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compiled & edited by Arch. Jenaro A. Villamor, uap

Definitions of ACOUSTICS:
1. branch of physics concerned with sound
2. deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound
Almost all acoustical situations are described in 3 parts (elements):
1. Sound Source ( e.g. human speech, HVAC equipment)
2. Transmission Path (e.g. air, earth, building materials)
3. Receiver (e.g. humans, animals, sensitive medical equipment)

1. technology of designing spaces, structures and mechanical systems to meet hearing needs
2. effect of building design on the control of sound in buildings
3 Aspects of Acoustical Design in Buildings
1. Planning to keep noise sources as far as possible from quiet area
2. Internal acoustics of rooms
3. Structural precautions to reduce noise penetrations

Essential Elements of Architectural Acoustics:

1. Room Acoustics the qualities or characteristics of a room, auditorium, or concert hall that
determine the audibility of speech or fidelity of musical sound in it
Cubic volume (and coupled spaces)
Shape and proportion (length-to-width, height-to-width)
Finishes (selection and placement)
Audience layout ( floor slope, speaker-to-listener distances)
Special treatment ( suspended reflectors, resonant absorbers, quadratic-residue diffusers)
2. Sound Isolation the use of building materials and construction assemblies designed to reduce the
transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound from one room to another or from the exterior to
the interior of a building (Sound Insulation)
Site noise characteristics (sound level, character, duration)
Outdoor barriers, nearby buildings, vegetation, and earth berms
Location of activities within buildings (zoning, buffer spaces)
Background noise criteria (HVAC system, electronic)
3. Mechanical system noise and vibrations
Equipment noise characteristics
Location of mechanical equipment
Vibration isolation ( springs, pads)
Air duct and pipe treatment ( linings, mufflers, laggings)
Background noise from air outlets (coordination with sound isolation)
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4. Electronic sound systems

System compatibility with room acoustics
Loudspeaker selection, placement and orientation
System components and controls
Background masking (loudspeaker layout, sound spectra)
Definitions of SOUND 2
1. physical wave in an elastic medium, usually air
2. the sensation stimulated in the organs of hearing by mechanical radiant energy transmitted as
longitudinal pressure waves through the air or other medium
3. a vibration in an elastic medium such as air, water, most building materials, and the earth
4. physically, sound is a rapid fluctuation of air pressure
Types of Sound
1. Wanted Sound (speech, music) heard properly
o considered desirable
o heard properly
2. Unwanted Sound (noise) annoyance
o annoyance
o not desired or objectionable
Characteristics of Sound
1. Audible
2. Inaudible
Basic Principles of Sound - understanding the characteristics of sound is essential in designing for
good acoustics)
1. Generation
o sound is generated when an object vibrates, causing the adjacent air to move, resulting in a series
of pressure waves radiating out from the moving object
o Wave a disturbance or oscillation that transfers energy progressively from point to point in a
medium or space without advance by the points themselves, as in the transmission of sound or light
o Sound Wave a longitudinal pressure wave in air or an elastic medium esp. one producing an
audible sensation
2. Frequency
o the no. of times the cycle of compression and rarefaction of air occurs in a given unit of time (e.g.
1000 cycles in the period of 1 second = 1000 cps = 1000 Hertz)
o the no. of cycles per unit time of a wave or oscillation
o the no. of complete cycles per second (frequency of vibration)
o the rate of oscillation of molecules by sound (frequency of vibration) measured in cycles per second
o Pitch frequency of sound vibration; the predominant frequency of a sound as perceived by the
human ear
o Vibration the back and forth motion of a complete cycle
o Cycle full circuit by a displaced particle
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o Period the time required for one complete cycle

o 20 20,000 Hz approx. audio frequency range of human hearing;
o 600 40,000 Hz critical frequency for speech communication
o Tone composed of a fundamental frequency with multiples of the fundamental, called Harmonics
o Pure Tone sound composed only of 1 frequency
o Musical sounds are combination of many pure tones
o Frequency bands used to express division of sounds into sections (Octave bands are the most
o 9 Octave Bands 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 Hz
3. Velocity
o varies according to the medium of transmission; approx. 1100 fps in air at normal temperature and
4. Wavelength
o Distance between similar points on successive waves; the distance the sound travels in one cycle
o Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and velocity:
= c/f
= wavelength, ft.2
c = velocity of sound, fps
f = frequency of sound, Hz (cps)
o Low frequency sounds: characterized by long wavelengths
o High frequency sounds: characterized by short wavelengths
o Sounds with wavelengths ranging from 50 can be heard by humans
5. Magnitude
o Sound power (watts) amount of energy produced by a source
o Intensity describes the energy level; unit is watts/cm2
o Loudness (what is perceived) related to the Intensity Level (IL) or Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
o The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is equivalent to the Sound Intensity Level (IL)
o Intensity Level is expressed in decibels
o Decibel dimensionless unit used to express the ratio of two numerical values of a logarithmic
Comparison of decimal, exponential, and logarithmic statements of various acoustic intensities
Intensity (watts/cm2) Intensity Level
Decimal Notation Exponential Notation Logarithmic Notation Examples
0.001 10-3 130 dB Painful
0.0001 10-4 120 dB
0.00001 10-5 110 dB 75-piece orchestra
0.000001 10-6 100 dB
0.0000001 10-7 90 dB Shouting at 5 ft.
0.000000001 10-9 70 dB Speech at 3ft.
0.00000000001 10-11 50 dB Average office
0.0000000000001 10-13 30 dB Quiet unoccupied office
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0.00000000000001 10-14 20 dB Rural ambient

0.000000000000001 10-15 10 dB
0.0000000000000001 10-16 0 dB Threshold of hearing
o The fundamental relationship that determines the decibel level is ten times the logarithm to the base
10 of the numerical ratio of the two intensities. For example:
IL = 10 log I
IL = intensity level
I = intensity, watts/cm2
I0 = reference intensity, 10-16 watts/cm2
6. Time Characteristics of Sound
o Some sounds remain constant with time (e.g. fan may produce a sound with constant frequency
and intensity characteristics a steady state sound)
o Sounds (traffic, voices, musical instruments) vary as a function of time
o Vehicular traffic sounds: maximum levels/levels exceeded for 90% of the time
o Speech sounds: 1% peaks
o Orchestras sound: long-term average levels
Behavior of Sound in a Free Field
Sound intensity is reduced to one-quarter each time the distance doubles:
I1 and I2 are the intensities at distances d1 and d2 from the source
The intensity of a sound at a distance from the source is expressed as the power (P) of the source
divided by the area over which it has spread (A)
I = P/A
If the sound radiates freely in all directions from a source the area is a sphere. The intensity is
represented as:
4 r2
P = power in watts
r = distance from source in cm
In English units, the conversion factor is 930 cm2/ft4 r2Using this, the equation for spherical
direction is:
I = P/930 x 4 r2
As the intensity is reduced to one-quarter with each doubling of distance, the sound pressure level
(IL) is reduced by 6 dB. Quartering the intensity reduced the intensity level by 6 dB
Sound attenuation is due to distance, absorption, or barriers
Barriers, to be effective must be solid, quite large as compared to the wavelength of sound and near
to the source or receiver
Shrubs, hedges, small groves: visual barriers only; no value acoustically
Sound Combining. Sounds from separate sources may combine. Two violins produce a louder
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sound than 1 instrument; 3 violins are louder still. Decibels are not added directly to make the
perceived level twice as loud for 2 sources or 3 times as loud for 3. The level for combined sources is
determined by adding powers, intensities or pressures; and subsequently converting to decibels.
Doubling of intensities results in a 3 dB increase (e.g. 50 dB plus 50 dB is 53 dB, not 100 dB)
Sound Indoors Acoustics of Room
Sound in an enclosure radiates out from the source until it hits a surface that reflects or absorbs it
If the source is continuous, a state of equilibrium will be reached
Levels are constant throughout most spaces except at points very near the source (for a given
source, the built-up or reverberant levels will be highest in a space with a few absorptive surfaces
lobby with marble walls/floors; in a space with large areas of sound absorbing materials, the levels
will be lowest
1. Sound Absorption
Materials varying sound absorption characteristics
Some absorb low frequency energy
Some absorb high frequency energy
Others absorb energy equally over a broad spectrum
Mechanism of Absorption: 3 families of devices for sound absorption; all types absorb sound by
changing sound energy to heat energy
Fibrous materials (Porous materials): absorption provided by a specific material depends on
thickness, density, porosity, resistance to air flow (e.g. materials must be thick to absorb low
frequency sounds effectively; suspending an acoustical ceiling tile a foot below the structure results in
better broad band absorption than cementing the tile directly to the structure; acoustic paints with
sand or walnut shells are useless as sound absorbers
Panel resonators: built with a membrane (thin plywood, linoleum in front of a sealed airspace);
panel is set in motion by the alternating pressure of the impinging sound wave; sound energy is
converted into heat through internal viscous damping; used where efficient low frequency absorption
is required/ mid and high frequency absorption is unwanted; used in recording studios
Volume resonators
Coefficient of Absorption (): Knowing the amount of absorption at different frequencies for each
material in a room is essential in designing the room acoustics
The absorption coefficient is the fraction of incident energy that is absorbed by a surface expressed
= Ia
Ii = incident energy, watts/cm2
Ia= absorbed energy, watts/cm2
= absorption coefficient (no units)
Total absorption (A) provided by a surface (S) is expressed in sabins
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A = S
A = Total absorption, sabins
S = Surface area, sq ft
= Coefficient of absorption
Coefficients of General Building Materials and Furnishings
Coefficients for absorption in auditorium is shown for both empty and occupied seating conditions
Many products are prefabricated for sound absorbing treatment (suspended ceilings/wall mounted
3 kinds of custom-designed treatments that are often used in auditoriums/churches (the deep air
space insures adequate low frequency performance
2. Noise Reduction by Absorption
Noise levels in a room are highest for a given source if the rooms surfaces are primarily sound
reflecting; lowest if there are large areas of sound absorbing materials (e.g. sound absorbing ceilings
3. Reflections
4. Reverberation
Electrical Notes:
- The SI unit of electric charge equal to the quantity of electricity transferred along the conductor by a
current of one ampere in one second
- the SI unit equal to one joule per second or to the power represented by a current of one ampere
flowing across a potential difference of one volt
W= V x A
- an amount of power especially the power required to operate an electrical device or appliance,
expressed in watts
- a unit of power equal to 1,000 watts
- a unit of energy transferred or expanded by one kilowatt in one hour a common unit of electric
power consumption
- the energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical, mechanical or other form of
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energy into electrical energy or vice versa in a conversion devise as a battery, generator or a motor
- the voltage difference between two points that represents the work involved in the transfer of a unit
charge from one point to the other
- the work required to move a unit charge from a reference point to a designed point
- potential difference or electromotive force expressed in volts: analogous to pressure in water flow
- the SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force, defined as the difference of electric
potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere, when the
power dissipated between the points is equal to one watt
- the rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit per unit time measured in amperes
- the basic SI unit of electric current, equivalent to a flow of one coulomb per second or to the steady
current produced by one volt applied to one resistance of one ohm
- the strength of an electric current measured or expressed in amperes: analogous to the rate of
water flow
- the opposition of a conductor to the flow of current, causing some of the electric energy to be
transformed into heat and usually measured in ohms
- the SI unit of electrical resistance, equal to the resistance of a conductor in which a potential
difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere
- that law that for any circuit the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely
proportional to the resistance
I= V/R
- the principle that the rate of production of heat by direct current is directly proportional to the
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resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current

- the resistance per unit length of a substance with a cross sectional area. Also called specific
- a measure of the ability of a substance to conduct electric current, equal to the reciprocal of the
resistivity of the substance. Also called specific conductance
- the complete path of an electric current including the source of electric energy
- an arrangement of components in an electric circuit in which the same current flows through each
component in turn without branching
- the arrangement of components in an electric circuit in which all positive terminals are connected to
a second conductor, the same voltage being applied to each component
- a group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current
- a device for converting chemical into electric energy usually consisting of a receptacle with
electrodes in an electrolyte. Also called electric cell
- a non metallic conducting medium in which current is carried by the movement of ions
- a conductor through which a current enters or leaves a non metallic medium
- the negative terminal of a primary cell or storage battery
- the positive terminal of a primary cell or storage battery
- a machine that converts mechanical energy into electric energy
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ALTERNATOR - a generator for producing alternating current

- a machine that converts electric power into mechanical energy
-the main current-carrying winding of a motor or generator in which electromotive force is induced
- an electric current in one direction only having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly
- an electric current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals, having a magnitude that
varies in a sinusoidal manner
- a unit of electric measurement equal to the product of one volt and one ampere, equivalent to one
watt for direct current system and a unit of apparent power for alternating current systems
- an electric device consisting of two or more winding wound on the same core, which employs the
principle of mutual induction to convert variations of alternating current in a primary circuit into
variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit
- a transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than in the secondary, serving to transform
low voltage to high voltage
- a transfer having a greater number of turns in the primary winding than in the secondary, serving to
transform high voltage to low voltage
- the voltage supplied by a power line, measured at the point of use
- any of several conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to the service equipment
of a building
- the supply of utilities, as water, gas and electricity, required or demanded by the public
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- operated on power by or transmitting high voltage
- an auxiliary power station where electrical current is converted, as from DC to AC or where voltage
is stepped up or down
- the overhead portion of service conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a building
- the underground portion of service conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to a
- the decrease in voltage between two points on a power line, usually caused by resistance or
leakage along the line
- the portion of a service conductor extending from a service drop or service lateral to the service
equipment of a building
- a meter for measuring and recording the quality of electric power consumed with respect to time
- a fire-rated room housing a transformer and auxiliary equipment for a large building, usually located
on grade or below ground and ventilated directly to the outside air
SWITCHGEAR ROOM - a room containing the service equipment for a large building
- the equipment necessary for controlling, metering, and protecting the electric power supply to a
building, located near the entrance of the service conductors and usually consisting of a main
disconnect switch and secondary switch, fuses and circuit breakers
- a generator for providing emergency power during a power outage. Also called emergency
- an emergency system designed to provide power automatically and instantaneously upon failure of
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the normal power supply

