math 2 differnetial equation

© All Rights Reserved

22 views

math 2 differnetial equation

© All Rights Reserved

- Midterm1 Prac
- Samcef Rotor
- Analysis of Subsynchronous
- Ansys Mechanical APDL lecture 9 by Haydar Alsalami from IRAQ - Hilla, studied in JNTUH - INDIA .
- Chaos lab
- Fundamentals of vibration
- Equivalent Linearization for Hysteretic Systems...Wen 1980
- Forced Vibration of a Sdof System
- Engineering Models 2 Lab 3
- Pendulum
- Extracting energy from Vortex-Induced Vibrations: A parametric study
- The Noisy Oscillator 5949_chap1
- 19930083817_1993083817
- Lecture 13
- Soucionari Cap 2 Diseño
- Basic Electrotechlogy for Engineers- Volume 6-10p
- Lecture 20
- Interpretacion Del Parametro Sg
- Second Order Time Response
- Att Reg Ttpage

You are on page 1of 4

**-l-*-*-*

j ,+.ppfications

Second-order linear differential equafions have a variety ofapplications in science and

fu this section we explore two of them: the vibration of springs and electric

circuits.

*ry

%.

%

.5

,%,

equilibrium

Ixxr8on

o$ 'F

restoring force

b

I

".:i

t

lrEUru r

We consider the motion of an object with mass m althe end of a spring that is either vertical (as in Figure 1) or hodzontal on a level surface (as in Figure 2).

In Section 6.5 we discussed Hooke's Iaw, which $ay$ rhat if the spring is stretched (or

compressed) r units ftom its nafural length, then it exerts a force that is proportional to x:

: -kx

wherc F is a positive constant (called the spring constant). ff we ignorc aay external resisting forces (due to air resistance or friction) then, by Newton's Second l-aw (force equals

mass times acceleration), we have

d2r

m4:

i-fi

+tr:0

or ^ d2x

dr,

-kx

with rcots r : toti, where o : Jk/*. Thus, the general solution is

.r(r)

Routt

c1

cos

af

c2

k:

sin rrrt

x(t):

where

Acos(ar + 6)

,: Jkfr {frequency}

A: JQ74 (amplirude)

cos

A: *AA

sin 6

: -*

{oisthephaseangle}

HIilPU I A spring with a mass of 2 kg has natural length 0.5 m- A force of 25.6 N is

requircd to maintain it strerched to a length of 0.7 m. If the spring is stretched to a length

of 0.7 m and then released with initiat velocity 0, find the position of the mass at any

time r.

t0tuTl0ll Frcm Hooke's Law, the force required to strctch the spring is

k(O'2)

:25'6

in Equation l, we have

so Ic

t, together wth m : 2

d2x

2T * 128'r:0

ffil

x(r)

- .t"*

8t

czsin 8r

We are given the initial condition that

Therefore,

q:0.2.

r(0)

Differentiating Equation 2, we get

x'(t)

sin 8r

-8cr

:-Fsr.

8cr cos 8r

0, we have

cz:

x(r):Icos8r

ffiffi

@ls?ffis

4*

':-\?,

'*h

'1t,

f :': :t;i:: r :lif

l[:, 4f,,::,{

It::i.,iii",.I

We next consider the motion of a spring that is subject to a &ictional force (in the case of

the horizontal spring of Figure 2) or adamping force (in the case where a vertical spring

moves through a fluid as in Figure 3). An example is the damping force supplied by a

shock absorber in a car or a bicycle.

We assume that the damping force is proportional to the velocity of the mass and acts

in the direction opposite to the motion. (This has been confirme4 at lea$t approximately,

by some physical experiments") Thus

$,,.1,'151 ,,,1

l[.: i:.::,;:l:: ].:[

S,,t :::".:'|

NT

\:J.+,

TrcUNt 3

dx

dampingforce:

dt

where c is a positive constant, called the damping consr-nt. Thus, in this casq Newton's

Second Law gives

d2x

*E:

ffi

restoringforce

dampingforce: -kx

dx

- cfr

1^l

dzx dx

,, *fi+,;*kx:o

;_-._,,,_-..-,.-,.-',

ti

i

_...-,.,

mr2 + cr + t : 0. The roots are

rc

-c + JC=

+*

-c

f2:--_--:--

2m

- j5z=lffi

2m

fttt I

n c2 - 4mk> 0 {overdamping}

11 ilnd 12 are distinct real roots and

In this case

x: cte"t *

c2gtzt

< c, so the roots 4 and 12 given by

Equations 4 must both be negative. This shows tlat x --+ 0 as t --+ cc. Typical grapns oi

x as a function of r are shown in Figure 4. Notie that oscillations do not occur. (It's possible for

9" -u.r to pass through the equilibrium position once, but only once.) This is

because c2 ) 4at means tbat there is a strong darrping force (high-viscosity oit or greasey

compared wifh a weak spring or small mass.

