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Title: Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam
Author: Ephraim Emerton
Editor: Samuel Macauley Jackson
Release Date: December 2, 2014 [EBook #47517]
Language: English

Produced by Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Ramon Pajares, David

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I.--Martin Luther (1483-1546). THE HERO OF THE REFORMATION. By
Henry Eyster Jacobs, D.D., LL.D.
II.--Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560). THE PROTESTANT PRECEPTOR
OF GERMANY. By James William Richard, D.D.
III.--Desiderius Erasmus (1467-1536). THE HUMANIST IN THE

_Heroes of the Reformation_

Samuel Macauley Jackson


, .




O Em Room, o lu blb? Sh,  vmg 
h yy  ll
h g hl,  m
fu? H, u  Ch, h hvo b 
h Chum, b
hz  hh, lg  m
A. DRER'S DIARY, 1521.
Th K
k P

E  So' Hll, Loo
Th K
k P, N Yok


om l  f
oy lf of Emu of Rom ll
m o b . I uho ll hv o b  hoough u
of h
lu,  holog fml h vy fom
of Ch  
ulo,  ho, o hom h
om l

movm of h Rfomo  logh llgbl,  u
 mol,   m of humou. Oly o u
h  o--f u
h h
v --
oul h g of h lf b  holly
ogl k.
Th ubj
 h b  o
h by ff  fom ll h
o of v 
, bu o bog hy h y ho  h hol
g o vlu of Emu' v 
Th lmo of h  volum hv fouly b
f by h l of h   h
h  fom  . I
o  o l h Emu   f
o  h Po
Rfomo of h xh
uy. Wh h vy 
of luv oly of h m  h o o oly  o f
  v o ugg  x lo of h u o  h
ol-movm of h m. I y "ugg  x lo" h
h "x l," b
u, h ll lg
, I
o ho  o hv
l ll of h my oblm volv  h quy. A
vy g of h uy of Emu o h o k f h h
blv hmlf o b og, h h h h oh o blv
h  og, h h oh  hk h  og,  flly
h h m 
ully _ _ og. A ll h h o b l

hfly fom h o  o  fom h  o of h o of
H lf  full of g 
ogu,  y oy of h lf
h houl k o
ov h 
ogu by y f
hoy of
y oul bu ll fl
 h uh. A y,
h ll    k, 

omg-ho of ul m u o , h lf h, f ll,

 lm of h ho
. If h b  hom of  ok

hful u
, of y x
luo of ll 
o, of
ful o
omm olf o yhg o yboy h
h mgh m 
ho l of uy, h  my glly m Emu o h


om y of h Ho of h Rfomo.
o oul vly hv mu hm. H oul hv z
h   h off o om f, ho oul   h o,
om u
lm  h: "Wll, of ll hg  h ol, o
llg m  ho! If you v lugh bfo, lugh o o
you h'
o. I  ho!  m f of my ho ,-- m of
book,  h of
,  m, ho, f h  u o h 
oul, I f, follo h xm l of P  y h Lo. A,
o h h, hy  'of h Rfomo.' I, ho v,
by o o , uk o ob, gv o mu
h   h of blogg
o y of h 

u 'movm'! Wll, o m

 v g
h F."
I hv
ho h
l mho b
u  v b o
llu h vlo m of h m  h lo o h m.
h l
o fom Emu' g hv b
ho fo l
xmo  b mo 
ly u o h m obj
 of h book.
I h m  o mk hm log ough o ho h u
mg h h o u  g umb of m 
 , h
mgh  lmo vy
 by oh 
 . So f 
obl h mly
oovl h b vo. Fo xm l, I
hv bly llu o h olog 
uo h A
hbho L,

h F
hm B, h S  Su
,  h Il 
C . Th l of h
oov  h o
ofu h
o llum h o of
hf  o u. Y o m of
  ly h o of
oovy. H  h
o hmlf  h u of h g vbly fll o .
Th lo hv b k  
lo o h ogl  

o h  fom of yl om h

o og o Emu'
o . I oul b ho l o m , by y  hg hv,
o m ov u o h fh  vv
y of h uho.
My hk  u o my f fo k 
lly o my
ollgu, Pofo Alb A. Ho  of h
L  m of Hv Uvy, o ho
ful vo

y of h lo 
hfly u.
 o h Ly o of Emu' ok  1703-1706 
gv m ly by volum, g (
olum),  vo of h
, _. g._, ., 157-B.













CHRISTIANI." 1515-1518






BASEL--DEATH. 1523-1536




Fom h o by Holb  h Louv.


Fom Kgh' "Lf of Emu."


Fom Kgh' "Lf of Emu."




Fom h  g by Holb  Wo Cl.


Fom h  g by Holb  Wo Cl.



Fgm of 
oo by Holb  oo of
h Duk of Dvoh.





Fom  ol .



Fom "Em O ," ublh  Ly, 1703.



Fom "Em O ," ublh  Ly, 1703.


Holb' lluo o h "P of Folly"



Holb' lluo o h "P of Folly"



Holb' lluo o h "P of Folly"





Fom  g by Holb  h Louv.



Fom Kgh' "Lf of Emu."



Fom h  g by Holb  Wo Cl.


Fom  o by C. E. Wgff,  h Flo






Fom Kgh' "Lf of Emu."



Fom "Em O ," ublh  Ly, 1703.


Fom  gvg by Bl Bhm, 1531.


Fom h  g by Holb  Wo Cl.






Fom  oo
u by Holb  h Bl Muum.


o  gvg by Alb D.




om oy oo



Fom  gvg by Alb
h D,  "Em
O ," ublh  Ly, 1703.



Po of Emu  oh.
Fom Kgh' "Lf of Emu."


Th u of Emu   f ov hlm by h bu
h ml bfo hm. A m ho h lf o oy ough
o fll lv folo volum oul m o hv m  bog h
y. E 
lly h  o of h volum  fll h
ol l, mo h gh hu  umb,  
o om fv hu
o o,  mgh ll m h h b
bog hy oul b  fhful 
  of h h m hmlf h
gv u. A,  f
, lmo ll h  ko bou Emu
hough hmlf. Th gul hg  h h h g m of
ml  ko o ll h  f bou hm.
H lv  o of h mo vful o of h ol' hoy,
   om k of ol lo h  lg 
 y h lf, fom bgg o , h o o v mo
m o o g h  jouy  ,  
k of ll,
 qul h om fllo 
hol, o 
hg of 
. Ou
hol ko lg of h ly lf u o h o of ou
v fom  vy bf 
o m by hmlf my y f 
 m obvouly h boh  ly   

l u o.

H l  lgly

  ublh by hmlf log
f hy  ,  , o h hmlf ll u, fly
l fo ubl
o. Th
hoology  ho lly
Emu y h h u l my of hm h h y  y
h h
m o  hm. H  hmlf  ll m
ff o h mly ho
l. I  l y ubo 
h m o h boly hum  hloo h
l. Th l mu
hfo b  h
o f
 o h mm u o,
 f of hm  hou u o, hough  oul qu  bol
m  o b l y u ju h  . Luh' jugm
u o hm  ujuly v: "I h  l of Emu you f
ohg of y 

ou, x
   fo h f, 
bu fo h m,  h' ll h  o ." Th 
h gov Emu  o of h o 
o o

   l[1] of 1520 o Bu Rhu.
[1] ., 552.
H   hmlf  v o  hm  o o
k h
o of uuho o, of h
h vl h
  bfo 1519. H m o mk  l  l
ouly o mofy h
o. "Wh h u o I v
o. Som hg I x l, h
 o h
  ufvoubly. Som, h
h I fou h off h
ovv  bl m  of
 o, I u
k ou.
Som hg I of." Bu, f ll, h y,  m  o, h
  hm of h l  ug Fob, o hom h h  h
o y," o u   ly o u  off o  mo fg m.
Bu h ok  o f log h Fob 
l h oul o ho
 y ll h x ,  Emu ju h o humou hm. "I h o
gv y o hm  
u mylf h  h k of my  uo 
o o v hm h k of h moy."[2]
[2] S lo h log , _
b  ol_, .,
Emu h h mo 
hol of h R
 h _


b_. H y of hmlf h h o  h ou ou
h . Wh h ook h   h  b
, g h
h h h o
o l  u  y h hm
logh,    o of h
lm o g    h
o h hol h k  h my ov . Th lly ly
quly mu b
oly bo  m by h ho  h mu
l y b vg o fx h l h hoy   lu
Ag,-- h lo Emu  mly  R
fl hmlf o b h
 of h ol. I   h ,
ou, u of vy hkg m; bu  Emu h  ly
 k vul
ou ook o  fom of 
u ol
v h
h ff
 h lo o ll o  ll
hg bou hm. E 
 u o h g. H
o b obj
v u o y quo o h
h h oly 
v o lghly. Whv ou
h hm   m,   
hm, o 
z, bg  o
 o lo 
v. H   oly   lo o hmlf, o
 b o h
u of u lg, h
h h l y fl o b
mbo  hmlf.

No  u o Emu h fl o o

 h qul. Th
gul hg h b h, 
ogg hm, h bog h hv
o   y
o fho o mu hm  ff
h vlu of ou ou
 of ko lg. I h glly uff

o f o hm  h o  h ou
  u ho
fomo. Plly h oluo  o  y o. If  houl
, fo xm l, h l o Guu[3] o h Colloquy o Th
Eg of Fh[4]  ou
 fo Emu' ly lf,  houl hv
vy ll lf. If  houl 

  hm  hoy  houl b

mglg f
y  logh u
 o oo. Th oly
f mho , hfo, o y  
 o gh h vlu of
h x bfo u h full f
 o ll h

[3] ., 1821.
[4] ., 787-810.
Th ul  l  ll o h   o h l,
hv h ol lm  o h 

ou. Wh o u
 b , , fo xm l,  h uly hlolog
y o  h  g , o  b
 mol o

g,   of fo
 o m h vgou 

o of Emu' u
. Bu f h ol jugm 
l,   fquly , h v o  mly gmm
quo h v m   ly ou o  k of f

h  f vy ff
ul o 

lm m of f
Aoh ou
ofuo  Emu' mzg
omm of

lu  h

lv  ulg, o mly h fom, bu
 m h   v h h of 
 uho. Ho mu
of h h y, fo xm l,  h 
 o of o, hh
fvoubly o ufvoubly,  lly h o   ho mu
h boo 
 of qu m obl o 
ov. Th boo g o  g 
o mu
h  hb h h obvouly boo  fom hmlf, ug u

 h m o hv b
om lmo fomul of h
hough. H _mu_ b ly; h _mgh_ b 

om oy bog h
l m   hv lmo ohg.
Emu' youg f, Bu Rhu of S
hl  Al,
o of h Bl

l of 
hol, h lf u  o fgm, o 

o o h Em o Chl . of h 1540 o of Emu'
ok,  h oh fom h 
o o  o of Og 
1536 h Emu' vo. Th  o bf k
h fll bu x
 folo g. Thy  fgu by lbo gy
, o
oly of Emu, bu of h m o  ll,  obvouly  
fom Emu' o  

ou of hmlf, 

obu ll ogl
ml o ou ko lg.
I g o h g, Emu o  o o

o m m  o

umm h ok, o
  1524  h qu of Joh Bozhm, 

o of h
h  Co
,  g, ug h 

 Fbug,   ly o  quy fom H
o Bohu of h
Uvy of Ab. Th l   m bl of
o fo
om l o of h ok, bu h fom 
g l of 
 o of h

 u h
h my of
h ok  . Th 
 o   m o vl
h hy
omm ou  
,  y  oul of
b m obl o y h  ok of g m o
 my hv h
 vl uggo. Th log
logu gv u lo  goo
my lgh u o Emu' oly  movm. Th gl

gm  vo o volum ugg by Emu hmlf

 follo   h f Bl o of 1540,  hv b
v  h Ly o of L
 1703-1706 h
h  hv
Th h follo g g ll gv 
o m o
of Emu' mov  
h g of h
  mo h 

 ho  fo. Th b 

 off   ho  
o of
h g v
 o h
u of fom, of  y h ll
 o , of vy 
ly,  l y hou
lo o y f 
hm of 
o. W my, ho v, fly
ho  h  
h o

o ,  hv o lly  h

obl bfo h  h h my fom  llg
jugm  o h obbly.
Th mo ou oblm  vy   h gh o gv o
Emu' m bou hmlf. Th oly obl   o
b fou  h h 
ully . If, fo xm l, h of
uyg lov fo h
y of Rom   u
oollbl  o
 h y h;  h m m o h vyo  Rom
 logg o hv hm h,  y k o   o go,  
 o qu h  h o h
h k  hm  y,  my
hv o
lu h ll h   b of
omy g fo om
h ,  l ho, houl b gl o u.
I  lyg h  o Emu' 
lo bou h
Rfomo  f h lg 
o  fo h

l mho. All
h  myou  h oly u o h m b
om oubly
o h h f hmlf--h oul hv u blv qu g
h ll--hu fo  o om
   bl g h
xg o. Svl
ou of 
o  o  o hm: F,
 mo obvou, o k l; 
o, o jo h h y of
fom, y o hol  o h l hg,  u ly  h
h  o of lg h
h o
oul   o ll  h;
h, o ou
 h fom, k h fy 
lo ll
Rom,  h y o mo,  f  h
oul, h xm of
Rom bu. No o of h mho
omm lf holly o h
jugm o o h u. H
oul o b l; h oul o l
hmlf o h h
ll "o";  h h
oul, o 
h qu , u hmlf  h h of h Chu
h h of
o v, l h f h lby of 
Th ol o h
h Emu  bo   ol of vol

o. Th  l ym, hvg

om v
oou ou of h
uggl h h
l movm of h ffh
m o
ool hou 
u of 

lf  hough. Y h   y flo of 
  m l
fh b   by h my
l , vul 
,  gg  fo
   mkg Euo  y fo 
vol hy v v hough of. Th   of mo 

h  ohg mo h   o  hg  h u
lo,  mkg lf fl  vo  
h vlo of M o hmlf   bg oh vgg.
Y ov g h   of lgh  lby hov h k
ho of h Iquo   k mfo of 
lm o h ko lg 
ool of h Tuh. 
l o  
og fo h oo of log- u
o, hl h h bo g o
l  ul

o  ghg o  moo hv h  of

h y
uggl houl b
om ubbl.
Th  m  h v
 of  o hom  
gv o l oh log om vbl  fbl o o
om mbl : Thom Km  log h y of fh
o h hv of lgou 
; Luh  Clv log h
y of o
l hough 

l voluo o
o; D
 hough  gl, ll-
hloo h
l o oo o ulm
y of hough; h
g  hough " g h hg  hy  " o  
b of h
jugm. Th  
l fu
o of Emu  h
G Rjum ,  h
v , o bg m b
k o
h  of  u Chy by
o f
 o h

 l of 
 lg,  by   l o h bul
ommo . H 
vy ook my fom; bu h  l y,
hh hough
l  o 

o o

l logu o 
 mol  l--l y  vy h, h

h of ghou. H u

  vbly log h

l. H flu 
u by h 
y o 
v  h
mom h m  l o h mol   o log qu. H
 o h Rfomo  mly 
og v by o vol
 o o  Hu; h ol lmo   g of
mkg ho v
 of o vl,  h  h o h h
 ho h hom h ough o hv ok 
om y.
Ou ok v lf ully o  o : F, h
vlo m of Emu u o h oubk of h Luh Rfomo
o, h lo o h lg o  
of h x  y y. I g h fom o  hll
xm h ol oy of Emu' ly u
o,  hll
llu by l
o ho g  fly  my b h ov o
b h om  of h m 
. I h 
 hll vou o ho ho h  hu fom m h
u o  h ux 
 m of   m.

I oul b l o m  h  Em bblog hy, 

h lbo ukg of h Uvy Lby  Gh 
1893[5] h l
 h ml vlbl u o h    fom

bl o vy . Th m o  o gg u o 

ll mo u ou  ,  bblog hy,[6]  16 fom,
om l l of ll ko  o of vy ok. Bgu
 1897,  hu f 
lu oly h o of h _Ag_. I
gv h, hfo, oly h ou
 lkly o  h gl
lly u
h  I hv
oul  h  o of
h volum.
[5] _Bbloh
 Em; R o  uv 'm._
Gh, 1893.
[6] _Bbloh
 Em; Bblog h  uv 'm._
Gh, 1897.
I hv u
oly h Ly o of Emu' ok[7] b
u o h Bl o of 1540. Th gm  oughly 


o h u of h ml. Th ol ok  mg 

l. Th x  lboly  x gly ul. I

 of h l, hough h o  f
ou of
fl gm  g, h lv hm  h f hm, 
om ll o 
ov h 

 fo hmlf.
Pofo Alb Ho z of    g o   Lf
of Emu h h  u  by h  1888. H lmy
u[8] hv u l mu
h  ml  gv u my vlubl

l uggo. I 1876 Pofo W. 
h of Bl, 
o h uggo of Ho z, ublh   of vy g
um h
h h h 
ov  h Bl Uvy Lby,
h ho mu
h lgh u o vl ob
u o  h lf of
Emu.[9] A 
l by h l D. R. Fu,[10] h
m o
my ko lg f h
om lo of h mu
 , qu
my v of h u uu oh of Emu' 

ou of h
ly lf. Jo' _Lf of Emu_, f ublh  1758-60,
2 .,  3 vol., 1808,  ll mo h  lo of
' _  'm_[11] h
h  ublh   k of um
 vm  o
 of h Ly _O _. Jo gv,
ho v,  o,  goo my o
um   m of mo o
l lv mk.
[7] _D Em Room o  om, mo 
., . Joh Cl
u (J L
), 10 vol.,
folo. Ly, 1703-1706.
[8] Ho z, Alb, _Em_;  _Szugb
K. Akm  W
hf_. , 1878-1885. Tx 
um. _Ub  Colloqu  Emu_;  Rum'
h T
h_. 1887.

h, Wlhlm, _Em_. Bl, 1876.

[10] Fu, R., _Em_;  _Bjg voo vl

h  ouhku_,  , x., 1880; 3 ,
., 1882.
[11] J L
, _  'm    l_, 
ho_. Amm, 1703 _qq._, vol. ., v.,
v., v.
Of mo 
 bog h, h of R. B. Dummo[12] , ll hg

o, h b;

ful  ou, bu ho g h lmo
y o k Emu  h o, v hl mg
y o ll h uh.
[12] Dummo, Rob B., _Emu, h Lf  Ch
ho   h Co o
  Wok_. 2 vol. Loo, 1873.
Du  Lu[13] gv  h f volum  k
h of Emu'
lf h ll

l fg of v
,   h 
g xmo of h 
hvm  h vl l of
[13] Du  Lu, H., _m, 
uu  u 
l'  mo._ 2 vol. P, 1872.
Fou' _Lf  L_[14] llu h uho' fml
qul,--h mkbl 
 of v  h
om l

y of l.

[14] Fou, Jm Ahoy, _Lf  L of Emu_;

u lv  Oxfo, 1893-94. Loo  N Yok, 1894.
Smul Kgh' _Lf_,[15] 1726,  ll bl. I l
h h lo of Emu o Egl,  gv  g l of
uou fomo" bou o 
 h hm.
[15] Kgh, Smul, _Th Lf of Emu_. Cmbg, 1726. Wh
my vlubl o
Oh ok lkly o b of  o h   u :
Almy, J. J., _L 
uu  l Rfom ux Py-b_.
Bul, 1886. _m  l homm  o m _, vol. .,
. 258-343.
Aml, ml, _U Lb- u u X I 
l: m_. P,
Bugy, J. L. , _  'm_. 2 vol. P, 1757.
Bul, Chl, _Lf of Emu_. Loo, 1825.
Fug, Go, _m,--u u  v   ouvg_.
P, 1874.
Hfl, Kl, _D. Emu vo Rom u  P 
 Z_;  Rum' _Ho
h T
h_, 1891.
Hfl, Kl, _F
h  W u D. Emu
vo Rom_;  _Z
hf f vgl
.,  , v., 1891.
J, Joh., _G
h  Du
h olk  m Augg
 Mll_. Fbug, 1879,     o. O
Emu  vol. .
Kmml, H., _Emu  Dv_;  _Jhb
h f
Phlolog_, vol.
Mll, Aol h, _Lb  Emu_. Hmbug, 1828.
, P , _m  Il; u u u o  l
ouz l  'm_. P, 1888.
Pgo, A. R., _Th Lf of Emu_. Loo, 1875.
h, Ahu, _Emu-Su_. D, 1891.
Sbohm, F
, _Th Oxfo Rfom of 1498: Col,
Emu, Mo_. Loo, 1867; 3 ., 1887.
Shl, R., _Emu' Sllug zu Rfomo_. Bl, 1873.
h, F. O., _Emu vo Rom, S Sllug zu 
h u zu  k
h B gug  Z_. L zg,
Wolm, A., _Holb u  Z_. L zg, 1866-68, 2

; 2 ., 1874-76, 2 vol. Eglh lo, _Holb

 h Tm_. Loo, 1872.



I  l[16]  by Emu,  1520, o P Mu o

 g o

of h  h o
 hly hv 
b ou
o o h uy of h lf. Mu h ug hm o

l fkly h h  o  F
hm bu  Gm,  o
h Gmy mgh o b fu of o g  gloy. Emu
[16] ., 582-C.
"I h f l
  m o m o mk ll ff

h  m  bo,  I hk   v o of glof
y o  o bo of ou
g  m ho h b
g hough h o  xo  o by h hl of h
v l. F mo o ly my h
ouy bo h
h h
m hm g h h h
h bough hm foh. So f I  k
 f h  yhg  m  h
h my
ouy mgh k
. I  ough fo m f h b o hm of m,--hough
 Aol o o holly  ov h k of 
h my    u o h uu of  ohy m.
"If h  y of h k of   m I houl h
h o F
  Gmy lo houl
lm m, bu h

h  vy o 
y mgh go o h f fo
Emu. I oul b  uful o h
h houl 
 o my
o ohy ffo. Whh I m  Bv o o  o v y
l o m. I
o y h I m  Holl, bo 
h go h
h, f  my u h m -mk, l h
o  F
 h o  Gmy; lhough   byo 
oub h h hol go  o h bol b  h
 o h h  bo 
ly   o y
f h Rom, h v l
. H of  k of
"u"  "ou o l," fg o Lo Gm glly, bu h
f o b
z of h ol,  h hol lf 
h lluo of h ff
. Though bo  Du
hm,  h
b oub hh h
oul  k h  h v ogu,



 h o oh mo lgug
m  ly o
l    h  
h of 
 Rom.[17] Dug  log lf h

oully  moo, v g mo h  f y  y

, l y kg mo fvoubl
oo fo h ok h

[17] I qu g h D. A. R

h, _Emu-Su_, 1891,
h Emu
o b 

u of y
om  fo h vulg
ogu o y l
k of ym hy h
ommo hum lf, bu I
o o f h gum fo  hoough
omm of y mo
lgug logh
g. Th h
oul  k F
ough fo vllg u o   ,  h y hmlf,
"bly,"  obbl.
Holl, Blgum, Egl, F
, S zl,  qully h
hom, "_ub b, b _." If h h  f
 of m
fo y
ouy   obly fo Egl, bu h m of
h ok  h u of uo 


hh  yo, o h h v o Egl m h lk buy
o  h uou lf. Pom,
zh , loyly o
, m o hm lk o my lmo u o h om
vuly h
h  h ky-o of h
A h  ff o h l
, o  h lo o h m of
h bh. I  v obbl h h  o ko 
ly h
h  bo. A ll v h o h ll u, x
 g h h
y  h 27-28h of O
ob. A o h y   lf o l

u,  1467, h  l
 by h
z of Rom
u o h moum o h mmoy,   lkly o b
[18] Th
ful quy of D. R
h o h bh-y
of Emu m  o fx h y 1466  h
bu h u

  ho g h ho l

ofuo of ou
ml,  h v go
 of Emu
hmlf o h ubj
I g o h fmly  h

 of h bh, Emu
 o h o of ob
uy. Th h  bo ou
of lo
l. H m m h ll hy
oul ou of
h f
,  h v ook h oubl o y . W my fly

lu h h
  ll o h fmly h blog  o
h l h o  h ff
o. Ou 
ul ko lg o h ubj

 lm o h h
ll o g g h of h vy
bf _Com um _, h
h h , u h m o of
hg h, o h m f, Co Go
lu, L
ofo  h Uvy of Louv. "Nohg," h y  h

om yg , "  v mo ufou h my bh, bu

 h ll b ho ho ll  f
o o h f
"My fh G," h , "h 
ly  ff h Mg,
ugh of  hy
 of Zvbg,  h ho  of mg, 
om y h hy h lgh h oh (_
Th mg  ly by h  of G'  h o
of h fmly of  o houl b vo o h Chu
h  by
h jlouy of h boh l h o y b mh.
M hl G, "   m  o o o," ook hmlf
ou of h y   o Rom. Ou Emu  bo f

h  u. Th lv, lg G' hbou, 

hm o h Mg  ,  h oo fllo , ho h b
g h lvg  
o y  
oo of mu
ough fug  oo   . O h u o Holl
ov h fu, bu lv h ho m of h y
fhful o h ly vo .
O o  o ob
u f
  l g gv om o o
hk h Emu h  ol boh, ho fgu lo  h
l o Guu mo  h Iou
o. Th boh

 u oly  ff
g h quo of h lo b 
h fh  moh of Emu. H  
  h l
o Guu m o o ogly of h

by Emu  h Colloqu o v  fol fo h 
 k, h o
 hly hl u 
g  ml v
A ll v h boh  oo ho y  og o  u 
 g fom h vou x
 y u
luo  o
h og of Emu.
I   of o ufvoubl    lf, h ly y of
h l m o hv b  ll hl 
b . Th ll G,  o oul hv hm
ug h
hlhoo,  ly  o 
hool  Gou (Tgou ),
h fh' v l
, o  u
l, P W
kl by m, 
v fo om m bfo h   y ol 
ho-boy  h
Chl of U
[19] A  l bf of h y 1517, fou 
ly  Bl, 
o: _Dl
o flo Emo Rog Room
Th o, W. 
h, blv, o h v
, h h
fmly m of ou 
hol  Rog  h b ml m
Emu. H hk  obbl h Emu h b mo fk
 h m o h Po  h h uully
 o b  h
gv h u m  h o o h
h h bf  h
H y of hmlf  h  g, h h "m bu ll
og  ho u
v u fo h
h h  o m by
Nu," bu   hly    g fom h h h

luo h h  v  b
A  h   o h fmou 
hool  Dv. H moh

om  hm 

 fo hm  bfo. Of h Dv 
Emu y h   " y  bbou l
," by h
h h
m h  h o y b fom  h 
o of h
N Lg. Th boy h o l h "_  mu_,"[20] (?)
ojug h vb,  o m h L gmm  h
x-book of Ev  Joh Gl. I   y mho 
o oubl m  m o h  lly
. Th o of  o h mu m  h   h

l h 
lly h   o ou
u l fom h ou o h mol of L yl, h
h h g

uho lo
oul fuh. H look b
k u o h, 
 u o ll h y of u lg,  o  m of uggl 
hh . Y h f
  h h  mkg   og,  
lo of h fou y  Dv h fou hmlf h qul 
lg of my ol l.

[20] H. Kmml, "Emu  Dv,"  _Nu Jhb

h f
Phlolog u Pgogk_, 1874, B. 110, . 305, quo fom
Wm. B,  Eglh o of Emu' _Com um _ 
1687, h  
u h h h f o om
mul   by h fh of Emu! I u 
h  hv 
 x--h h f
  o om
fogo L h-book, bgg h  h h o
"_  mu_." "_Tm o_"
 hly f o yhg bu h
 of h gmm.
Th h-m of Dv  h m   Gm, Alx
Hgu, fom hom  fom Joh Shm, o of h 
Emu y h 
hool  bgg o g  glmm of h g
lgh, h
h,  g fom Ily,  lghg h ol.
Emu' youg f  bog h, Bu Rhu,  k of
h Hgu   m of vy mo lg, ho k o Gk 
ll, bu y h h  o  o h m of h lg h 
o h  glly 

  h u

o of h youg Gm

hol, Ruolf Ag
ol, ho h ju u fom Ily fh h
h g hum of h l of ll om. Emu f

h h mo h go ou of h Dv y   "
 oo of
b lg" h
m o hm fom h ol m, ho joy
hg of Shm,  fom h o

ol hg of
Hgu, ho o f y l
u o h hol 
hool. Th
o oub, ho v, h h h go o fmouly  L  m 
l  bgg  Gk.[21] Bu ll  vy y oy of
Shm,--h hvg h Emu 
, h k hm  ,
"Go o, Emu, you ll om y 
h h vy umm of lg."
[21] S  ., 166, 167, h g, "_qu
Af fou y  Dv  oubk of h lgu
h fhful moh  h  f k h fh lo, boh
ju ov foy y of g. G, o Emu y, lf  mo
fou, uff
, f  h b o ly hub, o ov
fo h o  u
o   uvy. Th gu, ho v, o
hom h h u h ll o y, h u
l P W
lly,  m o o gv h boy  
bu  o u hm o h mo
lf. Bu  k of
Dv  " mo olf
uy of mok of vy k," 
Emu m loy h h, h vy h of g 
om ,
fo h x uo  h
h h lo  o b
Th   hou of h o-
ll "Bh of h Commo Lf" 
' Hogbo
h (Bo-l-Du
). Th   ogo h fo
mo h 
uy ly  lg   h lgou lf of h
Lo Cou. Fou by o G Goo of Dv, bou 1380,
om o x
  bov ll l  o g h
om mo
m of h Ml Ag. I  o  "o" 
 ; h bh  o bou by vo
bl vo ;
hy  o gully
h by h uhoy of h Chu
I   f o
o of m ho m ly
m o lv ogh,
gvg u h v o y,  o h hy mgh h mo
vly,  hy blv, lv h lf of h S .
hf o

u o  h
o yg of 
 g, bu hy
of o u o hmlv by mul lbou. Whou
o quo y of h 
hg of h Chu
h, h g
lgh, G hmlf, Thom Km , Joh Wl, h gv

o hm     ul mg. Thy h ough o m h

h h  lf of h vul h h ou , vbl
uo of h Chu
h. Nully hy h fom h f b
 by ll ho lm of h Chu
h ogo h
h fuu hu h; h gul o, h Iquo,
ul hoo, h 
h   u ough o
k h
go g o g h 
ul . O h oh h,
ommu  h
h h bh h blh hmlv h

om o vlu hm  xm l of y  y  of  vu h

 o  o   m oo ly fom h lf of h ol.
No ll h oul m o o 
ly  h 
o o 
h ll h hough of Emu ully u. Of h  o ly
o ho
hfly m  hm, Hgu  Shm, h
ly of h Bh. Th 
hool of Dv, hl
obbly o 
ly u h
ool,  ofouly flu

by hm. Y  f  h g   fl
o u o h
hou  g-
hool fo h mo  u o hmlv 
m of ou lg  

l vu.
A ' Hogbo
h h  --o,  h hmlf y, --bou
h y. Y h m h  h  of h m h h
m goo og, h 
qu  y yl,   om goo
uho  "_ u_." W my b qu u h h oul
o hv xgg y m h mgh hv m u u