- one or a group of panels on which are mounted switches, over current devices, metering
instruments, and buses for controlling and protecting a number of electric circuits called switchgear
- a free standing enclosure housing a disconnect switch, a step-down transformer and switchgear for
a number of electric circuit
- any of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various distribution points in a
- a pliable metallic strand or twisted or woven assembly of such strands often insulated with a
dielectric material and used as a conductor of electricity
CONDUCTOR - a substance, body or devise that conducts heat, sound or electricity
- a material that is poor conductor of electricity used in operating or supporting conductors to prevent
the undesired flow of current
CABLE - a single insulated conductor or a bound or sheathed combination of conductors insulated
from one another
- electric cable consisting of two or more insulated conductors protected by flexible, helically wound
metal wrapping. Also called BX
- electric cable consisting of a tubular copper sheath containing one or more conductors embedded in
a highly compressed, insulating refractory mineral
- electric cable consisting of two or more insulated conductors enclosed in a non- metallic, moisture
resistant, flame retardant sheath. Also called ROMEX
- a cable for transmitting high frequency telephone, digital or television signals consisting of an
insulated conducting core
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SHIELDED CABLE - an electric cable enclosed within a metallic sheath in order to reduce the effects
of external electric or magnetic fields
CONDUIT - a tube, pipe or duct for enclosing and protecting electric wires or cable
- heavy-walled, tubular steel conduits joined by screwing directly into a threaded hub with locknuts
and bushings
- thin-walled, tubular steel conduit joined by compression or setscrew couplings
- flexible, helically wound metal conduit, used for connections to motors or other vibrating equipment.
Also called Greenfield conduit
RACEWAY - a channel expressly designed to hold and protect electric wires and cables
SURFACE RACEWAY - a raceway designed to exposed installation in dry, non-hazardous, corrosive
MULTI- OUTLET ASSEMBLY - a surface mounted raceway designed to house the electrical wires for
a circuit and a series of receptacles
DUCT - an enclosed runway for housing conductors or cables
BUS DUCT - a rigid metal housing for a group of buses insulted from each other and the enclosure.
Also called busway
CABLE TRAY - an open metal framework for supporting insulated electrical conductors
- the minimum applied voltage at which a given insulator breaks down and permits current to pass
DIELECTRIC STRENGTH - the maximum voltage that can be applied to a given material without
causing it to breakdown, usually expressed in volts or kilovolts per unit of thickness
DIELECTRIC - a non-conducting substance
- an enclosure for housing and protecting electric wires or cables that are joined together in
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connecting or branching electric circuits

KNOCKOUT - a panel in a casing or box that can readily be removed, as by punching, hammering or
cutting to provide an opening into the interior
GROMMET - a rubber or plastic washer inserted in a hole in a metal part to prevent grounding of a
wire passing through the hole
BUSHING - an insulating and protective lining for one or more conductors passing through a hole
UTILITY BOX - for lighting outlet and convenience outlet
PULL BOX - to facilitate pulling
OUTLET BOX - where cable ends
CUT OUT BOX - metal box with hinge & enclosure. House or fuse box
INSULATOR - used as supports and for additional protection for wires
RHW Moisture and heat resistance rubber Dry and wet locations
T Thermoplastic Dry locations
TW Moisture resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
THHN Heat resistant thermoplastic Dry locations
THW Moisture & heat resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
THWN Moisture & heat resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
XHHW Moisture & heat resistant cross linked Dry and wet locations
SA Silicone asbestos Dry locations
AVA Asbestos and varnished cambric Dry locations only
1. elbow (long sweep)
2. tee
a. LB Condulets (angle & bended)
b. LR (angle to the right)
c. TF (tee front)
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1. RIGID CONDUITS- cannot be bended

metal- RSC/ EMT
non-metal- PVC
metal- BX


SECTION 1.01.01: Title
(a) This Act shall be known as the "National Building Code of the Philippines" and shall hereinafter be
referred to as the "Code".
SECTION 1.01.02: Declaration of Policy
(a) It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to safeguard life, health, property, and public
welfare, consistent with the principles of environmental management and control; and to this end,
make it the purpose of this Code to provide for all buildings and structured, a framework of minimum
standards and requirements by guiding, regulating, and controlling their location, siting, design,
quality of materials, construction, use, occupancy, and maintenance, including their environment,
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utilities, fixtures, equipment, and mechanical electrical, and other systems and installations.
SECTION 1.01.03: Scope
(a) The provisions of this Code shall apply to the design, location, siting, construction, alteration,
repair, conversion, use, occupancy, maintenance, moving, and demolition of, and addition to, public
and private buildings and structures.
(b) Additions, alterations, repairs, and changes of use or occupancy in all buildings and structures
shall comply with requirements for new buildings and structures except as otherwise herein provided.
Only such portion or portions of the existing building or structure which have to be altered to effect the
addition, alteration, or repair shall be made to conform to the requirements for new buildings or
structures. Alterations should preserve the aesthetic value of the building to be altered.
(c) Where, in any specific case, different section of this Code specify different materials, methods of
construction, or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.
SECTION 1.01.04: Application
(a) This Code shall apply to all buildings and structures constructed and any change or repair made
thereon after the approval of said Code. Buildings or structures constructed before the approval of
this Code shall not be affected thereby; Except, where their continued use or occupancy is dangerous
to life or limb; or where alterations, additions, conversions, or repairs are to be made thereon, this
Code shall apply only to such portions of the buildings or structure which have to be altered in order
to effect such damages or repairs.
(b) This Code shall apply to chartered cities, poblaciones of municipalities and municipal districts with
a population of at least two thousand (2,000) inhabitants, and to barrios of urban areas with a
population of at least two thousand (2,000) inhabitants. This Code shall also apply to any area where
there are fifty (50) or more families per hectare.
(c) This Code shall likewise apply to any area proposed for or being developed into a new town site,
residential subdivision, commercial or residential site, school site, housing project, and similar
construction projects where five or more buildings not covered by paragraph (d) of this Section will be
constructed even if the poblacion or barrio population is less than two thousand (2,000) or the density
of population is less than fifty (50) families per hectare.
(d) The design and construction requirements of this Code shall not apply to any traditional
indigenous family dwelling costing not more than five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) and intended for
use and occupancy of the family of the owner only. The traditional type of family dwellings are those
that are constructed of native materials such as bamboo, nipa, logs, or lumber, wherein the distance
between vertical supports or suportales does not exceed 3.00 meters (10 feet); and if masonry walls
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or socalos are used, such shall not be more than 1.00 meter (3 feet, 3 inches) from the ground:
Provided, however, That such traditional indigenous family dwelling will not constitute a danger to life
or limb of its occupants or of the public; will not be fire hazard or an eyesore to the community; and
does not contravene any fire zoning regulation of the city or municipality in which it is located.
(e) Notwithstanding paragraph (d) of this Section, this Code shall apply to Group A dwellings
produced on a commercial scale and intended for use by the general public.
SECTION 1.01.05 Building Use Affecting Public Health and Safety
(a) Any building or structure, or any ancillary or accessory facility thereto, and any alteration or
addition to any building or structure already existing, shall conform in all respects to the principles of
safe construction, shall be suited to the purpose for which the building is designed, and shall, in no
case contribute to making the community in which it is located at eyesore, a slum, or a blighted area.
(b) Adequate environmental safeguards shall be observed in the design, construction, and use of any
building or structure for the manufacture and production of any kind of article or product which
constitutes a hazard or nuisance affecting public health and safety, such as explosives, gas, noxious
chemicals, inflammable compounds, or the like.
SECTION 1.01.06: Maintenance
(a) All buildings or structures, both existing and new, and all parts thereof shall be maintained in a
safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards, which are required by this Code in a building
or structure when constructed, altered, or repaired, shall be maintained on good working order.
SECTION 1.01.07: Insanitary, Unsafe, Hazardous, or Dangerous Sites
(a) The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure, or any ancillary or
auxillary facility thereto, shall be sanitary , hygienic or safe. Where the land or site is polluted,
insanitary, unhygienic, unsafe, or hazardous, conditions contributing to or causing its being polluted,
insanitary, unhygienic, unsafe, or hazardous shall be reasonably improved or corrected, or proper
remedial measures shall be prescribed or incorporated in the design or construction of the building or
structure in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
(b) The land or site upon which be constructed a building of structure or any ancillary or accessory
facility thereto, for use of human habitation or abode, shall be at a safe distance from streamers or
bodies of water and/source of air considered to be polluted, volcano or volcanic site, and building or
structure considered to be a potential source of fire or explosion, such as ammunitions factory or
dump and storage place for highly inflammable material.
SECTION 1.01.08: Dangerous and Ruinous Buildings or Structures
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(a) General. - The provisions of this Code shall apply to all dangerous buildings, as herein defined,
which are now in existence or which may hereafter be constructed, as well as to ruinous buildings as
defined in Article 482 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.
(b) Dangerous Buildings Defined. - Dangerous buildings are those which are structurally unsafe or not
provided with safe egrees, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human
life, or which in relation to existing use constitute a hazard to safety or health or public welfare, by
reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, fire hazard, or abandonment; or
which otherwise contribute to the pollution of the site or the community to an intolerable degree. Any
building or structure which has any or all of the conditions or defects hereinafter described, or
conditions or defects similar thereto, shall be deemed to be dangerous building: Provided, That such
conditions or defect exists to the extent that the life, health, property, or safety of the public or its
occupant are endangered:
(1) Whenever any door, aisle, passageway, stairway, or other means of exist is not of sufficient width
or size, or is not so arranged as to provide safe and adequate means of exit in case of fire or panic;
(2) Whenever the stress in any materials member or portion thereof, due to all dead and live loads is
more than one and one-half times the working stresses or stresses allowed in this Code for new
building of similar structure, purpose, or location: Provided, That in determining working stress, the
working stress method of analysis shall be used, and in the case of engineering "overstress", the
ultimate strength method;
(3) Whenever any portion thereof has been damaged by fire, earthquake, wind, flood, or by any other
cause, to such an extent that the structural strength or the stability thereof is materially less than it
was before such catastrophe and is less than the minimum requirements of this Code for new
buildings of similar structures, purpose, or location;
(4) Whenever any portion or member or appurtenance thereof is likely to fall, or to become detached
or dislodged, or to collapse and thereby injure persons or damage property;
(5) Whenever any portion or member or any appurtenance or ornamentation of the exterior thereof is
not of such sufficient strength or stability, or is not so anchored, attached, or fastened - place so as to
be capable of resisting a wind pressure of one-half of that specified in this Code for new buildings of
similar structure; purpose, or location without exceeding the working stresses permitted for such
(6) Whenever any portion thereon has wracked, warped, buckled, or settled to such an extent that
walls or other structural portions have materially less resistance to winds or earthquake than is
required in the case similar new construction;
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(7) Whenever the building or structure, or any portion thereof, because of: (i) dilapidation,
deterioration, or delay; (ii) faulty construction; (iii) the removal, movement, or instability of any portion
of the ground necessary for the purpose of supporting such building; (iv) the deterioration, decay, or
inadequacy of its foundation; or (v) any other cause, is likely to partially or completely collapse;
(8) Whenever, for any reason, the building or structure, or any portion thereof, is manifestly unsafe for
the purpose for which it is being used;
(9) Whenever the exterior walls or other vertica structural members list, lean, or buckle to such an
extent that the structure falls within the condition described in the preceding subparagraph (2), above,
or whenever any portion thereof suffers a material reduction of the fire and weather resistance
qualities of characteristics required by this Code for newly constructed buildings of like area, height,
and occupancy in the same location;
(10) Whenever a building or structure, used or intended to be used for dwelling purposes, because of
inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, decay, damage, faulty construction or arrangement,
inadequate light, air, or sanitation facilities, or otherwise, is found to be unsanitary, unfit for human
habitation, or in such a condition that is likely to cause sickness or disease;
(11) Whenever any building or structure, because of obsolescence, dilapidated, condition,
deterioration, damage, inadequate exists, lack of sufficient fire-resistive construction, or other cause,
is found to be a fire hazard;
(12) Whenever any portion of a building or structure remains on a site after demolition or destruction
of the building or structure is abandoned for a period in excess of six months, so as to constitute a
nuisance or hazard to the public;
(13) Whenever any building or structure is in such a condition as to constitute a public nuisance
defined in Article 694 and 695 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.
(c) Abatement of Dangerous Buildings. In all cases of dangerous buildings, except those covered by
Article 482 and 694 to 707 of the Civil Code of the Philippines, the Building Official shall order their
repair, vacation, or demolition in accordance with the following procedure:
(1) Where the dangerous building can reasonably be repaired such that it will no longer be
dangerous, it shall be ordered repaired;
(2) Where the dangerous building is such that to repair it would cost more than 50 per cent of the
current to replacement cost of the building, it shall be repaired or demolished at the opinion of the
(3) Where the dangerous building poses an immediate threat to life, limb, or property, it shall be
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vacated immediately, then repaired or demolished in accordance with subparagraphs (1) or (2)

SECTION 1.01.09. Alternate or new Design, Material, Method of Construction, or Workmanship;

(a) Any design, material, method of construction, or workmanship not specifically included in this
Code may be used: Provided, That such alternate or new design, material, method of construction, or
workmanship is at least the equivalent of those prescribed in this Code in effectiveness.
(b) Tests for design, materials, method of construction, or workmanship shall be prescribed by the
Secretary of Public Works and Communication in appropriate rules and regulations therefor.