CASI ll

" cz - 4mk: 0 (critical damping)

This case corresponds to equal roots

fl6utI {

Overdamping

fr:

fc

c

2m

and the solution is give,n by

x: (q *

c2t\s-khny

It is sirnilar to Cas I,

artd typical graphs re.semble ftoee in Figure 4 (see Exercise l2), but

the danping is just sufficient to sullrre$s vibrations. Any decrease in the viscosity of the

fluid leads to fre vibatims of the following case.

-;=,'

'i,\:

@F=A

ryhere

2m

,:

5

'IGUIT

Underdmping

co$ &rf

"-{cfu'x(gr

cz

sin arJ)

We see that there are oscillations &at are damped by tSe factor e-knnb. Since c

0 end

that is, the motion decays to 0 as tire inqeas6. A t)"ical grryh is shown in Figure 5.

r;

EXttPU 2 Suppose that the spring of Example I is immersd in a fluid with damping

: 4O. Find the position of the mass at any time f if it starts from the equiliposition

brium

and is given a push to start it with an initial velocity of 0.6 m/s.

constant c

1 the mass

is zl

dx

*

* l28x:0

, d2x

*i

dr,

dzx

--:;

*

Theauxiliaryequcionis

and

-16,

so tbe motion is

fumtion fotlpovedanped m*ion in Exande 2.

so

Since cz

dx

--dt

* &x:

x(t):

r

?-0

0, so

"t"-+'

e * cz:

c2e*re

0. Differcntiating, wc get

x'(t)

-4c1ea'

x'(0)

-4cr

16c24-rc'

- l6c2: 9.6

0.05. The'rcfore

.r:0-o5(e-a'*e-r6')

&G

ffi

tPPu(All0ilS 0t

suppose tbat" in addition ro the re$toring force and the damping force, rhe motion of the

spring ir affected by an external folce rG). Then Newton's secood I^aw gives

d2x

*A:

rcstoring force

dx

-kx-cV+F(t)

Thus, instead of the homogeneous equation (3), the motiron of the spring is now govemed

s differcntial equation:

by the

following

il

ii'L-.'i

\d'xdxi

^E

iLj

'!-

The motion

* t + kx:

a,

F(t)

'''''.'-'"''.'.''''''.,.''-.'.'..'...

determined

'i

commonly

F(r)

In this case, and in the

use the

ffi

Focos

*oo""

rrl

where on*

(c

a:

"/Fn

x(r)

clcos arl

* czsin ,,rt +

mtd*;Arcos

&,0,

If at : al then the applied frequency reinforces the natural frquency and the rcsult is

vibrations of large amplitude. This is the phenomenon of rcsonance (see Exercise l0).

$l

Electrlc Ctrcuirs

In Section '1.3 we were able to uss first-order segaratte equations to analyze eleclric cir-

cuits rhat contain a resistor and inductor (see Figure 5 on page 515). Now that we know

how to solve second-order linear equations, we arc in a position to analyze the circuit

shown in Figure 7. It contains m electrromotive force E (supplied by a battery or generator), a resistor R, an inductor r" and a calmcitor c, in seriqs. r the charge on the capacitor

at time t is Q: Q@, then the current is the raie of change or o oim respect

to t: I : dQ/dt.It is known ftrom physics that the voltage arops acrcss tne r3;sisror, inauctor, and capacitor are

FtGUIt 7

RI

LdI

dtC

respectively. Kirchhoff's voltage law says that &e sum of these volfage drops is equal to

the supplied voltage:

,#*Rr+t-E{t)

- Midterm1 PracUploaded byJames Scribd
- Samcef RotorUploaded byChihiya Fitria Nurhayati
- Analysis of SubsynchronousUploaded byyrikki
- Ansys Mechanical APDL lecture 9 by Haydar Alsalami from IRAQ - Hilla, studied in JNTUH - INDIA .Uploaded byHaydar
- Chaos labUploaded byAmol Vaidya
- Fundamentals of vibrationUploaded byMatheus Albuquerque
- Equivalent Linearization for Hysteretic Systems...Wen 1980Uploaded byHalim Mamani
- Forced Vibration of a Sdof SystemUploaded by^password
- Engineering Models 2 Lab 3Uploaded byBill Williams
- PendulumUploaded byflausen
- Extracting energy from Vortex-Induced Vibrations: A parametric studyUploaded bycroprobos
- The Noisy Oscillator 5949_chap1Uploaded byngvanduysn9034
- 19930083817_1993083817Uploaded bySharat Chandra
- Lecture 13Uploaded byPranjal Batra
- Soucionari Cap 2 DiseñoUploaded byJanneth Cevallos Jimenez
- Basic Electrotechlogy for Engineers- Volume 6-10pUploaded bySalwan Shubham
- Lecture 20Uploaded byDio Mio
- Interpretacion Del Parametro SgUploaded byAnaApcarian
- Second Order Time ResponseUploaded byYahya Naeem
- Att Reg TtpageUploaded bydvarsastry
- ad6635f33710af6_ekUploaded byVerruumm Amine
- Forced Vibrations Damped 2008Uploaded byGary Loke
- 1 Free Vibration Damping for ClassUploaded byAshok John
- Wenzel ISH09Uploaded byLong Leo
- IntroductionToRobotics-Lecture15Uploaded byAnonymous Gmk3t4Q
- A Multipurpose VibUploaded byridzim4638
- Problem 6 010Uploaded byRuben Jqs
- Skkk3144 Note5 Dynamic Behaviour (1)Uploaded byThrishnaa BalasupurManiam
- SDOF and HarmonicUploaded byAMN zd
- IJET-V4I3P67.pdfUploaded byInternational Journal of Engineering and Techniques

- HistoryUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Answer Chapter2 Exercise_0Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- Application of Differential EquationsUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Assignment CompleteUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Edited Hea 01 Eut440 Terbaru Senate Paper[1]-1Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- Eqt 102 - Engineering Mathematics II Sem2 2009Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- EQT 102 - ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS II 2010.pdfUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Eqt 102 - Engineering Mathematics II Sem2 2008Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- EQT 102 sem1 2009Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- 8._Exam-20072008Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- 8._Exam-Sem2-20082009Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- KM EUT440 LAW 4 Intellectual PropertyUploaded bySathish Kumar
- EUT440 LAW 2 ContractUploaded bySathish Kumar
- EUT440 LAW 1 IntroductionUploaded bySathish Kumar
- ILO OSH 2001Uploaded byjohn_jairo_bocanegra
- KM EUT440 Guideline How to Answer Law QuestionsUploaded bySathish Kumar
- PLC ExamplesUploaded bymihai37
- Alternatives to Open Field Burning on Paddy FarmsUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Assignment 01Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- Sample of Library Research ProjectUploaded bySathish Kumar
- skUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Daemon ProcessUploaded bySathish Kumar
- SP South Toll to SMTTUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Cook, Coca Cola, Assgn 1Uploaded bySathish Kumar
- Components of Power SystemsUploaded bySathish Kumar
- Microprocessor Assignment2Uploaded bySathish Kumar

- LED PrinciplesUploaded byYoga Nantham
- Earth Pressures Retaining Walls Rock Faces Numerical SolutionUploaded byAnonymous hRWwL7pZnC
- Air-ion Counter and Mobility SpectrometerUploaded byAkshay Dolas
- 35775030 PHYS 201 Resultant and Equilibrant Forces Formal ReportUploaded byIj Biag
- MusicUploaded byAleff Passos
- Lab 1Uploaded byKhurram Hussain
- 3 Kuliah Momen Gaya Kopel.pptUploaded byAverus Zaman
- Assignment4 Solution of NPTELUploaded byAshwin C A
- Introduction to Fluorescence MicroscopyUploaded bylusee
- Calculation of BuckstayUploaded bydehriya
- How Does AC Generator WorksUploaded byElla Joyce
- 4 SolutionUploaded byDÈènvêËr 빛 사랑
- Magnetic 7Uploaded byRugayyaLatif
- Gas-Liquid SystemUploaded byliabchai43388
- RC RL RLC 3.0.pdfUploaded bylp_blackout
- Problem Set 4Uploaded byWaqas Ahmed
- Metrology Comparators Unit 7Uploaded bySanthosh Kumar
- M.Tech Seminar Report GuidelinesUploaded byAnoop Mathew
- The Physics Book - From the Big Bang to Quantum Resurrection, 250 Milestones in the History of Physics (2011).epubUploaded byshashwat6789
- Full Text ThesisUploaded byDaniel Santos
- AppendixUploaded byunknown error
- 37883801 Unit Dimensions and Measurement Practice Problem by Anurag Tyagi Classes for Iit Aieee Pmt NtseUploaded byHimadri Chakraborti
- GCE Maths Examiner Feedback M1Uploaded byAhmedHassanIsmail
- Droop PresentationUploaded byMuhammad Shoaib Hussain
- Lab (1)Uploaded bysfdsgfs
- stone columns use for soil improvementUploaded bySajid Iqbal
- Volumetric, Viscometric and Ultrasonic Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of N, N Dimethyl acetamide and Chloroform at Different TemperaturesUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- Configuring Methods of Solution to SolversUploaded bySamuel Wagema
- Optical Thin Films User HandbookUploaded byYorche Alterno
- Atomic Structure.pdfUploaded byAshish