. H 
  ' Hogbo
u ho by
 ll,  qu fv,  h 
b , o h
h h m
o hv b ubj
. H  ho  b
k u o h gu , f
 my blv h o  l moy, h fou h hol ol 

y o fo
 hm o h mo
lf. Th u
l P,
hom h 
b   m of goo ou   uo, bu lfh,
go,  bgo,   
lly m o h o.
Emu mk h h
 ou of h u of h ll fou 
 mov fo gg  of hm, bu h  ol h fo
 of h
gum by  g P  u o 
 l vo o gg
h u l o mo. "H u o bg bou ho my youh
h h
 u vy y fo F
 o Dom
o B
Augu o Bg."
Th h ffo of h gu  o u Emu o b
 mmb of h Bh of h Commo Lf  m obbl by
h u of h m "_F Collo_." Th  o of h
o ul m fo h Bh, v fom h 

of gvg mol u
o by m of
lu hm ll  h   g u
o of ll

hool  mo  "m-l." "Fomly," h y,
"hy  o mok  ll; o hy   hlf- y k of o l,
mok  h u hm, o-mok  h hy o' lk." "Thy
hv  hmlv  vy h  mk  gul bu of
hug u boy o b ." A
lv l of qu
l z. "Thy ly hm h om, bk hm h h,
 oof,  my oh , 
ll h 'g.' Thu hy
moul hm fo h mo
lf. If h  o 'm-lg,' h
O mgh hv u o h h mo u  h boy, h g
h o fo ugg hm o  lf ho 
u ; bu Emu 
l h o o  mk hmlf h
lluo. All h v
   u o hm. ol
 bly h hm h  v f ,  o o of h 

fo hom h ho  om l ff

o,   o y h mho of
uo. Emu, ho v, 
l h h  oo youg, h
h k h h ol o hmlf,  h  m mu
fo hm o  om y y  h uy of goo lu bfo
mkg o m o  
o. Th  o b o l; hy 
m ly go m, hu u  
o, l y
om g hmlv
o h h oh, bu v h m of h ol-- h
oul b
 of hm bu o   bgoy? I h fl
of l y h g 
hol  hmlf ly  fou h

hm o of u lg  g h bumbg flu

 of h

A fl ul  m by o of h gu. Emu  h
l boh--   follo g h Guu l--h  
hmlv by  gm o  by 
h oh. Th youg 
o b  okm   vy oubful of h l' fm of
u o. Th gu
m  ll k o
ogul h boy
o h goo fou  hvg, hough h goo off
, ob 
 mog h
o. Emu hk hm kly, bu ,  h
h  o h 
h, h hy h 
 o o vu u o
h uko  y of lf ul hy houl hv g  y 
ko lg. Th gu,  of bg l h h ml
of h  , "fl u  f omo h u
k hm,
oul hly
k h h off hm,  bg o
ll m,"--"you 
h vo
 of h mok," Emu  lyly o h  l 
Th  of   h h gu h u h u, 
l h
h boy'   ll    hy mgh  o  ho hy go
o  h ol. " y ll," Emu h hmlf yg hough
h , "  

  you go  l you fom ll

of u."
Th h gu  h boh,  m fmou fo h gl
y. H v h l o h g, off hm , 
h ll gl  hm h h mvllou
of h mo
lf. "My  l h ol hm of h oou
h  of h uo." A h h l gv y,  h
gv Emu  x fo  ul u o h goo m of h
 boh--u og h boh o b  l o. H  
ull fllo , g oly fo g, ly,
fy,  -bbb 
o--" ho, o ff fom h youg h o mgh hk
hglg; fo h h ohg 
ommo h hm bu h vl
Hu o follo  Emu' fmou 
 o of h u h
flly ov hm o h moy. I  lly  ok of
ly , h ll of h 
 of m l uh; bu 
hv o o o oub h  fly   o  of h
m o u h
h  youh of Emu'  
oul ully b bough. H 
lbly   moo by  hol gu, bu o hly
 h x lo o 

ou fo h f

 h  l  h
y of g
 1483 houl h vy m of 
 o of h
lf. Th hg   h . To b  
hol h,
u o h m, b lmo h m hg  o b  mok,  f
Emu  o b  
hol, h ,  ly, h l of
Th youh   h
om o vy youg m, h
fo h f m h 
ll u o o 
 fo hmlf, h
h hl  h
 g fom oh, h
ou of lf h ough

o follo . H 
b hmlf  ju g u o h xh
y, hou x 
 of h ol  by u 
l o
vyhg bu uy; of fl boy, hough og ough fo ml

u o. H h  ll h lf  

hool  blv h
h lo fv, fom h
h h h uff mo h  y,  h

 of h o  y g. D o vy
, h o o o u o,--  o h ough o bk  
youh lk hm?
Sll h hl ou,  h bg    of 
"Mok  m-mok, lv, boh ml  fml, youg 
ol, ko   uko ,"   u o hm.
"Som of h," h y, "  u
h ul bo fool h
f  h o b fo h 
 gm, hy mgh hv
go bou 
lo  h
  bll. Oh  hough
u o h h hough y ll- ll,--bu h m
 hh o b
hok o h by folly o by vl o?
O   lovly 
u of mo
kg ou
oly h mo 
v fu;-- hy, h qu fv
lf mgh b m 
v f h fho."
Aoh gv  ov  
u of h vl of h ol-- f
mok  o of h ol! I hy o   hmlv
 f o bo h hl ll h  of h ol  ugglg
 h v  mu uly h ul hy
 ou    o
 o . Aoh   bfo h y h fghful om of
hll-- f h  o o  o fom h mo o hll!
Oh ough o lm hm h "ol v' l" of og 
moou vo. Thy  h mokh
ommuo  goo ok,
" f hy h  u fluy of h, h lly hy  h
y of Go mo h lym." I ho, h  o g of y
o h  o   ok o h oo l,  hy   u o
hm  mu
h gy  oul go o h kg of  o ul
y. So
h hug "b  h v
m  h kf," g fo om go o
ho hm  ho  of fy, h by
 h m  ol f ho
h b fom h l y  m of h moy  Sy,
 Gou. Th Clu, o Colu, hom Emu 
v o h moy ly by h lov of   goo lvg,
ly   l o, b
u h h fl o mk h fou
v  mghy ff
o fo h boy  jo  h

hou of xhoo. E 
lly, ko g h , h  l u o
h bu
 of book  h lu fo uy ul "o h hm
o oul u o h h  o o mu
h  moy   g
of h Mu." Emu u h ff
o, "go  y of
hum u  jugg oh by hmlf." Colu lf o o
uu, bu ll Emu , ul flly om "y mo
o ful bg-m"   l. Wh h  h o o

ly y, bu oly um g h lo of o y  h
u of h f. A l, "h om h u,"
h go b
k o Colu, "_um fbul g_,"-- hv
h my h o m ly by h,--
o o y h x m,
hou, ho v,
ommg hmlf o m mly. H oly

oo  h h oul o go o "h flhy, u holom l

uf fo ox, h
h h gu h 
Sll Emu
o hl f
yg hmlf bu. H 
; o u   u o hm; vyboy fl hm

ol hm o h h'
o. H h 

 ll h "goo lu" h h, fo Colu oo

m o
g hm   k of v uo  k  hm   hol gh
log, mu
h o h juy, h y, of h oo ll boy. "Af
ll," hough Emu, "h  h h lfh fllo  m
h fo." I  f moh h f h hu  hough h

 l L uho; o h h ov mu hv b fo
Emu  m of g of log h vy l fo h
h h
of ulm hum.
A h m   fo ug off h 
ul  og h
"lgou" gb, h m
   . Emu, lookg
k u o h youh, y h h oly mbo  fo 
holh ,
u  m l,  h, hfo, h ul h  o go o 
uvy. H x 
  h moy h m 
l o hm
h h  o h lf h h o l, bu 
ly hy, h
o o f
oly x l. Ro, , h gv  ly:
h hlh  o goo; h  ly of goo foo   gul
vl; h
oul o b o b bok of h l ,  o foh.
H l

ouo  lly  ou
 of  o hm 
 of  f   h ho bou hm o.
"All h hg   m jok o h
o-b b
ho oul hv o hy  joy . Bu kll hy

ko h h l

y  h 
uly of   
f boy  of h   ,  
b fo hm
ook o  o b gbl   fquly bu
 gly; h you ll f oh ho, f you o
hm u ,
 hol ou  log m hou 
, lk
lly g fh, Emu y, h h u
h  lohg h
h vy mll of  gv hm  h
h  fv.
Th obj
o  hghly vl. Thy g, fo o hg, vy
ll h Emu'
hg g mok, fo of ll hg h 

hm mo of of y  luxuou lvg. Th  y ough,
 h fou ou f  fo h o 
, of gg
ou h buom qum of h
lo , o h oh
h, ou of h vy 
o h h go foh my 
vgoou l of hum hough  
o. Th f
 , obbly,
h Emu fl ly g h hm h l m ul
o  h f, uf vlo m of h o  vuly
h  o b h gu  mov of h lf. H 

moy b
u u h

 h  ohg l o
o; bu 
oul o fy hm.
h,  ll v,  h m o h  o ou
g h 

ou. H y:
"I u
h  l
 lg h h hoou o u. H
[mg hmlf]  o  my of y, bu h o lkg
fo fomul 
mo  h
h y mu
h h hol
o. B,   o
o lk h,   ul
h ull of ll
  u o h fo, hlf fool, ho
lov h bll mo h l. If y x
 ol l
  mog hm, o ho  bo fo lg, h 
o  l h  o 
o. A y u
u mu
hv  y,   glly h  h h ull 

k, f oly h b of uy boy,  of mo 

h gg. No h,
o h 
o  oul b fo  m

bo o h Mu o  h hol lf mog u

h o.
Th  o ho  of lv
, o mgh b
ov of vg,  h  h o lvy
h ."
H   my  h  lly oublg Emu. I 
o y  
l holy o h moy. I    of
yhg  yboy h
oul mk y lg
lm u o hm.
Th moy m ly
m  fo  lg h of h bu b

lm u o hm  mo buom  mo v. I  o
u h  m b  mok
oul o  o lmo y 
 lmo y fl. Th m ju bfo Emu  fll h
xm l of m ho, hough h o  l  gy, h m
h mo

o h l by h
h hy h mou o
hg uful. Ev Luh, fy    h , ok
h y o lby log h h of mo

Fo Emu  hoough-gog
ofomy o yhg  
m obly. Mkg ll llo 
 fo h ff
 of l
 u o h 
o of youhful flg,  my ll blv
h h lly fl  h mom of h uggl omhg of h
h u o h f
oul u
h  m  u
h  boy o   moy? A
ll u  fh o  mo o  ox o h . Wh ho
fh k h, f h h b   k of u hum lov
 hm, ough hy o, of h o  

o, o hv
o h  of h youhful go
 o houghl 
hv v hm hu: 'My o,   l o mk  ho l
uggl; you  o u o h y of lf o h y of
lf o you;
hoo oh hl  y o hm  o. Ch
 llh vy h, o h lo; y my b
u y gm, f oly h h b gh. W ll hl you
o u o lby u ubl gu  f, o
h  fuu you my o b  bu o u, o  ov you
o.'[22] Th oul hv b   
h ohy 
of ou m. Bu o o gv  o of g; y, h,
hy mov h hol m
hy o v h o oo ll
uy fom bg   ou of h ."
[22] Com  g 27.
Abov ll, h y, hy ok u o h 
u  of hm. If h
houl u b
k o h oul b g
  h gh of Go 
m. H f  gu g jo  h
y  flly
"by b hy
oqu. Th youh, h bho
h  h lu
om ll o k h
o l,

 v   off h h o h v
o o
b bou, o 
oqu m go hough o
o b
u hy ll, bu b
u  l h m. H
m h  , bu o m
 mk h boy ov  . Th
youh   m  o o,
ool hmlf h uy 
f    m hm;--fo h h o b o 
hl uk  o ly ol."
I h m oh hl o follo h
loly h 

ou of
h ly y,  gv
hfly by Emu hmlf, ly b
  lmo ou oly ou
 of fomo  ly b
gv  h ou o goo  lluo of h y of g u

vy ubj
 h ou
h o u h o

o.[23] H bog h

hv glly o ll mo h
o y ou h Guu l

o of h ly x 
hv b
om h
ommo o y of ou book of f
. I mu,
ho v, b
fully u  v of h

h     by
om o h h ll 
fom oh ou
. E 
lly mu ll Emu' l

of h mo
lf b f o o of h l ly
, h , O h Com  of h Wol (_

om u mu_), , obbly, hl h  ll  Sy,

 h h  bou  y y ol. Th   y o h

hm of h moy 

om  o "h ol." I u o o b
 by  mok o   h ho 
og ho h lf houl
b  . Ex
 g  h
lug g h h  hly 

o of v  quo  o h u oy of h oly
lf ov h lf of o
y. Th o houghou  ou o
h o of ul. Th  hly  
 of h  kl 
lvl h
h mk mo of Emu' l g. H bg
h h m lbou
om o b  hum lf   oubl
h h l 
ul:--h  h  om,  h
k,  vol lo,   vo
 lug h lo
o u
o. Th  g o h l, bu o  f 
o  o h . Lf off my joy, bu o o
om  h
fy. Ehly joy  o hg bou h m h hy lo
h o 
[23] O h quo of h vlu of Emu' l  o o
. 223.
"Oh, b  , o ll  bfo, bh  o
vy  h 
h. I  ju o h m 

omg o h
oo of h bu; bu h I hk h
bu hv gly h vg of u; fo hy joy fly
hv lu hy ll. Bu m,--goo Go! ho bf 
ho lo  hg  h 
klg of h ho  h blly!"
Mg  ll vy ll fo ho ho
o lv oh , bu 
y vl. Ehly hoou  v  flg. If h
g kg Alx hmlf
oul look u o h  ol h
oul uquobly  u h v h u lll o  
g   ohg
om  h h v
oy of h m ho
ko  ho o gov hmlf. Dh mk   of ll  o o
 fo ll o
om o muy, bu
u o  my  h flo  of
h youh.
Th h gum u o h ov 
o of h moy
hfly h: lby, qully,  h .
A o h l  o h l of f
  olbly obvou; bu o
  h moy  h bo of lby qu o ll
guy. Emu olv h ff
uly by ho g h ll h
lo of hum lf  bu o my  o ol
fom, hl h lf  h moy, m og lm oly u o
h boy, llo  h oul o joy h hgh k of fom.
No h
h of h o
um, h _
om u mu_, 
 h m, o h Guu l  h  hy y
f ,   h u Emu  h   h g of

 y? If o  o fom  o o fom f

 h h fom
o, o mu fl h h   l oom fo h quo.
Emu  k  h l  f h ll
ul lf h b
uh by h 
 l of h moy, bu o h oh
h h  vy 
o h h h ll h o ouy fo
uy h h
oul . Ev f  hk of h _
om u
mu_   m 
 of o homo

om oo,  ho   vy
quo, boh of ko lg  of o ,   l of
 y. I
o hv b  o l y 
h, fo h 
 h m u o gul u
H  o log  
hool, bu  m ly u
g hmlf by
h oly gog
l mho h
h v y ou
 y ul
y h,--mly, by h mho of h o  l gy 

ouou uy  

. Th y ho  
omm of

lu  quoo  lluo qu 

vbl x
 ul of  uy. Almo  mu
h my b  of h
yl. If  l
k mu
h of h vv
y  oly of h
l Emu,  h ly g  vy
obl g
. Th
luo  bl h h

 o of h
hm of h moy   l
 of fug fom
o of h ol,   ffog lu fo h
hgh lf,   f fl
o of Emu' o  x 
 u o
h m. Th moy h v h u o  o h  y
fo omhg   f, bu h
oul o jufy h qug
h mo
lf hou lg
hg u o
hg g h
uo h h  ov fo hm,  gly  
m, h y of hl l.
No h h lf b by y m  oly o. H h fom 
m fh h 
 Wllm Hm of Gou  h
hm "h  ," y Bu, "y  gh ov h book. Th
 o  volum of h L uho h
h h h o hooughly
u. Th m h
h h
om o bly    gm, 
l ,  guzzlg, h  o    ug ov book  
m ovg h yl."
Aoh fh g fom h o  h h Svu,
 fllo -mok  f  o of Sy. No o of Emu'

o o m o hv oo  o h h. Th gou of
l  o hm, obbly ju bfo  ju f h
 h lf h moy, ho  mh of ff
o   l
 fo ff
o  u h
h b vy mk of 
Ev log f h y h  fo v Emu  o
Svu h   
h h o g of b  . If
h h of mo
m h b  fuou  h oul of hv
m blv, hly yo oul hv b  mo ul v
m fo
hm h h o of h hou h h  o ully blv o
hv uff u
h  gvou x 
So f  h  o hg h
h h l y 
b  h qu
of  h y lf, book  fh ,
oul go, h lf of Emu
 Sy ough o hv b  h y o.
L u  o mo
obuo o h oblm,-- l[24]
  h g of xy o 
 mok ho h go  l
ug h g m of h Rfomo:
[24] ., 1024.

ogul you o you boly hlh, bu m vy oy o
h of you  of m.... I f you hv b m o
u o by h 
ky of
 m ho  bggg o y,
h  l h, of h  ool
lby. Blv m,
f you k mo of h ff, you o  fom of lf oul b
l om o you. I   k of m  gg u , fom
h my vy oul vol. I  h o o  go g b,
bu ll  go g o, o f  l  I hv m h

, o h I gly g h fomly I vo

 g h lby of h  , hough I  h h 
goo u o  h o u 
o h  go lk h
om o bg....
"You hv lv o o my y  you
ommuy hou
blm,  o ,  you y, you lf  
lg o  
vg--you my b gh o  y my juo. You 
lvg   mo
omfobl l
,    mo hlhful

lm. You v g h  fom h

ovo of
l m; you hv ly of goo book  
lv l.
 b    h ol h o   u
h mo 
  bfoh,   , h joy of h hvly lf?
lly  you g   h y, h mo ubul 
uou h v . I hv ko  om, ho, 
v by h
hom of lby, hv  h o. Thy
h   ook o hmlv v, u m hl,
lvg  xl  hful o h lv o hom hy
h b ....
"Flly, my  boh  Ch, by ou 
ubok fh  by Ch I bg, I b
h, I m lo
you o u h 
o holly ou of you m;  o gv
o  o h fl 
ou of m ho ll bg you o

omfo, bu ll h lugh  you h hy hv  
you o h . If h you hol h you hll u
youlf ly o mo o h hvly lf, blv m
you ll f bu
oolo,  h ll l
you  k of ll vh lk mok."

I my ll b oub,  
lly  v of h l x 
  P o  y oh uvy ug ju
h y of obo oul hv b mo ofbl o Emu
h h lf  Sy. H h b lg h vlubl lo
of lf-u
o,  ll h lf  o b h 
h fo . No
oub h  bgg o b l u ,  hkg,
 y mok h  f
 gh o o, of ho h mgh  h
o ouy.
H y,  mmb, h h  o y ou of h mo
  o b
om h h of  uy,  mk o obvouly foolh
h   oh 
llg oly o o
om lly h o 


Th Bho of Cmb, lg o go o Ily,   youg

hol of goo  o hl hm ou h h 
y L. H
h h of Emu, ho  o o ko ,  v hm o jo
ou  mk h Il jouy h hm. Th my ll hv
m o h youg m  gloou o ouy. Ily  h,
v mo h  h v b 
, h gol o  h
h vy
mbou youh of 
holly  ully u. Doubl,
lo,  h lg lby (o bog) of h g ol, h
 m o  o ough. H
ll h
Bho h go . "Hd it ot bee for t is deliver
is distiguis ed tlet would ve rotted i idleess, i luxury
d i revellig." Evidetly e would ve d o reso to dred
t e severity of dis
iplie for w i
e f
ied is elt ws too
te. T e Bis op mde sure of is prize by se
urig t e pprovl
of t e Bis op of Utre
t, i w ose dio
ese t e mostery ly, d
lso of t e prior d t e geerl of t e order. T e ex
ellet prior
imself d log bee
ed t t Ersmus d t e mostery were
usuited to e
ot er d d re
ommeded im to tke some su

opportuity s ow offered.[25] T is ws t e kid of espe
uresoig best w om Ersmus sys t e moks were wot to
oose for
t eir tyrt!
[25] iii.; 1529-D.
T e reltio ito w i
Ersmus ow etered wit t e Bis op of
Cmbri ws oe of t e most greeble t t
ould preset itself to
 youg s
olr. It demded of im but smll servi
es, d t ose
of  kid most ttr
tive to im, d yet it gve im  sese of
usefuless w i
sved is self-respe
t. As  member of t e Bis op's
ouse old is livig ws provided for, d leisure ws se
ured for
t e studies towrd w i
e ws ow egerly lookig forwrd. O
e for
ll we ve to ber i mid i studyig t e life of  s
olr, t t
pure s
olrs ip is ever, d ever s bee, self-supportig. T e
oly questio s bee ow to provide for its mite
e i wys
lest dgerous to its itegrity d lest offesive to its ow sese
of digity. I our dy we re fmilir wit edowmets by w i
t e
erlier stges of t e s
olr's life re mde 

essible to tlet
wit out welt , but i its lter stges s
olrs ip is eld to 
pretty stri

out d is expe

ted to give  very tgible _quid
pro quo_ for ll it re
I Ersmus' time t is depede
e of lerig upo edowmet ws
more frkly 
kowledged, d mig t be idefiitely prologed.
Udoubtedly t e esiest form of su
e ws t e mosti
T ere is o doubt t t Ersmus' _de
otemptu mudi_ gives 
tly fir idel pi
ture of t e orml mosti
liberty d
its suitbleess for t e s
olr, but for im t is life d lso
its dgers d its limittios. Next to t e edowmet t roug t e
mostery t ere ws provisio by privte ptroge. It d
to be more t  ever before i Europe, t e duty d t e pride of
ll pri
es, ly d
l, to devote some prt of t e reveue
w i

me from t eir people to promotig t eir ig er itelle
iterests. S
olrs were t oug t of s  de
ortio s idispesble
to t e well equipped pri
ourt s ws t e
ourt jester or t e
privte religious
Wit t e progress of  ew

ulture, ll publi
were tkig o  ig er toe d demded  more ig ly tried

body of s
olrs for t eir preprtio. But su
 positio mig t
ome lborious, too me
l d professiol for me of rel
geius. T e t ere ws t e ltertive of te
ig, eit er privtely
i t e employ of some ri
fmily, or publi
ly t  uiversity. I
Ersmus' time we fid tr
es of uiversity freedom, but t ey were
ot sigifi
t of t e orml
oditio of t igs. T e uiversity
ws  gret
orportio wit  reputtio to keep up, d
to preserve t lest  de
et uiformity i its istru
tio. A m
of idepedet geius
ould rdly ve foud imself etirely t
is ese t ere, eve if e were ble to wi oe of t e edowmets
by w i
to live. We s ll see t t Ersmus ws ot ttr
ted by
t e uiversity
reer, d oly resorted to t e met od of privte
tutorig w e ot er resour
es filed.
Aot er form of edowmet of s
olrs ip ws t roug t e ppli
foudtios to t is purpose. Of
ourse t is ws i  sese
 perversio of trusts, but t ere were my ex
uses for it. For oe
t ig, t e eds of religio d of edu
tio ve lwys, uder
C ristiity, bee lrgely idetified. Eve i our ow
outry, d
dow to t e preset momet, edowmets for edu
tio ve bee lmost
primrily t oug t of s mde i t e servi
e of religio. T e prime
tio of C risti s
olrs ip s bee t e mite
e of t e
religious trditio. So t t, w e  m ws give  "livig" out of

fuds, it ws felt t t e mig t properly mke use of t is
ome to
rry o is persol studies. Espe
illy if, s  result
of t ose studies, e produ
ed works of religious edifi
tio, t e
purpose of t e edowmet ws ot t oug t to be violted. Furt ermore,
if wit t is edowmet t ere were
ted disti
t duties ivolvig
t e "
ure of souls," o oe ws s o
ked if t e s
olrly older of
t e "livig" ired  lesser tlet wit  smll per
etge of t e
ome to perform t ese duties, w ile e imself devoted is leisure
to t e ig er studies for w i
e ws fitted. Su
 livig my
firly be
ompred to  uiversity s
olrs ip i our dy--s i f
t e mjority of our Ameri
olrs ips will be foud to ve 
religious origi.
It must ve required  uusul sese of t e fitess of t igs for
 m of Ersmus' time to de
lie so esy d so oourble  mes
of subsiste
e. W t is ow rel views o t e subje
t were we s ll
ve o

sio to see lter w e t e tempttio

omes to im. Eoug
to sy ere t t, t lest so fr s t e
ure of souls ws
it seemed to im, i is better momets,  s
dl t t t e m
w o did t e work of  "livig" s ould ot re
eive t lest  lrge
prt of its emolumets. Doubtless, lso, t e sese of
lwys  uberble oe to Ersmus, d its prt i mkig 

e u

eptble to im. Aot er

osidertio o doubt d its
weig t. T e medivl s
olr d served t e
use of religio by
greeig i every detil wit its trditios s t e orgised

ded t em to im. T e s
olr of t e Reiss
e, t oug e mig t
be eqully devoted to t e religious system, t oug t of is lerig
s somet ig vig  idepedet rig t to existe
e, d mig t well
esitte to
ommit imself to su
obligtios towrd t e trditiol
views of religio s were implied i t e oldig of 
l offi
tly t e most greeble form of support for t e s
olr of t e
erly Reiss
e ws  regulr pesio from some ri
ptro. He d
o eed to feel imself umbled by t is reltio, for e
ould lwys
fll b
k o t e plest refle
tio t t e ws givig b
k to is
ptro i oour quite s mu
s e re
eived from im i moey. I
t, t is ws t e very esse
e of su
ptroge. T e reltio ws

quite differet from t t of t e publi

lerk, se
or w t ot, ired to perform  defiite kid of servi
e. It ws 
reltio of oour, ot to be redu
ed to
il terms. T e moey
give ws ot pid for t e s
olr's servi
es; it ws give to se
im t e leisure eeded for t e proper pursuit of is ow s
ims. It boud im oly to dilige
e i pure s
olrs ip, ot to 
servile flttery of is ptro, or to y dire
t furt er
e of t e
ptro's eds.
Plily t is system ws ope to buses; but so is every reltio of
oour betwee me, d eve t e more exposed to buse i proportio
s it
lls upo t e pri
iple of oour d ot upo t t of

il equivlets. T e _quid pro quo_ is t e s
olr's devotio
to t e ig est ims of s
olrs ip, d if e fulfils is prt to t e
best of is bility e my old up is ed i t e prese
e of y
m, eve i  ge of ex
il stdrds.
All t ese forms of support were t oe time or ot er employed by
Ersmus. He seems to ve disliked te
ig, bot publi
d privte,
t oug t e evide
e poits towrds is su

ess, t lest i t e
ltter kid. T e
ure of souls e ever udertook, but ws willig to

ept livigs, if e were permitted to resig t em for  dsome

etge s pesio. Ex
eptig wit t e bis op of Cmbri e ever
stood to y ptro i t e reltio of se
lerk, librri,
or i y ot er similr form of servi
e. His
e ws  good
liberl pesio, d s to t e _quid pro quo_, t ere ws ever i is

se y room for doubt.

W tever else Ersmus ws, e
ertily ws ot lzy. T e impulse to
e ws i im  irresistible oe. All e sked ws opportuity,
d t e severl ptros w o, from time to time,
otributed to is
support must ve felt t t o is side t e poit of oour ws fully
met. Oe ot er
osidertio will per ps elp us to uderstd t e
t feelig of Ersmus i eterig upo w t seems to us, per ps,

oditio of persol depede
e. How, we my sk,
ould y
m ve t t
e i is ow tlet w i
would ssure im
gist t e dred t t fter ll e mig t prove  bd ivestmet? T e
swer is twofold: t e m must ve  profoud
e eit er i
t e gretess of t e
use e stds for or i is ow surpssig
merit. I Ersmus bot t ese elemets of ssur
e were uited.
He lwys t oug t d spoke of pure s
olrs ip, w e pplied to
t e dv
emet of  pure C ristiity, s t e oblest o

of m, d e s red i  ig degree t t exggerted sese of
persol import
e w i
is t e espe
il mrk of t e Reiss
T e 

e of  pesio from  privte perso ws, t e, t e
most utrmmelled form of fi
il depede
e w i
 poor s

ould ssume, d it is t e form

ose by Ersmus w eever e d 
opportuity of
e. His first reltio to t e bis op of Cmbri
ws, ideed, iteded to be oe of 
tul, defiite servi
e. He ws
to go wit im to Itly s is Lti se
retry, d mig t well feel
t t e ws to give  fir equivlet for is support. T e jourey
to Itly, owever, ws idefiitely postpoed. Ersmus sys t e
bis op
ould ot fford it. Mew ile t e youg s
olr lived t t e
ourt util, s t e Itli pl seemed to be bdoed,
t e bis op gve im moey eoug to get to Pris. He promised 
regulr pesio, but it ws ot fort
omig: "su
is t e wy of

[26] It ws t t e sme time t t e re

eived from t e bis op of
t orditio s priest. Stri
tly spekig, t is orditio
ws u
l, o 

out of is defe
t of birt , but we ve
o reso to t ik t t it
used im or yoe else y s
util my yers fterwrd, w e t e poit is disti
i  ppl dispestio of 1517.--W. is
er, _Ersmi_, pp.
26, 27.
As to furt er detil of t e life of Ersmus wit t e bis op we re
quite i t e drk. Eve ow log e ws t ere is ot
ler d is

eerfully disregrded by most re

et writers. It would probbly be
sfe to
lude wit Drummod t t it ws ot more t  bout two
yers d t t Ersmus' reside
e t Pris, t erefore, beg bout
1491 or 1492, w e e ws bout twety-five yers of ge. As e d
up to t is time
omplied of every situtio i w i

e d foud imself, we s ll be quite prepred to fid im mkig
t e worst possible of  mer of life w i
t t e best
ot ve
bee too ttr
tive to  lover of ese d
T e orgistio of t e Uiversity ws su
t t t e istru
tio ws
lrgely seprte from t e detil of dis
iplie d mite
e of t e
studet. E
studet lived s e
ould, soug t t e te
ig of su

msters s suited is immedite purpose, d preseted imself for

oours w eever e ws redy. A studet of mes lodged t
is ow
ost i  privte ouse or privte Hll, d lived subje
oly to t e geerl dis
iplie of t e Uiversity d t e tow. For
poor studets t ere existed, s i Egld, "
olleges"--_i. e._,
primrily lodgig- d bordig- ouses uder  stri
ter oversig t.
T ese
olleges were ot primrily iteded to provide istru
tio w i
ws oly grdully ssumed by t em s t eir
edowmets grew to be lrger t  were eeded to provide t e ordiry
essities of livig. T eir te
ers were rt er tutors or "
t  me of idepedet s
olrs ip; t eir fu
tio ws to supplemet
by repetitio d persol ttetio t e publi
ig of t e more
emiet uiversity professors.
T e Collge Motigu, ito w i
Ersmus etered, ws  foudtio of
some tiquity, but durig t e previous geertio d flle ito

omplete de
y, so t t ot ig ws left of it but t e buildigs.
About 1480 it d tke  ew lese of life uder oe Jo 
,[27] w o devoted imself to its servi
e. As mster of t e

ollege e
ould mke somet ig by te
ig, d grdully, t roug
is ow 
tivity d t t of is fellows, d got toget er eoug so
t t e
ould give lodgig d prtil bord to 
erti umber of
poor studets. By t e yer 1493 e ws t us prtilly mitiig
over eig ty. T e rest of t eir support t ey got s t ey
ould, by
beggig or ot erwise.
[27] Cr. Jourdi, _Idex
rtrum Uiversittis
Prisiesis_, 1862, p. 301, . I
ot quite dopt Mr.
Rs dll's rederig t t Mster Stdo
"took ri
d mde t em support t e '_Puperes_.'" H. Rs dll, _T e
Uiversities of Europe i t e Middle Ages_, 1895, i., 512, .
Ersmus ws, t e, 
rity border d oug t, i ll reso, to
ve bee grteful for eve t is poor opportuity of ejoyig t e
privileges towrd w i
e d for yers bee lookig forwrd s
t e summit of is opes. Yet e
 ow ere metio t ese Prisi
dys wit out t e most doleful
omplits of is sufferigs from
foul ir, bd food, d severe dis
iplie. T e most fmous of t ese

ditribes o

urs i t e Colloquy
lled --"The Etin
 Fish." Ersms' theme is here the excessive devtin t rml
rles nd bservnces in reli in t the scriice  mre imprtnt
thin s. The etin  ish is nly  text n which he hn s extremely
bld nd cte criticism  wld-be reli is persns, wh r
their lives wld nt vilte the rles  the Chrch  inst the
etin  met, bt were redy n the ther hnd t rn int ny
excesses  leshly dissiptin. The spekers re  btcher nd 
slt-ishmn er. Ater they hve ne n mtchin stries r  ln
time, the ishmn er sddenly breks t:
[28] "'Thirty yers   I lived t Pris in  clle e which hs
its nme rm vine r (_cetm_).' [The Ltin rm  Mnti 
ws _Mns cts_.] The btcher nswers: 'Well, tht is  nme
 wisdm! Wht re y ivin s? A slt-ishmn er in sch
 sr clle e? N wnder he's sch  keen ne t qibbles 
thel y! Fr there, s I her, the very wlls hve thel icl
"_Fishm._--'Y're ri ht, bt ll I t there ws  bdy inected
with the wrst kind  hmrs nd  plentil spply  lice. Bt
let me  n s I be n. The clle e ws t tht time verned by
Jhn Stndnch,  mn whse dispsitin (_ectm_) y wld nt
cndemn, bt in whm y wld like t see mre discrimintin. Fr
y cldn't help retly pprvin his re rd r the pr, mindl
s he ws  his wn yth pssed in extreme pverty. I he hd s
r relieved the pverty  yths tht they mi ht  n with hnest
stdy, yet nt s r tht bndnce wld hve led t extrv nce,
he wld hve deserved prise. Bt he went int the thin with beds
s hrd, d s crse nd s scnty, vi ils nd wrk s severe tht
within  yer the irst tril br ht mny yths  excellent prts
nd  ret prmise, sme t their deths, sme t blindness, sme
t mdness nd nt  ew t leprsy. Sme  these I knew mysel,
nd srely nt ne escped dn er. Nw cn't nybdy see tht tht
is crelty t ne's nei hbr? And nt cntent with this he pt n
(them) hd nd clk nd tk rm them ll niml d--nd then he
trnserred sch nrsery- rdens s this int r-distnt re ins.
I every ne shld indl e his implses (_ects_) s r s he
did, the reslt wld be tht the like  these peple wld ill
p the whle wrld. Frm sch be innin s rse mnsteries, which
nw threten bth kin s nd pntis. It is  pis deed t bst 
brin in ne's nei hbr t piety, bt t seek r lry by ne's
dress r ne's d is the prt   Phrisee; it is piety t relieve
the wnt  ne's nei hbrs, nd t see t it tht they d nt
bse the enersity  d men by excess, is d discipline. Bt
t drive yr brther by these thin s int sickness, int mdness
nd deth, tht is crelty, tht is mrder. The intentin t kill
is perhps wntin , bt the mrder is there ll the sme. Wht
r iveness shll these men hve then? The sme s  physicin,
wh, thr h ntble lck  skill, kills  ptient. Des nyne
sy:--"bt n ne rces them int this mde  lie; they cme 
their wn ccrd; they ln t be dmitted nd re ree t leve
when they re tired  it"? Ah! An nswer wrthy   Scythin. They
d sk this, s yths wh knw wht is d r them better thn 
mn  yers, ll  lernin nd experience! Ths mi ht ne excse
himsel t  mished wl, ter he hd drwn him int  trp with
bit. Cn ne wh hs pt nwhlesme r even pisns d bere 
ri htlly hn ry mn excse himsel by syin :--"Nbdy cmpels y
t et; y hve willin ly nd ldly devred wht ws set bere
y"? Wld he nt prperly reply:--"Y hve iven me nt d bt

pisn"? Necessity is  mi hty wepn; hn er is  terrible trment.

