monitoring
Agency
appointed
DJB.

DJB

Pollution
Monitoring
Agency
appointed
DJB.
Pollution
Monitoring
Agency
appointed
DJB.

DJB

by

DJB

by

DJB

by

O.3 Other Activities


DJB

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