SECTION 1.01.10: Municipal and Provincial Ordinances and Regulations

(a) Local ordinances should conform to the Code and suppletory requirements hereto shall in no case
diminish minimum requirements embodied in this Code. The Secretary of Public Works and
Communications or, in the proper case, the Secretary of Justice shall take any and all appropriate
steps in cases where local ordinances conflict with the Code.
SECTION 1.01.11: Definitions and Tables
(a) The definitions in Annex A and the Tables in Annex B of this Code are hereby adopted as part
SECTION 1.01.12: Separability Clause
(a) If, for any reason, any section or provision of this Code shall be declared unconstitutional or
invalid, no other section or provision of this Code shall be affected thereby.
SECTION 1.01.13: Repealing Clause
(a) Any and all statutes, orders, ordinances, rules and regulations or parts thereof, inconsistent with
the provisions of this Code, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.
SECTION 1.01.14: Effectivity
(a) This Code shall take effect upon its approval within the Greater Manila Metropolitan Area and in
other areas where there are already existing local building codes, and four (4) years thereafter, in all
other areas in the Philippines: Provided, however, That this provision shall not prevent any city or
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municipal council or board from adopting this Code immediately upon its approval.
Chapter 1.02 - ENFORCEMENT
SECTION 1.02.01: Joint Building and Environmental Planning Research and Standards Commission
(a) Membership. There is hereby created a Joint Building and Environmental Planning Research and
Standards Commission composed of two Senators, two Congressmen, and five other members to be
appointed by the President of the Philippines. The members shall elect a Chairman from among
(1) The President of the Senate shall designate the chairman of the Committee on Housing, Urban
Development and Resettlement and one Senator from the minority party as members of the
(2) The Speaker of the House of Representatives shall designate the Chairman of the Committee on
Housing and one Congressman from the minority party as members of the Commission.
(3) The President of the Philippines shall appoint two architects, two engineers, and one building
contractor chosen from those officially recommended by their respective national professional
organizations, to serve for four years or until their successors shall have been duly appointed and
(4) The members thereof shall serve without compensation: except, That the members from the
professional organizations may receive a per diem of one hundred pesos (P100.00) each per meeting
actually attended: Provided, That the total per diem the members may receive shall not exceed six
hundred pesos (P600.00) per month. A monthly transportation allowance of two hundred fifty pesos
(P250.00) shall be granted each of the members from the professional organizations.
(b) Duties and Responsibilities. The Commission shall have the following duties and
(1) Conduct or cause to be conducted continuing research and studies on building, housing, and
environmental planning standards and requirements to safeguard life or limb, health, property, and
public welfare;
(2) Prepare a draft of a uniform code of criteria, standards, and detailed specifications covering
design, construction, and other related matters suited to local needs and indigenous conditions for
adoption by local governments to supplement the minimum standards provided in this Code;
(3) Pre pare drafts of environmental planning, management and control codes, subdivision policies
and standards, zoning regulations and other codes for legislative enactment; and recommend, from
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time to time, changes in this Building Code for submission to Congress; and
(4) Transmit appropriate recommendation to the Secretary of Public Works and Communications as a
basis for the promulgation by the Secretary of the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the
provisions of this Code.
(c) Technical Staff. The Commission shall be assisted by a Technical Staff which shall be headed by
an Executive Director and an Assistant Executive Director. All personnel shall be appointed by the
Chairman subject to civil service laws, rules, and regulations.
(d) Appropriations. The amount of two hundred and fifty thousand pesos (P250,000) or such amount
thereof as may be necessary for the operation of the Commission is hereby authorized to be
appropriated out of any funds not otherwise appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973.
Such sums may be necessary for the operating expenses of the Commission in succeeding fiscal
years shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.
SECTION 1.02.02: Secretary of Public Works and Communications and Building Officials
(a) The Secretary of Public Works and Communications, hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary",
shall promulgate such rules and regulations necessary to enable the Building Official to enforce the
provisions of this Code.
(b) In municipalities, the Municipal Engineer shall be the Building Official; Provided, That when there
is no such Municipal Engineer, or a duly licensed engineer performing the duties of a Municipal
Engineer, or a Land and Building Official, the Provincial Engineer, or in the absence thereof, the
Public Works Engineer within whose jurisdiction the municipality falls shall be the Building Official. In
case of cities, the City Public Works Supervisor shall be the Building Official: Provided, That when
there is no such City Public Works Supervisor, the City Engineer shall be the Building Official. For the
purpose of the enforcement of the provisions of this Code, the Building Official shall be under the
supervision of the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, any provision of law to the
contrary notwithstanding.
(c) Subject to the approval of the Municipal Mayor, City Mayor, or Provincial Governor in the proper
case, and other civil service laws and rules, the Building Official may appoint such number of officers,
inspectors, assistants, or other employees possessing the necessary qualifications and competency
as may be authorized by the Municipal Council, City Council, or Provincial Board, as the case may
be. He may deputize such technically qualified employees as may be necessary to carry out the
provisions of this Code. For purposes of this Subsection, the terms "necessary qualifications and
competency" and "technically qualified" shall mean that the person to be deputized shall have passed
the highest grade of examination called for in the applicable law regulating the practice of the branch
of engineering or architecture related to or associated with the duties and powers which the person to
be deputized shall assume.
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SECTION 1.02.03: Building permits

(a) Any person, firm, or corporation, including any department, office, bureau, agency of
instrumentality of the government intending to construct, alter, repair, move, convert or demolish any
building or structure, or cause the same to be done, shall obtain a building permit from the Building
Official for whichever of such work is proposed to be undertaken for the building or structure, before
any such work is started.
(b) Appropriate rules and regulations shall be set by the Secretary concerning:
(1) Forms for application for building permits;
(2) Procedures to be observed in securing such permits;
(3) Procedures to be observed in the issuance, suspension, and revocation of such building permits;
(4) Type, nature, and scope of plans and specifications, and other requisite documents, which shall
be prepared and designed by a licensed architect or engineer.
(c) When authorized by the Building Official in accordance with the provisions of this Code, plans and
specifications need not be submitted for the following:
(1) Group A traditional indigenous type of dwelling construction costing not more than three thousand
pesos (P3,000.00); and
(2) Group J Division 1 Occupancy of Type 1 conventional wood frame construction or of the
traditional indigenous type of construction costing not more than three thousand pesos (P3,000.00).
(d) The applicant for a building permit for private buildings or structures after having complied with all
the requirements prescribed therefor in accordance with the provisions of this Code, shall be issued a
building permit within fifteen (15) days from the date of payment of the permit fee for Groups A and J
Occupancies and within thirty (30) days from the date of payment of the permit fee for other Group
Occupancies, unless the Building Official or his Deputy authorized to issue the permit shall inform the
applicant in writing why the permit should not be issued, and shall indicate thereon the particular
provisions of the Code violated by the applicant or the particular requirements not complied with.
Within fifteen (15) days from the date of receipt by the applicant of advice from the Building Official or
his Deputy authorized to issue the permit why the building permit should not be issued, or why the
building permit is suspended or revoked, the applicant may appeal the non-issuance, suspension, or
revocation thereof, to the Mayor of the chartered city or municipality, or the Governor of the province
where the building or structure for which the permit is being applied for is located. Said appeal shall
be decided within fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof, otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter
to the proper Court of Justice for final disposition.

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(e) All public buildings shall conform to the provisions of this Code and the Building Official of the city
or province where the public building is located shall issue the building permit therefor, stating in
writing that such public building conforms to the requirements of the Code. For national public
buildings, the Secretary of Public Works and Communications shall issue a certification that such a
building conforms to the Code. Public buildings shall be exempt from payment of building permit,
inspection, another fees.
SECTION 1.02.04: Fees
(a) Regulations on building permit, inspection and other fees, and for compliance with the same shall
be covered by city and municipal ordinances: Provided, That Traditional indigenous family dwellings
under Section 1.01.04 (d) shall be exempt from payment of building permit fees.
SECTION 1.02.05: Inspection ad Certificates of Occupancy
(a) Inspection. The duly licensed architect or engineer engaged by the owner to undertake inspection
and detailed supervision of the construction shall periodically certify that the construction conforms to
the plans and specifications submitted in the application for a building permit. Upon submission of
such periodic certifications during the progress of construction, the Building Official shall periodically
issue the required authority to continue with the subsequent phases of construction, without prejudice
to his right to conduct on his own initiative any inspection of the said construction. Upon completion of
the construction, the said duly licensed architect or engineer shall submit to the Building Official the
final certification that the building conforms to the provisions of the Code and with the detailed plans
and specifications submitted.
(b) Certificates of Occupancy. The proper Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued to the applicant
within seven (7) days from completion of the requirements for inspection and occupancy and payment
of any and all fees therefor, unless the building Official or his Deputy issuing the Certificate shall show
cause in writing why the Certificate should not be issued and shall indicate thereon the particular
provisions of the Code violated or the particular requirements not complied with. Within fifteen (15)
days from receipt by the applicant of the advice from Building Official or his Deputy authorized to
issue the certificate why the certificate should not be issued, or why the certificate is suspended or
revoked, the applicant may appeal the non-issuance, suspension, or revocation thereof, to the Mayor
of the chartered city or municipality, or the Governor of the province where the building for which the
certificate is being applied for is located. Said appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) days from
receipts thereof, otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter to the proper Court of Justice for final
disposition. The building may be occupied only upon issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy.
SECTION 1.02.06: Violations of This Code Covering Designs, Materials, Methods of Construction,
and Workmanship
(a) In all cases of violation of this Code covering design, materials, methods of construction, and
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workmanship, the Building Official shall observe the following procedure in ordering the alteration to
conform to this Code or demolition of the building or portion thereof:
(1) Where the building is in the process of construction, the construction of the portion or portions in
violation of this Code shall be stopped until the same shall have been altered to conform to this Code,
unless such partial violation will impair the stability and safety of the whole or part of the structure, in
which case, the whole construction shall be stopped.
(2) Where a building or portion thereof has been constructed, the following procedure shall be
(2.1) In case it can be reasonably altered to conform to the requirements of this Code, it shall be
altered accordingly;
(2.2) In case the lateration will cost more than 50 per cent of the current construction cost of the
building, it shall be altered to conform to this Code or demolished at the option of the owner;
(2.3) In case the building or portion thereof poses an immediate danger to life, limb, or property, the
same shall be vacated immediately, then altered to conform to the requirements of this Code or
demolished in accordance with subparagraphs (1) and (2) herein.
(3) If the owner, after receipts of the order of alteration or demolition fails to comply with such order
within a period of one year, said construction shall be declared a nuisance and be abated in
accordance with the provisions of Article 699 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.
(b) This Code shall not be construed to deprive any person the right to avail himself of any and all
judicial proceedings or remedies available under existing laws.
(c) Nothing in this Chapter is intended to diminish the powers vested in the different Boards of
Examiners of the various architectural and engineering professions as provided for in existence laws
regulating the practice of architecture and engineering, nor to restrict the designing engineering or
architect in the exercise of his professional discretion within the basic minimum standards and
requirements embodied in Section 1.01.02 of this Code.
SECTION 2.01.01: General
(a) Fire Zones Defined. Fire zones are areas within which only certain types of building are permitted
to be constructed based on their use, occupancy, type of construction, and resistance to fire.
(b) Building Located in More Than One Fire Zone. If a building or structure is located in more than
one fire zone and more than one-third of its total floor area is in a more restricted fire zone, then the
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entire building shall conform to the requirements for the more restricted area.
(c) Moved Building. Any building or structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be made to
comply with all the requirements for buildings of that fire zone.
(d) Temporary Buildings. Temporary buildings or structures conforming to the requirements of this
Code, used for the protection of the public around and in conjunction with construction work may be
erected in any of the fire zones: Provided, that such work is allowed by special permit from the
Building Official and such is used only for a limited period of time.
(e) Center Lines of Streets. For the purpose of this Chapter, the center line of an adjoining street or
alley may be considered an adjacent property line. Distance shall be measured at right angles to the
street or alley.
SECTION 2.01.02. Designation of Fire Zones
(a) The Secretary shall classify each type of fire zone in accordance to use, occupancy, type of
construction, and resistance to fire subject to the provisions of this Code.
(b) Based on the classification of fire zones, City Counsels or Municipal Boards, by resolution, shall
divide cities and municipalities into fire zones. Such division shall be in accordance with the local
physical and spatial framework plans or the recommendation of the local city or municipal
development body.
SECTION 2.02.01: Fire-Resistive Requirements
(a) Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls of Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour fireresistive rating; while those of types IV and V shall have four-hour fire-resistive rating.
(b) Interior bearing walls, permanent partitions, floors, and roofs of Types II to IV constructions shall
have one-hour fire-resistive rating; while those of Type V shall have three-hour fire-resistive rating for
walls, one-hour fire-resistive rating for partitions, and two-hour fire-resistive rating for vertical
openings, floors, and roofs.
(c) Structural frames of Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating; those of
Type IV shall have two-hour fire-resistive rating; and those of Type V shall have three-hour fireresistive rating.
(d) Exterior doors and windows shall have three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating for all types of
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SECTION 2.02.02: Fire-Resistive Standards

(a) General. Materials and systems of fire-resistive purposes shall be classified according to their fireresistive ratings as determined by internationally accepted testing methods, subject to the provisions
of this Section.
(b) One-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating
(1) The following walls and partitions shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: Solid masonry, 10
centimeters (4 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick; solid concrete, 10
centimeters (4 inches) thick; stud walls covered on each side with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) lath and
plaster, 1.6 centimeters (5/8 inch) of vermiculite gypsum board, or 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of gypsum
board; and 5 centimeters (2 inches) nominal thickness tongue and groove wood, or two layers of 1.9
centimeters (3/4 inch) tongue and groove wood separated by sheet metal or asbestos paper and
treated on each side with a fire-retardant coating having a flame-spread rating of 50 or less. Squareedged boards may be used is the layers are laid at right angles with each other.
(2) The following floors shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: masonry or concrete, 10
centimeters (4 inches) thick; wood joists having two layers of flooring above and a plaster or gypsum
board ceiling, 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) in thickness - the two layers of flooring shall be separated by
sheet metal or asbestos building paper; 6.3 centimeters (2-1/2 inches) net thickness tongue and
grooved wood floors covered with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) wood flooring laid at right angles thereto.
The supporting beams for such floors shall be not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) in minimum
(3) The following protections for metal structural members shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating:
2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of concrete; 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of masonry; and metal lath and
2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of plaster.
(4) The following shall also have a one-hour fire-resistive rating; wood colums, 20 centimeters (8
inches) or more in least dimension; and wood beams, 15 centimeters (6 inches) or more in least
(c) Two-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating
(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a two-hour fire-resistive rating: solid masonry,
15 centimeters (6 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick; and solid
concrete, 127 centimeters (5 inches) thick.
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(2) The following protections for metal structural members shall have a two-hour fire-resistive rating.
3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of concrete; 5 centimeters (2 inches) of masonry; and two layers of
metal lath and plaster with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) air space between and having a total thickness
of 6.3 centimeters (2-1/2 inches).
(d) Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating
(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a three-hour fire-resistive rating: solid
masonry, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 25.4 centimeters (10 inches) thick;
and solid concrete, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick.
(2) The following protection for metal structural members shall have a three-hour fire resistive rating:
centimeters (2 inches) of concrete; 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) of masonry.

(e) Four-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating

(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a four-hour fire resistive rating: solic masonry
walls, 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 30 centimeters (12 inches) thick; and solid
concrete, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches) thick.
(f) Steel Joists. Steel joist floors shall have from one to four-hour fire-resistive rating based on
internationally accepted standards of engineering.
(g) Flame-Proof Materials. Materials required to be flame-proofed shall be treated with a flameretardant having flame-spread rating of 50 less as determined by the "Tunnel Test".
SECTION 2.02.03: Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish
(a) General. Finishes for interior walls and ceilings of any building shall be classified according to their
flame-spread characteristics using the internationally accepted "Tunnel Test" or other equivalent test
for fire protection. The class of materials according to flame-spread characteristics shall be
determined for each occupancy group. The smoke density shall not be greater than that obtain from
the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions when tested in accordance with the "Tunnel
Test" in the way intended for use. The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the burning
of untreated wood under similar conditions.
(b) Interior Finish Materials. Interior walls and ceiling finish shall mean interior wainscoting, paneling,
or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation or similar
purposes. Requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim, doors, and windows or their frames, nor to
materials which are less than one millimeter (0.039 inch) in thickness cemented to an incombustible
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backing. Interior finish materials applied to walls and ceilings shall be tested as specified herein and
regulated for purposes of limiting flame-spread.
SECTION 2.02.04: Promulgation of Fire-Resistive Regulations
(a) The Secretary shall promulgate appropriate standards and regulations on the testing of materials
for flame-spread characteristics; application of controlled interior finish; finishes based on occupancy;
materials and tests on fire dampers, fire tests of building construction and materials, fire tests of door
assemblies, tin-clad fire doors, fire test of window assemblies, installation of fire door and fire
windows, and smoke and fire detectors for fire protective signaling systems; fire-resistive protection of
structural members; fire-resistive walls and partitions; fire-resistive floor-ceilings or roof-ceilings; fireresistive assemblies for protection of openings; and fire-retardant roof coverings.