S let them d wy with tht hi h-sndin phrse:--"the chice ws
ree," r he wh ses sch trments is relly sin rce. Nr hs
this crelty rined pr men lne; it hs crried  mny  rich
mn's sn nd crrpted mny  well-brn tlent.'"
[28] _Cllqi Fm._, i., 806.
S Ersms es n t tell ther detils  stdent-lie t Mnti .
In the depths  winter  bit  bred ws iven t r d
nd they were bli ed t drw wter rm  pllted well. Sme
 the sleepin -rms were n the rnd-lr nd in sch clse
nei hbrhd t the cmmn resrt tht nyne wh lived there ws
sre t et his deth r  dn ers illness. Fri htl betin s were
inlicted even n the inncent, "in rder, s they sy, t tke the
ercity t  them,--r s they cll  nble spirit,--nd brek
it dwn n prpse t mke them it r mnsteries. Hw mny rtten
e s were devred there! Wht  qntity  l wine ws drnk!"
And then, hvin mde his ishmn er sy ll the vile thin s bt
Mnti  tht he cn think , Ersms, tre t his ntre, be ins
t hed e. Perhps these thin s hve been crrected since, bt this
is t lte r thse wh re ded r re crryin bt the seeds
 disese in their bdies. Nr des he sy ll this rm ny
ill-will t the clle e, bt nly t wrn  inst the crrptin 
yth thr h the crelty  mn nder the dis ise  reli in. He
prtests tht i he cld see d reslts rm the mnstic lie he
wld r e everyne t tke the cwl. In ct, hwever, he seldm
es int  Crthsin hse witht indin there smene wh is
either ne silly r is  re lr mdmn. There cn be n dbt tht
the rles r the Cll e Mnti  pblished by Mster Stndnch in
1501 were siciently hrsh. They were s mde in rder t check
the bse  t ret reedm r the very yn bys dmitted t
sch ndtins. In cnirmtin  Ersms' pictre  the hrrrs
 Mnti  we ind re lrly qted Rbelis' ms pss e[29] in
which the yth Gr nt n his retrn rm Pris cmbs cnnn-blls
t  his hir nd ths ives ccsin t his ther nd ttr r
n ttck pn this sme "clle e  vermin" s the hnt  crelty
nd wretchedness. When Rbelis wrte this pss e he hd nt yet
been t Pris. It is prcticlly certin tht he ws cqinted with
the writin s  Ersms, nd the cnclsin seems bvis tht he
brrwed his illstrtin directly rm the _Ichthyph i_.
[29] _Gr nt_, i., 37. See ls H. Schneld, "Rbelis nd
Ersms," in _Pblictins  the Mdern Ln  e Asscitin 
Americ_, viii. 1.
This descriptin  "Vine r Clle e" hs been lmst niverslly
tken s  seris ccnt  Ersms' wn experience in Pris,
nd prbbly it hs its ndtin  trth. The cmmnest lws 
snitry decency re  thin lmst  r wn dy, nd nt mch
mre cn be sid  the principles  prper d nd cre  the
bdy. N ne cld expect mch rm  chrity-schl in the iteenth
centry. Bt these stries mst be cnsidered in their cntext. They
re intrdced, nt s ctl tbi rphy, bt s illstrtins
 ne  Ersms' vrite themes, the evils  mnsticism, nd
especilly they re mde t ber n n ide which seems t hve been
lmst n _ide ixe_ with him,--tht ll the pwers  reli in
nd lernin were in le e t drive yn men int mnsteries.
As bere in his recllectins  Deventer nd Steyn, s nw here

in his memries  the Cll e Mnti , this spectre still, ter

thirty yers, hnts his im intin. He r ets tht he ws enjyin
the rits  the devtin nd sel-scriice  the nders nd
interprets ll their ctins by this sme vernin mtive. He hd
clled his schls "_seminri_" r mnks; nw he clls his Pris
clle e  "_plntrim_" r the sme kind   crp.
In ct, these erly stdies t the University were ll  prit t
Ersms. He ws t the centre  the best cltre  the erlier time
nd the revivin spirit  the new clssic lernin ws be innin
t mke itsel elt. In his reerences t this experience it sited
his prpse nd his dispsitin lwys t thrw cntempt pn his
techers nd pn ll lernin except tht which seemed t him t
relect the lry  ntiqity. Indeed, i he hd been rced t
cntent himsel with the dry qibblin  the "Sctist" thel ins
wh were still the dminnt prty t Pris, he wld hve nd
himsel in drery cmpny en h. Bt we ind n resn t think
tht there ws ny cmplsin pn him t tke ny techin he did
nt like. Greek hd lredy be n t mke its wy s n ttinble
sbject t Pris, nd Ersms ws be innin t eel the chrm which
this, the chicest vehicle  hmn expressin, ws t exercise pn
his whle lie.
His irst Pris residence ws interrpted by illness, in cnseqence
 which he retrned r  time t the bishp  Cmbri. The bishp
seems t hve been willin t keep him indeinitely t his crt,
bt nt t hve prvided r his rther mintennce elsewhere.
With restred helth Ersms ws bck  in t Pris nd nw, r
the irst time, n  relly independent tin . Fr the mment
he cesed t cnsider the qestin  ptrn e nd be n t ive
lessns t privte ppils. Bets, nqestinbly prmpted by Ersms
in ll detils, sys tht "the En lishmen t the niversity cld
ind n ne mn the pressrs  liberl stdy in the whle plce
wh ws ble t tech mre lernedly r ccstmed t tech mre
cnscientisly." And then he es n t mke  cmprisn between
this yth nd the tw best-knwn pressrs  litertre t the
time in Pris. One  these, Fsts Andrelins, ws evidently  type
 the y, reckless spirits wh nd in clssic stdy n enjyment
prely intellectl nd wh sed its mrl stndrd s n excse r
ll lseness  lie. His mnner  techin ws "pplr" t the
pint  lippncy, desi ned rther t ctch the pplse  the
crwd thn t merit the pprvl  the lerned. It is t Ersms'
credit tht he did nt llw his clssic enthsism t crry wy
his jd ment  this persn. The ther techer, G ins, ws 
mre seris schlr, bt nt s r dvnced nd nt yet re lrly
techin pblicly.
S it ppers tht, in spite  his dlel stries, r schlr hd
s sl been mkin the mst  his time, nd we cme nw hppily
t  pint where evident cts nd the testimny  ther men cn
be mde se  t shw his rwin vle nd pwer. There seems
little resn t dbt tht he ws nw  distinctly pplr i re
in cdemic circles. He ws in stedy demnd s  privte ttr r
yn men wh cld rd t py well r his services. Amn sch
yths En lishmen, then s ever since, were ntrlly mst prminent,
nd it is thr h this reltin t En lish ppils t Pris tht
the wy ws pened r Ersms t mny  the mst interestin nd
imprtnt cnnectins  his lter lie.
Drin this secnd Pris residence, Ersms evidently t int sme

rther seris scrpe,  which we et nly v e s estins in

his crrespndence. Wht it ws nd precisely the ntre  the
chr es it br ht pn him we cnnt sy. It seems t hve hd sme
cnnectin with his reltin t  mysteris persn e, wh hs
been sppsed t be lmst every pssible persn rm the bishp
 Cmbri dwn. Frde, in his hit-r-miss shin, s ests tht
this persn, whm Ersms lwys reers t s _senex ille_, ws the
 ed Mrqis  Veere in Hllnd, sn   bstrd  Dke Philip 
Br ndy. Unrtntely r this thery, the Mrqis  Veere ws
lredy ded nd is  interest t Ersms nly n ccnt  his
chrmin widw, wh t bt this time be ins t dwn n his hrizn
s  pssible ptrness. Bets tells s with  wrd tht Ersms
ter his Mnti  experience went ver (_emi rvit_) t  certin
nble En lishmn wh hd with him tw nble yths,  whm Bets
thinks Lrd Mntjy ws ne. This Mntjy ws certinly  ppil nd
terwrd  ithl riend  Ersms, nd we hve reerences t the
"ld mn" in letters t Mntjy which shw plinly tht the yn
nblemn ws  cnidnt  the writer in the Pris nplesntness,
whtever tht my hve been. The sme is ls tre  the ther
En lish yth whm Ersms nw met nd lerned t lve, Thms Grey,
sn  the Mrqis  Drset. An extrct rm  letter t him will
ive s n indictin  hw r schlr hd t n in the rt 
vi rs expressin. The letter[30] is dted t Pris, 1497 (?),
nd ws evidently written sn ter the trble  which the ld
mn is the lle ed cse. It be ins with extrv nt expressins 
ectin r Grey. "O the whle rce  men nne is derer t me
thn y." He wld hve written him erlier, bt dreded t pen p
 in the wnd which he ws jst hpin wld be in t hel.
[30] iii., 18-B.
"Nthin is mre intlerble," he es n, "thn bse in
retrn r kindness. Wld tht I mi ht drink s deep  the
wters  Lethe tht tht ld mn nd his inslts mi ht whlly
lw rth t  my mind. As ten s I think  him I nt
nly ll int  r e, bt I mrvel tht s mch pisn, s
mch envy, trechery nd ithlessness cld dwell in  hmn
brest. S help me Gd! when I think  the scndrelly sl 
tht mn, the Pets, men s keen, s elqent, in describin
hmn ntre, seem t me either never t hve seen pisn
 this srt r t hve been neql t its descriptin. Fr
wht pnderer s lse, wht rin s bstl, wht ld mn
s ill-cnditined, r wht mnster s envis, s ll 
bitterness, s n rtel, hve they ever dred t depict, s
this ld hmb , wh even sets p r  pietist nd invents ine
nmes r his very vices? Y bid me nt t be distressed, nd
indeed, my der Thms, I m berin the thin ptiently when
y think hw hrrible it is. S nexpected misrtnes cn
bt rieve ne. Hw ever cld I, in retrn r my rnkness,
my kindnesses, my ithlness, my lmst brtherly ectin,
expect rm  mn s venerble s he ppered, s nble s
he bsted himsel t be, s pis s he pretended, sch
extrrdinry bse? I sppsed it t be bsest in rtitde nt
t retrn vr r vr. I hd red tht there ws  kind
 men whm it ws ser t end thn t bli e by kindness.
I did nt believe, ntil I hd lerned it by experience, tht
it ws r mre dn ers t d d t evil men thn evil t
d men. Fr when the n rtel rscl nd tht he ws nder
reter bli tins t me thn he cld repy, he trned his
ttentin wy rm litertre, which he hd been wretchedly

trmentin p t tht time, nd bent ll his ener ies t rinin
me with his inms tricks. And when he despired  din this
by his ctins (_lbribs_) he s ht t crsh me with his
tn e steeped in the pisn  hell, nd he did it, t, s
r s he cld. Tht I m live t ll, tht I hve my helth,
I scribe t my bks, which hve t ht me t ive wy t n
strm  te. It is  blw t  mn ths brn t crime t ind
tht he des bt little hrm.
"Bt nt stisied with r in  inst me with sch ry when
I ws present, he prsed me when I hd led rm him nd,
t  htred t me, r es  inst y, the derest prt  my
sl--r es, I sy, with tht mst terrible  hmn wepns,
with slnder. O pisn  snkes, wrse thn ny cnite,
thn ny rth rm the n s  Cerbers! Tht  mnster
like this shld ze pn the ir li ht  the sn, shld
brethe,--ny! pisn the vitl ir! Tht r cmmn erth
shld ber sch  dis rce! The im intin  the Pets ws
never ble t cnjre p  mischie s hrrible, s pestilent,
s ccrsed tht this mnster wld nt esily srpss it. Fr
wht Cerbers, wht Sphinx, wht Chimr, wht Tisiphne, wht
hb blin cn ri htly be cmpred with this evil thin which
_Gthi_ [?] hs ltely spewed t pn s? Wht scrpin, wht
viper, wht bsilisk hs its pisn hndier? Venms thin s
seldm ive rth their pisn except when irritted. Lins
repy kindness with kindness; dr ns rw entle nder kind
tretment; bt this ld mn is mde md by d-will. There is 
pisned sl r y!
"Nw tht y my see hw slid is my pr; i ne mrks
crelly his sv e ce, the whle hbit  his bdy, des
nt ne seem t see s it were the very im e  ll vices? And
herein is the wisdm  Ntre t be prised, tht she hs pent
this sl  dermity in  ittin bdy. Beneth the bristlin
rest  his eyebrws lrk his retretin eyes with their
sv e ze. A brw  stne, tht in his evil din n blsh
 shme my ever be seen. His nstrils, illed with  rve 
bristles, p t  plyps. His cheeks re drpin , his lips
livid, his vice belched t rther thn brethed t--sch is
the mn's imptence--y wld think him brkin rther thn
spekin . His twisted neck, his crked le s--nthin tht
Ntre hs nt brnded with sme sti m. S we brnd criminls
nd mlectrs; s we hn  bell pn  bitin d ; s we mrk
 vicis x by the hy bnd bt his hrns.
"T shre my lernin with this bse mnster! r his ske
t wste s mch time, tlent nd ener y! I this hd ne
r n ht, I shld be less wretched, r nw I see tht I
hve swn the dr n's teeth nd they re sprin in p t my
This is bt ne hl  the letter. It is evident tht Ersms ws
in d trinin r the chicest specimens  persnl bse which
he ws lter t prdce. The reminder  the letter is illed with
lttery  yn Grey lid n with s liberl  hnd s ws the
bse  the nrtnte "ld mn." The brden  this prt  the
letter is t cnsle Grey r bein still nder the pwer  his
trmentr, nd t r e him t new ert nd t sel-relince in his
stdies. Ot  the cnsin  v e reerences nd lter srmises
s t wh this nplesnt bein ws, ne cn et  certin nity

nd rm sch cnjectre s ne will. It seems prbble tht he ws
sme En lishmn  mtre yers nd  d mily wh hd been sent
ver t Pris s  rdin r the tw yn nblemen, Mntjy nd
Grey; tht he hd en  ed Ersms s ttr, t live t their ld in s
nd t inclde himsel in his instrctin; tht sme cse, perhps
sme lseness  mrls n Ersms' prt, hd br ht them t 
qrrel, in cnseqence  which Ersms ws rced t thrw p his
en  ement. On the ther hnd, it is cler tht n ther wld hve
intrsted his sn t sch  mnster  physicl nd mrl dermity
s is here described. Jst wht Ersms mens by syin tht "Gthi"
ws respnsible r him I cnnt mke t. The whle episde is
interestin nly s thrwin li ht n the develpment  r schlr
in his style nd his chrcter.
Tht Ersms, e er nd dili ent stdent s he srely ws, did nt
entirely escpe the llrements  the Ltin Qrter is plin rm
lter reerences  his wn. Prbbly he is reerrin t sme sch
experiences in  letter[31] written bt this time t the riend
whm Mr. Frde jntily clls Willim Gden, nd wh is the sme
Willim Hermnn  Gd t whm we hve lredy llded. This
Willim hd evidently written him  reprchl letter, bt we d
nt lern clerly the rnds  his repr. Ersms scribes his
irrittin t the tttlin  sme enemy nd beseeches him t ret
len th t trst rther his wn persnl knwled e nd his memry
 their lieln riendship thn ny sch clmny. He represents
himsel s pln ed in the depths  misery. He wld rther die thn
endre ln er the brden  sch  lie. It is nt lie t ll; it
is mere existence. Dbtless this is mstly rhetric, bt the tre
stte  the writer's mind seems t cme t in  pss e in which he
reers t certin deinite persns well knwn t the receiver, th h
bscre t s. The psht  his lmy relectins is:
[31] iii., 13.
"This is the kind   mrl tmsphere (_mribs_) we hve t
live in; nd s we hve t llw tht syin  Chil: 'S lve
s i th wert ne dy t hte, nd s hte s i th wert ne
dy t lve.'"
This letter illstrtes well trits  Ersms which were t becme
very mrked in his tre wrk. He ws lredy shwin tht jy in
the ide  bein persected which lter seems t hve rected n his
memry  his erliest yers. It lttered his vnity t think tht
men cred en h bt him t bse him, nd sch bse ve him n
dded clim pn the devtin  his riends. His ntre demnded
ectin nd dmirtin, nd he ws redy t repy them in kind, s
ln s he thereby incrred n lstin r brdensme bli tin.
These sin lr cntrdictins  Ersms' ntre re mst clerly
br ht t in his erly crrespndence with his riend Btts, 
yn mn whm he met t Cmbri, nd wh becme ttr t the sn 
the Mrchiness  Veere. In cnnectin with Btts, ls, we lern
t knw Ersms r the irst time s  sitr r ptrn e. The
Btts letters, sme scre in nmber, cver the perid jst bere
nd jst ter his irst trip t En lnd, tht is, bt the yer
1500. We re t think  him t this time s irmly ixed in his
determintin t be  schlr nd, t this end, t et t Itly s
sn s ever it mi ht be pssible. He wnted t tke his dctr's

de ree there, nd th ht  Itly s  schlr's prdise. Bt t

in this ret privile e he ws nt prepred r every scriice.
One is pt t think  Ersms s  wnderer, nd with d
resn, bt ter ll he hd little  the typicl Bhemin in
him. He ws, it is tre,  pr yth, bt his pverty ws lwys
 cmrtble pverty. There ws nthin , pprently, t prevent
him rm tkin his st in his hnd nd mkin his wy n t,
i need were, s mny nther pr schlr hd dne, t the l 
his desires. Tht ws Lther's methd  seein Itly, nder  very
dierent implse. Prbbly nthin wld hve dne s mch t chse
wy the me rims tht were lwys pesterin him. He wld hve hd
less resn t cmplin  his di estin nd his bd sleepin --bt
i he cld nt hve cmplined he wld, perhps, hve been
nhppier still. Menwhile, he hd t hve bks, he mst et nly
jst sch d s seemed t sit him, he kept  hrse, nd cld
nt think   jrney witht t lest ne servnt nd tw hrses.
Itly seemed indeinitely r wy. Privte ttrin ws  slippery
srce  revene; reqent visittins  the pl e scttered his
ppils nd he hd t cst bt him r wys nd mens. There were
tw resrces:  plce with n incme nd, presmbly, with dties
ttched t it, r  ptrn. Fr bvis resns, he preerred the
Btts, his der Btts, ws pretty cmrtbly ixed t the cstle
 Trnehens n the islnd  Wlcheren, the residence  the
Mrchiness  Veere. He ws  d ellw nd mi ht be cnted n
t d his riend  d trn. We hve Ersms, then, in the Btts
letters in n entirely new chrcter,--s the ltterer  the ret
r his wn persnl dvnt e. The erliest indictin  reltins
with the mrchiness is in  Pris letter[32] t Btts, which be ins:
[32] iii., 27-F.
"I cn qite nderstnd, Btts, best  men, hw srprised y
re tht I dn't ly t y t nce, nw tht r ir hs
trned t s mch better thn either  s dred t hpe. Bt
when y knw my resns y will cese t wnder nd will see
tht I hve cnslted yr dvnt e n less thn my wn. I cn
hrdly tell y hw deli hted I ws t yr letter. Alredy I m
seein visins   hppy lie with y. Wht reedm t chtter
wy t ether! Hw we will live in cmmn with r Mses! I jst
ln t be ree rm this htel slvery. 'Why then hesitte?'
y sy. Y will see tht I d s nt witht resn. I hd nt
expected yr messen er s sn. There re sme little sms de
me here, nd y knw very little is  ret thin r me. I
hve nlilled bli tins with certin persns, which I cld
nt leve witht injry. I m jst be innin  mnth with the
cnt; I hve pid my rm-rent," etc.
Then llws n ccnt  sme trbles bt certin mnscripts
nd mney lst by nse messen ers, nd then he retrns t the
sbject  the mrchiness.
"I dn't need t r e y, der Btts, r I knw yr
lylty nd yr ectin, t cnsider t nce my prit nd
my di nity. I m nt  little in dred   crt nd I m
very cnscis  my nlcky str. I rejice retly tht the
Ldy is s vrbly dispsed twrds me, bt wht sys the
_ntistes_? wht hpe des he er? Ws ever nythin clder? I
wld rther y hd nmed  ixed sm thn tlked bt  ret

ne. I will nt remind y  Ver il's line

"'_... vrim et mtbile semper,
Fmin ..._'

r I cnt her nt mn cmmn wmen, bt mn thse  mnly
qlity (_vir ines_). Yet hw mny re there in tht plce
wh cre r my writin s? r is there nyne wh des nt hte
lernin lt ether? My whle rtne depends pn y. Bt
i--which Jve rbid!--the ir shld ll t cntrry t
bth r wishes,--y, brdened with debt s y re, will be
wrse  in tht respect, nd wht help, pry, cn y be t me?
"I will nt dmit tht yr zel r me is ny htter thn mine
r y; bt I m sre we  ht t tke the retest cre nt t
be t e er in this mtter. I write this nt s hvin chn ed
my pinin r s bein ickle in my intentins, bt t rse
yr wtchlness; r we re bth in the sme psitin. Nw i
I hdn't s hi h n pinin  yr lylty, yr prdence nd
yr crelness tht, when I hve trned the thin ver t y
I eel tht I cn sleep n bth ers, I mi ht be lrmed t this
be innin  the bsiness s t  very nvrble men. They
hve sent me  tw-r--cent hired n nd n llwnce r the
jrney tht is jst bt nthin t ll. Nw, my der Jmes,
i the be innin is s cld will the end be likely t bil? When
will there be  mre hnrble r mre ittin chnce r y
t sk  vr in my nme thn nw, when they will hve t et
me wy rm this city nd rm sch vrin circmstnces?
With sch  pittnce I cld hrdly cme n t; hw shld I
mn e it n hrsebck nd with tw cmpnins? I the ir
is t be pid r with my Ldy's mney, s I sppse, this
be innin desn't sit me; bt i it is t yr expense, I like
it still less, r it wld nt nly be nir, bt it wld
hve t be dne with brrwed mney. Wht is mre nlike the mn
y hve lwys tken me r, thn t cme lyin t the irst
nd nd especilly nder sch cnditins? Wh wldn't think
me either  reenhrn r  knve r t ny rte in the lst
extremity? Wh wldn't despise me? I I weren't s wlly nd
 y, Btts, my der ellw, s tht t live with y wld
repy me r ny incnvenience, these thin s mi ht trn me rm
my plns; bt they dn't mve me in the lest. I m nly wrnin
y t keep p my di nity with ll dili ence. Nw y sk my
pinin nd here it is:--I will rrn e my irs here, cllect
my writin s nd settle p my bsiness. Menwhile y will be
cpyin t wht I send y. Write me, by the ld wh they sy
is shrtly cmin hither t stdy, precisely hw the lnd lies;
then, when y hve cpied the Lrentis, send by the sme ld
wh brin s it--I men Adrin--n llwnce r the jrney nd
sme very deinite sttement; n llwnce, mind y, sitble
r me. I cn't cme t my wn expense, ded brke s I m,
nd it is nt ri ht tht I shld leve my present ir en h
psitin. Besides I wnt y t send me  better hrse, i y
cn. I m nt skin r  splendid Bcephls, bt ne tht 
respectble mn wld nt be shmed t ride; nd y nderstnd
tht I need tw hrses, r I m determined t brin my servnt
nd I intend this secnd hrse r him. Y will esily persde
my Ldy  ll this. Y hve n excellent cse nd I well knw
y re clever en h t mke  d cse t  the very wrst.
I she reses t d this--well then, I pry y, hw will she
ever ive  pensin i she wld rese my trvellin expenses?

Nw, then, y nderstnd why I hd t pstpne r writin , s

I sid t the be innin , nd I m sre y will pprve it. I
hve tld y hw t keep p my di nity nd ll y hve t d
is t psh the thin s st s y cn. I'll nt be nppin
here; d y keep n the wtch there."
This letter is ne  the mst imprtnt reveltins  Ersms'
methds  prvidin r himsel. Btts, his riend, hd pprently
held t t him  prspect  nthin less thn  re lr settlement
t the crt  the Mrchiness Ann. Ersms speks especilly  
settled lie  stdy, with Btts s the chie ttrctin. Bt he is
nt in t ive himsel wy t esily. He dmits tht he is t
the end  his resrces, bt it wld never d t let my Ldy knw
this. His ce is t rise his wn vle in her eyes. S he delys,
n the ple  imprtnt en  ements; he reminds Btts tht his
stke in the ir is the sme s his wn--th h ne hrdly sees
why--nd he r es him t ctin lest he seem t e er in his sit.
He ltters him with prise  his elqence nd with expressins 
entire cnidence. It is nt  ileless yth whm we meet here, bt
 mn  the wrld, cnscis  himsel t the pint  mrbidness,
nd yet willin t  pretty r ln the rd  sycphncy t the
The jrney t Trnehens tk plce in the winter  1497. In his
ccnt  it in  letter[33] t Mntjy, Ersms i res himsel
s the especil victim  hstile ds. He mi ht hve been Hnnibl
crssin the Alps, s m niicent is his ln  e. Even the testimny
 the ldest inhbitnt is nt mitted in pr  the terrrs 
the wy. It is wrth nticin tht the r es spectcle  trees
encrsted with ice, the deep-drited snw, the cstle lemin in
 cmplete icy shrd, rsed in Ersms n sense  bety r
 rnder. He ws ccpied slely with his wn discmrts nd
describes ll this s s mch evidence   mli nnt te.
[33] iii., 5.
"We reched the princess Ann  Veere bt jst live. Wht
shll I sy  the entleness, the kindness, the liberlity 
this wmn! I m wre tht the ex ertins  ine writers
re wnt t be sspected, especilly by thse wh hve sme
skill t sch thin s; bt I be y t believe tht I ex erte
nthin ;--ny rther tht the trth es beynd my skill.
Ntre never br ht rth  bein mre mdest, mre clever,
mre sptless, mre kindly. T pt it ll in ne wrd:--her
kindness t me ws s r beynd my merits s the mlice 
tht ld scmp ws cntrry t my deserts. She, witht ny
ert  mine, lded me with s mny kindnesses s he, ter
my endless kindness t him, heped inslts pn me. And Btts,
der ellw,--wht shll I sy  him, the simplest nd mst
ectinte sl in the wrld! Nw t lst I relly be in t
hte thse in rtes. T think tht I shld hve been the slve
 thse mnsters s ln !"
We seem t hve here  reerence t his _bte nire_, the Pris
persectr, with whm Mntjy ws in sme wy sscited.
The sme tne  extreme ldtin is kept p in  shrt nd hrried
letter[34] sent bck t Btts rm Antwerp n his wy hme. He
hs evidently been well treted, bt is nt yet t his ese bt
tre vrs rm the ldy. "I will ly bck," he writes, "s

sn s ever I cn, i the ds permit." The reminin letters 

this crrespndence my beln t  lter perid, bt will serve
here t shw hw Ersms cntined his sit. While he is exhstin
the ln  e  lttery bt his ir ptrn, he mkes mysteris
llsins t pssible checks pn her liberlity. She is in trble;
there re demnds mde pn her by nwrthy persns. Finlly it
ppers tht she mrried smene qite belw her sttin. The brden
 Ersms' sn is tht Btts  ht t et hed  these ther
climnts n the ldy's bnty nd mke sre  his cse bere it
is t lte. One letter[35] shws dwnri ht ill-temper twrds his
der riend, which he prtly excses n the rnd  cntined
ill-helth. Btts, it seems, hd been r in him t write smethin ,
prbbly s n eqivlent r vrs t cme. He replies:
[34] iii., 6.
[35] iii., 46.
"I hpe t die i I ever in my lie s hted t write nythin
s I did thse triles, ny, thse Gnthnisms, which I hve
written r my Ldy, r the Prvst nd r the Abbt. I knw
y will sy this is my ill-temper; bt y wn't sy tht,
Btts, i y think  my cnditin r i y cnsider hw
hrd it is t rce the mind t the writin   ret wrk,
nd hw mch hrder yet, when it is ll in  lw, t hve it
clled  t ther nd trilin thin s. Becse y hven't
tried this yrsel y ncy tht my mind is lwys in perect
rder, lwys n the lert, s yrs is when y re enjyin
the retest pssible leisre. Dn't y nderstnd tht there
is n wrse brden thn  mind weried by writin , nd dn't
y think I m din en h here t stisy thse whse vrs
I enjy? Y re skin me r bles  bks, bt y dn't
help me t et the leisre which the writin  bks demnds.
It isn't en h r y i I shll sme dy immrtlise r
riendship nd the vr  my Ldy by my bks, bt I mst
be writin y six hndred letters every dy. It is nw  yer
since y prmised me mney nd menwhile y send me nthin
bt hpes: 'I dn't despir, I will psh yr cse with ll
zel.'--This srt  thin hs been crmmed int my ers t
ln ; it mkes me sick. And inlly y lment the hrd rtne
 yr mistress. Y seem t me t be ilin with nther's
sickness. She ne lects her rtne; y eel the pin! She ls
nd triles with her N. nd y snrl t: 'She hsn't nythin
t ive.' Well! the nly thin I see clerly is tht i she
ives nthin r these resns she will never ive nythin ,
r resns  this srt re never wntin t the ret. Hw
little it wld be, with sch vst welth, irly rnnin t
wste, t send me tw hndred rncs. She hs plenty t keep
thse cwled whremn ers, thse lw-lived wretches,--y knw
whm I men,--bt she hs nthin t prvide leisre r  mn
wh mi ht write bks wrthy t live--i I my br  little
 mysel. She ets int mny  ti ht plce, bt it's her wn
lt, i she preers t keep tht pretty ellw rther thn
 rve nd seris mn, s becmes her  e nd sex. I she
desn't chn e her mind I resee still reter trbles;--nd
yet I m nt writin in n er  inst her, r indeed I lve
her s I  ht, cnsiderin wht she hs dne r me. Bt, cme
nw, hw cn it hrt her rtne i I et tw hndred rncs?
In seven hrs she will never knw it. The whle bsiness cmes
t this: tht we et the mney t  her, i nt in csh, then

rm her bnker, s tht I cn drw it here t Pris. Y hve
been writin letters nd letters t her in this ir, skin ,
hintin , in rnd bt; bt wht cld be mre seless? Y
 ht t hve wtched yr chnce, ne t it crelly nd
then pt it thr h bldly; nw the sme thin hs t t be
dne, bt t lte. I hpe t die, bt I believe y mi ht hve
crried it thr h s I wish, i y hd nly tken hld 
it with mre spirit. Y cn be  little mre pshin in yr
riend's cse witht endin my mdesty.... Gd-bye, my
der Btts, nd tke in d prt wht I hve written, nt in
temper nr in  pnic, bt s t the mn wh is the very derest
 ll men t me."
Anther letter,[36] written rm Orlens ter his retrn rm
En lnd, be ins with similr reerences t sme misnderstndin nd
es n t the mst breced  ll Ersms' be in erts. Here
ccrs his irst ppel r  chrch livin , nd this plinly nt s
 mkeshit, bt s the be innin   re lr specltin in livin s:
[36] iii., 86.
"Then persde her t lk t r sme chrch livin r me s
tht when I cme bck I my hve  qiet plce t devte mysel
t my bks. And nt this nly; ive her sme resn, the best
y cn mke p r yrsel, why she shld prmise me the
irst  the mny livin s she hs. A pretty d ne i nt the
best, nd ne tht I cn chn e r  better whenever it trns
p. O crse I knw there re mny seekin r livin s, bt sy
tht I m  mn prt, ne whm, i she cmpre him with ll
thers, etc., etc.--y knw yr d ld wy  prin t
lies r yr Ersms. See t it tht yr Adlphs writes the
sme thin s, mst sedctive petitins nmely, t yr dicttin.
Keep it p ntil the prmise   hndred rncs be lilled
nd i pssible let it be hnded ver t yr Adlphs, s
tht i,--which Heven rbid!--ny ccident shld tke wy
the mther, I my et it rm the sn. Pt in t the end tht
I hve cmplined in my letters tht I m serin s Jerme
ten cmplins he sered, rm lss  eyesi ht nd tht I
lk rwrd t be innin t stdy s Jerme did with ers nd
tn e lne. Persde her, with wht ele nt wrds y cn,
tht she send me sme spphire r ther em tht is d r
stren thenin the eyes. I wld hve written her mysel wht
ems hve this pwer, nly I hven't my Pliny by me; d y ind
t r yrsel rm yr medicl mn."
We hve bt ne letter[37] rm Ersms t the ldy  his hpes.
It ws written ter his retrn rm En lnd nd is n excellent
illstrtin  the type  litertre it represents. It is relly
n essy in clssicl cmpsitin, with its bject, the ettin 
mney, prtly cnceled nder the cver  literry di ressin.
This ws prbbly the kind  thin which Ersms liked t cll
_n _ nd which he ected t cnsider  wste  time. He be ins
with  ntstic llsin t three ther Anns, the sister  Did,
the mther  Smel, nd the rndmther  Jess. These hve ll
been siciently lded by ret writers. He will nw prceed t
dd her s  wrthy rth t the list. We my spre rselves his
lsme el ies  the wmn whm he hs treted in his letters t
Btts with smethin pretty clse t cntempt, nd will qte nly
 specimen. He hs shwn hw the ret men  ntiqity vred the
schlrs  their dy:--

[37] iii., 83.

"Bt I, th mse  mine, wld nt chn e thee r ny Mcens
r ny Csr. As r wht I cn ive in retrn, I will strive,
s r s this little tlent nd this mnly stren th  mine
my , tht tre  es shll knw my Mcens nd shll mrvel
tht ne wmn t the ends  the erth strve t revive by her
benevlence the cse  letters crrpted by the i nrnce 
the nskilled, cst dwn by the lt  princes, ne lected
thr h the indlence  men; tht she wld nt ser the
lbrs  Ersms, deserted by splendid prmise-mkers,
despiled by  tyrnt, beted by ll the blws  rtne,
t ll wy int pverty. G n then, s th hst be n. My
writin s, thy ster-children, stretch rth spplint hnds t
thee nd beseech thee by the rtne which th sprnest when
vrble nd berest brvely when hstile, by their wn ever
hstile tes,  inst which they stnd by thy vr lne,
nd by the lve  tht excellent qeen--I men the ncient
Thel y--whm the divine Pslmist (s Jerme interprets) sys
std t the ri ht hnd  Gd, nt in l r s s she is nw
seen in the leries  the sphists, bt in lden vestments,
irt with vried clrs, t whse recvery rm the mld ll
my vi ils re devted."
Then he becmes mre explicit: tw thin s he mst hve,--the trip t
Itly nd the dctr's de ree, bth  them relly llies; he sys:
"r it is qite tre, s Hrce tells s, tht n ne chn es
his intellect by rnnin ver the se, nd the shdw   bi
wrd will nt mke ne  hir's bredth mre lerned; bt ne
mst it ne's cndct t the times s they re nd nwdys, I
will nt sy the vl r, bt even thse wh re t the very tp
 lernin , think n ne cn be trly  lerned mn nless he
is clled "_m ister nster_," th h Christ himsel, the prince
 thel ins, rbids it. In rmer times n ne ws clled
"_dcts_" becse he hd b ht the title  Dctr, bt they
were clled Dctrs wh by pttin rth bks hd iven evident
witness  their lernin ."
A very pt nd pretty cmment n the dctr-brictin  r wn
dy nd lnd.
He cncldes with certin deinite sttements s t the wrk he
hs in hnd, which shw tht in spite  ll his cmplints he ws
in stedily n with his stdies nd with his prdctin s well.
They shw rther tht he ws perectly sincere in his declrtins
tht he needed mney in rder tht he mi ht d  kind  wrk rm
which he cld hpe r little pecniry prit exceptin in the
rm  pyment r dedictins. The Veere episde thr ht is
ll  mysteries. We hve n mens whtever  knwin hw ln it
went n, hw ten, r r hw ln perids, Ersms ws  est t
Trnehens, nr hw mch help he ctlly received rm his nble
ptrness. The nly dte which clerly cnnects this crrespndence
with ther events is  reerence in the letter t the Mrchiness t
the nniversry  his deprtre rm En lnd, nd tht is, n ther
ccnts, extremely ncertin. We my sely ess, hwever, tht
this cnnectin cvers severl yers jst bere nd jst ter 1500.
Btts died in 1502 nd by tht time the Ldy Ann hd cntrcted
 mrri e "_plsqm servile_." The letter[38] which tells these

cts ws written the sme yer t Lvin, whither Ersms sys he
hd led rm the pl e. He cmplins tht he hs little chnce 
ernin nythin there nd yet sys he hd declined n er  
plce t tech mde t him by the m istrtes. "I m whlly devted
t the stdy  Greek nd hve nt been plyin with my wrk; r I
hve t ln s well tht I cn write irly in Greek whtever I
wish t sy, nd tht _ex tempre_."
[38] iii., 1837. The pprximte dte is ixed by  reerence
t the deth  the Bishp  Besnn, Frncis Bsleiden, n the
twenty-third  A st, 1502, in whm Ersms sys he hd the
hi hest hpes.

Mr. Seebhm, in his mible stdy  the Oxrd Rermers,[39] is
inclined t ind the mtive  Ersms' irst visit t En lnd in his
desire t prse his stdies, nd especilly tht  Greek, nder
circmstnces mre vrble thn he cld ind elsewhere; bt
cnnectin this visit with his erlier experiences nd especilly
recllin the str le r mintennce in which he ws jst then
en  ed, we cn hrdly il t ind t lest s estins  ther
mtives. Tht his visit did, in ct, pwerlly inlence his stdy
nd his th ht there cn be little dbt.
[39] Third ed., 1887.
The immedite ccsin  the jrney, which we my sely plce
in the smmer r tmn  1498, ws n invittin  yn Lrd
Mntjy. O ll the En lish yths whm Ersms hd knwn intimtely
t Pris, Mntjy ws the vrite. He seems t hve been sincerely
ttched t his techer nd t hve dne his prt in mkin esier
r him the r ed pth  pre schlrship. Writin rm En lnd
t Rbert Fisher, nther  these yn men, wh ws then in Itly,
Ersms sys[40]:
[40] iii., 12.
"Y wld hve seen me there, t, ln since hd nt Lrd
Mntjy, even s I ws irded r the jrney, crried me 
t his wn En lnd. Fr whither wld I nt llw  yth s
cltivted, s entle, s mible? I wld llw him, s help
me Gd! t the inernl re ins."
The En lish trip mst be re rded in  wy s  sbstitte r the
Itlin. He ws " irded" r Itly in every wy bt ne. He cld nt
ind the mney, nd he tk this chnce  livin n tht En lish
enersity  which he hd mde s sccessl tril t Pris. Nr
ws he in ny wy disppinted. Drin the yer nd  hl, perhps,
 his irst visit he ws entertined by ne nd nther  the
ptrns  En lish lernin , r by sme  the En lish schlrs
themselves--r schlrship in En lnd ws tkin n tht chrcter

which it hs ever since mintined,  bein jined with welth nd
sttin. This ws  type  schlrship s r nmilir t Ersms
nd it mde its de impressin pn him. He liked everythin in
En lnd. He writes t Fisher:
"Y will sk me hw I like yr En lnd. Well, i y ever
believed me in nythin , my der Rbert, I pry y believe me
in this, tht nthin hs ever plesed me s mch. I hve nd
here  climte plesnt nd helthl, nd sch cltivtin
nd lernin , nt  the hir-splittin nd trivil srt, bt
prnd, exct nd clssic, bth in Ltin nd in Greek, tht
nw I eel n ret ln in r Itly, except r wht is t be
seen there. When I her my riend Clet I seem t be listenin
t Plt's sel. Wh des nt mrvel t the cmplete mstery 
the sciences in Grcyn? Ws ever nythin keener, mre prnd
r mre cte thn the jd ment  Lincre? Hs Ntre ever mde
 mre entle,  sweeter r  hppier dispsitin thn Thms
There is  tch  sincerity bt these expressins, in spite 
their cnventinl rm, which is brne t by the whle tre
reltin  Ersms t the En lish rp  schlrs. Fr the irst
time in his lie he r ets t rmble nd hs n ccsin t be .
[Illstrtin: THOMAS MORE.
In En lnd, t, Ersms nd himsel, r the irst time, in
reltins with men wh he hd t cness were his sperirs in mny
wys. We knw nthin  the circmstnces  Ersms' rrivl,
bt it seems tht Mntjy sn sent him n t Oxrd nd tht he
ws received there in  clle e  A stinin Cnns knwn s
the Clle e  St. Mry. S r s ny plce cld be clled his
En lish hedqrters, this ws it. The prir  the clle e, Richrd
Chrnck, ws r rm bein the kind  persn Ersms becme s
nd  representin s the ntrl hed   mnstic estblishment.
He ws  cltivted entlemn nd snd schlr ter Ersms' wn
hert nd in the riendliest reltins with the mst "dvnced" 
the erly En lish hmnistic schlrs. On jst wht terms Ersms
lived t St. Mry's is nt qite cler. He reers ten t the
Prir's "hspitlity," bt we ind him skin Mntjy t send him
"his mney" (_pecnis mes_) t nce tht he mi ht repy Chrnck
his mny bli tins. Ersms ws very crel in his se  ll the
prts  speech except djectives, nd this phrse seems t indicte
n the ne hnd tht he ws  brder t the clle e, nd n the
ther tht he hd sme re lr nderstndin with Mntjy s t 
spply  mney.
Thr h prir Chrnck, prbbly, Ersms ws intrdced t the
ledin schlrs  the University. Amn these by r the mst
interestin t him ws Jhn Clet,  yn mn  jst his wn  e,
wh ws livin t Oxrd s  privte r independent techer. He ws
 mn  dmirble chrcter,  rre cteness  mind, lredy well
t  the  s  medivl schlsticism which were still clin in
rnd Ersms. Clet seems t nce t hve impressed himsel pn
the visitr s  new type. He ws, irst  ll,  mn  ine
cltre, the sn   Lrd Myr  Lndn, rered in ese nd
plenty nd iven rm the tset tht wider tlk int the wrld
 th ht which Ersms ws jst be innin t et r himsel. He
hd enjyed the ret dvnt e  the Itlin jrney with ll tht

it implied by the wy. He ws  thel in, bt s r s pssible

remved rm the qlity which hd mde the very nme  thel y
htel in Ersms' ers. At Pris, s he cntinlly cmplins,
thel y still ment the tile str le  hir-splittin schls
  psed-philsphy t explin the hw nd the why  Christin
trth. Fr the trth itsel they seemed t hve little cmprehensin
nd little cre. New li ht ws cmin int thel y, s int ll
science, thr h the lr er nd reer delin with ncient lernin ;
bt hw t cnnect this lernin  ntiqity with the present
prblems  reli in nd  lie--tht ws the ll-imprtnt qestin
t every seris mind.
Tht the very clever mind  Ersms ws lredy ixed n seris
thin s there cn be n dbt. He ws thirty yers ld; he hd lr ely
vercme the mechnicl diiclties  the schlr's wrk. He hd
red the vst mss  the Ltin clssic thrs with ret dili ence
nd with prnd persnl interest. He hd hd his lin s well s
his trils t Pris. I he hd imed t be merely  clssicist he
ws well itted t jin the ret rmy  thse lippnt scers
wh hd lredy br ht discredit pn lernin by ilin t ive
it  seris nd  mdern cntent. Lernin , divrced rm lie, ws
lredy be innin t lse its hld pn mny circles  Erpen
interest. Every sch ilre ws nly nther r ment iven t the
srvivin medivl methds why men shld nt desert them ntil
smethin better hd been nd.
And i Ersms ws itted by his trinin t imitte the y nd
brillint shllwness  the Itlin Hmnists, he ws perhps still
mre drwn their wy by the ntrl cst  his mind. He liked
bri ht thin s nd bri ht peple. He ws nd  ese nd cmrt.
His interests were lr ely bnded by his wn persnlity. He lved
prise nd cld nt endre reprch. He demnded riendship, bt
wld nt be bnd by ny ties tht thretened his wn cnvenience.
His vnity clled r cntinl d, nd he ten prvided it by
prtesttins  mdesty which clled rth devted expressins rm
his dmirers. The impressin  his qlity t this time is nt 
lvely ne, nd yet he ws plinly mre ttrctive in persn thn he
is t s in his crrespndence. He mde riends nd, n the whle,
cnsiderin his mtt, "t lve s i th wert sme dy t hte nd
hte s i th wert sme dy t lve," he kept them remrkbly well.
The En lish visit ws  criticl time t Ersms. His md in the
mnths jst bere hd been ne  discr ement, jst the md
which mi ht well hve trned  mn  his tstes nd pprent
chrcter int  lie  brillint literry lippncy. A limpse
int his wn relectins n this pint is iven in the letter[41] t
Mntjy bve qted, written rm Oxrd:
[41] iii., 41.
"I m ettin n here splendidly nd better every dy. I
cn't tell y hw deli hted I m with yr En lnd, prtly
thr h cstm which stens ll hrd thin s, prtly thr h
the kindness  Clet nd Prir Chrnck; r there ws never
nythin mre entle, sweeter r mre lvble thn their
chrcters. With tw sch riends I cld live in rthest
Scythi. Wht Hrce wrte, tht even the cmmn peple see
the trth smetimes, experience hs t ht me:--y knw his
well-wrn syin tht thin s which be in the wrst re wnt t
hve the best endin . Wht ws ever mre inspicis thn my

cmin here?--nd nw everythin es better rm dy t dy. I

hve cst wy ll tht depressin rm which y sed t see me
serin . Fr the rest, I beseech y, my pride, s rmerly,
when my cr e iled, y spprted me with yr wn, s nw,
th h mine is nt lckin , let nt yrs desert me."
Ersms in En lnd nd his better sel wkenin t renewed
cr e nd exertin. Even bere he cme ver, he hd be n t see
tht perhps  sltin  his lie-prblem mi ht be nd in 
deliberte rejectin  the medivl methd in thel y by thrwin
it ll wy nd in stri ht bck, irst t the ri inl dcments
 Christinity themselves, nd then t the erly cmmenttrs n
Christinity wh hd expnded these dcments nder the direct
inlence  the clssic cltre. Jerme, especilly, seemed t him
wrthy  the mst crel stdy nd   new nd scientiic editin.
This ws the " ret wrk" t which he reers in his crrespndence
with Btts s bein interrpted by Btts's trivil demnds r sme
shw-pieces t plese their ptrness.
Underneth ll his th ht there ly cntinlly this prpse t
pply his lernin t mkin clerer the wys  Gd t mn. The
Oxrd riends were eminently men t stren then his intentin, nd
we my eel sre tht here ws the rel srce  Ersms' hi her
cntent in En lnd. Let s try t mke cqintnce with them thr h
Ersms' wn wrds; nd irst with Clet, be innin t the pint 
their irst meetin . In  ln letter berin dte 1519, jst twenty
yers lter, nd written nder the irst shck  Clet's deth,
Ersms ives  shrt bt eelin sketch  his riend's lie. This
sketch[42] rms the bsis  ll sbseqent tretment  Clet.
[42] iii., 451.
"On his retrn rm Itly he chse t leve his hme nd 
t Oxrd, nd there pblicly, nd witht py, he expnded
ll the epistles  Pl. There I be n his cqintnce, sent
thither by sme divine ledin . He ws then bt thirty yers
ld, tw r three mnths yn er thn I. He hd never tken
nr tried r  de ree in thel y nd yet there ws n dctr
in the plce, either  thel y r  lw, nd n bbt r
persn  ny rnk whtever, wh did nt  t her him nd even
tke his nte-bk ln ,-- credit like t the lernin 
Clet nd t the interest  thse herers, tht ld men were
nt shmed t lern   yn er ne nd dctrs rm ne wh
ws nt  dctr. The dctr title ws vlntrily ered him
terwrd nd he ccepted it rther t plese his riends thn
becse he relly cred r it.
"Frm this scred tsk he ws clled t Lndn by the vr 
Kin Henry VII. nd mde Den  St. Pl's, president  his
cn re tin, whse writin s he s derly lved. This is the
hi hest di nity in En lnd, th h there be thers with mre
mple revene. This mn, s i clled t the lbr, rther thn
t the di nity  the ice, restred the decyed discipline
 his cn re tin nd,  nvelty in tht plce, ndertk
t prech n every hly dy in his wn chrch, besides the
extrrdinry sermns which he delivered in the ryl chpel nd
in vris ther plces. In his prechin he did nt tke his
sbject by r ments rm the Gspels r the pstlic letters,
bt he prpsed sme ne tpic nd crried it t t the end
in sccessive discrses: s r exmple the Gspel  Mtthew,

the Creed, the Lrd's Pryer. He preched t crwded diences

in which were enerlly t be nd the remst men  the city
nd  the ryl crt.
"The Den's tble, which hd rmerly nder the nme 
hspitlity de enerted int lxry, he br ht within r l
The ccsin  etin ws imprved by lerned nd seris
"He deli hted especilly in riendly discssins, which he ten
prln ed ntil lte int the ni ht, bt ll his discrse ws
 lernin r  Christ. He ten sked me t wlk with him nd
then he ws s y s nyne, bt ever  bk ws the cmpnin
 r wlk nd r discrse ws still  Christ. He ws
imptient  ll nclenness nd cld nt ber t her ln  e
n rmmticl nd deiled with brbrisms. All his hsehld
rnitre, his dress, his bks, he wished t hve perectly
nice, bt did nt strive r shw. He wre nly sd-clred
rments, wheres priests nd thel ins there re enerlly
cld in prple. His ter dress ws lwys  plin wllen,
lined with r in winter. The whle incme  his see he ve
ver t his  ent t be spent in hsehld mtters nd ve wy
his wn mple incme r pis prpses."
[Illstrtin: JOHN COLET.
Then llws n ccnt  the endwment by Clet  the ms St.
Pl's schl, t which he ve the best ener ies  his lter yers.
"While everyne pprved this wrk, mny wndered t his
bildin  splendid hse n the rnds  the Crthsin
mnstery ner the kin 's plce t Richmnd. He sed t
sy tht he ws preprin  retret r his ld  e when he
shld be neql t his wrk r brken by disese. It ws his
intentin t live there the philspher's lie with tw r three
chice riends, mn whm he sed t cnt me, bt his deth
cme t sn."
The crel nlysis  Clet's chrcter which cncldes this sketch
is qite dierent rm Ersms' sl ndiscrimintin prise 
wht sited himsel. He presents Clet t s s n eminently hmn
persn e, inclined by ntre t ll the jys  erthly lie, nd
yet sbdin ll lwer tempttins by the rce  his ncnqerble
will. He ws  mn  strn ly mrked individl pinins, yet
s crel  the eelin s  thers tht he vided discssin
exceptin mn riends r when it ws rced pn him. At sch
times, hwever, he spke s ne cmpelled by n inner implse 
which he ws n ln er mster. In the irst interview  which we
hve ny recrd, t  dinner t St. Mry's, in Oxrd,  discssin
rse n the very specltive qestin  the menin  the stry
 Cin's scriice. Ersms nd n nknwn thel in tk sides
 inst Clet[43]:
[43] iii., 42-F.
"'Nt Hercles himsel cn previl  inst tw' sy the Greeks,
bt he lne cnqered s ll. He seemed t be intxicted

with  scred renzy nd t tter thin s mre lty nd mre
nble thn beln t men. His vice tk n nther snd, his
eyes  dierent expressin, his ce nd i re were chn ed;
he seemed t rw lr er, nd t times t be inspired with 
smethin divine."
S in this lter, mre crel ccnt Ersms reers t Clet's view
 Thms Aqins. He himsel, it ppers, hd cme t hve sme
respect r Aqins nd hd mde vris ttempts t drw t Clet
n the sbject. He hd s r iled, bt ne dy, retrnin  in t
the chr e, he nd Clet's eyes ixed pn him,
"s i wtchin whether I were in jest r in ernest. Bt when
he sw tht I ws spekin rm my hert, he cried t, s i
inspired by sme spirit:--'Dn't spek t me  the mn! I he
hd nt been  mst rr nt cretre he wld nt hve deined
ll thin s with sch bldness nd with sch h htiness. I he
hd nt hd smethin  the spirit  this wrld, he wld nt
s hve crrpted the whle techin  Christ with his prne
The reslt ws tht Ersms lked mre crelly int his Aqins
nd retly revised his jd ment  him.
Rememberin tht this sketch  Clet ws written tw r three yers
ter Lther hd niled his Theses n the chrch dr t Wittenber ,
we my in rm it  d insi ht int the views nt nly  Clet,
bt  Ersms s well, pn mny  the dbtl qestins  the
erly Rermtin dys. Nwhere, perhps, in Ersms' writin s d we
ind mre temperte nd ctis s estins. Alredy we my discern
in cler tline the determinin mtives  his psitin in the ret
str le. In his pet bhrrence, the mnstic system, Clet went
with him t the pint  ree criticism  ithless nd irreli is
mnks, bt, like Ersms himsel when he ws, s t spek, in the
witness-bx, he hd nthin t sy  inst the mnstic lie in
itsel. He hd little t d with mnks nd ve them nthin t his
deth, bt he pressed ret ectin r the lie  seclsin nd
ten declred tht he wld enter it himsel
"i he cld ind nywhere n rder relly devted t pstlic
livin . When I ws settin t r Itly, he cmmissined me
t inqire n this pint, syin tht he hd herd tht in
Itly there were sme mnks relly sensible nd pis. Fr he
did nt llw the vl r pinin which clls tht 'reli in'
which is smetimes nly wekness  intellect. He sed t sy
tht he nwhere nd reter virte thn mn mrried peple,
since they were restrined rm llin int mny vices by
their ntrl ectins, by the cre  children nd by their
hsehld dties.
"On this ccnt he ws mre chritble twrds the leshly sins
 the cler y. He sed t sy tht he hted pride nd vrice in
 priest mre thn i he kept  hndred cncbines. Nt indeed
tht he th ht incntinence in priest r mnk ws  trilin
lt, bt tht the ther vices seemed t him rther remved
rm tre piety. There ws n kind  persn mre htel t
him thn thse bishps wh cted mre like wlves thn like
shepherds, cmmendin themselves t the crwd by their scred
ices, their ceremnies, their benedictins nd indl ences
when relly they were hert nd sl devted t this wrld, t

lry nd t reed.

"Frm Dinysis nd the ther erly Fthers he hd lerned
certin thin s which he did nt s r dpt s ever t 
 inst the lws  the chrch, bt yet r en h t mke
him less ppsed t thse wh did nt pprve the wrship
everywhere in the chrches  im es pinted r in wd, stne,
brnze, ld nd silver. He hd the sme eelin twrd thse
wh dbted whether  priest penly nd plinly wicked cld
prperly perrm the scrments;--nt by ny mens tht he
vred their errr! bt in wrth  inst thse wh by  lie
penly nd every wy crrpt ve rnd r sch sspicins.
The nmers clle es, nded in En lnd t vst expense, he
sed t sy nly std in the wy  d lernin nd were
nthin bt s mny enticements t lziness. Nr did he hve 
very hi h pinin  the Universities where the ll-crrptin
mbitin nd reed  the pressrs destryed the inte rity 
ll science.
"While he strn ly pprved the riclr cnessin, syin
tht nthin ve him sch cmrt nd d eelin , yet he s
strn ly cndemned its t nxis nd reqent repetitin.
While it is the cstm in En lnd r priests t celebrte
mss lmst every dy, he ws cntent t d s n Sndys nd
hlidys nd very rrely n ther ccsins.... Yet he by n
mens cndemned the prctice  thse wh  dily t the
Lrd's tble. Alth h he ws himsel  mst lerned mn, yet
he dispprved  tht pinl nd lbris lernin which,
thered rm  knwled e  ll brnches nd the redin 
ll thrs, is s it were l ed in by every hndle. He lwys
sid tht in this wy the ntive sndness nd simplicity  the
mind were wrn wy nd men were mde less sne nd less dpted
t the inncence nd t the pre ectin  Christinity. He
retly dmired the pstlic letters, bt s reverenced the
wnderl mjesty  Christ tht cmpred with this the writin s
 the pstles seemed t becme s it were deiled.... There
re cntless thin s ccepted t-dy in the niversities rm
which he retly diered nd which he sed t discss t times
with his intimte riends. With thers, hwever, he cnceled
his views r er  tw evils, irst, tht he wld mke the
mtter wrse, nd secnd, tht he wld rin his wn repttin.
There ws n bk s hereticl tht he wld nt red it
crelly, syin tht he ten t mre prit rm it thn
rm the bks  thse wh mke sch ine deinitins nd ten
cme t wrship the leders  their schl nd smetimes even
In this ectinte, bt t the sme time discrimintin , review 
Clet's lie nd chrcter we my esily see tlined certin idels
 Ersms himsel. He dmires in his riend  qlity  discretin,
which, nder sme circmstnces, mi ht cme pretty ner t dplicity.
On mny mtters he hd tw pinins, ne r himsel nd his intimte
riends, nd nther r the pblic. Tht is  cnditin  mind tht
will d very well s ln s the ret isses   dispte re nt
br ht t int shrp relie. In the times tht try men's sls,
when events will n ln er ber nice distinctins, bt demnd tht
men shll stnd p nd be cnted--yes r n--n the qestin  the
hr, then this qlity  discretin my be the rin   mn. It
ws twrd precisely sch  crisis tht the irs  the Christin
Chrch were rpidly tendin when Ersms lerned t knw Jhn Clet

in the deli htl intercrse  the clle e t Oxrd. Clet hd the
d rtne t die (in 1519) bere the spreme test cme t him.
Ersms ws t spend the best ener y  his declinin yers in the
str le t live p t the diiclt stndrd  hvin ne pinin
r himsel nd nther r the wrld.
In the severl sbjects tched pn in the review  Clet's
pinins we her plinly the eches  discssins, rwin ever mre
intense, pn the secndry isses  the Rermtin. Clet pprved
 mnks,  secret cnessin,  n elbrte ceremnil,  
priesthd restin pn divine cnsecrtin, nd he wld nt r
the wrld qestin the vlidity  rec nised chrch lw. Yet he ws
redy t del erless blws t ithless mnks, t  sperstitis
repetitin  cnessin, n verdin  the ceremnies  wrship,
nd the wrldliness  the prish cler y. He pprved  ll
lernin , bt he cndemned the pplictin  lernin t  ritless
deinitin-mkin .
The irst letter we hve rm Clet t Ersms is n ddress 
welcme t En lnd,  rcel little nte, s ll  lttery s
ny  Ersms' wn nd  interest t s chiely s shwin tht the
visitr hd nt cme t En lnd nknwn. He hd, it is tre, written
nthin  cnseqence, bt Clet hd seen sme little thin s 
his t Pris, nd Ersms' cqintnce there with yn En lishmen
 hi h scil rnk cld hrdly il t hve crried t lest his
nme crss the Chnnel. The sme impressin   repttin lredy
rnded is embdied in the well-knwn stry  Ersms' irst
meetin with nther En lishmn, with whm his reltins, t lest
by crrespndence, were t be still mre intimte,--Thms Mre.
The incident is tld in the lie  Mre by his ret- rndsn s
[44] _The Lie  Sir Thms Mre_, by his ret- rndsn,
Crescre Mre, 1828, p. 93. This lie is lr ely mde p rm
erlier srces.
"it is reprted hw tht he, wh cndcted him in his pss e,
prcred tht Sir Thms Mre nd he shld irst meet t ether
in Lndn t the Lrd Myr's tble, neither  them knwin
ech ther. And in the dinner-time, they chnced t ll int
r ment, Ersms still endevrin t deend the wrser prt;
bt he ws s shrply set pn nd ppsed by Sir Thms Mre,
tht perceivin tht he ws nw t r e with  redier wit
thn ever he hd bere met withl, he brke rth int these
wrds, nt witht sme chler:--'_At t es Mrs t nlls_.'
Wheret Sir Thms redily replied, '_At t es Ersms t
dibls_,' becse t tht time he ws strn ely dis ised, nd
hd s ht t deend impis psitins...."
This stry plinly implies  cnsiderble de ree  repttin r
bth persns cncerned, bt s Mre ws t mst twenty yers ld nd
knwn nly s  very bri ht yn stdent t the time  Ersms'
rrivl, we re cmpelled either t ive p the stry r t plce
it sme yers lter nd sppse tht Ersms did nt meet Mre t
ll drin his irst visit. This ltter sppsitin, hwever, is
qite impssible, since Ersms speks plinly  Mre t this time

s mn his mst vled riends. The thr indeed preces the
necdte with the sttement tht the tw schlrs hd ln knwn nd
lved ech ther nd tht their ectin "incresed s mch tht he
[Ersms] tk  jrney  prpse int En lnd t see nd enjy his
persnl cqintnce nd mre entire milirity,"--mst  which
lcks spprt in knwn cts.[45] We cn nly ccept s mch  it
s implies previs cqintnce by crrespndence, nd tht my
well hve tken plce while Ersms ws t Oxrd nd Mre in Lndn
wrkin with s mch zel s he cld cmmnd t his preprtin r
the br. I we strip  the decrtins nd sppse the meetin t
hve ccrred drin sme visit  Ersms in Lndn rm Oxrd,
this very pretty stry is nt lt ether imprbble. At ll events
it strikes the key-nte   riendship which ws t lst s ln s
lie. The disprity in  e (eleven yers) ws mre thn mde p by
the ret ctivity nd ri inlity  Mre's mind nd the sin lr
chrm  his en  in persnlity. Drin this irst visit t En lnd
we hve n speciic recrd  Ersms' reltins with Mre, except
this ne necdte  the dinner nd nther   visit pid by the
tw riends t the children  Kin Henry VII. t the ryl vill 
Elthm, ner Greenwich. Ersms' ccnt  this visit, iven mny
yers terwrd,[46] is n explntin  hw he cme t write n de
t the yn prince. He ws dr ed int it, he sys, by Thms Mre,
wh cme t him while he ws styin t Lrd Mntjy's in Greenwich
nd invited him t tke  wlk r plesre int the nei hbrin
vill e.
[45] The erliest knwn letter  Ersms t Mre (iii., 55), 
mere nte, bers dte Oxrd, Oct. 28, 1499. It reers t rmer
crrespndence, nd Mr. Seebhm, nxis t sve the necdte
 the dinner, is inclined t im ine n even erlier dte nd,
 crse,  plce ther thn Oxrd. My impressin is tht the
dte is crrect, tht Ersms herd  Mre irst t Oxrd, then
be n t crrespnd with him, nd t  this crrespndence
sved nly the little nte in qestin.
[46] In _Ctl s mnim Ersmi Rt. lcbrtinm ips tre.
Bsil_, 1524, i., _d init._
"There ll the ryl children were bein edcted, with the
exceptin  Arthr the eldest.... In the centre std Henry,
 by  nine, bt lredy with  certin re l berin , tht
is  ltiness  mind jined with  sin lr crtesy 
demenr. At his ri ht ws Mr ret, then bt eleven, wh
terwrd mrried Jmes, kin  Sctlnd. At his let Mry,
 child  r, ws plyin , nd Edmnd,  bbe, ws crried
in his nrse's rms. Mre nd his riend Arnld, hvin pid
their respects t the ld Henry, nder whse rei n Britin
nw rejices, ered him sme writin --I knw nt wht. I,
expectin nthin  this srt nd hvin nthin t er,
prmised tht I wld prve my devtin t him in sme wy nd
t sme time r ther. Menwhile I ws vexed with Mre, becse
he hd iven me n wrnin nd especilly becse the yth sent
me  nte t dinner, chllen in my pen. I went hme, nd th h
the mses, rm whm I hd ln been divrced, were hstile t
me, I prdced n de in three dys. Ths I ven ed the rnt
nd ptched p my ch rin. It ws  tsk  nly three dys nd
yet  tsk, r it ws severl yers since I hd red r written
ny petry."
This rther silly tle is  interest nly s ivin the irst

hint  ny cnnectin  Ersms with the En lish ryl mily, 

cnnectin nt whlly witht inlence n his tre. I Mre ws
plyin  jke n his riend, s hs been enerlly ssmed, it ws
certinly  very pr ne. Other indictins  Ersms' ccptins
in En lnd re nd in  ms letter t his rmer techer in
Pris, Fsts Andrelins. It is  merry letter t  merry ellw nd
mst nt be tken t serisly.[47]
[47] iii., 56.
"I, t, in En lnd hve ne hed nt  little. Tht Ersms
whm y sed t knw is lmst  d hnter,  hrsemn nt
the wrst, nd n slch   crtier; he knws hw t slte
mre rcelly nd smile mre sweetly nd ll this with Minerv
 inst him. Hw re my irs? Well en h. I y re  wise
mn y will ly ver here t. Why shld  mn with  nse
like yrs rw ld in tht Gllic dn -hep? Bt then yr
t--bd lck t it, svin yr presence!--keeps y wy.
And yet i y knew the deli hts  Britin, Fsts, y wld
hrry ver here with win ed eet, nd i yr t wldn't
let y, y'd pry t be trned int  Dedls. Why, jst
t mentin ne thin t  mny: the irls here hve divine
ces; they re entle nd esy-mnnered. Y'd like them better
thn yr Mses. Besides, there is  shin here which cn't
be prised en h. Wherever y  everyne kisses y, nd
when y leve y re dismissed with kisses; y cme bck,
the sweets re retrned. Smene cmes t see y--yr helth
in kisses! he sys d-bye--kisses  in! Y meet  persn
nywhere,--kisses lre!--s wherever y  everythin is
illed with these sweets. I y, Fsts, shld jst nce
tste hw delicis, hw r rnt they re, y wld ln t
trvel in En lnd, nt like Sln, r ten yers nly, bt t
the end  yr dys. The rest we will l h ver t ether, r
I hpe t see y very sn."
Tw ther En lishmen, bth his senirs by sme yers, becme
riends  Ersms drin this irst visit,--Willim Grcyn nd
Thms Lincre. Grcyn ws primrily  schlr nd techer, versed
especilly in Greek. Lincre ws  physicin  the hi hest repte in
his dy, nd identiied with the whle tre  medicl science in
En lnd thr h his ndtin  the Lndn Clle e  Physicins.
Bth hd stdied in Itly nd there hd pt themselves nder
the inlence  the ledin persn es in the lter hmnistic
enertin. Bth hd becme skilled in Greek lernin , nd were din
their prts, ech in his wn wy, t rther the dvncement  Greek
stdy in En lnd. Grcyn ws prbbly techin Greek t Oxrd when
Ersms cme thither, nd s r s he ever cknwled ed bli tins
t ny techer, the yn er mn dmits the ret prit he derived
rm this riper tlent. In re rd t Lincre he ntes especilly 
severe nd pinl ccrcy which ws, prbbly, the resn why he
let s little behind t ttest his schlrship. He cld nt stisy
his wn exctin stndrds. With bth these men Ersms seems t hve
lived n terms  ectinte intimcy. There re indictins tht
they were t times rther tired  his persistent be in , bt this
did nt interere with their riendly interest, which ended nly
with their lives.
Deli hted s he plinly ws with everythin nd everybdy in En lnd,
better treted thn he hd ever been in his lie, why did nt Ersms
tke his wn dvice nd settle dwn there in sme re lr ccptin?