SECTION 3.01.01: Occupancy Classified
(a) Building proposed, for construction shall be identified according to its use or the character of its
occupancy and shall be classified as follows:
(1) Group A - Residential: Dwellings. Group A Occupancies shall include dwellings.
(2) Group B - Residential: Hotels and Apartments. - Group B Occupancies shall include boarding or
lodging houses, hotels, apartment houses, convents, and monasteries (each accomodating more
than 10 persons).
(3) Group C - Education and Recreation. Group C Occupancies shall be any building used for school
or day care purposes more than eight hours per week, involving assemblage for instruction,
education, or recreation, and not classed in Group I or in Divisions 1 and 2 of Group H Occupancies.
(4) Group D - Institutional. Group D Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Mental hospitals, mental
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sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories, and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are
similarly restrained; Division 2 - Nurseries for full-time care of children under kindergarten age,
hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with non-ambulatory patients, and similar buildings (each
accommodating more than five persons); Division 3 - Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes
for children of kindergarten age or over (each accommodating more than five persons); Provided,
That Group D Occupancies shall not include buildings used only for private residential purposes or for
a family group.
(5) Group E - Business and Mercantile. Group E Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Gasoline
filling and service stations; storage garage and boat storage structures where no work is done except
exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable
liquids; Division 2 - Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments
having an occupant load test than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and
workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales room for
combustible goods, and paint stores without bulk handling, and Division 3 -Aircraft hangars where no
repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or
the use of highly flammable liquids; open parking garages and heliports.
(6) Group F - Industrial. Group F Occupancies shall include: Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants,
cold storage, and creameries; factories and workshops using incombustible and non-explosive
materials; and storage and sales rooms of incombustible and non-explosive materials.
(7) Group G - Storage and Hazardous. Group G Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Storage and
handling of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other than flammable liquids;
Division 2 - Storage and handling of flammable liquids; dry cleaning plants using flammable liquids;
paint stores with bulk handling; paint shops and spray painting rooms, and shops; Division 3 - Wood
working establishments, planning mills and box factories, shops factories where loose, combustible
fibers or dust are manufactured, processed or generated; warehouses where highly combustible
material is stored; Division 4 - Repair garages; and Division 5 - Aircraft repair hangars.
(8) Group H - Assembly Other Than Group I. Group H Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Any
assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 100 in the building; Division 2 - Any
assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of 300 or more in the building;
Division 3 - Any assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of less than 300 in
the building, including such buildings used for school purposes less than eight hours per week; and
Division 4 - Stadiums, reviewing stands, amusement park structures not included within Group I or
Divisions 1, 2, and 3, Group H Occupancies.
(9) Group I - Assembly Occupant Load 1000 or More. Group I Occupancies shall be any assembly
building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building.
(10) Group J - Accessory. Group J Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Private garages, carports,
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sheds, and agricultural buildings; Division 2 - Fences over 1.80 meters (6 feet) high, tanks, and
(b) Other subgroupings or divisions within Groups A to J may be determined by the Secretary. Any
other occupancy not mentioned specifically in this Section, or about which there is any question, shall
be included in the Group which its use most nearly resembles based on the existing or proposed life
and fire hazard.
(c) The Building Officials shall identify and indicate in the Certificate of Occupancy the appropriate
classification to which a building or structure to be constructed belongs.
SECTION 3.01.02: Change in Use
(a) No change shall be made in the character of occupancies or use of any building which would
place the building in a different division of the same group of occupancy or in a different group of
occupancies, unless such buildings is made to comply with the requirements for such division or
group of occupancy: Except, That the character of occupancy of existing buildings may be changed
subject to the approval of the Building Official and the building may be occupied for purposes set forth
in other Groups without conforming to all the requirements for those Groups, provided the new or
proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.
SECTION 3.01.03: Mixed Occupancy
(a) General. When a building is used for more than one occupancy purposes, each part of the
building comprising a distinct "Occupancy" shall be separated from any other occupancy. When a
building is used for more than one occupancy purpose, it shall be subject to the most restrictive
requirements for the occupancies concerned: Except, - (1) When a one-story building houses more
than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy
housed therein, and the area of the building shall be such that the sum of the actual areas divided by
the allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed one; and (2) Where minor
accessory uses do not occupy more than 10 per cent of the area of any floor of a building, nor more
than 10 per cent of the basis are permitted in the occupancy requirements. The major use of the
building shall determine the occupancy classification provided the uses are separated in accordance
with requirements for occupancy separation.
(b) Forms of Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be vertical or horizontal or both, or
when necessary, of such other form as may be required to afford a complete separation between the
various occupancy divisions in the building.
(c) Types of Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be classed as "One-Hour FireResistive" "Two-Hour Fire-Resistive", "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive", and "Four-Hour Fire-Resistive".
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(1) A "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separations" shall be of not less than one-hour fireresistive construction. All openings in such a separations shall be protected a fire assembly having a
one-hour fire-resistive rating.
(2) A "Two-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive
construction. All openings in such separation shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one and
one-half-hour fire-resistive rating.
(3) A "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than three-hour fireresistive construction. All openings in walls forming such separation shall be protected by a fire
assembly having a three-hour fire-resistive rating. The total width of all openings in any three-hour
fire-resistive occupancy separation wall in any one-story shall not exceed 25 per cent of the length of
the wall in that story and no single opening shall have an area greater than 10.00 square meters
(107.1 square feet). All openings in floors forming a "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy
Separation" shall be protected by vertical enclosures extending above and below such openings. The
walls of such vertical enclosures shall be of not less than ten-hours fire-resistive construction, and all
openings therein shall be protected by a fire assembly having one and one-half-hour fire-resistive
(4) A "Four-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall have no openings therein and shall be
of not less than four-hour fire-resistive construction.
(d) Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be provided between
various groups, subgroupings, or divisions of occupancies. The Secretary shall promulgate rules and
regulations for appropriate occupancy separations in buildings of mixed occupancy: Provided, That
where any occupancy separation is required, the minimum shall be a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive
Occupancy Separation"; and where the occupancy separation is horizontal, structural members
supporting the separation shall be protected by equivalent fire-resistive construction.

SECTION 3.01.04: Location on Property

(a) General. Buildings shall adjoin or have access to a public space, yard, or street on not less than
one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained. For the purpose of this Section, the center
line of an adjoining street or alley shall be considered an adjacent property line. Eaves over required
windows shall be not less than 75 centimeters (30 inches) from the side and rear and rear property
(b) Fire Resistance of Walls. Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection in
accordance with requirements set by the Secretary. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not
extend beyond a point one-third the distance to the property line from an exterior wall; or a point onethird the distance from an assumed vertical plane located where fire-resistive protection of openings
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is first required due to location on property, whichever is the least restrictive. Distance shall be
measured at right angles from the property line. When openings in exterior walls are required to be
protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the area of such openings shall not exceed
50 per cent of the total area of the wall in each story.
(c) Buildings on Same Property and Buildings Containing Courts. For the purpose of determining the
required wall and opening protection, buildings on the same property and court walls shall be
assumed to have a property line between them. When a new building is to be erected on the same
property with an existing building, the assumed property line from the existing building shall be the
distance to the property line for each occupancy as set forth by the Secretary: Provided, That two or
more buildings on the same property may be considered as portions of one building of the aggregate
area of such buildings is within the limits of allowable floor areas for a single building; and that when
the buildings so considered house different occupancies or are of different types of construction, the
area shall be that allowed for the most restricted occupancy or construction.
SECTION 3.01.05: Allowable Floor Areas
(a) Areas of One-Story Buildings and Building Over One Story. Allowable floor areas for one-story
buildings and buildings over one story shall not exceed the limits determined in accordance with
occupancy groups and types of construction.
(b) Area Separation Walls. Each portion of a building separated by one or more area separation walls
may be considered a separate building provided the area separation wall meet the requirements of
this Code.
SECTION 3.01.06: Allowable Area Increases
(a) The floor area hereinabove provided may be increased in certain specific instances and under
appropriate conditions, based on the existence of public space, streets, or yards extending along the
adjoining two or more sides of the building or structure.
SECTION 3.01.07: Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases
(a) The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the
character of the occupancy and the type of construction, and shall not exceed the limits determined
by population density, building bulk, widths of streets, and car parking requirements. The height shall
be measured from the highest adjoining sidewalk or ground surface, provided that the height
measured from the lowest adjoining surface shall not exceed such maximum height by more than
3.00 meters (10 feet): Except, That towers, spires, and steeples, erected as a part of a building and
not used for habitation or storage, are limited as to height only by structural design if completely of
incombustible materials, or may extend not to exceed 6.00 meters (19 feet, 8 inches) above the
height limits for each occupancy group if of combustible materials.
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SECTION 3.01.08: Maximum Requirements for Group A Dwellings: One Two Stories
(a) Dwelling Location and Lot Occupancy. The dwelling shall occupy not more than 90 per cent of a
corner lot and 80 per cent of an inside lot, and subject to the provisions on easements of light and
view of the Civil Code of the Philippines, shall be at least 2.00 meters (6 feet, inches) from the
property line.
(b) Light and Ventilation. Every dwelling shall be so constructed and arranged as to provide adequate
light and ventilation.
(1) Habitable rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms and utility rooms shall have a height of not less than
2.40 meters (8 feet), measured from floor to ceiling.
(2) Rooms shall have a minimum size of 6.00 square meters (65 square feet) with a least horizontal
dimension of 2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches) for rooms of human habitations; 3.00 square meters (32
feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 1.50 meters (5 feet) for kitchens; and 1.20 square meters
(13 square feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 90 centimeters (3 feet) for bathrooms.
(3) Windows shall be at least 1/10th of the floor area of the room.
(c) Sanitation. Every dwelling shall be provided with at least one sanitary toilet and adequate washing
and drainage facilities.
(d) Foundation. Footing shall be of sufficient size and strength to support the load and dwelling and
shall be at least 30 centimeters (1 foot) thick and 60 centimeters (2 feet) below the surface of the
ground. Each post shall be anchored to such footings by straps and bolts of adequate size.
(e) Post or Suportales. The dimensions of wooden post or suportales shall be those found in Table
3.01 - A Dimension of Wooden Posts or Suportales (Annex B).
(f) Floor. The live load of the first floor shall be at least 200 kilograms per square meter (40 pounds
per square foot) and for the second floor, at least 150 kilograms per square meter (30 pounds per
square foot).
(g) Roof. The wind load for roofs shall be at least 150 kilograms per square meter (30 pounds per
square foot).
(h) Stairs. Stairs may be 75 centimeters (30 inches) wide, with a rise of 20 centimeters (8 inches) and
a run of 23 centimeters (9 inches).
(i) Entrance and Exit. There shall be one entrance and one exit.
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(j) Electrical Outlets. There shall be at least one convenience outlet per 6.00 meters (20 feet) of wall
measured along the floor and one light outlet for every room.
(k) Mechanical Requirements. Family dwellings not more than two stories shall be exempt from the
requirements of the Mechanical Code.
SECTION 3.01.09: Requirements for Group Occupancies
(a) Subject to the provisions of this Code, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for each
occupancy group covering: allowable construction, height, and area; location on property, exit
facilities, light, ventilation, and sanitation; enclosure of vertical openings; fire-extinguishing system;
and special hazards.

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Research of Architecture
- Research contributes to Design Theory
Nature of Design Theory
- Design Theory states facts
- Design Theory aids design
Scope of Architecture Theory
- Includes all that is presented in the handbooks of architects
- Includes legislation, norms and standards, rules and methods
- Includes miscellaneous and unscientific elements
Why Design Theory?
- To aid the work of the architect and improve its product
- Proven theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently
- Skill without knowledge is nothing
(architect Jean Mignot, 1400 AD)
Understanding Design Theory
- Theory does NOT necessarily mean PRECCED design
- PARADISM : every new or established theory applied
- Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
- Medieval (read: Dark Age) anonymous tradition of trade guilds
- Alberti, Vignola, Palladio, etc.
- Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke, etc.
ART NOUVEAU (Personal Style)
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- Eugene Emmanuelle Violett-le-Due, Le Corbusier, etc.

- Walter Gropius, Louis Sullivan, etc.
- modern architecture
- Robert Venturi
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
- Author of the oldest research on architecture
- Wrote an extensive summary of all the theory on construction
- Had a thorough knowledge of earlier Greek and Roman writings
Ten Books on Architecture
- De architectura libri decem
- Consists mostly of normative theory of design (based on practice)
- A collection of thematic theories of design with no method of combining them into a synthesis
- Presents a classification of requirements set for buildings:
: DURABILTIY (firmitas)
: PRACTICALITY or convenience
: PLEASANTNESS (venustas)
Vitruvian Rules of Aesthetic Form
- Based on Greek traditions of architecture
- Teachings of Pythagoras : applying proportions of numbers
- Observations of tuned string of instruments
- Proportions of human body
- PLEASANTNESS : in accordance of good taste
: parts follow proportions
: symmetry of measures
- no documents
- no person can be attributed for theories
Monastery Institutions
- Most documents retrieved from the Middle Ages
- However, archives contain only few descriptions of buildings
- Described only as according to the traditional model
- Theres no accounting for tastes was the rule of thumb
Development of Building Style
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- With hardly or no literary research present

- Villard de Hannecourts sketchbook in 1235
- Rotzers Booklet on the right way of making pinnacles
- Only through guidance of old masters
- Tradition binding and precise in close guilds of builders
1948 a copy of Virtue manuscript found at St. Gallen Monastery
Leon Bautista Alberti (1404-72)
- Person in charge of constructions commanded by Pope
- On Building : De re aedifficatoria
: one of the greatest works of the theory of
: completed in 1452, published in 1485
: more emphasis on decoration of building
Sebastino Serlio
- Regole generall di architectura
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola
- Regola delle cinque ordini
- Concise, facts and easily applicable rules of the five column systems
- Based his design instructions on four things:
: idea of Pythagoras
: proportions of small number
: properties and other instruments
: good taste
Andrea Palladio (1508-80)
- I Quattro libri dellarchitectura
- The father of modern picture books of architecture
Philibert de Lorme
- One of French theorist who are critical of italians
- Prove that Pantheons Corinthian columns had 3 different proportions
- Rejected the doctrine of absolute beauty of measures
Building Material Architectural Form
Amorphic material:
Soft stone; snow Spherical vaulted construction
Sheets of skin or textile Cone-shaped tent construction
Logs of wood Box-shaped construction
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Before Written Construction Theory

- Architecture created without the help of architects or theory
- Builders used a model instead of mathematical algorithms now used in modern construction
- Inverted catenary model
Semi-Circular Vault : Theory by Virtue
When there are arches the outermost piers must be made broader than the others so that they
may have the strength to resist when the wedges under the pressure of the load of the walls, begins
to thrust to the abutments.
During Middle Ages
- No written documents survived about theories or models to describe the magnificent vaults of
medieval cathedrals
During Renaissance
- From Alberti onwards, architects began specializing
- Mathematical models by Francis Bacon and Galileo Galilei
: considers load and scientific studies
contributed to constructions
- 1675 : Marquis de Vauban founded a building depatment in the French army called Corps des
- 1747 : Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, special school founded in Paris where new profession
specializing in construction was organized.
--- first engineering school
- Other figures of mathematical construction theory
: Robert Hooke
: Jakob Bernoulli
: Leonard Euier
Copying from Antiquity
- Architecture form antiquity came to a print of perfection
- Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1863)
: the first theorist who set out to create a totally new system of architectural forms independent of
What we call taste is but an involuntary process of reasoning whose steps elude our observation.
Authority has no value if its grounds are not explained.
: the foundation of modern
: did not create a timeless architectural style himself, he showed others the philosophical foundation
and method that they could use to develop even radically new form language
- Owen Jones : used forms inspired from nature, especially plants
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- The first architectural style independent of the tradition of antiquity after the Gothic style
- The example set by Art Nouveau encourage some of the most skillful architects of the 20th century
to create their private form language

- Five points of Architecture (1926, Le Corbusier)
a. pilotis
b. free plan
c. free faade
d. the long horizontal sliding window
e. the roof garden
- Architecture as Space (Bruno Zeri)
The crux of architecture is not the sculptural pattern, but instead the building interiors. These can be
seen as negative solids, as voids which the artist divides, combines, repeats and emphasizes in the
same way as the sculptor treats his positive lumps of substance.
- The personal style of architects are not necessarily based on laws of nature or on logical
reasoning. More important is that they exhibit a coherent application of an idea which also must be
clear that the public can find it out. An advantage is also if the style includes symbolical undertones.

Industrial Revolution (1768)
- Arts and Crafts Movement
a. conservative
b. William Morris
c. John Rustrin
- Electicism
a. architecture of borrowing
Fruits of Industrial Revolution
Joseph Paxton Crystal Palace, 1851
Elisha Graves Otis Elevator, 1857
Manufacturing of Rolled Steel
The Great Fire of Chicago, 1871
- downtown in Chicago was burned and in needs of construction of new buildings
- place where first tallest building was constructed
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William Le Baron Jenney

- made the first skyscraper
Daniel Burnham
- make no little plans, they have no magic to stir mans blood
Louis Sullivan
- form follows function
- Chicago School became the concentration of architectural development
- introduce Chicago Window
The World Columbian Exposition
- built in 1863
- chief architect: Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted

- European architecture was notified
- Person to notify:
a. Otto Wagner
b. Adolf Loops ornament is a crime
c. H.P. Berlage
d. Frank Llyod Wright
- Office of Peter Behrens
a. Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe less in more
b. Walter Gropius
c. Le Corbusier
- 2 Art movements that influenced
1. Futurism simultaneity of movement
2. Cubism interpretation of space
The Bauhaus
- Art and Technology, the new unity
Established architects
a. Frank Llyod Wright organic architecture
b. Le Corbusier
c. Mies Van Der Rohe / Gropius
International Style
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The period of Reassessment
- Universalism
- Personalism
The center of Postmodernism:
Robert Venturi less is bore
Philip Johnson
- say that a portion of Chippendale building in New York has no function
Introduce the element of Discovery
- Building as a message
1. Mathematical Analogy
2. Biological Analogy
- use of plants and ornaments
3. Romantic Architecture
- uses exotic language of form
- vastness; trying to surprise; huge
4. Linguistic Analogies
- grammar; uses words with proper grammar
5. Mechanical Analogies
- Buckminter Fuller
6. Ad Hoc Analogy
- any materials that you can get or available in your environment such as wood in forest
7. Stage Analogy

A. Administering the regular services of architecture
1. Definition of the architects role in the building industry
2. Liabilities and responsibilities
3. Methods of selecting the architect
4. The architectural projects
5. The professional fees
6. Inter-professional relationships
B. The spectrum of the architects services
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1. The pre-design services

2. The regular design services
3. Specialized allied services
4. Construction services
5. Post-construction services
6. Comprehensive architectural services
7. Design-build services
C. Building Laws
1. The laws regulating the practice of architecture
2. The laws affecting housing, real estate, design, general construction, etc.
3. The general conditions of a contract
- legally and technically qualified to practice architecture.
1. 21 years old
2. Pass the board exam with an average of 70% and with no day falling below 50%
Day 1 30% history of architecture
professional practice
building tech.
Day 2 30% utilities
Day 3 40% architectural design
3. Registered
a. PRC renewable every 3 years during your birth month
b. BIR
RC residence certificate
PTR professional tax receipt
OR official receipt
c. SEC security exchange committee
d. LGU local government unit
e. DTI department of trade and industry
4. Filipino
1. Graduate of BS Architecture
2. 2 years diversified training experience
1. Concept 5Ms
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2. Document Resources in
-reports; pictures; Construction
graphics; draw 1. materials
3. Implement 2. money
4. Post Implementation 3. manpower
4. machines
5. minutes
1. General objectives
2. Ideals
3. Success
4. Remuneration
5. Interest of the clients
6. Professional prerogatives
7. Business venture
8. Behavior
9. Criticism
10. Creative endeavor
1. Direct Selection
2. Indirect Selection
a. Referral from another architect
b. Recommendation from a satisfied client
c. Comparative Selection
3. Design Competition
1. NBC use and occupancy
(National Building Code)
2. FCP risk of the occurrence of fire
(Fire Code of the Philippines)
3. UAP degree of difficulty in design
(United Architects of the Philippines)
1. Simple projects
2. Moderate structures
3. Exceptional structures
4. Residential
5. Monumental structures
6. Repetitive construction
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7. Housing projects
8. Extensive detailing
9. Alterations and renovations
10. Consultations and arbitration
Group 1. Simple Projects
- requires no interior partitions
a. Armories
b. Bakery
c. Hangar
Minimum basic fee: 6% of the cost
50M or less: 6%=A
50M to 100M: A+5%=B
100M to 200M: B+4%
55M project
50M 3M
5M 0.25M
55M 3.25M
Group 2. Moderate Structures
- have interior partitions
a. Art galleries
b. City halls
c. Libraries
d. Supermarkets
e. Banks
Minimum basic fee: 7% of the cost
Group 3. Exceptional Structures
- with consultants
a. Atomic facilities (physicist)
b. Aquarium (marine biologist)
c. Mortuary
d. Medical facilities / hospital
(electrical engineer)
Minimum basic fee: 8%
Group 4. Residential
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Minimum basic fee: 10%

** Condominium
- Considered as high-rise residential building.
- According to FCP:
a. considered as exceptional
b. 15m above is considered a high-rise building that requires consultants for:
- elevator
- sprinklers
- structural engineer
Dominant Use
- Basis for classification of groupings
- Example is Mix-Use building
Group 5. Monumental Structures
- it requires concept
a. expositions
b. mausoleums
c. museums
d. gateways
Minimum basic fee: 12%
Group 6. Repetitive Construction
- using one and the same plan without any minute difference
- used several times
- includes group 1,2,3,&5
1st unit : MBF of Grp. 1,2,3 or 5
2nd unit : 80% of MBF
3rd unit : 60% of MBF
4th to infinity : 40% of MBF
Group 7. Housing Projects
- includes only houses
1st unit : MBF
2nd 10th unit : (60% of MBF x N) = B
11th infinity : B+(30% of MBF x N)
where: N = no. of units
Group 8. Extensive Detailing
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- includes detailing of furniture, cabinets, landscapes and interior

Minimum basic fee: 15%
Group 9. Alterations and Renovations
- includes groups
Minimum basic fee: MBF + 50% of MBF
Group 10. Consultation and Arbitration
- architect is entitled to receive payment on clients when giving an opinion regarding architectural
- as of 1979: P200.00 per hour rate
1. Percentage of construction cost
- based on minimum basic fee
2. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense (MDPE)
- none creative no-construction projects.
- ex. feasibility studies
Architect: NRTMf
Consultants: NRTMf
Staff: NRTMf
Professional Fee: Direct Cost + MP + RE
T : time spend on the project
N : number of person
R : rate
Mf: multiplying factor (2.0-2.5)
RE: reimbursable expenses
MP: margin of profit
-not more than or equal to 30%

- reimbursable expenses
a. mutual agreement
b. pertinent to the project
c. occur outside of the 100Km radius from the base of operation or office
3. Lump Sum + Fixed Fee
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- convert the cost to the nearest whole number

4. Professional Fee + Costs
5. Combination Method
- combination of 1,2,3&4
6. Per Diem
7. Turn Key
- payments received after all the works has been done

** 15 days receive payment after all the working drawings have been submitted.
1. downpayment: 20% - 50%
2. progressive payment: based on partial complition
3. guaranteed bond:
punch listing inspect the building upon completion
Specialized Allied Services
1. proposal phase: 5%
2. submission and acceptance
of preliminary drawings: 25%
3. submission and acceptance
of final drawings: 50%
4. retention fee: 20%
total 100%
1. proposal phase 5%
2. schematic design phase 15%
3. submittance of design
development phase 15%
4. contract document phase 50%
5. construction phase or
retention fee 15%
total 100%

** To get the proposal phase of the architect
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from the lot area, determine the buildable area

buildable area = lot area open spaces
** rule of thumb: 30% open area
ex. buildable area: 100sqm 30sqm
: 70sqm
: P20,000 x 70
: P1,400,000.00
AE (architectural/engineering fee): 10%
: 140,000.00
proposal phase of 5% = P7,000.00
UAP Doc. 201
The pre-Design Services
- non-creative projects (MDPE)
Economic feasibility studies
Physical planning services
Architectural programming services
Site selection and analysis
Site utilization and land-use
Space management
Promotional services
UAP Doc. 202
Regular Design Services
- sequential process
Schematic design phase
-integrated regular engineering services
Design development phase
Contract document phase
General conditions
Special Provisions
Construction phase
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Milestones of Construction
1. Establishment of References
a. horizontal references
- lot plan, benchmark
b. vertical references
- positioning of elevations
staking plan positioning of wood as marks for the start of digging and excavation.
2. Excavation
- supervised by the architect and the structural engineer
3. Reinforcements
- check size of bars, spacing, splicing and number of bars.
Support bars for installation of slab reinforcement: sapatos or spacer
4. Concreting
5. Finishing
UAP Doc. 203
Specialized Allied Services
- requires consultants, having specified licenses
Physical planning services
Interior design
Landscape architecture
Acoustics, communications and electronics
Comprehensive planning services

** structural: P50.00 P80.00 per sqm
A. Physical Planning Services
3 types:
1. Site Development Planning
- as of 1979: P5,000.00/has

2. Subdivision Planning in the Urban Area

- as of 1979: P3,000.00/has
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Subdivision planning subdividing or parceling of large lots into smaller lots.

3. Subdivision Planning in the Rural Area
- as of 1979: P2,000.00/has
civil works
- get paid 4% of the cost of the work
- additional 30% if the terrain is rugged
B. Interior Design
2 types:
1. Interior Decoration
- mainly furniture
2. Interior Design/Architecture
- combination or integration of furniture to its location
minimum basic fee:
- 12% - 20% of the cost of the work
- 15% is mostly used
C. Landscape Architecture
Minimum basic fee: 10% - 15%
D. Acoustics, Communications and Electronics
Minimum basic fee: 10% - 15%
E. Comprehensive Planning
1. Physical planning services
2. Economic planning services
3. Socio-cultural planning services
4. Transportation and utilities planning services
- roads and bridges
5. Legal and administrative
- includes form of government
UAP Doc. 204
Construction Services
F full-time supervision: 1% - 1-1/2%
- supervision of the architect on site or its representative from 8am 5pm
Cm construction management:
1-1/2% - 3%
Pm project management:
2% - 5%
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UAP Doc. 205

Post-Construction Services
- making the structure habitable and has occupancy permit
Be Bldg. and equipment maintenance
Bg Bldg. and grounds administration
1. Salary method
2. 45 to 6% of the gross monthly rentals
UAP Doc. 206
Comprehensive Architectural Services
- inclusion of UAP Doc. 201 - 205
- package services
UAP Doc. 207
Design-Build Services
- guaranteed maximum cost 10%
a. Design-build administration
b. Design-build guaranteed maximum cost
- holds the money
- purchase the materials
- payment for laborers
- compute the payroll
- submit computed payroll to the owner
- canvass and identify suppliers
- no responsibilities in holding the money
It establishes the relationship between: Owner-Architect, Owner-Contractor(s), and ContractorArchitect. It stipulates the norms by which the contractor shall perform his work in accordance with
the current trends in the practice of Architecture.
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Section 1. Definition and Documents