S csmplitn  enis s his cld hrdly hve dreded  chn e

 residence; the schlr's hme ws wherever the sn shne, nd
certinly never ws mn mre ree t llw the bent  his wn
wishes thn ws Ersms. Tht the ide ws nt  strn e ne t him
is cler rm mny indictins. Especilly ws it rced pn him
by  s estin rm Clet tht he mi ht sty n t Oxrd nd jin
him in wht seemed then likely t be his lie-wrk  expndin
the ndmentl dcments  Christinity pn the "new" bsis 
science nd cmmn sense. Wht Clet's r ments were n this pint
we cn nly ess rm  reply  Ersms, bt they seem t hve been
sch s wld cme ntrlly rm ne schlr t nther in whm
he th ht he rec nised  spirit kindred t his wn. Clet lived
in tht new wrld  th ht which ws the ld, nd sw bere him
the missin  clerin wy the medivl rbbish tht hd piled p
in the ln intervl between the relly ld thel y  the Greek
Fthers nd the new th ht  his wn times. And here he seemed t
hve nd the mn  ll thers best itted t help him--yn ,
lerned in the ln  e nd illed with the spirit  the ncients,
ree rm ll ties  mily r hme nd, pprently, deeply seris
in his interest in reli is thin s. Clet hd hd  test  his
qlity in severl ctive discssins n pints  thel y, which
hd br ht t t nce his lernin nd his desire r trth even t
the scriice  his wn less well-cnsidered pinins. Ersms hd
shwn  dcility in revisin his jd ments in very mrked cntrst
t his irmness when delin with ther ppnents. The dierence
ws, tht in cin Clet he nd n ppnent wh ws sin his wn
wepns with eql skill nd even reter cr e. In the letter
 Ersms declinin t remin t Oxrd we her nthin  the
qestin  wys nd mens. It is impssible tht it shld nt
hve been in his mind, bt there is every resn t sppse tht
it did nt inlence his decisin. The nly trstwrthy ptrn he
hd yet nd ws n En lishmn; there ws  chnce   niversity
ppintment, nd, ilin this, the prspect  privte ppils ws
better in En lnd thn nywhere else. We re tld _d nsem_  
cnsiderble mney lss which he sered n levin En lnd. S tht
we re sre lmst beynd  dbt tht his resns r declinin wht
mst hve been  very temptin prpsitin were smehw cnnected
with his lr er schlrly mbitins. [48]O crse he mkes s mch
s pssible  his wn mdesty: Clet "is (t qte Plts) skin
wter   rck." Hw shld he hve the ce t tech wht he hs
never lerned; hw wrm the rst  thers when he himsel ws ll
  shiver with er? He prises Clet r his cr e nd zel in
the cse  the "ncient" thel y s  inst the "new-n led
rce  thel ins, wh spend their lives in mere r ments nd
sphisticl qibblin ." Nt tht he lt ether cndemns these
stdies, r he pprves  every kind  stdy,
[48] _Ep. d Cletm_, v., 1263-1264.
"bt tken by themselves, with n dmixtre  mre reined
nd ncient letters, they seem t mke  mn  cnceited nd
dispttis ellw--whether they cn ever mke him  wise mn,
let thers decide. Fr they seem t exhst the mind with  kind
 crde nd brren sbtlety; there is n sp in them, nr ny
rel breth  lie.
"I m nt spekin  inst lerned nd pprved pressrs 
thel y, r I lk p t them with the retest respect, bt
 inst tht men nd h hty herd  thel ins wh think
ll the writin s  ll thrs re wrth nthin cmpred t

themselves. When y, Clet, went int the i ht  inst this

nssilble hrde tht, s r s in y ly, y mi ht restre
tht ncient nd pre thel y, nw ver rwn with their thrns,
t its erly splendr nd di nity, y tk pn yrsel, s
help me Gd!-- tsk in mny wys mst dmirble, mst lyl t
the nme  Thel y itsel, mst whlesme r ll stdis men
nd especilly r this blmin University  Oxrd--bt, I
dn't cncel it,  tsk ll  diiclty nd  ppsitin.
Yet y will vercme the diiclty with yr lernin nd
yr indstry, nd yr ret sl cn rd t verlk the
ppsitin. There re, t, mn thse thel ins nt  ew
wh re bth willin nd ble t help sch hnest erts s
yrs. Ny, there is n ne wh wld nt jin hnds with y,
since there is nt  dctr in this ms schl wh hs nt
listened mst ttentively t yr lectres n St. Pl, nw
in n r the third yer....
"I m nt wnderin tht y shld tke pn yr shlders 
brden t which y my be eql, bt tht y cll me,  mn
 n ccnt whtever, t shre in s ret n enterprise. Fr
y sk me--ny y r e pn me, tht s y re lectrin
pn Pl s I, by expndin the ncient Mses r the
elqent Isih, shld strive t rekindle the stdies  this
schl--chilled, s y sy, by these ln mnths  winter."
He es n t prtest his nitness r the tsk nd especilly t
deend himsel  inst the chr e tht he hd iven Clet resn t
believe he mi ht ccept his s estin.
"Nr did I cme hither t tech petry r rhetric, which hve
cesed t be  reeble t me since they cesed t be necessry.
I rese the ne, becse it des nt ccrd with my plns, the
ther becse it is beynd my pwers. Y blme me wrn ly in
the ne cse, my der Clet, becse I hve never hd bere me
the pressin  s-clled seclr litertre, nd y r e me
in vin t the ther, becse I knw tht I m neql t it.
Besides, i I were never s it, I cld nt d it, r I mst
sn  bck t my deserted Pris."
We seem t ind here  s estin tht Clet hd lid bere him tw
prpsitins,--ne tht he mi ht becme  techer  the clssic
litertre in which he ws lredy  mster; the ther tht he shld
jin with himsel in settin the menin  Scriptre ree rm the
bsrd trmmels which the schlstic methds  interprettin hd
lid pn it. Either  these tsks, with  resnble prspect 
spprt nd the deli htl intercrse  cdemic lie, wld, ne
mst sppse, hve been  spreme ttrctin r Ersms. The nly
pssible explntin  his resl is his dred  pttin his neck
int ny yke whtever, n mtter hw esy it mi ht be. A pssible
s estin  this mtive is nd in the smewht eni mtic sentence
tht "petry nd rhetric hd cesed t interest him since they hd
cesed t be necessry." This my hve ment tht litertre in
itsel ws imprtnt t him nly s  mens  livelihd, nd since
he ws, t lest temprrily, prvided r, he did nt cre t tech
it t Oxrd. Litertre ws hencerth t be  mens t the hi her
end  redeemin thel y, the _re in disciplinrm_, the "qeen 
sciences," rm her present de rdtin. Bt r this ltter wrk he
ws nt s yet prepred. I we sk why he did nt chse t cntine
his preprtin nder the very vrble cnditins t Oxrd, we
my perhps ind  prtil nswer in his deep-seted dislike  the

wrk  techin . He cld tlk betilly bt it, bt it seems

pretty cler tht he lwys hted it. S Oxrd lst  pressr, bt
the wrld ined  mn.

His "deserted Pris," "tht Gllic dn -hep," ws cllin t
Ersms, perhps with the sme siren vice tht hs drwn thither
s mny nther hmeless enis, nd he went. He ws, i we my
believe his lter wils, pretty well spplied with mney, which he
hd trned int French cin. He is very crel t insist tht he
hd nt received this mney in En lnd, bt i nt, it is diiclt
t im ine where it cld hve cme rm. He ws wre   lw
rbiddin the exprttin  ld rm the relm, bt hd been
dvised by his riends tht this lw pplied nly t En lish cin nd
s elt se. The cstms icers t Dver, hwever, tk nther
view  the mtter nd let him nthin bt the smll mnt llwed
by lw, nr cld his cnnectins in hi h qrters ever vil him t
mke d his lss.
An ccnt  the ir, written, s Ersms sys, "nless he is
mistken," twenty-seven yers terwrd, brin s this incident int
direct cnnectin with the erliest piece  writin in which
Ersms presented himsel t the wrld in his tre chrcter.
Spekin [49]  his mishp rm the lty psitin   ms
schlr bere whse bitin stire the ret nes  the erth mi ht
well tremble  little, he ives himsel ret prise r nt hvin
tken immedite ven ence n the kin nd the cntry which hd
sed him s bdly, by writin smethin  inst them. He rerined
prtly becse it seemed n nwrthy thin t d, nd prtly becse
he wld nt be the mens  brin in dwn the ryl wrth pn his
der riends in En lnd; nd s, hvin n resrces, he determined
t pblish smethin tht mi ht py. He hd nthin n hnd, bt
by redin hrd r  ew dys he " t t ether in hste qite 
'rest'  d es, thinkin tht  bk  this srt, whtever
its qlity, wld, by its very selness,  int the hnds 
[49] _Ctl s lcbrtinm_, _p._ i.
This ccnt  the ri in  the ms Ad es  Ersms seems in
the min resnble. It ws in the strictest sense  bred-nd-btter
ndertkin , clclted t meet  demnd which every writer 
tht dy mst eel nd r which there ws n deqte spply. The
schlr, n mtter hw ret his clim t individlity, cld nt
et n witht cntinl reerences t clssicl litertre. They
were, s t spek, the certiictes  his schlrship; they tk
the plce  the reerences t the Christin nd Hebrew Scriptres
by which the medivl schlr hd t nce spprted his views nd
demnstrted his lernin . O crse sch decrtin  ht t cme
ntrlly s  reslt  the writer's wn wide redin nd prnd

relectin in the clssic litertre, nd drin the relly ret

times  the Revivl  Lernin , while schlrship ws cnined t
cmprtively ew men, nd these men  relly cmmndin pwers,
sch hd been the cse. By the time  Ersms, hwever, the new
lernin ws llin rpidly int its secnd st e; it ws becmin
mre widely dised nd, ntrlly, ws drwin t itsel ever
mre nd mre secnd-rte mteril. Lernin ws cmin t be
shinble, nd t jst tht st e ll ids t  redy cqirement
 t lest the ppernce  schlrship were sre t be in demnd.
It is n evidence  Ersms' prcticl d sense tht he ws
redy t dvnce his mst seris prpses by cntribtin t this
pplristin  lernin .
Ersms ws lwys nd  tellin hw rpidly he wrked, bt in
the present cse we hve every resn t believe tht his wrk ws
hsty nd experimentl in the extreme. Nthin mre nscientiic
in rm cn well be im ined thn this cllectin  scttered
syin s rm the writin s, chiely,  clssic thrs. The methd,
prcticlly nchn ed in the mny lter editins, ws simply t jt
dwn t rndm sme verse  petry r sme wrd hvin  peclir
menin nd then t ive  very brie explntin  its ri in nd
vle; then i the ccsin wrrnted, pn this s  text t write
 little essy. In this persnl nd individl cmment lies the
rel imprtnce  the Ad es, in ivin s n ide  their thr.
It ws this persnl element ls which ppeled mst strn ly
t thse  his wn time wh were cpble  vlin it, bt it
ws nt this which cmmended the Ad es, prbbly, t the widest
circle  reders. T the ret mss  yn stdents nd t the
incresin nmbers  men everywhere wh were tryin their hnds t
Ltin cmpsitin, the bk ws rther n encyclpdi  clssicl
qttins, rm which they cld select the needed decrtins 
their style witht the trble  in t the ri inl srces.
T these tw lines  ptrn e the Ad es wed their ret nd
immedite pplrity. The irst editin ws printed t Pris in 1500
nd cntined bt ei ht hndred selectins. As t the methd  the
tre editins Ersms ives s sme inrmtin. When he sw tht
the bk ws received with rtitde by schlrs nd ws pprently
in t live, nd mrever tht pblishers were vyin with ech
ther in printin it, he kept enrichin it rm time t time s his
wn leisre r the spply  vilble bks ve him pprtnity.
Wht he re rded s the inl editin ws printed t Bsel by Frben
in 1523. Ater tht he merely nntted previs editins, "rther
s ivin t thers mteril r  tre wrk thn s relly mkin
 new bk with prper cre."[50] This irst editin  the Ad es
ws dedicted t Mntjy. Witht the lter dditins it mst, ne
wld think, hve been s dry redin s cld well be im ined, bt
the ct  its pplrity is nqestinble. Editin ter editin
ppered with ret rpidity, s tht we re nw ble t recrd n
less thn sixty-tw within the thr's lietime.
[50] _Ctl s lcbrtinm_, i.
As r the pecniry rewrds which Ersms my hve hd in view,
there is n indictin tht they were immedite r cnsiderble. The
ethics  bk-pblishin were t tht time in  hi hly rdimentry
stte. S r s ne cn see there ws nthin t prevent ny printer
rm pttin rth ny writin tht by ny chnce t int his hnds.
Ersms in  dedictry letter t Mntjy with  lter editin[51]
sys tht his resn r the new pblictin ws tht the erlier

editins hd been printed s bdly tht ne mi ht sppse the errrs
hd been mde intentinlly. In nther plce[52] he sys, with n
nsl ert t ccrcy, tht the irst editin  the Ad es ws
pblished n the 15th  Jne, 1500, while he ws bsent rm Pris.
This dte is certinly  very erly ne, nd we hve t ber in mind
tht Ersms' bject in ivin it ws t prve tht he hd t hed
  rivl cmpiler  prverbs wh hd ccsed him  stelin his
thnder. It  rees, hwever, with r ther indictins. The mst
sin lr thin bt it is tht  yn thr, pttin rth his
irst mbitis pblictin, shld hve been willin t bsent
himsel rm the plce where the wrk ws bein dne. The ct ws,
prbbly, tht Ersms ws ri htened hl t  his wits by the
presence  the pl e in Pris, nd this impressin is stren thened
by the pins he tkes t cnvince his riend Fsts Andrelins 
his ncmmn reedm rm the vl r emtin  er. He ws t
Orlens nd Fsts hd r ed him t cme bck t Pris; hd even, s
Ersms sys, clled him  cwrd by the mth  his wn servnt.
[51] ii., _d init._
[52] iii., 57.
"This reprch wld nt be endred even i mde  inst  Swiss
sldier;  inst  pet,  lver  ese nd qiet, it desn't
stick t ll. And yet, in mtters  this srt, t hve n dred
whtever seems t me rther the prt   l thn   brve
mn. When the i ht is with n enemy tht cn be driven bck,
whse blws cn be retrned, wh cn be cnqered by i htin ,
then i  mn wnts t seem brve, let him, r ll I cre. The
Lernen Hydr, lst nd hrdest  ll the lbrs  Hercles,
cld nt be vercme with steel bt cld be beten by Greek
ire; bt wht cn y d  inst n evil tht cn be neither
seen nr cnqered? There re sme thin s which it is better t
rn wy rm thn t cnqer. The brve nes did nt  int
bttle with the sirens, bt trned his helm r wy rm tht
shre  dn er. 'Bt,' y sy, 'there is n dn er'--well,
menwhile I, n the se side  dn er, see  ret mny
persns dyin . I imitte the x in Hrce:--'I m lrmed t
the tsteps, s mny ledin twrds y nd s ew wy.' In
this cnditin  thin s I wldn't hesitte t ly, nt merely
t Orlens, bt t Cdiz r t the rthest  the r Orkneys;
nt becse I m  timid persn r  less thn mnly cr e,
bt becse I relly d er--nt t die, r we re ll brn t
die--bt t die by my wn lt. I Christ wrned his disciples
t lee rm the wrth  their persectrs by stri htwy
chn in their residence, why shld I nt evde s dedly  e
when I cnveniently cn?"
Yet he is nt hppy t Orlens; the Mses rw chilly in tht city
 lw-bks; he mens t cme bck, nd menwhile he be s Fsts
t write  pretry letter t his Ad es, which he hs jst pt
rth. He sks this nt r the merit  the wrk, r he des nt
ltter himsel s r s nt t see hw pr it is--bt the wrse
the ds the mre they need recmmendtin. Fsts ve the letter
nd it dly ppered, bt whether it did nt jst sit Ersms, r
whether he cld nt qite ber t hve his wrk recmmended by
nyne, he sw it lter t declre tht the printer hd wrmed it
t  Fsts. Perhps, t, Fsts hd  little verdne it nd
in the extrv nce  this estive persn's prise Ersms my hve
detected  little stin  srcsm. In  letter t his riend nd

ppil, A stins, Ersms reprves him r tkin t ltterin 

tne twrds himsel nd sys, by the wy,
"tht ex ertin  Fsts, in which he sys tht in me lne
is the very snctry  letters, ws nt s very deli htl t
me, bth becse extrv nt prise sits neither my mdesty
nr my deserts nd becse sch i res  speech re s  rle
nt believed nd simply rse envy. They re mrever kin t
irny, jst s wht y wrte me, lth h in mst ltterin
terms, did nt relly ltter me t ll: 'O, mst ttentive
techer, I, thy devted ppil, dedicte mysel t thee; cmmnd
me s th wilt; n ht tht I hve is mine, bt ll is thine!'
All tht kind  tlk, it seems t me,  ht t be kept s r
s pssible rm  sincere ttchment. Fr where there is rel
ectin s there is, I think, between s, wht se is there in
sch i res  speech? And where ectin is insincere they
re wnt t be trned int  sspicin  mlice. Therere y
wld retly bli e me i y wld cmpletely bnish sch
ex ertins rm yr letters, tht simple ectin my ind
its prper ln  e nd tht y my ber in mind tht y re
writin t n ttched riend nd nt t  tyrnt."
This snds very ine nd wld impress ne with  ret sense 
Ersms' in ens ntre, i ne cld r et tht this is precisely
the time when he ws crryin n the crrespndence with Btts nd
the Mrchiness  Veere which we hve lredy exmined.[53] Indeed
the yers rm 1500 t 1506 re the mst perplexin in Ersms' whle
lie. He ws cntinlly n the mve, nw t Pris, nw t Orlens,
 in in the Lw Cntries, visitin this riend nd tht, with n
re lr srce  incme, yet smehw pllin himsel thr h. Drin
ll this time there is hrdly  letter which des nt spek  him
s the victim   crel te. O crse it is lwys the lt 
smene else, bt hmn ntre hs nt s retly chn ed in r
hndred yers tht we cn rd t tke his wrd r it tht ll
his ptrns hd deserted him with n cse whtever n his prt. T
et the prper perspective r n nderstndin  the sittin
we mst remind rselves tht Ersms ws s yet  very dbtl
investment. His rel individlity ws hrdly shwin itsel. He
hd psitively rejected ll prpsls  re lr ccptin; he ws
mkin cnsiderble demnds n lie, bt he wld tke lie nly n
his wn terms.
[53] See p. 48 & __.
The mtive  Ersms' wnderin s in these erly yers  the centry
is nt cler. Mre esily perceptible thn ny ther is his er 
the pl e nd  nervs dred  ther illness. When thin s went
bdly in ne plce he betk himsel t nther, bt it is hrd t
ind mch principle even in his helth-seekin . He speks  indin
relie in his ntive lnd nd  in writes tht Zeelnd is hell t
him, he "never elt  hrsher climte r ne less sited t his
pr little bdy." The bishp  Cmbri hd ln since iled him.
The bishp's brther, the bbt  St. Bertin, rmerly  ret
riend, ws  n se; the Mrchiness ws hersel in sme mysteris
trble; Btts lne, his precis Btts, ws qite tre t him,
bt nt ble t d mch r him. Alt ether it seems mst prbble
tht the cnspircy  the tes  inst r schlr my hve been
nthin mre thn  cmmn eelin  distrst twrd  strdy
be r, wh hd nt yet prved his vle nd wh ws nt inclined t
pt p with ny hl-wy chrity.

Bt menwhile Ersms ws lwys t wrk. His rel, permnent, nd
persistent interest ws his wn sel-cltre--nt in ny nrrw r
men sense, bt tht he mi ht be eql t the ret demnds he ws
preprin t mke pn himsel. O ll thin s he wished t mke
himsel strn in Greek, nd it is cler tht he ws disstisied
with ny techin which ths r hd been pen t him. Frm this we
 ht nt hstily t drw cnclsins s t the bdness  Greek
techin t Pris. Ersms, like mst men  ri inl enis, ws
nt  dcile ppil. He knew intitively, wht it tkes mst  s 
lietime t ind t, tht every mn mst tech himsel ll tht he
ever relly nd eectively knws, nd tht this is especilly tre
 ll lin istic knwled e. Ersms cmplins  his Greek techers,
bt he did nt sit dwn nd wit r better nes. He went t wrk
with sch pplinces s he hd nd red Greek bks nd rdlly
cme t red them well. He lerned Greek, in shrt, s he hd lerned
Ltin, by _sin _ it.
Frm time t time, hwever, he ve evidences  his pr ress in
cltre by sme prdctin intended r wider circltin. A specimen
 sch ccsinl writin is his _Enchiridin militis christini_,
 title which hs lmst invribly been rendered, "A Hndbk 
the Christin Sldier," bt which bers eqlly well the menin ,
"The Christin Sldier's D er." The essentil pint is tht it
ws  smethin "hndy,"  _vde mecm_ r the ver e entlemn
wh imed t be  d Christin. Ersms ses the wrd in bth
menin s t dierent times. Writin , ccrdin t his wn recknin ,
nerly thirty yers terwrds,[54] Ersms ives s n ccnt 
the ri in  this tretise, which is interestin s shwin hw
nsystemtic were the mtives which led, r which he im ined led,
t the writin  mny  his mst ms wrks. He sys "the thin
ws brn  chnce." He ws t Trnehens t escpe the pl e then
r in in Pris nd there cme int reltins with  riend 
Btts,  entlemn wh ws "his wn wrst enemy,"  y nd reckless
liver. This entlemn's wie ws  wmn  sin lr piety nd in
ret distress r her hsbnd's sl. She be ed Ersms t write
smethin which mi ht mve him t repentnce, bt t be crel tht
this wrnin shld nt pper t cme rm her; r "he ws crel t
her even t blws, ter the mnner  sldiers." S Ersms nted
dwn  ew thin s nd shwed them t his riends, wh pprved them
s hi hly tht sme time terwrd t Lvin he emplyed his leisre
in pttin them int shpe. Fr  while the bk ttrcted little
ttentin; bt lter it becme ne  the mst pplr nd widely
red  its thr's mre seris wrks. It ws irst printed in 1503
nd ter tht rn thr h editin ter editin with ret rpidity.
Ntrlly, it br ht t ls n little ppsitin; bt tht will
explin itsel when we hve exmined  little mre crelly the im
nd cntents  the bk.
[54] _Ctl s lcbrtinm_, i.
Its bject is especilly t emphsise the dierence between 
tre reli in  the hert nd n twrd, rml reli in 
bservnces. It is divided int thirteen chpters  vryin len th,
ech heded with  cptin rther v ely indictin its cntents.
Ater  smewht ln intrdctin he prceeds t  deinitin 
the hmn sl, llwin in the min the led  the erly Fthers,
especilly  Ori en. He distin ishes between the sl  mn nd
 smethin hi her yet, which they describe s spirit. The bdy is
the prely mteril, the spirit is the prely divine, bt the sl,

livin between the tw, beln s permnently t neither, bt is tssed

bck nd rth rm ne t the ther ccrdin s it resists r
ives wy t the tempttins  the lesh. The bdy is the hrlt,
slicitin t evil. "Ths the spirit mkes s ds; the lesh mkes
s bests; the sl mkes s men." This distinctin is  in nd
 in illstrted, nd the chpter ends with  declrtin  the
tre rle  Christin piety; viz., tht every mn see t it tht he
jd e himsel ccrdin t his wn tempttin.[55]
[55] v., 20-D.
"One mn rejices in stin , in scred bservnces, in in
ten t chrch, in repetin pslms, s mny s pssible--bt
in the spirit. Nw sk, ccrdin t r rle, wht he is
din :--i he is lkin r prise r rewrd, he smcks  the
lesh--nt  the spirit. I he is merely indl in his wn
ntre, din wht pleses him, this is nt  thin t be prd
, bt rther t be ered. There is yr dn er. Y pry
nd y jd e the mn wh prys nt; y st nd y cndemn
the mn wh ets. Whever des nt d s y d, y think is
inerir t y. Lk t tht yr stin be nt t the lesh!
Yr brther needs yr help, bt y menwhile re mmblin
yr pryers t Gd nd ne lectin yr brther's pverty: Gd
will be de t sch pryers s tht.... Y lve yr wie jst
becse she is yr wie; tht is very little, r the hethen
d the sme. Or y lve her nly r yr wn plesre; then
yr lve is t the lesh: bt i y lve her chiely becse
y see in her the im e  Christ, piety, mdesty, sbriety,
chstity, then y lve her nt in hersel, bt in Christ--ny,
y lve Christ in her nd s Gd in the spirit."
The bk then es n t mre speciic injnctins t the Christin
lie, lwys with the ndernte  sincerity s the min thin . Here
is  strikin pss e rm the secnd cnn  the ei hth chpter:[56]
[56] v., 23-A.
"Christ sid t ll men tht he wh will nt tke p his crss
nd llw ter him is nt wrthy  him. Nw y hve n
cncern with dyin t the lesh with Christ, i livin in his
spirit des nt cncern y. It is nt yrs t be crciied
t the wrld, i livin t Gd be nt yrs. T be bried with
Christ is nthin t y, i risin in lry is nthin t y.
Christ's hmility, his pverty, his tril, his scrn, his til,
his str le, his rie, re nthin t y, i y hve n cre
r his kin dm. Wht mre bse thn t clim r yrsel the
rewrd with thers, bt t pt  pn  certin ew the til
r which the rewrd is ered? Wht mre wntn thn t wish
t rei n with r Hed, when y re nt willin t ser with
him? Therere, my brther, d nt lk bt t see wht thers
d nd ltter yrsel with their exmple;-- diiclt thin
indeed nd knwn t very ew, even t mnks, is this dyin t
sin, t crnl desire nd t the wrld. Yet this is the cmmn
pressin  ll Christins."
S  in in the rth cnn:[57]
[57] v., 26-D.
"Y st,-- pis wrk indeed t ll ppernce; bt t wht

prpse is this stin ? Is it t sve prvisins r t seem t

be mre pis thn y re? Then yr eye is evil. Or d y
st t keep yr helth? Why then d y er disese? Lest
it keep y rm plesre? Yr eye is evil. Or d y desire
helth tht y my devte yrsel t stdy? Then t wht end
is this stdy?--tht y my et  chrch ice? Bt why d
y wish the ice?--tht y my live t yrsel nd nt
t Christ? Then y hve wndered rm the stndrd which the
Christin  ht t hve set p everywhere. Y tke d tht
yr bdy my be strn , bt y desire this stren th tht
y my be eql t the stdy  scred thin s nd t hly
vi ils:--y hve hit the mrk; bt i y lk ter yr
helth lest y lse yr bety nd s be incpble  sensl
plesre, then y hve llen wy rm Christ nd hve set p
nther Gd r yrsel.
"There re thse wh wrship certin divinities with certin
rites. One sltes Christpher every dy, bt nly while he is
zin pn his im e, nd r wht? becse he hs persded
himsel tht he will ths be se r tht dy rm n evil
deth. Anther wrships  certin Rchs, nd why? becse he
ncies he will drive the pl e wy rm his bdy. Anther
mmbles pryers t Brbr r Ger e, lest he ll int the
hnds  his enemy. This mn sts t Apllni t prevent
the tthche. Tht ne zes pn n im e  the d-like
Jb, tht he my be ree  the itch. Sme devte  certin
prt  their prits t the pr, lest their bsiness  t
wreck. A cndle is li hted t Jerme t resce sme bsiness
tht is in t pieces. In shrt, whtever r ers nd r
desires, we set s mny ds ver them nd these re dierent
in dierent ntins; s, r exmple, Pl des r the French
wht Jerme des r r peple, nd Jmes nd Jhn re nt
d everywhere r wht they cn d in certin plces. Nw
this kind  piety, nless it be br ht bck t Christ insted
 bein merely  cre r the cnvenience r incnvenience 
r bdies, is nt Christin, r it is nt r remved rm
the sperstitin  thse wh sed t vw tithes t Hercles in
rder t et rich--r  cck t sclpis t et well  n
illness, r wh slew  bll t Neptne r  vrble vy e.
The nmes re chn ed, bt the bject is the sme. Y pry t
Gd t escpe  sdden deth nd nt rther tht he my rnt
y  better mind, s tht whenever deth vertkes y it my
nt ind y nprepred. Y never think  chn in yr wy
 lie nd yet y pry Gd t let y live. Wht then re
y skin ?--why, nly tht y my keep n sinnin s ln s
pssible. Y pry r welth nd knw nt hw t se welth; s
y re pryin r yr wn rin. I y pry r helth nd
then bse it, is nt yr piety impis?
"An bjectin will be mde here by sme 'reli is' ellws, wh
lk pn piety s  pressin, r, in ther wrds, by certin
sweet phrses  blessin sedce the sls  the inncent,
servin their wn bellies nd nt Jess Christ: 'Wht,' they
will sy, 'd y rbid the wrship  the sints, in whm Gd
is hnred?' Indeed I d nt s mch cndemn thse wh d this
rm  certin simple sperstitin s thse wh, seekin their
wn prit, pt rth thin s tht mi ht perhps be tlerted
with pre nd lty piety, bt encr e r their wn dvnt e
the i nrnce  the cmmn peple. This i nrnce I d nt
in the lest despise, bt I cnnt ber t hve them tkin

indierent thin s r the mst imprtnt, the lest r the
retest. I will even pprve their skin Rchs r  lie
 helth i they will cnsecrte their lie t Christ; bt I
shld like it still better i they wld simply pry tht their
lve  virte my be incresed thr h their htred  vice.
Let them ly their livin nd dyin in Gd's hnds, nd sy with
Pl 'whether we live r whether we die, we live r die t the
Lrd.' ... I will ber with wekness, bt, like Pl, I will
shw y  mre excellent wy."
It will be nticed tht even ths erly in Ersms' mrl ppel, he
des nt im t destryin nythin . Even r the wrship  sints
he hs plenty  rm in his th ht, bt he sys:[58]
[58] v., 31-D.
"the wy t wrship the sints is t imitte their virtes. The
sint cres mre r this kind  reverence thn i y brn
 hndred cndles r him. Y think it  ret thin t be
brne t yr rve in the cwl  Frncis; bt the likeness
 his rment will prit y nthin ter y re ded, i
yr mrls were nlike his when y were live.... Y py the
retest reverence t the shes  Pl, nd n hrm i yr wn
reli in is cnsistent with this. Bt i y dre these ded
nd silent shes nd ne lect tht im e  him which lives nd
speks nd, s it were, brethes t this dy in his writin s, is
nt yr reli in prepsters? Y wrship the bnes  Pl
lid wy in  shrine, bt y d nt wrship the mind  Pl
enshrined in his writin s. Y mke ret thin s   scrp 
his bdy seen thr h  lss cse, bt y d nt mrvel t
the whle sl  Pl tht lems thr h his wrks.... Let
inidels, r whm they were iven, wnder t these si ns, bt
d y,  believer, embrce the bks  tht mn, s tht,
while y dbt nt tht Gd is ble t d ll thin s, y my
lern t lve Him bve ll thin s. Y hnr n im e  the
ce  Christ, bdly ct in stne r pinted in clrs, bt
r mre hnr  ht t be iven t tht im e  his sl
which by the wrk  the Hly Spirit is mde mniest in the
Gspels.... Y ze with we pn  tnic r  hndkerchie
sid t be thse  Christ, bt y ll sleep ver the rcles
 the lw  Christ."
With cnstnt reerence t Pl s the retest  hmn techers,
Ersms cmes t the mnstic lie in sme detil.[59]
[59] v., 36-A.
"'Lve,' sys Pl, 'is t ediy yr nei hbr,' nd i nly
this were dne, nthin cld be mre jys r mre esy thn
the lie  the 'reli is'; bt nw this lie seems lmy,
ll  Jewish sperstitins, nt in ny wy ree rm the vices
 lymen nd in sme wys mre crrpt. I A stine, whm they
bst  s the nder  their system, were t cme t lie
 in, he wld nt rec nise them; he wld cry t tht he
hd never pprved this srt   lie, bt hd r nized  wy
 livin ccrdin t the rle  the pstles, nt ccrdin
t the sperstitin  the Jews. Bt nw I her sme  the
mre sensible nes sy:--'We mst be n r rd in the lest
thin s lest we rdlly slip int reter vices.' I her nd
I pprve; bt we  ht nne the less t be n r rd lest

we et s bnd p in these lesser thin s tht we whlly ll

wy rm the reter. The dn er is pliner n tht side, bt
reter n this. Lk t r Scyll, bt d nt ll int
Chrybdis. T d thse thin s is well, bt t pt yr trst
in them is perils. Pl des nt rbid s t mke se  the
'elements,' bt he wld nt hve the mn wh is ree in Christ
mde  slve t them. He des nt cndemn the lw  wrks, bt
wld hve it prperly pplied. Witht these thin s y will
perchnce nt be  pis mn, bt it is nt these tht mke y
"Wht, then, shll the Christin d? Shll he ne lect the
cmmnds  the Chrch, despise the hnrble trditins 
the Fthers, nd cndemn pis bservnces? Ny, i he is 
weklin he will hld n t these s necessry; i he is strn
nd perect, he will bserve them s mch the mre, lest thr h
his wisdm he end his wek brther, nd sly him r whm
Christ died. These thin s he  ht t d nd nt leve the
thers ndne.... Yr bdy is clthed with the mnkish cwl;
wht, then, i yr sl wers n erthly rment? I the
ter mn is veiled in  snwy tnic, let ls the vestment 
the inner mn be white like snw. Y keep silence twrdly;
see t it s mch the mre tht yr mind within is ixed in
silent ttentin. Y bend the knee  the bdy in the visible
temple; bt tht is nthin i in the temple  the hert y
re stndin pri ht  inst Gd. Y dre the wd  the
crss;--llw mch mre the mystery  the crss. D y 
int  st nd bstin rm thse thin s which d nt deile
the mn nd yet nt rerin rm bscene cnverstin which
deiles bth yr wn cnscience nd tht  thers? Fd is
withheld rm the bdy nd shll the sl r e itsel pn
the hsks  the swine? Y bild  temple  stne; y hve
plces scred t reli in; wht prits it i the temple 
the sl, whse wll Ezekiel d thr h, is prned with the
bmintins  the E yptins?... I the bdy be kept pre nd
yet y re cvets, then the sl is pllted. Y sin pslms
with yr bdily lips, bt listen within t wht yr sl is
syin : y re blessin with the mth nd crsin with the
hert. Bdily y re bnd within  nrrw cell, bt with yr
th hts y wnder ver the wide erth. Y her the wrd 
Gd with yr bdily er: her it rther within."
S mch r the mnks. As t the enerl mrl stndrds  his dy
Ersms is eqlly cler nd vi rs nd is interestin especilly
rm the cmprisn he mkes with the mrls  ncient times.[60]
[60] v., 40-D.
"Trn the nnls  the ncients," he brsts t, "nd cmpre
the mnners  r time. When ws tre hnr less respected?
When were riches, n mtter hw ined, ever s hi hly esteemed?
In wht  e ws ever tht wrd  Hrce[61] mre tre-[61] Hrce, _Epp._, i., 6, 36. Cnin tn's trnsltin.
'A dwried wie, riends, bety, birth, ir me,
These re the its  mney, hevenly dme.'
When ws lxry ever mre reckless? When were vice nd dltery ever
mre widespred r less pnished r less cndemned?... Wh des nt

think pverty the lst extreme  misrtne nd dis rce?"