Article 1. Definitions
Article 2. Execution, Correlation and Intent of
Article 3. Drawings and Specifications
b. As-built
c. Detailed Drawings
d. Shop Drawings
e. Working Drawing
** 6 to 8 - distances of nails
** Every 4 - distances of rivet at ridge roll for roofing
5 Sets of Blue Prints
1 office of the building official
1 contractor
1 owner
1 fire department
1 site:
Only the architect can use the copy at the site.
May cause termination of the contractor in case of lost or mishandled.
Well-kept at the site.
Protected by electrical tape, binded by wood and screw and supported by acetate cover.
Additional 4 copies of blue prints
1- homeowner association
1- security of homeowner association
ex: town house, condominium, subdivision, etc.
2 lending institution
a. file
b. appraiser
** 9 copies are free of charge and the succeeding copies are payable.
Conflicts on drawings and specifications or text
specifications or text will prevail
if not stated on drawings and specification,
the contractor has the right to do it in the most expensive manner, still the materials have to be
approved by the architect.
Section 2
1. Laws
2. Regulations
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3. Site Conditions
- the architect should do ocular inspection of the site
4. Permits
- responsibility of the contractor to provide permit on his own expense
5. Taxes
- whoever gains pays tax
6. Insurance
a. life insurance
b. property insurance
7. Survey
- actual verification of size of the lots at the cost of the owner
- re-survey when problem occur but at his own expense
Section 3. Equipment and Materials
o Equipments written on quotation submitted by the contractor must comply with actual usage.
o Materials should follow what is written on specifications.
Section 4. Premises and Temporary Facilities
o Define by property line
o Consideration of safety of adjacent lots and users.
Temporary Facilities
1. warehouse
2. bankhouse or barracks
- for stay-in workers
3. office
- for architects negotiations
4. utilities
- water, electrical sources, etc.
5. access
- road, pathways, etc.
6. trial usage
7. enclosures
8. signage
- falling debris
- park at your own risk
Section 5. Protection of Work and Property
Section 6
1. Labor
a. Quantity: no. of worker, lesser the worker when construction is almost finish
b. Quality: proper work designation such as painter, carpenter, steel man, etc.
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2. Work
- based on specifications and plans
duration include liquidated damages which means delayed construction to be deducted to the fee.
a. working days Monday to Friday
b. calendar days number of days including Saturday, Sunday and holidays
3. Payment
- no payment shall be made without the approval of the architect.
** duration starts counting 7 days after the acceptance of NTP notice to proceed.
** within 7 days: mobilization and materials were prepared.
** immediately means 5 days
** s-curve allowable deficiency is 10%
1. Certificate of completion (partial)
2. Request for Inspection
3. Billing
4. Certificate of Non-Financial
When accepted
- the architect furnish certificates to the owner:
1. Certificate of acceptance
2. Certificate of payment
** the contractor may not be paid till 90 days before he go to court.
** substantial completion (98%): the contractor may e paid 100%
Section 7. Contractor-Separate;
Contractors-Subcontractors relations
Section 8. Suspension of Work
People who can suspend work: owner and contractor
1. Owner
a. Bankruptcy declared by BIR
b. Insubordination not following orders
c. Non payment
2. Contractor
a. Government stoppage of work
b. Non action of request
- drawings
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- materials
- inspection
c. Non payment of workers or materials
Involving numbers
** 5 days means immediately
** 7 days NTP notice to proceed
** 10 days request for materials and drawings
notice (stop, begin or resume)
** 15 days money matters (request for inspection, payments, salary and wages)
** 30 days arbitration
** 90 days government stoppage
** 120 days Building Permit (stoppage)
** 365 days Building Permit (without construction)
3 consecutive board examination failures
guaranteed bond
** 3 years renewal of license
** 15 years liability of architect to his project
Practice of Architecture
1. RA 545 The Architectural Law
2. PD 49 Intellectual Property Law
3. PD 223 The Law that created the PRC
** Hon. Antonieta Fortuna-Ibe (head)
4. LOI 1000 The letter of Inspection Mandating Government support only to the A.P.O.
5. EO 164 The Executive order regulating the hiring of foreign consultants
Article 1. Organization
Article 2. Registration and Exam
** Qualifications
a. 21 years old
b. Filipino
c. Graduate of BS Architecture
d. 2 years diversified experience
e. High-School Graduate
Article 3. Sundry Provision
a. Foreigners cannot practice if there is no reciprocity
b. Corporation cannot practice architecture
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c. Architect whos employed by the government cannot practice architecture privately

Termination of License
1. Fraudulent Acts
2. Scandalous Acts
3. Criminal Acts
a. Life
b. Property
4. Unsound mind
5. Violation of Code of Ethics
** ADB Building Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM)
** Bureau of Soil Japanese architect
** Lung Center and Health Center George Ramos
** World Trade Center Minoro Yamasaki
** Only the architect may sign the Architectural Plans
1. PD 1096 The National Building Code
2. PD 957 The Condominium and Subdivision Buyers Protective Law
3. BP 220 The Socialized Housing Law
4. BP 344 The Law Enhancing the Mobility of the Disabled (The Accessibility Law)
5. PD 1185 The Fire Code of the Philippines
** former president Ferdinand Marcos signed most of these laws
** Architect Roberto Pentong Gaite architect to juries
** Building Permit issued to buildings having a cost of P15,000.00 of indigenous materials
** Hon. Florante Soriquez secretary of DPWH
1. Chapter 1 General Provision
2. Chapter 2 Adm. and Enforcement
3. Chapter 3 Permits and Inspection
4. Chapter 7- Classification and Use
5. Chapter 8 Light and Ventilation
6. Chapter 12 Gen. Design and Construction
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Apprentice Designer Draftsman
- signed by Filipino architect
- current and valid ITR
- under minimum of 6 months work with architect
- maximum of four architects to sign the logbook
- 3840 hours
- while studying, 4 hours a day may count
- 8 hours a day when working
- overtime, Saturday and Sundays are not included
- submission of logbook is 30 days before the board exam

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Tomas Mapua
- his most enduring contribution is the Mapua institute of Technology, which is the oldest architectural
school in the country
- the first registered architect in the Philippines and worked with the Bureau of Public Works
- best works:
1. De La Salle University classical revivalist influences
2. Nurses Home at the Philippine General Hospital compound Italian renaissance
Andres Luna de San Pedro
- the son of the great Filipino painter Juan Luna
- best works:
1. Legarda Elementary School French renaissance
2. Rafael Fernandez House French renaissance and official residence of Corazon Aquino during
her presidency
3. Perez-Samanillo Building art deco and modern style
4. Crystal Arcade art deco and modern style, precursor of the modern-day shopping mall
5. Perkins House also known as El Nido (The Nest), awarded first prize in Manilas 1925 House
Beautiful Contest
Juan Nakpil
- the first architect to be conferred the National Artist award in 1973 for his outstanding talents and
services in creating edifices, both private and public, that are conceptually well designed and
conscientiously executed
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- dictum less in more

- best works:
1. Quezon Institute superimposed a native touch on the art deco faade through the high-pitch roof
in the central building
2. The Ever Theater the first to use glass as prominent architectural material
Pablo Antonio
- best works:
1. Philippine National Bank
2. Manila Railroad Company
3. Far Eastern University
Leandro Locsin
- the poet of space, known for his lyrical articulation of space as defined by stark modernity, spatial
purity, expansive strength, distinct outlines and straightforward geometry
- he produced 71 residences, 81 buildings and sultanate palace
- best works:
1. University of the Philippines Catholic Chapel
2. St. Andrew Church in Bel-Air, Makati
3. Cultural Center of the Philippines
4. Philippines International Convention Center
5. Folk Arts Theater
6. National Arts Center on Mt. Makiling
7. Ninoy Aquino International Airport terminal Tower One in Ayala
8. Mandarin Hotel
- most impressive work:
1. Istana Nurul Iman (Palace of Religious Light) the palace of the Sultan of Brunei, which
reinterprets traditional Islamic Southeast Asian motifs based on a modernist idiom
Francisco Maosa
- best work:
1. Tahanang Filipino (Coconut Palace) a luxurious guesthouse at the CCP Complex. It showcased
a double roof reminiscent of the salakot (a wide brimmed hat) and swing-out (naka-tukod) window
borrowed from the bahay kubo
Juan Arellano
- best works:
1. Legislative Building (now the National Museum) on Agrifina Circle neoclassicism
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2. Post Office Building at Liwasang Bonifacio

3. Metropolitan Theater colorist art deco, considered as the zenith of Art Deco aesthetics in the
Philippines, exterior and interior exhibit locally mediated approaches such as detailing : tropical fruits
and flora motifs, bamboo banister railings, carved banana and mango ceiling relief, and Batik mosaic

- brought about 19th century by the changes in society and economy
- 3 possible origins
1. BAHAY KUBO pointed roof, concept of space (space surrounded by space) and ventilation
(wide window), silong, open plan
2. TRIBAL LEADERS HOUSE strong construction; spacious with many furniture and rooms;
elaborate decoration; best materials
3. CONVENTOS adjacent to the church, permanence spaciousness; may have been the local
models of luxury and prestige
- earthquake proof : resting on wooden posts mortised on stone, buried on the ground to dance with
the earthquake
- the PEAK of native Philippine architecture : made the bahay kubo bigger and more extravagant but
retained its character
- 10 areas
1. GROUND FLOOR made of coral stones, adobe or rubble; with small windows; area include:
a. zaguan for caruajes, grains
b. quadra stables
c. bodega old carozas, grains
d. entrasuelo mezzanine where the valuables are kept, may also house offices or additional
dwelling units
e. patio enclosed courtyard
2. CEREMONIAL STAIRWAY first three step (descanzo) made of marble tiles; landing with
bastonera; remaining steps are made of narra
3. LIVING SPACES wide double doors may be opened to connect the spaces and create a large
a. antesala or caida for acquaintances; spacious hall separated by callado
b. sala for friends and intimates; divided by movable screens or biombo
c. bedrooms (quarto or silid) usually three; contains four-posted beds, armories, chests; SANTOS
with ivory heads and hands are placed at the master bedroom
d. comedor dining area; plateria and long table
4. COCINA kitchen; contains the paminggalan (food cabinet) and dispensa (rice storage)
5. COMON or LATRINA toilet, sometimes with two-passenger water closet
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6. BAO or PALIGUAN bathroom

7. ALCOVA additional quartos
8. VOLADA flying gallery over the zaguan; protects the interior from heat and rain
9. AZOTEA open terrace of stone and ceramic placed near the kitchen; with a cistern for gathering
rain water
10. BALCON terrace in the living room, jutting out of the house
- distinctive features
1. PERSIANA large windows with slats covered with capiz to filter light; unique in Southeast Asia
2. VENTANILLA small windows usually at lower portion of the wall
3. CALLADO open woodwork or tracery; fixed over a window or placed as space dividers
4. BARANDILLAS wrought iron traceries on the wall
5. BANGGERA where the dishes are kept
- regional differences
1. ILOCOS sober architecture; Vigan houses are entirely made of bricks, pilasters embedded on
sides, dignified without too much decoration
2. CEBU expansive, ground floor made of huge coral stones
3. SOUTHERN TAGALOG airy. Second flanges over the walls of the ground

- forts and fortresses constructed by Spanish friars as a defense against Moro pirates
1. REAL FUERZA DE SANTIAGO (Fort Santiago) shrine of freedom, designed by Father Antonio
Cedeno, with Diego Jordan as engineer
2. INTRAMUROS famous walled city within a city; seven gates; completed 1872; made of bricks
and hard adobe from the Pasig River quarries; wall are 45 ft thick and rise 25 ft above the moat;
structures inside the city include:
a. Fort Santiago
b. San Agustin Church
c. Convent
- architectural development
1. roofs at 45 degrees gradient or less
2. use of bricks, limestone, hardwood, capiz shells (G.I. sheets and clay tiles or tisa were imported)
3. elaborate lace-like grillwork (1870s)
4. transoms with floral and foliate scroll work (1890s)
5. 1890s Art Nouveau brought swirling vines and flowers for staircase balustrades, etched or colored
glass panels replaced capiz
6. emergence of Filipino and foreign architects working in the Philippines
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a. FELIX ROXAS first Filipino architect; served as architect to the Manila government; studied in
England and Spain
b. JUAN HERVAS a Catalan who was one of the Spanish architects invited to reconstruct Manila
after the earthquake of 1863 and 1880
7. churches
a. Sto. Domingo Church, Intramuros
b. San Ignacio, Intramuros first church designed by a Filipino architect
c. San Sebastian Church, Manila only Gothic church in the Philippines
8. brides
a. Fuente de Espana first bridge to span the Pasig River linking Intramuros and Binondo
b. Colgante Bridge suspension bridge; only for pedestrians; framework of iron imported from
- architectural development
1. a regime of reinforced concrete and galvanized iron
2. Neo-Classical styles
3. DANIEL BURNHAM commissioned by Gov. General W.H. Taft to draft the Master Plan for Manila
and government buildings (Agri-Finance Building, Senate Building, among others)
4. MASTER BUILDERS (maestro de obras) acquired title either from practical experience or
completed academic training of Master Builders course
5. LICEO DE MANILA first school to open three year course in architecture
6. TOMAS MAPUA first licensed architect; established the second school (followed by UST and
7. MASONIC TEMPLE, Escolta first multi-storey reinforced concrete building in the Philippines
8. CHALET suburban house; simple design with verandah in front or around the house; middleclass
9. 1930s continued urban development; emergence of multi-storey, multi-family dwellings and
commercial structures; distinct simplification of lines, emphasis on verticality; other architects
contradicted the trend by putting horizontal strips of glass window
- mediocre design, uncontrolled and hasty rebuilding only resurrected old designs
- commercial building drew inspiration from contemporary architecture in the West
- development of community planning
- BUNGALOW introduced in 1948; one-storey house with wide picture windows, a lanai and a
carport for up to three cars
- modern architecture with a renewed interest in Filipino motifs
a. use of pointed roofs, lattices, screens, wood carvings

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1. Introduction
2. Architectural Design Theory
3. Esquisse
4. Building Economics
5. Building Utilities
6. Approaches and Strategies
7. Simulated Board Exam
- it is the translation of an abstract solution to a real, tangible and concrete solution
- it is the optimum and better solution which must approximate the pre-set solution of the examiner
- it must involve the judicious use of design tools in developing the solution within:
a. parameters / constraints
b. circumstances
c. environmental conditions
: must be conserve
: must be protected
: must be included in the design solution
- set by the examiner. The solution must be: SAFE
Simple provide what is needed or simply follow instruction
Appropriate must fit on concept
Functional look-out for specific use of the building
1. 20x30 tracing paper provided by PRC
2. Black ink final drawings is in black ink
3. Pencil for enhancing and construction line (staedler pencils)
4. College major plate type drawings
- schematic
- no dimensions
- no call-outs such as specifications
- fully rendered in the used pencil shadows but not colored
- material must be drawn in full
- no columns unless it is part of design
- furniture layouts defending on layout and instructions
- entourage and landscape are allowed but not colored
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1. Individual drawing implements and drawing boards
- triangles
- compass
- pencils
- magic, masking, scotch tapes
- rubber band
- drawing board with straight edge
- erasing shield
- scissors
- protractors
- french curve
- 2 sets of sign pens varying in points
- circular template
- optional coloring materials
- cutters
- ballpens
- erasers (different types)
- liquid paper
- scale
- watch
2. PRC will provide tracing paper with official seal
3. Drawing Grids
- preset grids, but to be shown to the proctor
4. Not allowed!
- no color
- no people or human figures
- no vehicles even triangle representation on plans
- no electronic equipment
- no scientific or programmable calculators, only simple scientific calculator is allowed
- no references
1. Drawing implements
2. Codes Building Codes
3. Building Standards
4. Vocabulary
1. Lettering
-simple gothic, upright and all caps
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-text : 4mm in height