It is the cry, milir t ll  es, especilly  crse t times
when civilistin hs reched  hi h pint, tht ll hnr my
be b ht r mney nd plce. It shws n especil cteness n
Ersms' prt, bt it des prve his cr e nd his cler Christin
insi ht. Tht he shld ncy the heres  the clssic wrld t
hve been sperir t the mdern Christins  his wn dy ws 
ntrl prt  the clssic enthsism in which he lived. Nr cn we
dbt tht it retly stren thened the mrl r ment in his time t
dd these exmples  prely nn-Christin virte t thse rnished
by the well-wrn heres  the Jewish pst.
A very chrcteristic tch is nd in Ersms' reerence t the
previlin r e r inrmtin, ls  vice  n ver-e er  e.[62]
[62] v., 44-A.
"Let me spek  nther errr. They cll him  clever mn nd
skilled in irs wh, ctchin t ll kinds  rmrs, knws
wht is in n ll ver the wrld: wht is the rtne  the
merchnts, wht the tyrnt  the Britins is plnnin , wht
is the news t Rme, wht is the ltest hppenin in Gl, hw
the Dcins nd Scythins re ettin n, wht the princes re
thinkin bt,--in shrt, the mn wh is e er t d bttle
bt every kind  irs mn every rce  men, tht mn
they cll wise. Bt wht is mre senseless, mre lish, thn
t be rnnin ter thin s remte, tht hve nthin t d with
yrsel, nd nt even t think  wht is in n in yr wn
hert nd wht beln s especilly t y. Y tlk bt the
trbles in Britin; tell rther wht is trblin yr wn
hert,--envy, lst, mbitin; hw r these hve been sent nder
the yke,--wht hpe there is  victry,--hw r the wr is
dvnced,--hw the pln  cmpi n is lid t. I in these
thin s y re wtchl, with eyes nd ers well trined, i y
re cnnin nd ctis, then indeed I will declre y t be 
clever mn."
A very interestin exmple  Ersms' insistence pn the essentil
thin nd his indierence t nmes nd rms is in the chpter which
describes the pinins wrthy  the Christin. It hs lmst 
scilistic rin , s shrply des he emphsise the dty  Christin
[63] v., 47-D.
"Y th ht it ws nly mnks t whm prperty ws rbidden
nd pverty enjined? Y were wrn ; bth cmmnds pply t
ll Christins. The lw pnishes y i y tke wht beln s
t nther; it des nt pnish y i y tke wht is yrs
wy rm yr brther when he needs it; bt Christ will pnish
bth. I y re  m istrte the ice shld nt mke y
mre ierce, bt the respnsibility shld mke y mre
ctis. 'Bt,' y sy, 'I d nt hld  chrch ice; I m
nt  priest r  bishp.' Qite s, bt y re  Christin,
re y nt? See t it whse mn y be, i y re nt  mn
 the Chrch. Christ is cme int sch cntempt in the wrld,
tht they think it  ine thin nd  ryl t hve n delin s
with him nd despise  persn the mre, the mre clsely he
is bnd t him. D y nt her every dy sme n ry lymn

thrwin in r ces s  vilent reprch the wrds 'Clerk!'

'Priest!' 'Mnk!' nd tht with the sme temper nd the sme
vice s i he were chr in s with incest r scrile e? O
 trth I wnder why they dn't ttck Bptism, r like the
Srcens sslt the nme  Christ s smethin inms. I
they wld sy '_bd_ Clerk!' '_nwrthy_ Priest!' '_impis_
Mnk!' we cld ber it s cmin rm thse wh were rebkin
the chrcter  the mn nd nt the pressin  virte. Bt
thse wh cll the rpe  vir ins, the plnder  wr, the
in nd lss  mney t dice deeds  lry, these peple hve
n wrd t thrw t nther mre ll  cntempt nd shme
thn 'Mnk!' r 'Priest!'--th h it is cler en h wht these
peple, Christins in nthin bt the nme, think  Christ.
"There is nt ne Lrd r bishps nd nther r civil rlers;
bth re vice erents  the sme Lrd nd bth mst render n
ccnt t him. The ice  the Christin prince is nt t
excel thers in welth, bt, s r s pssible, t seek the
dvnt e  ll. Trn nt wht beln s t the pblic t yr
wn prit, bt spend whtever is yrs, even yrsel, r the
pblic d. The peple we mch t y, bt y we everythin
t them. Hi h-sndin nmes, '_Invicts_,' '_Scrsncts_,'
'_Mjests_,' th h yr ers re rced t her them, yet
scribe them ll t Christ, t whm lne they beln . The
crime  _ls mjesttis_, which thers brin rwrd with
ri htl clmr,--let this be t y  very smll mtter. He
lne viltes the mjesty  the prince wh, nder the nme
  prince, des thin s cntrry t lw, crel, vilent, r
criminl. Let n ttck mve y s little s ne which tches
y persnlly. Remember tht y re  pblic persn, nd tht
it is yr dty t think nly  the pblic d. I y re
wise cnsider, nt hw ret y re, bt hw ret  brden
rests pn yr shlders. The reter dn er y re in, s
mch the less seek indl ence r yrsel, nd chse the mdel
r yr dministrtin, nt rm yr thers r rm yr
prtisns, bt rm Christ. Wht cn be mre bsrd thn tht 
Christin prince shld set p Hnnibl, Alexnder, Csr, r
Pmpey s n exmple t himsel?... Nthin is s becmin , s
splendid, s lris in kin s s t ttin s nerly s my be
t the perect likeness  Jess, the spreme kin , retest
nd best.... '_Apstls_,' '_Pstr_,' '_Episcps_,' these re
nmes  dties, nt  vernment; '_Pp_,' '_Abbs_,' re
titles  lve, nt  dminin. Bt why shld I  int this
cen  vl r errrs?"
The Enchiridin clses with ive chpters  remedies  inst
certin vices: lst, vrice, mbitin, rr nce, nd n er. These
prescriptins hve t s s bvis  snd tht ne esily verlks
their rel imprtnce. Their vle cnsists in this: tht in n  e
 rml ri htesness they direct the cnscience  the individl
mn stri ht bck t the srces  ll Christin livin , t the
plin techin  Jess nd the plin r ment  cmmn sense. We
 ht t llw Scriptre,--yes, bt becse Slmn kept  hrem
 cncbines, tht is n exmple r s. Peter denied the Christ
r whm he terwrd died; bt tht is n excse r perjry. The
Christin lw is ths mde plin t the individl cnscience.
It hs seemed wrth while t  int the cntents  this little
bk with mre cre thn its extent mi ht pper t wrrnt, becse
it is the erliest rmlted expressin  thse principles 

interprettin which rm the bsis  Ersms' whle mtre lie nd
th ht. It is r him, s it were,  pr rmme, which he ws t ill
t in detil, in the ln series  writin s tht nw be n t lw
rpidly rm his pen. In it he mde his chllen e t the wrld, yet
with sch mdertin, sch crel wei hin nd blncin  views,
tht he evidently hped t win the spprt  ll clsses in wht he
be n t eel ws his lie-wrk.
We re lwys tld tht Ersms here in the Enchiridin be n his
ncesin wrre pn the mnks; bt i we red clsely we see hw
crelly he rded himsel  inst direct sslt pn this r ny
ther estblished instittin. Nt the nme "mnk" ws  reprch,
bt the nme "bd mnk." He even es s r s t identiy himsel
with the clericl rder. It ws well en h t st r even t se
im es nd relics, s ln s ne sw thr h the rms t the
menin nderneth; bt the mment  mn nd himsel _relyin _ pn
the rms, n mtter wh he ws, ppe, priest, r lymn, tht mment
he ws in dn er.
Ersms sys tht the Enchiridin ttrcted little ttentin t
irst, bt terwrd hd  ret sle. We cn well believe tht the
ll rce  its criticism ws nt elt ntil the irst stirrin s
 the Prtestnt Rermtin br ht men shrply ce t ce
with the prblems it hd tlined. It cnnt be clled precisely 
cntrversil bk, yet the erms  the bitterest cntrversies
 the Rermtin time re cntined in it. Ersms pressed the
tmst reverence r the existin instittins  the Chrch, nd
there is nthin in his lter lie t mke s dbt the sincerity
 this pressin. He ws by ntre verse t ll the vilence nd
cnsin tht mst ttend ny ret scil chn e. Bt it ws cler
t him tht his  e hd wndered r rm the idels  the nders
 these instittins. His remedy ws t pint t t men hw widely
they hd erred nd t shw them nce mre in plin nd direct
ln  e the tre ndtins  the Christin lie.
It is nticeble tht with ll his prtests  respect, Ersms
nwhere r es the ppel t the existin rder in the Chrch s
inl. Men _my_ st, wrship sints, tke vws, seek bsltin;
bt their rel slvtin is t be nd in nne  these thin s.
As this little bk went t int the wrld in the yer 1503, it
remined t be seen which spect  its techin wld prve the mre
eectl, whether its rel menin wld penetrte like t riends
nd enemies. Sme li ht n this pint my be ined rm  letter[64]
 Ersms written in 1518 t his riend Vlzis nd terwrd
pblished s  prece t  new editin  the Enchiridin. In this
letter he sys tht his wrk ws criticised s nlerned, becse
it did nt se the qibblin methds  the schls. Bt he ws nt
tryin "t trin men r the prize-rin  the Srbnne, bt rther
r the pece which beln s t the Christin." There is n lck 
bks n thel y;
[64] iii., 337.
"there re s mny cmmentries n the 'Sentences'  Petrs
Lmbrds s there re thel ins. There is n end  little
_smms_, which mix p ne thin with nther ver nd ver
 in nd ter the mnner  pthecries bricte nd
rebricte ld thin s rm new, new rm ld, ne rm mny,
nd mny rm ne. The reslt is tht there re s mny bks
bt ri ht livin tht n ne cn ever live ln en h t red

them. As i  dctr shld prescribe r  mn in  dn ers

illness tht he shld red the bks  Jcbs Prtibs nd
ll the likes  them nd there he wld ind t hw t mend
his helth."
There were bks en h, Heven knew! bt nt lie en h t red
them, nd this mltitde  qrrellin dctrs were nly bscrin
the tre rt  livin , which Christ ment t mke plin nd simple
t ll. These s-clled philsphers re bstcles, nt helps, t the
tre Christin lie.
"They cld never hve en h  discssin in wht wrds they
 ht t spek  Christ, s i they were delin with sme
hrrid demn, wh wld brin destrctin pn them i they
iled t invke him in prper terms, insted  with  mst
entle Svir, wh sks nthin  s bt  pre nd pri ht
Ersms mkes here the very prcticl nd cnstrctive s estin,
" cmmissin  pis nd lerned men shld brin t ether
int  cmpendim rm the prest srces  the spels nd the
pstles nd rm their mst pprved cmmenttrs, the whle
philsphy  Christ, with s mch simplicity s lernin , s
mch brevity s clerness. Wht pertins t the ith shld be
treted in s ew rticles s pssible; wht beln s t lie,
ls in ew wrds, nd s pt tht men my knw tht the yke
 Christ is esy nd plesnt, nt crel; tht they hve been
iven thers, nt tyrnts; pstrs, nt rbbers; clled t
slvtin, nt betryed int slvery.
"Nw then," he sys, "tht is precisely the prpse I ws
illed with when I wrte my Enchiridin. I sw the mltitde
 Christins crrpted, nt nly in their pssins, bt ls
in their pinins. I sw thse wh pressed t be pstrs
nd dctrs enerlly bsin the nme  Christ t their wn
prit,--t sy nthin  thse t whse nd the irs 
men re tssed hither nd thither, bt t whse vices, pen s
they re, it is hrdly permitted t rise  rn. And in sch 
trmil  irs, in sch crrptin  the wrld, in sch 
cnlict  hmn pinins, whither ws ne t lee, except t
the scred nchr  the Gspel techin ?
"I wld nt deile the divine philsphy  Christ with hmn
decrees. Let Christ remin wht he is, the centre, with certin
circles bt him. I wld nt mve the centre rm its plce.
Let thse wh re nerest Christ, priests, bishps, crdinls,
ppes, whse dty it is t llw the Lmb wherever he es,
embrce tht mst perect prt nd, s r s my be, hnd
it n t the next in rder. Let the secnd circle cntin
temprl princes, whse rms nd whse lws re in the service
 Christ.... In the third circle let s plce the mss  the
peple s the dllest prt  this wrld, bt yet, dll s it
is,  member  the bdy  Christ. Fr the eyes re nt the
nly members  the bdy, bt ls the hnds nd the eet. And
r these we  ht t hve cnsidertin, s tht, s r s
pssible, they my be clled t thse thin s which re nerer t
Christ,--r in this bdy he wh is nw bt  t my cme t
be n eye.... S  mrk is t be set bere ll, twrd which

they my strive, nd there is bt ne mrk, nmely Christ nd
his pre dctrine. Bt i, insted   hevenly mrk y set
n erthly ne, there will be nthin twrds which ne my
prperly strive. Tht which is hi hest is ment r ll, tht we
my t lest ttin t sme mderte hei ht.... The perectin
 Christ is in r mtives, nt in the rm  r lie, in
r minds, nt in dress r d. There re sme mn the mnks
whm the third circle wld scrcely ccept,--I m spekin nw
 d nes, bt wek. There re sme, even mn men twice
mrried, whm Christ wld think wrthy  the irst circle. It
is n ence t ny prticlr rm  lie i wht is best nd
mst perect is pt rth s  stndrd r ll. Every kind 
lie hs its wn peclir dn ers nd he wh shws them p mkes
n relectin pn the instittin, bt is rther deendin its
This hi hly chrcteristic letter clses with  review  the erly
histry nd prpse  the mnstic rders nd emphsises still
rther Ersms' pint tht he hs n qrrel with mnks s sch, bt
nly in s r s they set mre vle pn rms thn pn the tre
llwin  Christ.
"I wld hve ll Christins s live tht thse wh lne re
nw clled 'reli is' shld seem very little reli is--nd
tht is tre t-dy in nt  ew cses; r why shld we hide
wht is pen t ll?"
His pictre  the tre mnks, s Benedict nd Bernrd wld hve hd
them, mst hve seemed Utpin indeed. They were merely vlntry
cmmnities  riends, livin
"in the liberty  the spirit ccrdin t the Gspel lw, nd
nder certin necessry rles bt dress nd d. They hted
riches, they vided ll ices, even thse  the chrch;
they lbred with their hnds, s tht they mi ht nt nly be
n brden pn thers, bt mi ht hve  srpls t relieve
distress; they dwelt pn mntin-peks, in swmps, nd sndy
Nw let whever will cmpre ll this with the mnks  his wn dy!
Thin s hd mved very rpidly in the iteen yers since Ersms
hd written the Enchiridin, bt the tne  this deence is qite
in hrmny with tht  the bk itsel. It is nt lse nd vl r
bse  the "reli is" rders, bt rther  clm nd cnsistent
ppel t the ne tre stndrd  Christin lie, nmely t the
techin nd exmple  Christ himsel.
This is the ret interest  this little mnl  the Christin
entlemn. It shws Ersms s  cler-eyed critic  existin
instittins, rther thn s  mn wh hd ny deinite scheme 
rerm t prpse. Thr ht the bk there is bt ne cncrete
prpsitin: tht  cmmissin be ppinted--by whm is nt
s ested--t redce the sbstnce  Christin ith nd mrls t
sch simple rm tht it cld be nderstd by everyne. A very
pretty nd mible s estin indeed, bt hrdly sited t  mment
when the irrecncilble ntre  the ret cnlict between 
reli is system nded pn rmlism nd the simple mrlity 
the Gspel ws be innin t be mre nd mre clerly elt.

In the yer llwin the pblictin  the Enchiridin, while

Ersms ws qietly in n with his stdies, livin where he cld
ind  cmrtble plce r the mment, he ws sddenly clled pn
t perrm ne  the very ew pblic nctins  his lie. Philip,
Dke  Br ndy, sn  the Emperr Mximilin nd dministrtr 
the vernment in the Lw Cntries, ws retrnin rm  jrney t
Spin nd Frnce in the yer 1504 nd ws t be received t Brssels
with ll ittin demnstrtins  lylty nd ectin. Amn ther
thin s the cmmnity desired t shw its pprecitin  lernin by
inlictin pn the yn mn  pblic rtin in s d style s
they cld py r.
Ersms ws chsen r this tsk nd lilled it with sccess i
nt with enthsism. His extrv nt phrses  ldtin, in which
the prince is credited with lmst mre thn hmn qlities, cnnt
interest s. They re prely cnventinl nd cn cnvince s neither
 the prince's merit nr  the rtr's insincerity. Mre imprtnt
r s is the evidence tht even thr h sch rml srrndin s,
the ri inlity  the mn cnnt il t mke itsel here nd there
The rtin ws delivered in the dcl plce t Brssels. In its
printed rm it ills ver twenty li p es nd cn hrdly hve
ccpied less thn three r r hrs in delivery. One wld im ine
tht even the divine virtes  the yn prince cld hrdly hve
kept p his spirits while these pnders pr rphs were bein red
t him, nd it is certinly t be hped tht he ws let  with
n bbrevited editin. He my well hve ywned ver the tedis
nrrtive  his jrney t Spin nd his m niicent receptin in
Frnce, bt he ws, prbbly seldm privile ed t her sch snd
instrctin s Ersms delt t t him rm pint t pint  his
[65] iv., 529-F.
"Even t-dy," sid the rtr, "there re nt wntin thse wh
crk int the ers  kin s sch st s this:--'Why shld
y hesitte? Hve y r tten tht y re  prince? Is nt
yr plesre the lw? It is the prt  kin s t live nt by
rle bt by the lst  their wn herts. Whtever ny  yr
sbjects hs, tht beln s t y. It is yrs t ive lie nd
t tke it wy; yrs t mke r t rin the rtnes  whm
y will. Others re prised r blmed, bt t y everythin is
hnrble, everythin prisewrthy. Will y listen t thse
philsphers nd schlstics?... Sel yr ers with wx, mst
nble Dke,  inst the tl sn  these Sirens; like Hmer's
Ulysses, r rther, like Vir il's nes, steer yr crse s
r rm their cst tht the pisn  their sedctive vices
my nt tch the sndness  yr mind."
"By wht nmes we cll y, it mtters little t y, r y
d nt think yrsel t be ther thn wht Hmer clls the
'shepherd  the peple' r Plt its ' rdin.' Y hve
discvered  new wy t increse the revenes  yr nbles nd
 yrsel: by diminishin expense insted  incresin txes.
Oh! wnderl sl! y deprive yrsel tht yr sbjects my
bnd; y deny yrsel tht there my be the mre r the
mltitde. Y keep wtch, tht we my sleep in sety. Y re
weried with cntinl nxieties, tht yr wn my hve pece.
Y wer yr princedm, nt r yrsel, bt r yr lnd."

"The Astrl ers declre tht in certin yers there pper

ln -tiled strs which brin mi hty cnvlsins int hmn
irs, tchin bth the minds nd the bdies  men with
tl rce nd terribly ectin rivers, ses, erth, nd ir.
Bt n cmet cn rise s tl t the erth s  bd prince,
nr ny plnet s helthl s  blmeless rler."
The mst strikin prt  the pne yric, hwever, is tht which
cmpres the virtes  pece with thse  wr. Here Ersms
mkes his irst ret declrtin  principles s t the bslte
wickedness nd lly  wr nd hencerth, drin his whle lie,
he never iled t repet nd t emphsise them. We cnnt ccnt
r this cnsistent ttitde n ny thery  persnl timidity r
even n the rnd tht the schlr's wrk demnded pece r its
ll develpment. This ltter r ment we d ind in Ersms, bt it
mi ht eqlly well be trned in vr  wr s rnishin thse
stirrin episdes nd kindlin tht enthsism r heric deeds which
hve lwys been inspirin t literry enis. Ersms ws sincerely
nd prndly impressed with the enrms wste  ener y which wr
seemed t imply nd believed with ll his hert tht the mtives
ledin t it were lmst invribly bd. In  dy when the peples
 Erpe were cntinlly invlved in wrs nd rmrs  wrs, it
ws n ct  n little cr e r this slitry schlr t stnd
bere  ret ssembly  princes nd pled the scred cse 
Cnsiderble in enity is shwn in his clever reply t the r ment
tht pece is enervtin t the rler. Brvery, Ersms sys, is r
esier in wr, r we see tht  very pr kind  mn my shw it
there; bt t vern the spirit, t cntrl desire, t pt  bridle
pn reed, t restrin the temper,--tht kind  cr e is peclir
t the wise nd d. O ll these pecel virtes he declres
Philip t be the mdel, nd it is  little ccnt t s whether
this prise be well r ill pplied. Or interest is in the rwth
 Ersms' wn ides nd the prt they hd in ittin him r the
wrk he ws t d. His descriptin  the miseries  wr is  relly
nble piece  elqence nd resn.
We shll hve ccsin  in t reer t Ersms' pece prp nd.
En h here tht he hd the cr e t spek his mind nder
circmstnces which mi ht well hve led  less mnly rtr t dwell
pn the lry nd prit   wrlike plicy. His listener, invlved
s he ws t tht mment in s tn led  web  ne titins s ever
Erpen diplmcy hd yet wven, mst hve smiled in his sleeve t
this hrmless pedntry  the wrthy schlr. Certinly n ctin
 his lie p t tht time r in the shrt yers let t him cn
indicte ny preerence r pece r its wn ske.
Mre rtel, dbtless, t the princely ers were Ersms'
pr nstictins  his tre. He hd n ith in strl y,
bt he seemed t see in the evident trend  Erpen irs n
ccmltin  pwers in the hnd  dke Philip, which ws t be
relised in the persn  his sn Chrles. The rtr lets himsel
 in ldtin  Mximilin, Ferdinnd, Jnn, nd Philip
himsel, with cnident predictin   m niicent tre. In ct
Mximilin's creer ws  series  brillint ilres. Ferdinnd
ws in cntinl dred  Philip nd ten in pen hstility with
him. Jnn ws lredy shwin trces  tht hpeless insnity,
 rvted it ws sid by the crel rivlities  Philip, which ws

t tint the hse  Hbsbr t this dy. Finlly Philip ws t die
 disese within tw yers, witht relisin ny  the schemes 
 rndisement t which his lie ws devted.
Bt i Ersms' prphecy ws bd, his scheme  princely mrls, s
here lid dwn, ws d, nd it indictes clerly the bent  his
seris th ht. A mn with his sense  hmr--in ther wrds, with
his cmmn sense--cld nt il t see the discrepncy between the
ctl Philip nd the bein whm he hd here depicted. When he cme
t pblish his pne yric he nd it necessry t deend himsel
 inst the chr e  lsehd. In  letter[66] t his riend
Pldns, pressr  rhetric t Lvin, he es t cnsiderble
len th int the bli tin   writer  sch thin s t tell the
trth. He spprts his wn ctin by reerence t clssic pne yrists
nd lys dwn the enerl principle, tht ne cn d mre t help 
prince by prisin him r virtes he hs nt, thn by blmin him
r the lts he hs.
[66] iv., 550.
"Jst," he sys, "s the best  physicins declres t his
ptient tht he likes his clr nd the expressin  his
ce, nt becse these thin s re s, bt tht he my mke them
s. A stine, s they sy, cnesses tht he tld mny  lie in
prise  emperrs. Pl the pstle himsel nt inreqently
emplys the device  pis dltin, prisin in rder tht he
my rerm."
The pne yric t Philip, in its pblished rm, ws dedicted t
Nichls Rteris, bishp  Arrs. In the dedictry letter Ersms
presses tht this kind  writin ws diststel t him, nd
deends himsel  in by the relectin tht
"there is n wy s eectl r imprvin  prince, s t
present t him, nder the rm  prise, the mdel   d
prince,--prvided nly tht y scribe virtes t him nd tke
lts wy rm him in sch wise tht y r e him t the ne
nd wrn him rm the ther."
We re led t believe tht Prince Philip ws rcisly plesed t
pprve the discrse  Ersms. Dbtless he ws s qick s the
rtr himsel t explin it in  Pickwickin sense wherever it
ver ed t clsely pn nplesnt cts. He ve him  hndsme
present nd is sid t hve ered him  plce in his service which
Ersms, s sl, declined.

We hve lredy nted Ersms' ten-expressed desire t visit
Itly. It is the lle ed mtive  his be in crrespndence with
the Mrchiness Ann in nd bt the yer 1500. At tht time he
presses t hve little interest in Itly r its wn ske, bt

t be yieldin t  pplr delsin tht  dctr's de ree ws

bsltely indispensble t  schlrly repttin nd tht n
Itlin dctrte ws wrth mre thn ny ther. In En lnd he is
qite stisied tht he hs dne jst s well r his Greek nd his
schlrly dvncement in enerl s i he hd ne t Itly; yet the
ide  the Itlin jrney seems never t hve let him. It is n
interestin inqiry precisely wht the rel ttrctin  Itly t
Ersms ws.
One cn esily drw  ncy pictre  wht  ht t hve ttrcted
him. Itly hd ntrlly r the schlr  the Renissnce 
dble interest, irst s the set  ncient Rmn cltre, nd
 in s the srce nd sprin  tht mdern revivl in which he
himsel rmed  prt. It mi ht well ppel t the instinct  the
ntiqrin nd the si ht-seer, e er t brin visibly bere
himsel the remins  ncient splendr, the livin nd vivid
reminders   mi hty pst. He mi ht hpe t live  in in the
chrmed tmsphere  Vir il nd Hrce, t sit mid the scenes
lredy milir t him in the lwin p es  Cicer, nd t
brin int his mind sme mre deqte nderstndin  the vst
chievements he hd red  in the pre nnt stry  Livy r 
Jlis Csr.
The ppel  Itly, in shrt, t the histricl im intin is,
ne wld sy, perhps the mst pwerl tht hs ever cme t 
schlr's mind rm tht lnd  enchntment. It ws  time, t,
when men's th hts nd ctivities were trnin e erly t ll tht
side  the new clssicl stdy. Fr  centry nd  hl, ever
since the dys  Petrrch nd Rienzi, the tresres  ncient
rt, Greek s well s Rmn, hd been br ht t li ht, thered
int ret cllectins, nd mde t d their prt in the edctin
 Erpe. The limits  the Eternl City hd been trned int ne
ret tresre-hse  precis reminders  rmer nd pres es 
 tre retness. The visitr t Rme r t Flrence mi ht stdy
rm the ri inls the chicest rms in which the rt  the ncient
wrld hd expressed itsel.
It is hrd t ncy tht Ersms, in his th hts  Itly, cn
hve iled t be drwn by the nticiptin  livin ths bdily
in the presence  the hmn wrld rm which he drew his literry
inspirtin nd twrd which ll his seris th ht went bck
s t its ntrl srce. Yet the ct is tht neither in the
nticiptin nr in the relity  his Itlin jrney d we ind
sch reerence t these thin s s wld wrrnt s in thinkin tht
they rmed ny essentil prt  his ides bt Itly. Tht sense
 n verwhelmin rnder,  smethin indescribbly reter thn
ll tht hd cme since, which hs llen pn s mny n Itlin
trveller, seems t hve been entirely bsent in his cse. When
Gethe entered Itly, it ws with bted breth nd reverent we t
the stpends remins   civilistin whse inlence ws even
then ptent in the lives  men. S r s Ersms hs let s ny
witness  himsel his mind ws ccpied slely with the immedite
prit  the mment: his dctr's de ree, his new pblisher, the
petty cmrts nd discmrts  dily lie.
Still mre cris is his ttitde twrds tht ther spect  Itly
which mi ht hve been expected t impress him even mre. As  mn 

the Renissnce ne mi ht hve lked t ind Ersms, even bere

his deprtre, in crrespndence with sme  the li hts  the lter
Itlin Hmnism; yet, s r s we knw, he went ver the Alps 
strn er, except r the sli ht repttin  his wn writin s, nd
chiely  the Ad es. The enrms ctivity  ll thse ret
prdcers in every ield  rt, wh hve mde the trnin -pint 
the iteenth t the sixteenth centry ne  the ret epchs in
hmn histry, seems simply t hve escped his ntice. We d nt
her  it s ttrctin him rm the Nrth; when he is in the midst
 it, it inds n ech in his crrespndence, nd when he leves
it, there is nthin in his lter writin t shw tht it hd retly
ected him. With the relly retest men  the lnd he seems nt
t hve cme int ny intimte persnl reltin, nd he certinly
vided here, s he hd lwys dne elsewhere, ny cmplictin with
pliticl r scil mvements  ny srt.
Or inrmtin in re rd t the Itlin jrney nd residence is
crisly me re. In the ret cllectin  Ersms' letters,
there re bt  hl-dzen in the three yers rm 1506 t 1509. M.
Nlhc[67] hs pblished r thers written by Ersms t Alds, his
printer, bt these ltter re ccpied lmst whlly with nimprtnt
bsiness detils. Fr  the rmer rp re written rm Pris
jst ter the prty hd let En lnd nd ive s nly sme scttered
hints s t Ersms' deprtre r Itly.
[67] P. de Nlhc, _rsme en Itlie, tde sr n pisde de l
Renissnce, vec dze lettres indites d'rsme_, 1888.
The ln -s ht pprtnity cme t him in  rm which he hd nce
vwed he wld never ccept, nmely, thr h n en  ement s privte
ttr t the tw sns  Bttist Beri, the Genese physicin 
Kin Henry VII. Bets tkes sme pins t tell s tht Ersms ws
nt t tech these yths, bt it is nt qite cler wht else his
nctin ws. They hd n ttendnt (_crtr_) nmed Clystn, whm
Ersms describes in ne  these erly letters s the mst plesnt,
lvble, nd ithl ellw in the wrld. The lds, t, were, he
sys, mst mdest, techble, nd stdis. He hs ret hpes tht
they will lil the expecttins  their ther nd rewrd his wn
pins. The vy e crss the Chnnel ws  dredl ne, lstin
r dys, s tht  reprt spred in Pris tht they were lst, nd
Ersms ppered mn his riends, he sys, like ne risen rm the
ded. The reslt ws tht he ws tken with n illness, which he
describes s exctly s t leve n dbt tht he hd  d cler
cse  the mmps.
Frm Pris the jrney ws by wy  Lyns nd the western Alps.
We hve  brie ccnt  it in tht sin lr hd e-pd e, the
ctl e  his writin s, mde by Ersms ei hteen yers terwrd
nd sent t Jhn Btzheim  Cnstnce. The stry  the jrney
there iven is nly incidentl t the ccnt   little peticl
disserttin[68] n the pprch  ld  e which he wrte n the wy
nd sent bck t Pris t his medicl riend, Willim Cp. Ersms
ws nly bt rty yers ld, bt he elt himsel ettin n in
lie nd declres here his determintin t ive p the chrms 
pre litertre nd devte the rest  his dys t Christ lne.
Mst seris men  the Renissnce rm Petrrch nd Bcccci dwn
hd hd their mments  sel-reprch r their ver-devtin t
the hethen Mses nd perhps Ersms' eelin n this pint ws s
sincere s tht  his clle es. Srely his lie p t this time
hd nt been s rivlsly clssicl s t cse him ny deserved

re rets. He represents this pem s written t relieve his mind rm

the nplesntness  his cmpnins, especilly the distin ished
Clystn, wh ws nw lredy s dredl  bein s  ew weeks
bere he hd been chrmin . While Clystn ws lterntely brwlin
nd drinkin with n En lish mn-t-rms whm the kin hd specilly
depted r their prtectin, Ersms ws, he sys, devtin himsel
t peticl relectin nd cmpsitin. Anther reerence t this
jrney is prbbly nd in the well-knwn cllqy "_Diversri_,"
in which ne  the spekers describes the chrms  the French
inns, their clenliness, their d wines nd ckery, nd the
ret erts  the lndldies nd their ir ttendnts t mke
thin s plesnt r the trveller. All this is then mde the mre
eective by  cnter-descriptin  the swinish cstms  the
inns in Germny.[69] A in we hve n illstrtin  Ersms'
sthetic indierence. It is nt  sicient nswer t sy tht
jy in twrd ntre is  prely recent emtin. The whle rt 
the Renissnce is the witness tht men hd ln since escped rm
this rm  medivl bnd e nd were qite ble t nderstnd tht
they were livin in  d wrld, mde r their deli ht nd nt
whlly nder the dminin  Stn. A jrney n hrsebck crss the
Alps! nd, s r s we knw, this prince  lerned men, wh cld
discrse s elqently pn every hmn eelin , hd nt ne emtin
beynd  desire t et crss s sn s pssible nd  lively sense
 the cmrts nd discmrts  his inns.
[68] _Crmen eqestre vel ptis Alpestre_, iv., 755.
[69] See p e 226.
I  dctr's de ree ws ne  Ersms' bjects in cmin t Itly,
he certinly lst n time in lillin it. The de ree ws cnerred
n him t Trin September 4, 1506.[70] Ersms tk especil pins t
stte in t lest r letters tht he tk this de ree t plese his
riends, nt himsel; bt mde n bjectin t its immedite se in
his pblictins. Frm Trin he went n t Bl n where he prpsed
t settle r his wn stdies, s well s r thse  his yn
ppils. The cntry ws in  distressin stte  cnsin nd tht
  kind especilly ensive t Ersms. Wr ws bd en h t the
best, bt  ppl wr ws  scndl t the nme  Christinity, nd
 i htin ppe ws t him  mnster  iniqity. He held his pen
qietly en h t the time, bt the impressin  this ppe, Jlis
II., ledin  cmpi n r the recvery  Bl n rm the French
never qite let him. It served him r  text whenever he elt ree
t spek his mind n the sbject  wr r n the decline  virte
in the chrch. A trn in irs ve Bl n t Jlis II. nd
rnished t Ersms the pprtnity  seein the trimphl entry
 the ppe int his city. He simply reprts the event t Servtis,
his ld cmrde t Steyn, witht mentinin tht he hd witnessed
it, nd nly ln terwrd cslly reers t his presence, in the
crse   rml deence  inst the chr e  bsin the ppcy.
[70] See the diplm in W. Vischer, _Ersmin_, Bsel, 1876.
"In the pss e ... I cmpre the trimphl entries
(_trimphs_) which, in my presence, Jlis II. mde irst t
Bl n nd terwrds t Rme, with the mjesty  the pstles
wh cnverted the wrld by divine trth nd wh s bnded in
mircles tht the sick were heled by their very shdw, nd
I ive the preerence t this pstlic splendr; yet I sy
nthin bsive  inst thse [ther] trimphs, lth h t

spek rnkly I zed pn them nt witht  silent rn."

Tw little ntes t Servtis t this time re qite in the sl
tne  Ersmin discntent. He sys tht his principl bject in
cmin t Itly ws t stdy Greek bt "_jm ri ent stdi, ervent
bell_" "stdies re cld, bt wrs re ht,"--he will endevr t
ly bck  in very sn nd hpes t see his riend the llwin
smmer. While wrs re plnnin stdy tkes  hlidy. He mkes n
identicl prmise t nther riend nd ws prbbly qite sincere
in ncyin tht Itly, like every ther plce he hd tried, ws 
ilre. Evidently he ws in trble bt his ppils. Writin t ne
 them twenty-ive yers terwrd[71] he sys:
[71] iii., 1397.
"it ws the lt  tht ellw, whm y nicknme the
'_scrbes_,' nt nly tht I hd t leve y sner thn I
hd intended, bt tht the plesre  r cmpninship ws
s embittered tht i I hd nt been kept by  sense  dty,
I cld nt hve endred tht mnster r  mnth. I hve
ten wndered tht yr ctis ther cld hve been s
th htless s t intrst his mst precis tresres t  mn
wh ws scrce it t keep swine, ny, wh ws  sch eeble
mind tht he rther needed  keeper himsel."
The whle ir is lmst n ech  the trble with the "ld mn"
t Pris nd wld be t trilin r ntice were it nt lmst the
nly incident in cnnectin with Ersms' residence  mre thn 
yer t Bl n which hs cme dwn t s. O crse the climte ws
bd nd especilly nsited t his reqirements.
The smmer  1507 nd Ersms still t Bl n. It ws n
exceptinlly ht sesn--s he sys--nd the pl e brke t with
vilence. It is prps  this pl e nd n incident which he
reltes in cnnectin with it, tht we cme nce mre t the ms
letter, mentined erly in r nrrtive,[72] in which Ersms be s
t be relesed rm the bli tin  werin the mnstic dress.
The letter is ddressed t Lmberts Grnnis,  ppl secretry
t Rme, nd cntins, by wy  intrdctin, tht ln series 
detils bt the cmplsry entrnce int the mnstery   yth
clled Flrentis, which hs been enerlly ccepted s  trthl
nrrtive  the writer's wn experience. We hve lredy llwed
the indictins  this letter with sme cre dwn t the pint where
Ersms ws sely invested with the mnstic rb nd hd mde p
his mind t mke the best  it. At this pint, with ne  thse
jmps s cmmn in his style, he cmes t the time  his Itlin
visit nd cntines:
[72] See Intrdctin.
"Sme time terwrd it hppened tht he went int  r cntry
r the prpse  stdy. There, ccrdin t the French
cstm, he wre  linen scr bve his wn, sppsin tht
this ws nt nsl in tht cntry.[73] Bt rm this he
twice ws in dn er  his lie, r the physicins there wh
serve drin  pl e, wer  white linen scr n their let
shlder, s tht it hn s dwn in rnt nd behind, nd in this
wy they re esily rec nised nd vided by the pssers-by.
Yet, nless they  bt by nreqented wys they wld be
stned by thse wh meet them, r sch is the hrrr  deth

mn thse peple, tht they  wild t the very dr 

incense becse it is brned t nerls. At ne time when
Flrentis ws in t visit  lerned riend, tw blck rds
ell pn him with mrders cries nd drwn swrds nd wld
hve killed him, i  ldy rtntely pssin hd nt explined
t them tht this ws the dress   chrchmn nd nt  
dctr. Still they cesed nt t r e nd did nt shethe their
swrds ntil he hd pnded n the dr   hse ner by nd
s t in.
[73] In nther plce he sys tht he chn ed his dress in Itly
t cnrm t the cstm  the cntry, iii., 1527.
"At nther time he ws in t visit certin cntrymen  his
when  mb with sticks nd stnes sddenly t t ether nd r ed
ech ther n with ris shts  'Kill the d ! Kill the d !'
Menwhile  priest cme p wh nly l hed nd sid in Ltin in 
lw vice: 'Asses! Asses!' They kept n with their tmlt, bt s 
yn mn  ele nt ppernce nd werin  prple clk cme t
  hse, Flrentis rn t him s t n ltr  sety, r he
ws ttlly i nrnt  the vl r tn e nd ws nly wnderin wht
they wnted  him. 'One thin is certin,' sid the yn mn: 'i
y dn't ly  this scr, y'll sme dy et stned; I hve
wrned y, nd nw lk t r yrsel.' S, witht lyin side
his scr, he cnceled it nder his pper rment."
Sch is the cck-nd-bll stry with which Ersms, we knw nt
hw mny yers lter, msed the excellent Grnnis s  prece
t his petitin r  ppl dispenstin rm the dty  werin
the mnstic dress. It is t silly even r Mr. Drmmnd, wh very
prperly sys tht it is qite t mch t believe either tht
Ersms wld be in  pl e-stricken city when he cld et t 
it, r tht ny Itlin cld be s blind s nt t knw  mnk rm
 dctr! Certinly Ersms wld never wit t be pnded in the
street bere indin t wht dress he mi ht sely wer. The reply
 Grnnis shws hw the whle mtter lked t Rme.
"MY DEAREST ERASMUS: I never ndertk ny cmmissin mre
ldly thn the ne y hve intrsted t me nd scrcely ever
scceeded in ne mre t my wn mind. Fr I ws mved nt
s mch by my riendship r y, strn s tht is, s by
the ndeserved misrtne  Flrentis. Yr letter I red
rm be innin t end t the ppe in the presence  severl
crdinls nd men  the hi hest stndin . The mst hly ther
ws extremely deli hted with yr style nd y wld hrdly
believe hw ht he ws  inst thse mn-stelers; r retly
s he vrs tre piety, by s mch the mre des he hte
thse wh re illin the wrld with wretched r wicked mnks
t the ret injry  the Christin ith. 'Christ,' he sys,
'lves piety  the hert, nt wrkhses r slves.' He hs
rdered yr permit t be mde t t nce nd _ rtis_ t....
Frewell, nd ive Flrentis, whm I re rd s I d yrsel,
n ectinte reetin rm me."
Hwever mch  trth r  ictin there my hve been in this
ms letter, we my be tlerbly sre tht Ersms th ht  it
very mch s he wld  his Cllqies, s  piece  literry wrk
with  prpse t the bttm  it. At the time he sent it, perhps
1514, his views were well knwn t the ppl circle, nd the bse 
mnks ws r rm nwelcme t the "enli htened" views   mnrchy

s wrldly s ny in ll Erpe. Dbtless Ersms knew his Rme well
en h bere he ventred t send sch  lmintin s this int the
midst  it.
O his ther ccptins t Bl n we knw little. He des nt
pper t hve been  re lr stdent t the ms niversity, bt
rther t hve wrked by himsel nd t hve t wht help he cld
rm  Greek techer nmed Bmbsis, with whm he hd lter sme
[74] Bets Rhenns, in his brie smmry  Ersms' lie,
sys: "With the exceptin  the rdiments, he my trly be sid
t hve been sel-t ht. Fr the jrney int Itly ... ws
ndertken r the ske  visitin tht ms lnd, nt t tke
dvnt e  the pressrs there. At Bl n he herd n ne
 the pblic lectrers, bt, stisied with the riendship 
Pls Bmbsis ... he devted himsel t his stdies t hme."
"I never pssed  mre dis reeble yer," he sid ln terwrd;
bt we hve lerned the rml by this time nd cld hrdly expect
ny ther pinin rm him   yer in which he hd reched the
l  his desires, ws ree rm ll brdens except the versi ht
 tw excellent ppils, ws t ne  the principl sets 
lernin , in s d helth s sl nd wrkin wy t severl
pieces  cmpsitin which he hd ndertken  his wn ree chice.
It is s certin tht this ws  pritble yer t Ersms s it is
tht he prited by thse erly mnstic yers  which he ected
lter t hve nly the lmiest recllectins.
I ny pr  this were wntin it wld be nd in the erliest
cqintnce  Ersms with the ms Venetin printer nd
pblisher, Alds Mntis, which be ins t the clse  the yer t
Bl n nd ws t cntine r mny yers t the ret plesre nd
prit  bth prties. Ersms' irst reqest t Alds, intrdced
by plentil cmpliments pn his wrk, is tht he will ndertke
t reprint the trnsltin  tw tr edies  Eripides which hd
lredy been pblished by Bdis t Pris. Tht nlcky pblisher, it
seems, hd ered t mke  secnd nd better editin, bt Ersms
cnides t Alds his dred tht Bdis wld nly ptch p ld
errrs with new nes, nd sys[75]:
[75] Nlhc, _rsme en Itlie_, Ep. i.
[Illstrtin: ALDUS P. MANUTIUS.
"I shld eel tht my prdctins were n the wy t
immrtlity i they shld see the li ht by the id  yr
types, especilly thse smll nes, the mst tstel  ll.
Let it be s dne tht the vlme shll be very smll nd let
the thin be pt thr h with very sli ht expense. I it
shll seem d t y t ndertke the bsiness, I will rnish
_ rtis_ the crrected mnscript which I m sendin by this
messen er nd will nly sk r  ew cpies t ive t my
He r es Alds t hste becse he my hve t leve Itly very sn.
Everythin ths pints t n entire bsence  pln in Ersms'
mind. His nly ixed intentin ws t  t Rme t Christms, s he

inrms Alds in his next letter. The ret pblisher hd evidently
 reed t print the tr edies nd hd mde certin s estins in
re rd t redin s, which indicte t nce hw mch mre thn  mere
printer r pblisher he ws. Ersms replies with his wn views n
the pss es in qestin nd with very wrm wrds  dmirtin
r Alds. He wnts these plys, he sys, s New Yer its t his
lerned riends t Bl n, nd these inclde "ll wh either knw
r press the clssic litertre." At Rme, ls, he will wnt t
hve sme little wrk t recll him t his rmer cqintnces nd
t mke new nes; s he be s Alds r  shrt intrdctry nte,
which he will leve entirely t his discretin. It is n interestin
cmment n Ersms' reltin t the Itlin schlrs tht he shld
hve needed  pblisher's intrdctin t cmmend him t them. Will
Alds be s d s t send him twenty r thirty cpies _de lxe_
(_cdices estimts_) r which he will py in dvnce, c..d. r
in ny wy Alds my direct? A sin lr reerence in this letter is
wrth ntin r the li ht it sheds pn--I knw nt exctly wht
spect  Ersms' chrcter. He sys:
"Leve t the epi rm t the end  the tr edies. It ws
written by  certin yn Frenchmn, t tht time  servnt 
mine, whm I hd led t believe, by wy   jke, tht these
verses  ht t be printed, nd I hd iven them t Bdis t my
deprtre in the yth's presence t mke him keep n hpin .
Bt I wnder whtever pt it int Bdis' hed t print them,
r I tld the mn tht I ws nly plyin  jke n the ld."
In bth these letters there is shwn  stdied disrespect r Bdis
nd n evident ert t in the d will  Alds, t whm Ersms
speks s t  sperir persn. "N dbt y will ind mny errrs,
bt in this mtter I d nt even sk y t be ctis."
This riendly be innin with Alds hd its immedite cnseqence r
Ersms. He ve p his intentin--i he hd ever hd it-- in t
Rme t Christms, 1507, nd we next ind him in the erly prt 
1508 t Venice. He hd thrwn p the cre  the yn Beris, r
resns, perhps, cnnected with his dislike  their ttendnt, bt
certinly witht ny brek with the lds themselves.
The speciic prpse  Ersms in in t Venice ws t prepre 
new editin  his Ad es, the irst editin  which we nted s
mde t Pris in 1500. Ei ht yers  cntins ccptin with
clssic litertre, nd especilly the pr ress he hd menwhile
mde in the stdy  Greek, hd iven him n immensely incresed
cqintnce with the kind  mteril he wished t se r this
cllectin. Hw r he hd prepred the wy by crrespndence we d
nt knw; bt it wld seem tht he went t the wrk t nce nd kept
n with it very stedily r bt nine mnths. The peclir ntre
 the Ad es,  mere cllectin  discnnected pr rphs witht
ny ntrl rder r rrn ement  ny srt, mde it pssible r
Ersms t wrk in  shin very dierent rm his sl ne. It
ws simply  qestin  ettin the thin ln bit by bit, nd s
we ind him sendin in  dily instlment  "cpy" nd tkin wy 
dily btch  pr. The irst typ rphicl crrectins were mde
by  pid pr-reder, then the thr crrected, nd inlly Alds
himsel red the pr, nt s mch, s he nce sid in reply t 
qestin  Ersms, t ensre crrectness s r his wn instrctin.
We in rm mny scttered indictins  pictre, n the whle
very ttrctive,  this new ctivity.[76] It ws Ersms'

irst experience s  ellw-wrker with nyne, nd it hd its

ncmrtble spects  crse, r he wld nt hve been Ersms.
His critics, ntbly Scli er, wld hve it terwrd, n the
thrity  Alds himsel, tht Ersms ws little mre thn  pid
ssistnt in the printin -ice, nd ne is t  lss t knw why s
hnrble n ccptin shld hve seemed n ccsin r revilin
him r wrth his wn while t deny. The bvis rettin lies in
the ret mnt  wrk reqired by the Ad es themselves. He mst
hve been bsy en h t rete ther chr es  Scli er s t his
lziness. Whtever else he my hve been, he ws nt lzy then nr
t ny ther time  his lie. As t still nther ccstin we my
perhps hve r dbts. Scli er sys: "While y were din the
wrk  hl  mn, redin [pr?] in Alds' ice, y were 
three-bdied Geryn r drinkin ."
[76] See the d e _Festin lente_, ii., 405, B-D.
The view  Ersms t Venice which is relected in Scli er's tirde
my hve cme rm the ndbted milirity  Ersms' reltin
with Alds nd his mily. Prbbly the mst vivid cnceptin 
sch n erly printin -ice my be ined t-dy by  visit t the
ret hse  Plntin t Antwerp, nw hppily preserved by the piety
 the mniciplity nd kept s nerly s pssible in the cnditin
it ws in t the time  its ret ctivity bt little lter thn
tht  the hse  Alds. It is n mple br her residence, with
spcis livin -rms nd every indictin   eners mily lie;
bt nder the sme r nd in clse cnnectin with the livin
prtments re ls the rms devted t bsiness. The wrkin rce
ws in n intimte sense the "mily"  the pblisher, nd rm the
erliest mment  his rrivl Ersms seems t hve rmed ne in
the Aldine crps. The principl ccnt  this Venetin lie is,
nrtntely t be nd in the cllqy, "The Rich Miser," ne
 the mst scrrils  ll Ersms' writin s. The persn here
expsed t the bitin stin  his hmr is Andres d'Asl, the
ther-in-lw  Alds Mntis. He seems t hve been the ecnmic
hed  the Aldine hsehld nd, in sme rm,  prtner in the
bsiness, s were ls his tw sns, Federi  nd Frncesc. Ersms
ws received int this mily n the sme terms, pprently, s ther
wrkers. The hsehld cnsisted  thirty-three persns. Bets
represents this rrn ement s  kindness t Ersms, t sve him
rm in t  htel nd, t ll events, he remined  ellw-member
 this cln s ln s he styed in Venice. There ws certinly n
cmplsin pn him t d s nless he plesed, nd cmmn crtesy
 ht t hve prevented him rm hldin p t the ridicle 
the wrld  mily nd  peple t whm, s he elsewhere reely
cknwled es, he wed every kind  ssistnce in his wrk nd every
persnl ttentin. The principl speker in the _Oplenti srdid_
is ne Gilberts, wh presents himsel t his riend Jcbs in sch
len nd pitil ise tht the riend inqires whether he hs been
servin  term in the lleys. "N," he replies, "I hve been t
Syndim, brdin with Antrnis." The wether hd been r three
mnths cntinlly cld, s tht he ws nerly rzen t deth; r
the nly irewd they hd hd ws reen stmps which Antrnis
rted p by ni ht t  the cmmn lnd. In smmer it ws wrse n
ccnt  vermin, bt Antrnis never minded tht, he ws br ht p
t it; nd besides he ws lwys  trdin in everythin tht wld
brin him in  penny  prit. Even n the nerls tht went t
 his hse he mde his in, nd these were tw r three t lest
in the mst helthl yer; r he plyed sch tricks with his wine
tht sme were lwys dyin  the stne. Yet he wekened his wine by

thrwin in  bcketl  wter every dy, nd dlterted the mel

 which his bred ws mde by mixin chlk with it. The sn-in-lw
Orthr ns, wh stnds r Alds himsel, cmes in r his shre 
bse r idin nd bettin in this villny. Freqently Antrnis
wld cme hme pretendin t be very ill nd witht ppetite, nd
then the whle mily wld hve t strve n rey pes with  little
il n them. Finlly, hwever, dinner wld be served, bt sch 
dinner! First  sp  wter with lmps  ld cheese sked in
it, then  piece  rtni ht-ld tripe cvered p with  btter 
e s t chet the eye, bt nt en h t deceive the sense  smell,
nd, t clse, sme  the sme stle cheese. The lckless brder
sved his lie by hvin  qrter   biled chicken served p with
ech mel, bt even this ws  pr wretched wl nd he ws stinted
in his me re rtin. Even his wn privte resh e s were stlen
by the wmen nd rtten nes iven him insted, nd his wn csk
 d wine ws brched by the sme thieves nd drnk p witht
remnstrnce rm the hst.
The wrst  it ws tht when they nd t tht the pr Nrtherner
ws tryin t keep sl nd bdy t ether by byin extr thin s,
they set  dctr pn him t persde him nt t be sch  lttn.
The dctr ws  very d-ntred ellw nd inlly cmprmised n
 spper  n e nd  lss  wine, dmittin tht he llwed
himsel this indl ence, nd, s Ersms testiies, kept himsel t
nd herty n sch  diet. The dil e cncldes with d Ersmin
hed in ; r the rmbler cnesses tht i the d hd been  d
qlity he wld hve t n very well with the qntity, nd, ter
ll, etin ws lr ely  mtter  hbit nd he, bein sed t 
dierent methd, simply cld nt d with this. The inl lin t
pr Andres is t sy tht his sns, r whm he ws din ll this
scrpin nd pinchin , wld mke p r their scnty re t hme by
thrwin their mney wy in rits livin tside.
Mke wht llwnce we my r the hmrs ex ertin  this
tirde, it cnnt ive s ny bt the lwest ntin  its thr's
ineness  eelin . The bit  trth cntined in it ws prbbly
tht t Ersms the sl mnner  livin  the well-t-d Itlins
seemed menly insicient, while t the Itlins his ntrl demnds
seemed thse   lttn nd  wine-bibber. Very likely his riends,
in the kindness  their herts, clled in  physicin t persde
him t cnsider his helth by livin mre s they did. It is simply
the ever-repeted str le  the Nrtherner, ccstmed t mch
niml d nd t strn drink, t nderstnd the r l wys 
the Sth. Or interest in the whle incident is t ntice tht here
Ersms cntrcted the disese which t his ret bdily distress,
bt ls, it mst be dmitted, ten t his ret mrl cmrt, he
ws t crry bt with him t his deth. He writes rm Bsel in
1523 t Frncesc d'Asl, ne  the yths t whm he ives sch
 villins chrcter in his _Oplenti srdid_: "I hve nt
r tten r rmer intimcy, nr wld my rvel let me d s i I
wld, r I irst t it there nd every time it cmes it reminds me
 Venice." His wn explntin  this ttck is the bdness  his
re, especilly the wine, which, he sys, csed tw r three deths
rm stne every yer in the Aldine mily; bt we my be permitted
 dbt whether it ws nt rther de t his wn imprdence nd his
resl t dpt himsel t the simple mnners  the cntry.[77]
[77] It seems qite cler tht Ersms ws  victim t wht is
nw knwn s the "ric cid r ty dithesis,"  cnditin mch
mre likely t be prdced by hi h livin nd hevy drinkin thn

by ny sch experience s he describes in the _Oplenti srdid_.

The Aldine printin estblishment ws  kind  literry clb-hse
r the iner spirits  the Repblic, nd Ersms ws here
intrdced t them ll. All were interested in his wrk nd helped
him with mnscripts nd s estins; t sch  de ree, indeed, tht
this ws ne  the cnts in Scli er's indictment  inst him.
Sch id my, hwever, esily be explined by the peclir ntre 
the Ad es. Every vilble srce, written, printed, r rl, ws
prperly lid nder cntribtin r  wrk which ws essentilly 
O these men, nne ws  the irst rnk s  schlr; they were
the ir representtives  tht hmnistic enertin which hd
cme int the ret inheritnce  cltre prepred r it by tw
previs enertins. The erly ri inl implse with its extrv nt
individlism hd settled dwn int  clmer, wider, nd mre
plished methd  th ht nd wrk. Cltre hd mde its wy int
ll deprtments  lie nd prved its ri ht t exist by sel
service. O the Venetin schlrs we need mentin bt ew. Tw
Greeks, Mrcs Msrs nd Jhnnes Lscris, were ms, the ne
s  Greek techer, the ther s the literry prveyr  Lrenz
the M niicent nd, t the time  Ersms, s mbssdr  Kin
Lis  Frnce t the Repblic. Girlm Alender, then  mn 
twenty-ei ht, ws preprin himsel t tech Greek t Pris nd, in
ct, went thither in 1508 with letters  intrdctin rm Ersms.
The tw were t meet n nther ield when Alender s le te  Le
X. t the crt  Chrles V. ws t be the chie  ent in the ppl
plicy  inst Lther nd ws t reprch Ersms in bitter terms r
his hl-wy plicy twrds the Rermtin. Ersms believed tht he
ws the thr  the ttcks  Scli er,  whm he knew nthin ,
nd sys in this cnnectin tht they were c-reqenters t Alds's
nd tht he knew him s well s he knew himsel.
Everythin es t shw tht the nine mnths  the Venetin visit
were mnths  e er wrk, relieved by intercrse with men 
enine cltre nd  nbrken riendliness. Tht Ersms shld
hve dwelt mre pn the petty incnveniences  his lie thn pn
these wei htier thin s is qite in chrcter. The rel mnment 
his Venetin dys is the ret secnd editin  the Ad es, in
sbstntilly their inl rm.
Frm Venice Ersms mved in the erly tmn t Pd, the
niversity city  the Venetin territry. His immedite bsiness
there ws t tke chr e   ppil, the yn ille itimte sn 
Kin Jmes IV.  Sctlnd. This mible yth, Alexnder by nme,
ws lredy, t ei hteen, brdened with the title  Archbishp 
Sint Andrews. He hd cme t Itly t stdy, nd ws cmmended t
Ersms by his ther t receive instrctin in rhetric. Ersms
nce ses him s n illstrtin  ner-si htedness: "he cld see
nthin witht tchin his nse t the bk." Yet he ws  mst
clever ellw with his hnd. Writin in 1528 t his Nrember riend
Pirkheimer bt certin lle ed mnscript r eries, Ersms tells
 pretty tle  Alexnder, which shws  very plesnt reltin
between them:
"he nce shwed me  printed bk which I knew r certin I
hd never red; bt in the nmers mr inl ntes I rec nised
my wn hndwritin . I sked him where he hd t the bk. 'I
cknwled e the writin ,' I sid, 'bt the bk I hve never

red nr hd in my pssessin.' 'Oh, yes,' he replied, 'y red

it nce, bt y hve r tten it; therwise where did this
writin cme rm?' Finlly, with  l h, he cnessed the
Mrcs Msrs, his cqintnce t Venice, ws here t Pd the
best riend nd helper  Ersms. He ws in ll ctivity s
pressr  Greek, nd th h we hve n recrd  ny re lr
instrctin t the visitr, it is certin tht Ersms pplied t him
r mny detils  his wn wrk nd held him lwys in rtel
memry. Indeed his shrt residence  bt  ew weeks t Pd seems
t hve been n exceptin t the rle  tedisness. He reers t
Pd terwrds s the set   mre seris schlrship thn ws
t be nd t ther Itlin niversity twns. The rmtin  the
Le e  Cmbri between Kin Lis XII.  Frnce, Ppe Jlis II.,
the Emperr Mximilin, nd the Kin  Spin  inst the repblic
 Venice brke p the qiet circle  Pdn schlrs. Trps 
the llies be n t mke their ppernce in Venetin territry
nd Ersms, relctntly he sys, ws rced t mve sthwrd. He
trvelled in the site  the by-rchbishp, stppin irst t
Ferrr, where he met  chice circle  resident schlrs, mn
whm ws the yn En lishmn, Richrd Pce. It ws t Pce's hse
tht he ws presented t the Ferrrese Hmnists. A very pretty
little stry is reclled by ne  them, Clis Clc nins, wh in
writin t Ersms in 1525 reminds him  their meetin in Ferrr,
nd ives him  brie ccnt  the ther schlrs whm he hd met
"We were tlkin ," he writes, " Aspendis the hrp-plyer, nd
the qestin cme p s t the menin  _ints cnere_ nd
_extr cnere_, when y sddenly drew rth rm yr pch 
cpy  yr Ad es, jst printed t Venice. Frm tht mment I
be n t dmire the enis nd lernin  Ersms, nd scrce
ever hve I herd mentin  his nme witht recllin tht
cnverstin lmst with reverence. My witness is Richrd Pce,
tht mn mst lerned himsel nd by ntre mde t be the
prmter  the stdies  the mst lerned men."
Only  ew dys were spent t Ferrr nd still less time t Bl n.
The prty reched Sien t the very end  1508 r the be innin
 1509, nd there settled deinitely r the wrk  the yn
rchbishp. We hve  very en  in pictre  Ersms s  techer
 rhetric in his cmments pn the Ad e, "Th wst brn t
Sprt; d hnr t it."[78] He represents his ppil s  mdel 
ll the virtes nd ives s  in n insi ht int his methd 
techin . It is lwys the sme which he hd himsel emplyed in
lernin , the methd  persistent prctice in repetin nd writin
the ln  e itsel. A style ws t be rmed nly by becmin
bsltely milir with the clssic mdel.
[78] ii., 554.
Yet the lie t Sien, serene nd chrmin s it my hve been
r the ppil, ws, i we my jd e by his expressins in ther
cnnectins, mre r less  bre t the mster. He liked t think 
himsel s n thrity n the rt  techin , bt he seems lwys
t hve re rded techin s bein , r himsel, n interrptin t
the hi her interests  his lie. Ater  ew weeks he ws restless
 in, nd be ed permissin  his ppil t  n lne t Rme.


It is esy r  mdern t pictre the chrm which the Eternl City
with its cntless memrils  the ncient wrld mst hve exercised
pn  mn whse lie ws devted t the stdy  tht wrld, wh
spke nd wrte its ln  e, nd wh drew rm it lmst the whle
mteril  his intellectl ccptin. Nne  the bi rphers 
Ersms hs been qite ble t resist the tempttin t tell wht
he mst hve th ht nd elt in this  st presence; bt cndr
cmpels s t sy tht his wn witness n this pint is s me re s
cn well be im ined. Only ne r tw scttered expressins ive s
ny resn t think tht his impressins  Rme were t ll  the
kind they  ht in ll resn t hve been. It ws the pntiicte 
Jlis II.,  mn indeed chiely devted t the pliticl interests
 his ret plce, bt ls n e er ptrn  rt nd lernin ,
din his prt in the ttempt, never qite sccessl, t mke Rme
 rel centre  cltre. Wht ws tre  the ppe ws tre ls
 tht rp  ret preltes wh rmed rnd him  crt mre
splendid nd nt less wrldly thn tht  ny prely temprl rler.
Sy wht ne my nd, in ll trth, mst sy  the crrptin nd
scndl  the Rmn instittin, it ws  lie  immense ctivity
nd, r  thinkin mn, ne  ret interest. Rme ws live with
bildin ; pintin nd sclptrl decrtin were bein crried t 
hei ht nherd  in hmn histry. The ncient mnments were, it is
tre, st dispperin t mke rm nd t rnish mteril r new
cnstrctin, bt en h ws let t ive the interested trveller
bndnt s estin  wht hd been. Tht Ersms sw nd, ter
his shin, nted these thin s is certin; bt he elt n implse
t dwell pn them r t spek  them t thers. His lie drin
this irst[79] visit t Rme ws mre cmpletely tht  the literry
trveller nd si ht-seer thn it hd ever been nywhere. There is n
pretence tht he bsied himsel with stdy r with cmpsitin. S
r s he hd ny im it seems t hve been t mke cqintnce with
men  his wn kind nd their ptrns,--nr is there the sli htest
rm r sspicin tht in mkin these cnnectins he hd in view
ny lterir dvnt e t himsel. His best intrdctin ws the bk
 Ad es, by this time widely knwn nd everywhere jstly welcmed
s  mnment  vst lernin , immense indstry, nd n ri inlity
 th ht nt less ntewrthy.
[79] There seems t be n sicient resn t ccept, s
Drmmnd des,  previs trip  Ersms t Rme drin his
residence t Bl n.
Perhps the mst intimte cmpnin  these Rmn dys ws Scipi
Crtermchs,  Tscn schlr, with whm Ersms hd mde
cqintnce t Bl n, nd r whm he expresses nsl re rd.
"He ws  mn," he writes, " cris nd ccrte lernin , bt s
verse t disply tht nless y clled him t y wld swer tht
he ws qite i nrnt  letters." They hd met  in t Pd, nd
nw lived r while t Rme pprently in the retest intimcy,
shrin the sme bed t times, th h this it wld seem ws nt
n nsl pr  riendship with Ersms. Thr h Crtermchs
he ws intrdced t mny thers, schlrs  the sme type nd
reqenters  the ppl crt. The reslt ws tht he nd himsel
br ht int reltin with the mst distin ished Rmn circle. He
mkes the mst  this ct terwrd in deendin himsel rm the
chr e  nithlness t the ppl cse, nd there wld seem
t be n rm r dbt tht he ws t lest  well tlerted est

 the men wh were ivin the tne t the rlin sciety  the
cpitl. He clims intimte cqintnce with Tmms In hirmi, the
mst pplr precher  the city, the type  reli is rtr wh
ve scndl t the mre seris by rnishin his rtry rther
with clssic llsin nd qttin thn with prs nd texts
 the Bible. In his tretise n  lse prity  style clled
_Cicernins_, Ersms ives s  chice specimen  this kind 
prechin .[80]
[80] i., 993, 994.
He sys tht he ws r ed by his lerned riends t Rme t ttend
the discrse   ms plpit rtr whse nme he wld rther
hve nderstd thn expressed. The sbject ws the deth  Christ.
Ppe Jlis II. himsel ws present,  mst nsl hnr, nd with
him  ret crwd  crdinls, bishps, nd visitin schlrs. The
penin nd clsin prts  the discrse, ln er thn the rel
sermn itsel, were ccpied with prises  Jlis, whm the rtr
"'Jpiter Optims Mxims, brndishin in his ll-pwerl ri ht
hnd the three-rked tl thnderblt nd by his nd lne
din wht he will.' Everythin tht hd hppened in recent
yers, in Frnce, Germny, Spin, Prt l, Aric, Greece, he
declred hd been dne by the will  tht mn lne. All this
ws sid t Rme, by  Rmn, in the tn e  Rme, nd with
the Rmn ccent. Bt wht hd ll this t d with Jlis, the
hi h-priest  the Christin reli in, the vicr  Christ, the
sccessr  Peter nd Pl?--r with the crdinls nd bishps,
the vice erents  the ther Apstles? As t the tpic he hd
ndertken t tret, nthin cld be mre slemn, mre rel,
mre wnderl, mre lty, r mre sited t kindle emtin.
Wh, th h he were endwed with bt  very cmmn kind 
elqence, cld nt with sch n r ment hve drwn ters rm
men  stne? The pln  the discrse ws this:--irst t
depict the deth  Christ s sd nd then by  chn e  style
t describe it s lris nd trimphnt--in rder,  crse,
tht he mi ht ive s  specimen  Cicer's , by h
h  bl o
y  y h moo of h h  ll.
"HYPOLOGUS:--Wll,  h u

"BULEPHORUS:--Fo my , h h  okg h h u o
ho ml
holy flg h
h h ho

ll , to
tell t e trut I ws more i
lied to lug . I did ot see 
perso i t t w ole
ourse oe w it t e sdder, w e e ws
pilig up wit t e w ole for
e of is eloque
e t e umerited
sufferigs of t e io
et C rist. Nor, o t e ot er d, did
I see yoe t e more
eerful w e e ws w olly o

upied wit
s owig fort His det to us s triump t, prisewort y, d
"Not to mke more words bout it, t is Rom tlked i su

 very Rom fs io t t I erd ot ig bout t e det of
C rist. Ad yet, be
use e ws so egerly strivig fter 
eroi di
tio, e seemed to t e Ci
erois to ve spoke
mrvellously. Of is subje
t e sid rdly  word; e seemed
eit er to uderstd it or to
re for it. Nor did e sy
yt ig to t e poit or rouse y emotio. T e oly reso
for prisig im ws t t e spoke like  Rom d re

somet ig of Ci
ero. If su
ourse d bee delivered by 
oolboy to is mtes it mig t ve bee prised s  evide
erti tlet; but o su
 dy, before su
d o su
, I pry you, w t sese ws t ere i it?"
Amog t e
rdils two re espe
illy metioed s friedly to our
trveller, Rffelle Ririo, ep ew of Julius II., d t e eeti
Grimi. If we my trust Ersmus' llusios, e ws i t e wy of
frequetly goig i d out t t e ouses of gret me, but is

ter s  m of letters, w om it ws t eir pride d plesure
to fvour, seems to ve bee stri
tly mitied. I t e gret
t rog of followers of  pri
ely estblis met, oe wderig
olr more or less mde o gret mtter, d it would ot do, from
t e words " ospitlity" d "fmilirity" to rgue y very
persol itim
W t strikes oe most for
ibly is t e lmost totl bse
e of
yt ig like dis
ussio o publi
ffirs. T e oly topi
o w i