-title : 8-10mm
-sub-titles : 6-8mm
2. Lines
-construction lines or guide lines
-final lines
-dimension lines
-masculine/feminine lines
3. Each drawing must have title and scale and north orientation
-orientation must always upward! on site development plan
-on plans refer to main entrance of structures
Acconometric Drawing
- another type of aerial perspective
- term for parking at water
1. Title
2. Background or description of the problem
3. Requirements
a. Plate requirements specify needed rooms or spaces
b. Drawing requirements specify scale, needed drawings, etc
- luxurious facilities for water vessels
- yatch
- fine dining : luxurious eating place
- high-rise residential buildings
- luxurious
- with elevators to make it more luxurious than townhouse
- can be bought but original lot remains to the owner
- can be bought
- horizontal residential structures
- can be leased (long term)
- not more than 10 units
- rented (short term payment)
- usually two storey and for rent
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- can accommodate a full length of block
- an apartment that is not more than 4 storeys
- fully furnish with equipments (such as food, beds) while apartment will be provided by the tenants
- rented by other person to the owner of the room wherein the owner of the room rented it to the
owner of building
- rented area provided with room and comfort room and other facilities will be common areas
- rented area with room, comfort room and garage (motorist hotel)
- enclosed with walls, roof and door and facilities for repairs
- with roof and columns
Parking Slot
- compose of lines and has no enclosure at all
The OASIS a resort
- a mirage : an illusion of water in the desert
- located in the desert; a body of water located in the desert
- leisure activities
- having a main focus of water element it can be water fountain
The HAMLET a townhouse
- hamlet : a small French village
- having no huge elements such as columns
- compose of common center area such as plaza
The TIANGGE a flea market
- flea : surot
- baratillo
- huge number of stalls that is detachable

Assume 1-1/2 hours to finish every sheet
Consider facing
a. reading and understanding (3 hours)
b. preliminary drawings (2hours)
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c. final drawings
1. vocabulary
2. building code
3. presentation
4. requirements
5. common sense
Stairs cutting line
-7th and 8th steps
1. practice drafting technique
2. multiple deadline time management
3. composition
- sheets must be clean
- clear, use acceptable architectural symbols and architectural conventions
- respect margins
Dimension Contrast Variety
Proportion Measurements
Scale Fixed Proportions
Equilibrium Balance
a. Formal balance
b. Informal balance Gravitation
Physical Manifestation Rhythm Movement
Unity Order / Harmony
Character Expression
Masculine Lines bold, dark, straight, strong lines
Feminine Lines soft, fragile, thin, curve lines
1. Residential : feminine; informal
2. Institutional
a. government buildings : masculine; formal
b. health care : masculine; formal
3. Industrial : masculine; formal
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4. Commercial : feminine; informal

5. Recreational
a. active : masculine; formal
b. passive : feminine: informal
6. Religious : masculine; formal
7. Education : masculine; formal
- creating unified site development plan
1. Central Theme
- creating a motif
2. Major component of buildings must dominate
- exceptional size
- strategic location
- unique shape
3. compact and coherent unit
- orientation marker, ex. sculpture
- inward orientation
4. Harmony in materials, styles, design, etc.
- manifested external expression of internal qualities
a. function use of the building
b. association influence of traditional types
c. personality character of occupants or human quality
read understand
a. title
b. description or background
c. requirements
- plate
- drawing
familiarize with the site
a. simply given
b. derivation / computation
- closing the traverse (protractor and calculator)
- textual
determine the area of the lot
a. formula
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- regular shapes
- irregular shapes
b. dot-grid method
- approximate area all dots included in the site will be multiplied to the reference area of the square
c. planimeter
- use in computing the lot
d. road runner
- used in computing the length of the road
determine the buildable area (BA)
buildable area = lot area open space
70% 30%
open spaces
1. set backs type of lots page 231
2. private yards (front, side, rear) page 227
3. road abutments page 228
4. height of buildings page 234
5. private open space page 226
6. natural open spaces
a. rivers 5.00m
b. creek 3.00m
c. sea/beach front 50.00m
d. pasig river 10.00m
determine the floor area (FA)
FA = BA x No. of storeys
saleable area (SA)
SA = FA - common area (35%)
plate requirements / components
code requirements
- BP 344 (accessibility law)
a. site development
- parking allocation (for disabled
- curb-cut-outs
- ramps (1:12)
b. structure
- comfort room
- corridor (1.50 meters)
- stairs
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- fire exits
- ventilation
a. naturally ventilated
b. artificially ventilated
- 1 storey
- 2 to 4 storeys
- 5 to infinity storeys (high-rise)
a. superstructure
b. substructure
- in every five floors correspond to one basement
S budgetary estimate
(floor area x cost parameter)
D detailed estimate
(floor area: specific x cost parameter)
C bill of materials
(materials x cost)
C bid estimate
(bill of materials x margin of profit)
cost parameter/ sqm
1 storey: low cost P1.00 P5,000.00
2-4 storeys: mid cost P5,001.00 P12,000.00
5-infinity: high-rise P12,001.00 infinity
basement (1.2%) = next level
components of the estimate
a. land development cost 25% (P500/sqm)
1. earth development
2. roads and access ways
3. utilities (civil works)
4. landscaping
5. furnishings
b. structure 75%
1. structural 25% of the cost
2. utilities 15-30% of the cost
3. architectural 45-60% of the cost
1. materials x
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2. labor 35-40% of x
direct cost = A
3. equipment 20% of A
4. margin of profit 30% of A
5. overhead 15% of A
(ballpen, bond papers, gas, secretary, etc.)
6. contingency 10-15% of A
(allowance, wastage) : paid by contractor
7. bonds and insurances 10-30% of A
8. miscellaneous 15-20% of A
construction cost + AE = project cost
1. water supply
2. waste water
3. sewage
4. electricity
5. lighting
6. mechanical
7. intelligent system
locations of utilities is outside
a. utility company
b. users
c. intermediary treatment
step-down transformer : 220V to 110V
step-up transformer : 110V to 220V
water tanks
- (informal) feminine
1. multi-storey : 4 storey and below
2. multi-family
3. utilities are shared or common areas
4. orientation:
work wesT
rest east
5. clusters
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45 meters: maximum length of corridor

- basically linear and rectangular in plan
1. formal (masculine)
2. multi-storey
3. linear development
4. flag pole / assembly area
1. users
a. patients
b. medical practioner
c. visitors
2. activities
3. high rise
4. separate out-patient
5. philippine heart center, example
1. users
a. players playcourts
b. officials rooms
c. spectators bleachers
2. playcourts
3. unobstructed view
- less column with the gym
track oval
1. track and field
2. track and soccer
swimming pool and diving pool
- usually synthetic wood was used nowadays
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1. 18 holes done by landscape architect
2. clubhouse usually two storeys and placed on the middle
a. first floor
- dirty area
- caddy
- clean-up
b. second floor
- function room
- fine dining
- boutiques
- pro-shop
1. feature
2. amenities
3. operation system
1. one-stop-shop
- all ages accommodated
2. flagship store
- usually department store
- concessions : barbershop, boutiques, etc
3. magnet nodes
4. parking
5. theme activities
1. all religion
- no symbols of particular religion
2. celebrants place (altar)
- congregation
1. classroom
2. 1 teacher = 40-50 students
(1 sqm/person + circulation)
3. standard module 7m x 9m
4. flagpole / quadrangle
5. laboratories / libraries / admin / pe
6. parking
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7. canteen
international domestic
Sea Ok : cargo Ok
Land X Ok
Air Ok Ok
a. lounge, passenger
b. offices
c. reception
d. hygiene facilities
a. lounge, passenger
b. offices
c. reception
d. hygiene facilities
e. customs
f. immigration
separate people and good
separate in and out
- government building
-formal / male
-rectangular / linear (45 meter)
-flagpole / assembly
3 branches of government
-executive : major
-legislative : vice major
-judiciary : judge
north (type of government)
1. ilocos : bahay na bato
2. mountain province : ifugao house
3. batanes : ibatan house

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- behavior studies in architecture include the systematic examination of relationship between the
environment and human behavior and their application in the design process. The term has a number
of partial equivalent.
- it can be (1) human environment studies
(2) social ecology
(3) human factors
(4) behavioral architecture
(5) programming
the research aspect is often called:
(1) environmental psychology
(2) user needs study
(3) social and behavioral factors
environment behavior study contain more than function:
(1) circulation flow
(2) proximities
(3) dimensional concerns
behavioral factor go deeper to the psychology of the user, how he perceives:
(1) building form
(2) social interaction needs
(3) sub cultural differences in lifestyle
(4) meaning and symbolism of building
(5) technology


1. user groups
- different user groups have different need and use patterns, they are affected in different ways by the
quality of the environment, user group maybe socially differentiated into:
income, ethnicity, age, special interest group, urban/rural, informal dwellers, squatters/slam dwellers
2. environmental behavior phenomena
- this is looking at the aspect of human behavior in relation to everyday physical environments.
Proxemics are the different distances between people that we considered comfortable for social
interaction. This shows distinct distances: intimate, personal, social and public
Privacy, density and crowding
a. privacy is an inter personal control mechanism that faces and regulates interactions with others.
It is the chain of individuals, groups or institutions to control access to themselves and what
information about them may be allowed to be communicated.
b. density is a measure of number of people per unit of space
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c. crowding is psychological or an environment behavior concept which refers to the experience of

being hemmed in, locked, or frustrated by the presence of too many people.
- it is a specific environment behavior concept. It is a small invisible, protective sphere or bubble that
an organism carries about
- the individual personal space is dynamite, it changes its dimension, stress and anxiety can result
from intrusion
- refer to a group of behavior that a person will personalized, marked, owned, defend, unlike personal
space, territories do not move, they have five defining characteristics:
(1) people will defended if violated by intruders
(2) they are marked in either a concrete or symbolic ways
(3) they satisfy some needs or motives
(4) they are owned control or processed by an individual or group
(5) they contain spatial area
- it is an extension of the concept of territoriality, characteristics of space not make it more defensible.


a drawing of the outline and partitions of a building as you would see them at the building were cut
horizontally at about 4 feet or 1.20m
the plan is the beginning of the building. It is the foundation upon which the scheme of the structure
rests. It relates the various units to each other
the design process should always proceed from within to without
1. the arrangement of the units according to practical requirements
2. the arrangement according to the rule of abstract design
1. Preliminary sketching
shows desirable size proportion and relationship of each room to the entire plan
offsets and indentations are smoothed by increasing the dimensions of some rooms and changing
slightly the arrangement of the others
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modular sizes are established

exact positions and sizes of doors and windows are determined
2. Final sketching
single line sketches are change to define wall thickness and include property features
location of shrubbery, trees, patios, driveways, gardens, etc. are included
1. block the overall dimensions of the house and add the thickness of the outside walls with a hard
2. layout the position of interior partitions
3. locate the position of doors and windows by center line and by their widths
4. darken the object lines with an F pencil
5. add doors and window symbols with a 2H pencil
6. add symbols for stairwells
7. erase extraneous lines if they are too heavy. If they are extremely light, they can remain
8. draw the outlines of the furniture and fixtures
9. add the symbols and sections for any masonry work such as planters
10. dimension the drawing
1. show normally swinging doors at 90 opening
2. doors swings are shown with light lines and quarter symbols
3. door type is not illustrated in plan, only in elevational views
4. window type cannot be explained in plan except for width and location : window type and height
are shown in elevational views
5. show sill lines with a lighter line weight than wals, jambs and glass, since sills are not in fact cut
- note that what is cut through in plan (walls, columns, etc.) takes precedence and should be
dominating value; what is seen within plan (flooring, counters, furniture, etc.) should be lighter in


1. architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with dimensions placed above the lines.
Arrowheads, dots, small circles and diagonal lines are used to denote the termination of the
dimension line. Dots are used when the area to be dimensioned is too small for arrowheads.
Arrowheads may also be placed outside the extension lines when the area is too small
2. dimensions should be placed to read from the right or from the bottom of the drawing. The
numerals should always be written above the lines
3. dimension lines are placed about 3/8 apart. To avoid crossing extension and dimension lines,
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place the longer dimensions farther away from the plan. Overall building dimensions are placed
outside all other dimensions
4. when the area to be dimensioned is too small for the numerals, they are placed outside the
dimension lines. Do not try to fancy up dimensions with artistic numerals, legibility is the only
5. rooms are dimensioned form the center line of partitions. In some cases, they may be dimensioned
from wall to wall, exclusive of wall thickness
6. in dimensioning stairs, the number of risers is placed on a line with an arrow indicating the direction
(up or down)
7. architectural dimensions always refer to the actual size of the building regardless of the scale of the
8. never crowd dimensions. To free the plan of excessive dimensions, the sizes of doors and
windows are given in the door and window schedule. All obvious dimensions are also omitted
architectural sections are drawings that show a building cut in half by an imaginary plane called a
cutting plane. All the material on one side of the cut is removed so that the interior can be studied
the position of the cutting plane is shown by the cutting plane line. A cutting plane line is a long
heavy line followed by two dashes. It is placed in the part to be sectioned, and the arrows at its ends
show the direction from which the section is to be viewed
the cutting plane line often interferes with dimensions, notes and details. In this case, an alternative
method wherein only the extremes of the cutting plane line are used. The cutting plane line is then
assumed to be straight
- a section cut through the entire building or component
a. cross section a section showing a crosswise cut through the building
b. longitudinal section a section showing a transverse or lengthwise cut through building
- a section with a cutting plane line offset to permit it to cut through necessary features
- a cut to remove only one quarter of a symmetrical component. Thus both exterior and interior can be
shown in one view
1. a building material is only sectioned when the cutting plane line passes through it. The outline of all
other materials visible behind the plane of projection must also be drawn in their proper position and
2. as with floor plans, whatever is cut through in taking a section (floor, walls, roof structure, etc.) is
profiled with a heavy line
3. cut sections through major elements in a building (major window openings, doorways, changes in
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roof and floor levels, roof opening, etc.). never cut through columns
4. it is good practice to include people in building design section to give a scale to the spaces
5. the physical context of the building should always be shown buy indicating the earth upon which it
sits, which is also cut through
6. construction details and foundations need not be indicated in design sections
1. vertical dimensions should be read from the right of the drawing
2. levels to be dimensions should be labeled with a note, term or abbreviation
3. room heights are shown by dimensioning from the floor line to the ceiling line
4. the height of windows and doors are dimensioned from the floor line to the top of windows and
doors. Windows and doors may be indexed to a door and window schedule, or the style of the
windows and doors may be shown on the sectional drawing.
5. sectional dimensions show only vertical distances. horizontal distances are shown in the floor plan
6. dimensions for small, complex, or obscure areas should be indicated to a separate detail
7. overall height dimensions are placed on the outside of subdimensions
- the main feature of the outside of a building are shown on the elevation drawings. Elevation
drawings are orthographic drawings of the exterior of a building. They are prepared to show the
design, materials, dimensions, and final appearance of the exterior of a building
- only horizontal distances can be established in the floor plan. Thus, the vertical height such as the
height of windows and doors must be shown on the elevations
front elevation
- the view projected from the front of a building
rear elevation
- the view projected from the rear of a building
right side elevation
- the view projected from the right side of a building
left side elevation
- the view projected form the left side of a building
- a method of projecting the elevations of a building with no so-called front or rear view
The major lines of an elevation are derived by projecting vertical lines from the floor plan, and
measuring the position of the horizontal lines from the ground line
vertical line projection
- vertical lines represents the main lines of a building should first be projected. These lines show the
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overall length or width of the building. They also show the major parts or offsets of the building. The
position of the doors and windows are also projected from the floor plan
horizontal line projection
- horizontal lines that represents the height of the eave line and ridge line above the ground are
measured, then drawn to intersect with the vertical lines drawn from the floor plan. The intersection of
these lines provide the overall outline for the elevation
A well planned kitchen is efficient, attractive and easy to maintain. In designing an efficient kitchen,
the following must be considered:
a. function
b. basic shape
c. dcor
d. size
e. location of equipment
The basic function of a kitchen is food preparation. In some cases, the kitchen is also used as an
informal dining area and as a laundry area
storage center
- the focal point of the storage center is the refrigerator, although many cabinets for non-refrigerated
food, dishes and utensils must be provided. The refrigerator may be free-standing, built-in or
suspended from a wall
- to save steps, the refrigerator may be located near the delivery door, or nearest the door to the
living/dining area
preparation and cleaning center
- this center is built around the sink and its adjoining counter space
- the preparation and cleaning center may also include a waste-disposal unit, an automatic
dishwasher, and cabinets for storing brushes, towels and cleaning supplies
cooking center
- the cooking center is grouped around the range/stove. Range-oven combinations are often 36
inches or 0.90 meter high, so counters should be designed at the same height
- the cooking center should also include countertop workspaces, as well as storage for small
appliances and cooking utensils that will be used in the area. The cooking center must have an
adequate supply of electrical outlets for the minor appliances used in cooking
If you draw a line connecting the three centers of the kitchen, a triangle is formed. This is called a
work triangle. The perimeter of an efficient work triangle should be between 12 and 22 feet or 3.7 and
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6.7 meters
- this shape of kitchen, consisting of a long corridor with utilities on either side, is often used when
space is at a premium. Doors may be at either end or one end only.
- this shape of kitchen is unsatisfactory if a considerable traffic passes through the work triangle
- a Pullman kitchen produces one of the most efficient work triangles of all the arrangement
- this type of kitchen has cabinets on three walls, the sink usually in the middle, and the refrigerator
and stoves on opposite sides. This plan is adaptable for both small and large rooms
- in this arrangement, traffic passing through the kitchen is completely separated from the work
- the open space between the sides may be 4 or 5 (1.2 or 1.5m)
- probably the most commonly used arrangement, the L-shaped kitchen is efficient because it allows
for two doors without any interruption of countertop area
- this type of plan has continuous counters and appliances and equipment on two adjoining walls. The
work triangle is not often used for other kitchen facilities, such as dining and laundry
- if the walls of an L-shaped kitchen are too long, the efficiency is destroyed
- the peninsula kitchen is similar to the U kitchen. However, one end of the U is not enclosed with a
wall. The peninsula is often used to adjoin the kitchen to the dining or family rooms
- this kind of layout may be used only with large rooms. It is called peninsula when the bar runs
perpendicular to a wall, and an island when it is freestanding
- this layout is used when a kitchen must be fitted in a long, narrow space such as in small
apartments, cabins or houses where little space is available
- the work centers are located in an efficient although not ideal arrangement. In planning the one-wall
kitchen, the designer must be very careful to avoid having the wall too long, and must provide
adequate storage facilities
The kitchen must be located near the service entrance and near the waste disposal area. If possible,
the childrens play area should also be visible from the kitchen. The kitchen must always be adjacent
to the dining area or when provided, outdoor dining areas.
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1. the traffic lane is clear of the work triangle

2. the work areas include all necessary appliances and facilities. Electrical outlets must be provided
for the appliances. There must be adequate storage centers for all work areas
3. the kitchen is located adjacent to the dining area and near the childrens area
4. the work triangle measures less than 22 or 6.7m
5. shadowless and glareless light is provided and is concentrated on each work center
6. adequate counter space is provided for meal preparation
7. ventilation is adequate
8. the oven/range/stove is separated from the refrigerator by at least one cabinet
9. working height for counter is 36 or 0.90m
10. the combination of base cabinets, wall cabinets, and appliances provides a consistent standard
unit without gaps or awkward extension or depressions
ADDITION is an extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of proportioning structural elements such that computed
stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not exceed specified
allowable stress (also called working stress design).
ALTER or ALTERATION is any change, addition or modification in construction or occupancy.
APPROVED as to materials and type of construction, refers to approval by the building official as the
result of investigation and tests conducted by the building official, or by reason of accepted principles
or tests by recognized authorities, technical or scientific organizations.
BUILDING is any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.
BUILDING, EXISTING, is a building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal
building permit has been issued.
BUILDING OFFICIAL is the officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and
enforcement of this code, or the building officials duly authorized representative.
structural elements using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached
when the structure is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The term LRFD is used in the
design of steel and wood structures.
STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD is a method of proportioning structural elements such that the
computed forces produced in the elements by the factored load combinations do not exceed the
factored element strength. The term strength design is used in the design of concrete and masonry
STRUCTURE is that which is built or constructed, an edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of
work artificially built up or composed of parts joined together in some definite manner.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEER is a registered Civil Engineer with special qualification in the practice of
Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Civil Engineering of the Professional Regulation
Commission of the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers through the Association of Structural
Engineers of the Philippines.
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APPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work or completed work conforms to this section in the
opinion of the building official.
AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading.
BEDROCK is in-place solid rock.
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be placed.
BORROW is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use on grading on a site.
CIVIL ENGINEER is a professional engineer licensed to practice in the field of civil engineering.
CIVIL ENGINEERING is the application of the knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of
mechanics and the properties of materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil works.
COMPACTION is the densification of a fill by mechanical means.
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination thereof.
ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST is a licensed geologist experienced and knowledgeable in engineering
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY is the application of geologic knowledge and principles in the
investigation and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use in the design of civil works.
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind, water or
EXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of earth material.
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is an engineer experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of
geotechnical engineering.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING is the application of the principles of soil and rock mechanics in the
investigation, evaluation and design of civil works involving the use of earth materials and the
inspection or testing of the construction thereof.
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface.
GRADE, EXISTING, is the grade prior to grading.
GRADE, FINISH, is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan.
GRADE, ROUGH, is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan.
GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof.
KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a
proposed fill slope.
PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION is the inspection required by this code be performed by the civil
engineer, geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist. Such inspections include that performed by
persons supervised by such engineers or geologists and shall be sufficient to form an opinion relating
to conduct of the work.
SITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where
grading is performed or permitted.
SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of vertical
distance to horizontal distance.
SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying bedrock.
SOILS ENGINEER. See Geotechnical Engineer
SOILS ENGINEERING. See Geotechnical Engineering
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TERRACE is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and
maintenance purposes.

ACCESS FLOOR SYSTEM is an assembly consisting of panels mounted on pedestals to provide an
under-floor space for the installations of mechanical, electrical, communications or similar systems to
serve as an air-supply or return-air plenum.
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING is a structure designed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry,
livestock or other horticultural products. The structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a
place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a
place used by the public.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHOD is a method of proportioning structural elements such that
computed stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not
exceed specified allowable stress (also called working stress design).
ASSEMBLY BUILDING is a building or portion of a building for the gathering together of 50 or more
persons for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, worship, entertainment,
amusement, drinking or dining, or awaiting transportation.
AWNING is a shelter supported entirely from the exterior wall of a building.
BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor system projecting from a structure and supported by that
structure, with no additional independent supports.
DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into the building
or other structure.
DECK is an exterior floor system supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjoining structure
and/or posts, piers, or other independent supports.
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in
the event of extreme environmental loading from wind or earthquakes.
GARAGE is a building or portion thereof in which motor vehicle containing flammable or combustible
liquids or gas in its tank is stored, repaired or kept.
GARAGE, PRIVATE, is a building or portion of a building, not more than 90 sq. m. in area, in which
only motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building on the premises are kept or stored.
LIMIT STATE is a condition in which a structure or component is judged either to be no longer useful
for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state).
LIVE LOADS are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials,
occupants, and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained
dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of
small magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.
MARQUEE is a permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and projecting
over public property.
OCCUPANCY is the purpose for that a building, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used.

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BEARING WALL is any wall meeting either of the following classifications:
1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 0.5 KN per linear meter of superimposed
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 1.0 KN per linear meter superimposed
loads, or any such wall supporting its own weight for more than one story.
EXTERIOR WALL is any wall or element of a wall, or any member or group of members, that defines
the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and that has a slope of 60 degrees or greater with the
horizontal plane.
NONBEARING WALL is any wall that is not a bearing wall
PARAPET WALL is the part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
RETAINING WALL is a wall designed to resist the later displacement of soil or other materials.
BASIC WIND SPEED, V is a 3-second gust speed at 10 meters above the ground in Exposure C and
associated with an annual probability of 0.02 of being equaled or exceeded (50-year mean recurrence
BUILDING, ENCLOSED, is a building that does not comply with the requirements for open or partially
enclosed buildings.
BUILDING, OPEN, is a structure having all walls at least 80% open.
BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a building that complies with both of the following conditions:
1. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the
areas of the openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10% and
2. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds 0.5 sq. m. or
1% of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of
the building envelope does not exceed 20%.
BUILDING, LOW RISE, is an enclosed or partially enclosed building which complies with the following
1. Mean roof height, h, less than or equal to 18 meters.
2. Mean roof height, h, does not exceed least horizontal dimension.
COMPONENTS AND CLADDING are elements that do not qualify as part of the main wind-force
resisting system.
DESIGN FORCE, F, is the equivalent static force to be used in the determination of wind loads for
open buildings and other structures.
DESIGN PRESSURE, p, is the equivalent static pressure to be used in the determination of wind
loads for buildings.
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA is the area used to determine GCp. For cladding fasteners, the effective
wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES are slender buildings and other structures that
have a fundamental natural frequency less than 1 Hz. Included are buildings and other structures that
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have a height, h, exceeding four times the least horizontal dimension.

IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I, is a factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to human life and
damage to property.
MAIN WIND-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM is an assemblage of structural elements assigned to
provide support and stability for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading
from more than one surface.
RECOGNIZED LETERATURE are published research findings and technical papers that are
approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
BASE is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or
the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported.
BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure.
BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a structural system without a complete vertical load-carrying space
BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at the edges or openings or at perimeters of shear walls or
BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type that is
provided to resist lateral forces.
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially complete space frame that provides support for gravity
CANTILEVERED COLUMN ELEMENT is a column element provided to transfer lateral-force-resisting
system that cantilevers from a fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the top, with lateral
forces applied essentially at the top.
COLLECTOR is a member or element provide to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a structure
top vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system.
COMPONENT is a part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical or structural system.
COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a
mechanical and/or electrical system.
COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period
greater than 0.06 second.
COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period less
than or equal to 0.06 second.
CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME is a braced frame in which the members are subjected
primarily to axial forces.
DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that ground motion that has a 10% chance of being exceeded
in 50 years as by a site-specific hazard analysis or may be determined by a hazard map. A suite of
ground motion time histories with dynamic properties representative of site characteristics shall be
used to represent this ground motion. The dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion may
be represented by the Design Response Spectrum.
DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM is an elastic response spectrum of 5% equivalent viscous
damping used to represent the dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion for the design of
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structures. This response spectrum may be either a site-specific spectrum based on geologic,
tectonic, seismological and soil characteristics associated with a specific site or may be a spectrum.
DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total strength design base shear, factored and distributed.
DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the
vertical-resisting elements. The term diaphragm includes horizontal bracing systems.
DIAPHRAGM OR SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary element of a diaphragm or shear wall that
is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam.
DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied
load that collects and transfers diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers
diaphragm shear to the vertical-resisting elements or distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such
members may take axial tension or compression.
DRIFT. See story drift
DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-resisting frames and shear walls or braced frames.
ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a steel-braced frame.
ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces and deformations determined from an elastic
dynamic analysis using an unreduced ground motion representation.
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures that are necessary for emergency operations
subsequent to a natural disaster.
FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or system is one whose deformation under lateral load is significantly larger
than adjoining parts of the system.
HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a horizontal truss system that serves the same function as a
LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM is that part of the structural system.
MOMENT-RESISTING SYSTEM is a frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting
forces primarily by flexure.
MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF) is a masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide
ductile behavior.
ORDINARY BRACED FRAME (OBF) is a steel-braced frame or concrete-braced frame.
ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special
detailing requirements for ductile behavior.
ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake load effects on structural elements common to the
lateral-force-resisting systems along two orthogonal axes.
OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of structures where the actual strength is larger than the design
strength. The degree of over strength is material-and-system-dependent.
EFFECT is the secondary effect onP shears, axial forces and moments of frame members induced
by the vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building system.
SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes
referred to as vertical diaphragm or structural wall).
SHEAR WALL-FRAME INTYERACTIVE SYSTEM uses combinations of shear walls and frames
designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their relative rigidities considering interaction between
shear walls and frames on all levels.
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SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the story above.
SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural system, without bearing walls, composed of
members interconnected so as to function as a complete self-contained unit with or without the aid of
horizontal diaphragms or floor-bracing systems.
SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to
provide ductile behavior.
SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to
provide ductile behavior.
STORY is the space between levels.
STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level relative to the level above or below.
STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story height.
STORY SHEAR, V, is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under consideration.
STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a member to resist factored load.
STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist
lateral forces. Structures may be categorized as building structures or nonbuilding structures.
SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local
forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.
VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME is a space frame designed to carry vertical gravity loads.
WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of elements anchoring the wall to the diaphragm and
those elements within the diaphragm required to develop the anchorage forces, including sub
diaphragms and continuous ties.
WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength is less than 80% of the story above.


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