Ersmus t iks it wort w ile to mke y report is
studies, d o t is e gives us oly brief detil. T ere is o
tio t t t is visit to Rome d y de
isive iflue
e upo
Ersmus' ttitude towrds t e C ur
. T t ws lredy determied.
Not ig
ould be more disti
t t  is de
lrtios i t e
iridio d ow, quite re
etly, i t e Adges. Rome
ould rdly
fil to furis im wit ew suggestios d illustrtios, but it
ws s fr from for
ig im ito y ew ttitude of oppositio s it
ws from so iflue
ig Lut er o is visit  yer lter. Bot sw
my t igs w i
strtled d s o
ked t em, but Ersmus d lredy
ed t e limit of is
l developmet d Lut er d rdly
s yet begu to formulte is
ism of t e Rom istitutio.
T e oly ex
eptio to t e rule of ex
lusio from publi
ffirs is
foud i t e ivittio of Crdil Ririo to write  disserttio
o t e subje
t of t e proposed wr gist ei
e. It ws  most
ommissio, d Ersmus' solutio of it ws more t 
Ersmi. He wrote two tretises, oe for t e wr d t e ot er
gist it, t t t ose w o were to py t eir moey mig t ve t eir

e. He put more ert ito t e se
od, e sys, but t e dvi
of t e first ws followed. Bot t ese tretises were lost, e tells
us, by t e tre
ery of some perso. T ere ws  ufouded rumour
t t t e grim old soldier-pope, fidig Ersmus' setimets gist
wr very little to is tste, set for t e ut or d wred im i
future to let politi
s loe; but it is ig ly improbble t t if
Ersmus d d  iterview wit t e pope, eve uder so utowrd

es, e would ve filed to mke some metio of it.
Yet it would be fr from true t t Ersmus lived i Rome wit is
eyes s ut. Numerous little llusios to Rom d Itli trits i
is lter writigs s ow t t e ws ere, s everyw ere, very mu

of  um beig, keely live to w t ws goig o bout im d
midful of its use o future o

T e youg r
bis op ws soo re
lled to S
otld, d four yers
fterwrd e met is det , fig tig brvely by is ft er's side
o t e ftl field of Flodde. Before levig Itly e desired to
see Rome, d i is
ompy Ersmus, w o d mew ile retured to
Sie, wet b
k gi s lered guide d
ompio. T ey seem to
ve goe sout wrd s fr s Nples, but to ve mde oly  flyig
visit eve i Rome. Ersmus remied t ere fter is pupil d left,
d it is durig t is fil visit t t t e questio of  permet

e begis to be dis
As to t e possibility or probbility t t Ersmus would defiitely
settle t Rome, t ere is room for differe
e of opiio. If oe my
judge from is ow llusios t ere ws o
outry, i w i
e mde
osiderble sty, w i
did ot t oe time or ot er o

to im s  possible reside
e for is de
liig yers, d o t is
geerl pri
iple, w y ot Rome s well s ot er pl
e? Our study
of is
ter up to t is poit, owever, s ould led us t o
e to
uderstd t t, of ll pl
es i t e world, Rome ws lest suited
to is pe
ulir geius. Alt oug e ws quite
pble of defedig
bot sides of y rgumet, e
ould ot be ppy w ere e must
eit er do t is ll t e time or else
ommit imself wit out reserve
to t e domit toe of  so
iety w i
would evetully bsorb im

ompletely. Furt ermore, t e lmost ievitble

oditio of  Rom
e ws t e oldig of  e

l offi
e d t is,
o mtter ow ig it mig t be--t e ig er i f
t t e worse--ws
s fr s possible from t e lie of Ersmus' mbitio. Betus sys
e ws offered t e very ig fu
tio of ppl peitetiry, wit
 it t t t is mig t be  steppig-stoe to ig er digities.
W e we
osider t e kid of offi
il pl
es filled by my of t e
Itli umists, su
 offer does ot seem improbble. Less
is oe's feelig bout  propositio mde by t e eeti Crdil
Grimi t t Ersmus s ould tt
imself to is persol followig
d, presumbly,
otiue to live t e life of  idepedet s

out of is iterview wit t e

rdil is wort w ile
for us be
use of its my detils. It ws writte i 1531, fter t e
det of Grimi, d is give i  letter[81] propos of  refere
to t e
rdil's servi
es to t e
use of letters, espe
illy i
mitiig so lrge d vluble  librry.
[81] iii., 1375 A-D.
"W e I ws t Rome I ws ivited o
e d gi by im, t roug
Pietro Bembo, if I m ot mistke, to  iterview wit im,
d t oug I ws t t t time very verse to seekig t e
of gret me, I t lst wet to is pl
e more from s me t 
from desire. Neit er i t e
ourtyrd or i t e vestibule did
t e s dow of  um beig pper. It ws t e fteroo our.
I gve my orse to my m d wet up loe, foud o oe i
t e first ll, or i t e se
od, d still o to t e t ird,
fidig ot  door
losed d woderig t t e solitude. Oly
i t e lst did I fid oe m,  Greek p ysi
i I believe,
wit s ve ed, gurdig t e ope door. I iquired w t t e

rdil ws doig. He replied t t e ws wit i tlkig wit

some getleme, d s I sid o more e sked w t I wis ed.
'To mke my
omplimets to im,' I sid, 'if
oveiet, but s
e is ot t leisure, I will
ll gi.' T e, s I ws bout
to go d ws lookig out of t e widow, t e Greek retured to
me d wited to see if I d y messge for t e
'T ere is o o

sio to iterrupt is
e,' I sid; 'I
ome gi soo.' Filly e sked my me d I gve it
to im. W e e erd it e rus ed i before I kew it d soo

omig out sid I ws ot to go wy d I ws summoed t o

As I
me i t e
rdil re
eived me ot s 
rdil d su

rdil mig t re
eive  m of t e lowest
oditio, but s

ollegue. A
ir ws set for me d we tlked more t  two

ours, durig w i
e did ot permit me to tke off my t.
For  m t t e very eig t of fortue is gr
iousess ws
mrvellous. Amog t e my t igs e sid bout study, s owig
t t e d t e i mid w t I ler e s si
e doe bout
is librry, e beg to urge me ot to leve Rome, t e urse
of geius. He ivited me to s re is pl
e d t e ejoymet
of ll is fortues, ddig t t t e wrm d moist
limte of
Rome would suit my elt , d espe
illy t t prt of t e
w ere e d is dwellig,  pl
e built by  former pope w o
ose t e site s beig t e most elt ful i t e
After we d d
osiderble dis
ussio e set for is ep ew,
w o d just bee mde r
bis op,  yout of  lmost divie
dispositio. As I strted to rise e forbde me, syig:--'It is
omig for t e pupil to std before t e mster.' At legt e
s owed me is librry of books i my togues.
"If I d kow t is m erlier I s ould ever ve left 

ity w i
I foud fvourble to me beyod my deserts. But I
d lredy rrged to go d mtters d goe so fr t t I

ould rdly ve remied oourbly. W e I sid t t I d

bee summoed by t e kig of Egld, e
esed to urge me, but
begged me over d over gi ot to suspe
t im of ot meig
w t e d sid or to judge im 

ordig to t e usul mers

ourtiers. Wit diffi
ulty I got wy from t e
but w e e ws uwillig to deti me loger, e lid it upo
me wit is lst words t t I s ould see im gi o t e
t before I left t e
ity. I did ot retur, u ppy m
t t I ws, lest I s ould be over
ome by is kidess d
my mid. But w t
 oe do gist t e ftes!"
T is iterview ws eld t t e lst momet of Ersmus' sty i
Rome, before is deprture for Egld. His 

out mkes it
t t e d ot kow Grimi before, so t t we
ot re
ko im
mog Ersmus' Rom ptros. Nor
 we give too mu
weig t to
t e promises of employmet. From t e
tio i w i
es t e story it seems quite probble t t t e
rdil d
some ide of mkig use of im i
tio wit is librry; but
t e gret s
olr d o f
y for beig ybody's librri. His
lmets t t e d ot listeed to Grimi's propositio my sfely
be treted s
From Rome Ersmus joureyed rpidly by wy of Bolog, t roug
Lombrdy, over t e Splge Pss to C ur, Cost
e, d Strssburg,
w ere e took s ip o t e R ie for Holld. We er of im t
Louvi d Atwerp d t e i Egld erly i July, 1509. W t
ws t e fruit of is erly t ree yers i Itly? He d perfe
imself i Greek, s fr t lest s e eeded to go for t e
purposes e d most t ert. He ws Do
tor Ersmus, d eeded o
loger to feel imself overs dowed by t e superior disply of some
iferior tlet. He d give to t e world i is Adges  gret d
serious work, w i
ws wel
omed wit t e gretest pprovl by t ose
ompetet to judge. He d see for imself somet ig of t e
life of t t people w i
d doe most to brig pure lerig to
oour. Filly e d mde persol
tios wit i t e world of
olrs, w i
were likely to be of gret future servi
e to im.
It would be most iterestig if we
ould per
eive wit y
tess t e dire
t effe
t of t is experie
e upo Ersmus'
literry produ
tio, but su
ot be tr
ed i y
tive wy. T ere re of
ourse refere
es to Itly to be foud

efort i my of is writigs, but it would be too mu
to sy
t t t e Itli visit ws i y wy epo
-mkig for is literry

ter. Literture ws ot  t ig of tiolities; it ws

osmopolit, d t e s
olr ws s mu
, or s little, t ome i
oe pl
e s i ot er. T e geius of Ersmus ripeed slowly d
turlly, followig t e lies of its erly
e d movig o
wit out otewort y iterruptio to its ig est 
Still, few biogrp ers ve filed to f
tio of
d effe
t betwee t e Itli impressios of Ersmus d t e fmous
stire, i w i
lmost t o
e o is rrivl i Egld e gve
free rei to is
ism of
d so
iety. Certily is
illustrtios i t e Prise of Folly poit ofte to buses w i
mig t ve see d felt i Itly. His dire
t tt
ks upo popes d

 rdly fil to ve gied  dded poit from is
observtio t first d. W t is ot
ler is t t su
stimulus to
is reformig zel ws yt ig more t  i
I ll t e erlier writig of Ersmus we ve oted espe
illy t e
qulity of t e morl pre
er. W tever e tou
ed took o ievitbly
t e toe of ex orttio. Ad t is sme qulity
otiues to pper
i ll is work, w eever t e subje
t rises, eve ever so little,
bove t e level of mere grmmti
l detil. Oe oug t to ve t is
previlig seriousess of purpose espe
illy i mid i
omig to
e of work s t e Prise of Folly.[82] Of ll Ersmus'
writig, oe ws d is more widely kow t  t is. It is
stire d ws iteded to mke me lug . Ersmus d to pologise
for it, s e did for most t igs e wrote, d i t e itrodu
epistle to is der More e pologises i dv
e for llowig
imself so lively  diversio. T ere
 be o doubt t t t e me
of is dy were vstly mused by it. It d for t em t e
rm t t
lwys belogs to literry refere
es to fmilir types d figures,
illy if t ese refere
es re
ed i
olloquil p rse.
Ersmus ws tolerbly sure of is udie
e, d
out upo
ppluse from every
lss for t e musemet it got out of is

ism of ll ot er
lsses of me. Yet it is  little diffi
for oe of us to rise more t   oest smile t t is elborte
foolig. After ll, oe feels t e sermo uderet , d pys is
tribute to t e ut or, ot primrily s  umourist, but s  m of
sese w o lig tes is style  little, to be sure, yet remis ll
t roug plily
ious of is missio. If oe seeks  logy,
oe my sy, per ps, t t t e Prise of Folly is bout s fuy s
opy of Pu
[82] iv., 405-503.

out of t e origi of t e is s trilin s in

the cse  mst  his wrks. He tells Mre tht he th ht it t
drin his jrney rm Itly t En lnd in 1509, nd he pt it
int rm t Mre's hse in Lndn sn ter. The title,
, he explais as a pu  e's ame, the humu f it
bei that e as "as fa fm the thi as his ame as ea it."
The b is itte ude the fm f a ati, a _declamati_
the auth calls it, deliveed by Flly i pes t a ima iay
audiece made up f all classes ad cditis f me. Flly is a
female, ad this is quite i hamy ith mst f Easmus' efeeces
t the sex. She eas cap ad bells as he academic ab ad bi s

t the lectue-m he attedat spiits, Self-lve, Flattey,

Oblivi, Laziess, Pleasue, adess, Watess, Itempeace,
ad Sleep. Flly is the ffspi f Wealth ad Yuth, b i the
Ftuate Isles, hee all thi s  ithut til, ad used by
the jvial ymphs, Dueess ad I ace.
The ati be is by Flly cmmedi heself as idispesable t
the ell-bei f me. Thei vey existece is  i t he, f 
ma uld put his head it the halte f maia e if he thu ht it
ve caefully befehad as a ise ma uld; ad  ma uld
may if she caefully csideed the s s f childbith. aia e
theefe is  i hlly t adess, the cmpai f Flly. But 
ma, havi ce expeieced the pais f child-beai , uld eve
submit heself t them a ai but f athe f Flly's miistes,
Oblivi, h cmes i thus t save the ace. Fm this fist example
e ca see h Easmus plays ith the meai f the d "flly." It
is quite impssible t defie it by ay e tem hich uld cve
his umeus vaiatis, but e may see plaily fm the stat that
it is vey fa fm bei hat e mea, i plai mde E lish, by
the d "flishess." It cmes eae t the meai e fid i
Shaespeae f "icet"  "thu htless." "Flly" is the ppsite
f studied calculati f a mee mateial ed. It is the impulse by
hich me pefm thei blest actis. It is ima iati, idealism,
sacifice f self f thes. N hee des Easmus lay d  ay such
eeal defiiti as this, but his examples sh that sme such
meai as i his mid, ad the Flly hm he all s t paise
heself is theefe eally a vey paise thy pes. She hates the
mateialism f the Philistie--the cl, calculati mechat-spiit
hich uld educe life t a thi f dllas ad cets--ad she
fids he illustatis f hat is ble petty ealy hee a
ptimistic philsphe f mde times uld fid them.
The happiest times f life, says Flly, ae yuth ad ld a e, ad
this f  eas but that they ae the times mst cmpletely ude
the ule f flly, ad least ctlled by isdm. It is the child's
feedm fm isdm that maes it s chami t us; e hate a
peccius child. S me  e thei cham, ad hece thei p e,
t thei "flly," _i. e._, t thei bediece t impulse. "But if,
pechace, a ma ats t be thu ht ise, she ly succeeds i
bei dubly a fl, as if e shuld tai a c f the pize-i ,
a thi hlly a aist atue." A ma ill be a ma,  matte
hat mas she ea, ad she u ht t be pud f he flly ad mae
the mst f it.
I deali ith Fiedship, Flly fist emids he heaes that
evey ma has his faults ad plety f them, ad that eveye is
all t ee i spyi ut the faults f thes ad f etti his
 . But  thee culd be  such thi as fiedship " ee it t
f that hich the Gees s beautifully call ,  h
h my
b l 'folly' o 'goo u.'" H Emu hmlf mk
"_ul_" h quvl of "_moum f
l_." A o h
lo of f mly, bu of hub  f, ul  ul,

hol  uo, ll hum lo,  ho,  m olbl
by h ul of hum k. A  h bl of lov o
oh mk hum lf bbl, o Slf-lov, o of Folly'
m,  h  bl  o h , 
 f  m 

oully hm of hmlf, of h o, h

ouy, h oul
v  o y ohy 
o. Coug  h vy  o of
Folly,  h oof  h u  buglg of g hk h
hy y o o hg. So

oul o mk  ol

 ho  h om by 

lg h   m ough o k ou
of ubl
bu. Plo' fmou yg: "h y h  h
 ul by  hloo h, o ho ul  gv o hloo hy,"
 fl, fo hoy ho  h h  v mo ufou
 h ho o gov. Tho,  ho, hv u h
hy uook o mg, bu  hv b v by u
h v
folly  h of Quu Cuu, ho, o by om mo of
 hmlf o h fl go. W m oul

om u
, bu h  of loqu m hv glof hm.
Sg   my m, v h vu of u
  o g o folly,
"fo h  m go o h book of h 
  g ou
of hm ohg bu oy 
uo, hl h fool, g lg
h h ol  h-o-h
, l, f I mk
o, h u u
." "Moy  f  h  o g
l o h ug of ff; bu Folly, bg
h by h of h, bluh  ohg  m 
Th  m hk of o oly  lv ll h o o
Folly, bu h h k of hg h  f
 ok,  mog h
, h you hv lf
"o o mu
h  m    k of go h v y
x y h  v ll; o h, o y  lly,
 mbl mg of  m, ull  lmo vo of hum
bly;  m ho mu vyhg by h l, v
mk y mk hmlf, bu h h y of  lyx fo h
l flg of oh. Th' h k of  b you uly
 m !"
Bu ho h y u fo u
u? Who oul hv hm fo 
ul,  gl,  hub,  f?
"Who oul o f o k ou of h vy m of h

o  of fool, ho bg  fool hmlf oul ko ho o

omm  oby fool, ho oul b gbl o h k,

mly, h g mjoy of m, l o h f, my
h h f,  lvly bl-
om o,  goo-m 

om,  ho  m '_qu hl hum   lum

u_'--' ho hol ohg hum fog o hmlf.'"
om    fo of h "_ulu_"  y h 
by Emu. I h  h book mgh hv b
ll "h 
of hum u," fo " om"   ym
lly  mg
oy o ul hum 
. Su
h ov-  om
mb lf, bu folly mk     
"No , I hk, you  h oul h  f m   ll
h m. Fh!  houl hv  of oh
ly  oh
Pomhu fo  o. Bu I, Folly, omm by go
omm by houghl, omm by fogful
of vl o h ho  of goo,  
g h  
lu, o
omfo m  h g mfou h
hy  o gl o  v h h mu of h F 
fulfll  lf h 
ully lf hm. Th l o hy
hv o
lg o lf h mo hy jo
  lvg, o f

 hy fom bg  h  bu."

Rl my  o b ou of hmoy h Nu--hll 
ll m
mbl b
u h
o fly lk h b, o lk o ll fou
lk b? "W mgh  ll
ll  -ho uh y b
u h
o' ko gmm 
o  ." So Emu go o, 
xvg , o glofy Nu 
o h A. Th
lf lo  h y h
om  o Nu,  h of b 
b; h  h ul
u  bough o h lf of
m, h mo hy g. Of ll m h h   ho 

ll "_moo_," "_ulo_," "_fuo_," "_blo_"; hy hv o

f, o mbo, h vy o lov. Thy  l y my;
vyo lk hm   hm; h vy b 
og  hm
 k of 
 bg. P

o lv hou hm,  vlu
h l- kg mo h h fl of h
Ho mu
h lu
om  h ol fom hobb! O m lgh
 hug, h ll  bu
mo; oh h  g fo
bulg; oh 
hg f  vo, hug fo 
. Oh k o gmg  go o u h , bu
Folly  o qu
l hh o
lm h  h
hl o
o. Sh h o oub, ho v, bou ho ho ho h folly
by u ou obv
  lgo,  h,  ll b
obv, Emu' fo of folly gully hf. Fom h
o o  bg o l ov o  mg omhg mo ly
lk h  houl b 
l o gv . Folly hlf
o b

o h h

om o lgou fu. Slf-
vy uful  l hg, bu o gl of jugm  u
o ho
" ho hug h lly hough l uo h f hy  
oo o  Poly hmu-Cho h, hy ll o  h
y; o ho lu  u of S. Bb h  fx fomul
of o f hy g hom f fom  bl; o, f hy
u o S Emu o
 y h
l  y,
y h hy ll oo g 
h. No hy hv v 
ul, lk   H olyu, 
oh g h vy ho of hm, 
k ou h b l
 om." "Bu h hll I y of ho ho fl
hmlv o  ly h
ouf o fo h
ho hv mu off h uo of Pugoy hou  o
 f by  -
k, o g, y, moh,  y lk
h mul l
o-bl?... No u o m om m,
o ol, o jug, ho by yg ou  y fom ll h
lg, hk h hol lough of h lf 
l ou 
--ll h ju, lu, uk, ll h qul,
h, flhoo, bough off by 
bg  bough off  u
h  y h h my o bg ov
g h  

l of
m!... A '  mu
h h m
hg h h vl
lm fo hmlv 
l  h h  
l fu
o  h  
l fom of
oh ?--, fo xm l, h o  goo fo h ooh
h o hl  om  vl, oh o ol
o y; h o h u o h 
k  h o k

 of h flo

k  o o--fo  oul b oo log  oy
o go hough h hol l. Th  om h  goo fo
mo hg h o  of h  
lly h vg moh
of Go, o hom h m of m o y mo hoou h o h

A y f ll, h hg m g fom h   oly h
 of Folly.
Th ol  full of fool, y h   gl o g hm ll
fo h o  of.
"Bu f om hful  m  o   y h 
u:--'o lv ll  h y o  ll; you ll b g
 of you  by g o you moy h of v
, ,
vgl, y  fg,   b lf; h  ll
hl you f you m h lf'--I y f   m  o

om g u
h uff  h, ho mu
h h  h oul
oy  h oubl h oul bg u o mol!"
Th  o
l of fool o hom Emu y h  
h goo ll h o ho hom h
ll "gmm." Folly

lm h fo h

 o. Nohg
oul b mo 
h h ofo   o fo h foolh lf-m 
h kll h h
h hy mk oh hv  goo  o o of hm
 hmlv. Th  of h m, h  of h

hooloom, h umul of h u l,  ll
l by h
fly  of Folly, ho mk hm blv hmlv "ul of 
kgom  g  h of Phl o Doyu."
"Wh  joy f hy f ou ho  h moh of A
ov om ll o uko  o h vulg, fo

, '_bubqu_' (
o h), '_bovo_' ( b l),
ulo_' (
u- u), o g u om h  
 ol o
u h o-ou l--by Jov! h bggg,
h um h, h glof
o!  f hy h
 o k Bbylo."
Th gmm joy ohg o mu
h  ubbg 
h oh'
k--ul  b ouly bug 
h oh.
Th qubblg of h hloo h  mog Folly'

,  fom h h u o ully o Emu'  
k b, h 
holog. Qu  h   of h
_E ol ob
uoum voum_, bu mo 
ly, h um h
oblm h
h, o Folly y,
hfly  hm,-" hh h  y  of m  h v go?
hh h  mo h o 'flo'  Ch?   
obl o oo h h Fh
oul h h So? Coul
Go hv k h fom of  om,  vl,  ,  quh,
o  o? Ho h quh oul hv 
h, o m
hug u o h
o? Wh oul P hv
 f h h

lb h Eu
h hl Ch  ll hgg o h

No h y of Ly
u, h
oul  hough  o ll,
 h fm of h o l. A h ff
 by h mulu of h 
"o h o mgh oo g ou of  lbyh h ou of
h g of Rl, Noml, Thom, Alb,

m, S
o. A h o ll by y m, oly h

hf of hm. I hm ll h  o mu

h lg, o mu
fm, h I houl y h vy  ol hmlv
oul hv o b of oh   f hy 
om ll o

u h m h h  
 of holog. Pul
k omhg bou fh; bu h h y 'fh  h
 of hg ho  fo, h v
 of hg o ,'
h  f fom bg  fo f fo  _Mg_; 
hough h k ll ough bou
hy, h fo 
vo of   h hh
h  of h f l
o h Coh  by o m goo l

." "Th
 ol k h moh of Ju, bu h
h of hm h ho 
 hloo h
lly  ou holog hv o, ho h 
v fom h  of Am? P 
v h ky, 
fom o ho oul o hv gv hm o  u ohy k ,
bu I oub hh h v 
h h ubly of ko g
ho o ho h o ko lg
 hol h ky of ko lg."
"Th  ol oh , bu   , follo g m ly h
ul:--'Go    ,  hy h oh hm
mu oh hm      uh'; bu  o o  
h   vl o hm h  mg   h 
o h ll  o b oh , ov oly  hv  o
fg hl u gh, h flo g,  h y  h hlo
bou  h. Fo ho
 u h hg ul h
h gou ou x  hy y  h uy of hy
h u hum oo of Aol  h S
"M hl h 
ul o of h  ol  uly
. Whl hy k u h fool  h 
hy f
y h, lk Al  h o, hy  holg u
h og Chu
h h h yllog
ll,  h
joy hy k  moulg  moulg S

og o
h ll  f   m of x; y h o 
f  f 
hoolm hv ub
b o hm, hy hk mo
ghy h h l  of Solo o h 
l of o , 
o of h ol, f yhg o o qu o h
l h h
luo m l
  x l
, hy 
 by  o
l 'h o oo  
lou; h  l
; h m
k of hy; h h' h gh
ou.' So h, by h m, h B m, o Go l, o
Pul, o P, o S. Jom, o Augu--y, o v
h mo Aol Thom hmlf,
 mk  m  Ch
ul h 
kog of h b
hlo b ."
Th m mho of 
o, h o  
l f

o h m h of Folly,  uu  h
 of h mok,
o "lgou," boh l fl, Emu y, fo h g
 of hm   f  obl fom lgo,  h  o
k of m hom you  mo   o m  ll l
. Thy 
hmlv u o h go
y h lm-book hy
 o h
h,  by ou h o  f hy
hby l h  of Go. Som of hm
o  h v,
ggo,  h , ho g off h ovy  flh  ho lg
fo lm. Y h my kv y o  hmlv off  lvg
h lf of h  ol.
"Wh  jok   h hy o ll hg by ul,   
by  k of 
; , fo 
, ho my
ko h ho mu b  h, of h
olou vyhg
mu b, h vy  h gb, of h ml, ho my

 ' bh o h gl, of h fom  of ho my

y h
o l, ho my fg bo h
h,  ho my hou hy my l . No ho
h  uqul quly h , h h  u
h  vy
of o  ?  y h ll h o, hy o
oly mk lgh of oh, bu
om o   o oh, 
h m ho of  ool

hy mk  bl o  
 g  oh fho o  
olou  ll k
 h. Som of hm  o vy 'lgou' h hy  o
ou gm bu o of h-
loh, h of l uh;
oh o h
oy  l hou  ooll h.
Oh g oul  oo ou
h oo  moy, bu m hl
mk f h   om. Thy  ll yg o o g
 h m of lf; o of hm o follo h xm l of
Ch, bu ll o b ff o fom h oh....
"Th g  of hm hv u
h fh  h
 hum o h hy hk o hv  o  
ough fo u
h g og, v h h m ll
om h
Ch hll  ll h  
lm h ul of
O ll ho h blly uff h vy o of fh; oh
ll ou ou  hu buhl of lm; oh ll
u my of f  mk u fo hm ll g by lmo
bug hmlf   gl . Aoh ll bg fo 
h  h of
mo h v h  oul hly hol
hm; oh ll bo h fo xy y h h v
h  y x
  h oubl glov o h h; oh
o l o gy  flhy h o lo oul hk 

. Aoh ll bo h fo lv lu h h l
h lf of   og, l y fx o h m  o; oh
ll  ly h vo
 ho h mu
hg; oh 
 fom oly lvg; oh  ogu
l by log l
. Bu Ch ll u  h l
bggg  ll m:--' h
 h  k of Jum?
O l  h my o  I 
og,  h  h oly hg
I h ohg bou. I h y I om o ly  ug
o   bl, h h
 of my Fh, o o
o l
 y  fg, bu o  of lov.' A y o o
h ho o l, ho blog,   , o oh

ommo lh--  
lly h Bggg F, b
u hy
ko vyboy' 
 hough h hy
ll '
Emu mo h h h h f h y ough of lyg
f  loo h h 

of o hm, , ug
ogh h ul u o h 
hoolm  h mok, ho  u h


hg of h f by om x
"I mylf hv h o guh fool--I bg h o,
hol I oul y-- ho,   fmou mo o h myy
of h Holy Ty,  o o ho h u
ommo lg 
l h  of h holog, ook  qu  mho,
mly fom h l, yllbl,  
ou lf 
h fom h gm of ou  vb, of j
ubv, o h g mo of om, bu
ug oh
o gumbl  h o of Ho
: ' h  ll h o bou?'
"A l h go h hg o  o f, h h ho  
lly  y mhm

hlk  ou, h h
myy of h hol Ty  x   h um of
gmm. Th mo hghly holog
l o    y fo

gh moh ov h  

h, o h h hol gh of h
y  o h   h  o  bl   mol; bu h

 ugh fo h ygh  hk h gloy vy

h ly bough.
"Th I hv h oh,  o
og  u
holog h you oul hk S
ou h b bo g 
hm. H  ou o x l h myy of h m of Ju
 ho  h mvllou ubly h  ho l ly

l hv
oul b 
 of hm. Fo  o h
 h bu h
  vly h mg of h
v Ty. Th b
u h f
, _Ju_,  
__, h 
o, _Jum_,  _m_, h h, _Ju_,  _u_,
bh h f
 h l  u kbl myy, h h
g, of
ou, h h  h bgg, ml,
 . Sll h m  myy mo ob
u h ll

og o h 

 l of mhm
: h o v
h o Ju o  o qul  h h h l 
lf lo  h ml; h h ho  h h 
ll by
h Hb  _y_  h _y_  h lgug, I blv, of
h S
o [_S
ooum_], m __,  h
mo h Ju  h ho houl k  y h  of
h ol."
Th ul o h f  h om mug

m of h
m of ubl
 kg, h
h hy m o hv 
qu by
m lyg  xggg h goo 
 l of ho
hv omho 
k u h  h.
A o 
ou, Folly boo  fom h oo
of "h f Emu" o Duk Phl ,   ll o h

ommo l

m u o h l  
kl lvg 
h g of h goo of h ubj
. Sh
gum log fom 
ul o
h o , o hom h y h  
  h mouml g:
"Tho u m off, ho   h l
 of Ch, f
hy houl y o m h lf, h  h ovy, h
ol, h 
hg, h
o,  h 
o of h ol, o
f hy houl hk of h mg of ' o ,' h  'fh,'
o v of 'mo holy,' h oo  h ol
oul b
mo ful? Who oul buy  h ll h ou
, o,
h h h bough , oul f  by  o  oo
 vy vol
? Wh joy hy oul lo, f o
houl g hol of hm! Wom, y I? y, v  g of
h l Ch ll u of. Wh lh, h hoou, 

oqu,  o, x, ulg

, ho, mul,
gu, lu, hy oul lo!...   h l
oul hv vgl, y, f, , mo, uy, go
  hou oh ful ol of h m o.
"A  ough o o fog h u
h  m of 

o y, o, vo

, omo, 
mul-v, goom, moy-
hg, o
u,  gy
o y I mgh mo,  I o  
 you ,--h
h hol  m h
h o bu--I bg you o--hoou
h Rom S, oul b v o vo. Th oul b 
hum   bombl , bu ll mo x
bl oul
 b h ho
 of h Chu
h  u lgh of
h ol houl b u
  ff. A   o ,

f h  y ok o b o,   lf o P  Pul,

ho hv ly of lu fo ; bu f h  yhg of
ho o of lu, hy k h fo hmlv. A o 
h  h, hough my 
, h  

of m ho lv mo jovlly  l bu h
. Thy
hk hy  fulfllg h ul of Ch f hy ly h
 of bho  h my
l  lmo h

mo, l of b

o, of v
, of 
h blg 
ug. Dog m
l  qu qu
 ou of ; o 
h h o l  h ok; o  
h holy 
 u   m fo h 
hool; yg 
ou; hg    
h bu f fo om; o
b oo  b; o b
oqu  hooubl  u ohy
of hm ho ll 

 llo h g of kg o k h
bl f; o   ub
omg  o b lf o 
Th  of h is n ttempt n Flly's prt t spprt her
cse by reerences t thrity, nd especilly,  crse, t the
clssics nd t Scriptre. It is lbred, nd neither very in enis
nr very msin . The jke-mchine es  little hrd t this st e
 its pr ress--yet the slid serisness  the thr's prpse
is s cler here s nywhere. In his reerences t Scriptre he
cnnt resist the tempttin t ive  prtin lin t the lish
interprettins which it ws the mst imprtnt wrk  his lie t
crrect. Fr instnce, he mkes Flly sy:
"I ws mysel bt ltely present t  thel icl
discssin--r I ten  t sch meetin s--when smene sked
wht thrity there ws in Hly Writ r brnin heretics
insted  cnvincin them by r ment. A certin hrd ld
mn,  thel in by the very lk  him, nswered with ret
scrn, tht the pstle Pl hd lid dwn this lw when he
sid '_hereticm hminem pst nm et lterm crreptinem
devit_'--'vid n heretic ter ne r tw ttempts t
cnvince him.' And when he hd yelled t these sme wrds ver
nd ver  in nd sme were wnderin wht hd strck the mn,
he inlly explined '_de vit tllendm hereticm_'--'the
heretic mst be pt t  lie.' Sme brst t l hin , bt
there were nt wntin sme t whm this cmmentry seemed
perectly thel icl."
An pprtnity r Ersms t express his sl detesttin  wr
is rnished by his reerences t the ppl wrre, which seemed t
him the mst njstiible  ll rms  militry ctin. Indeed
ne my irly sy tht in this yer, 1509, Ersms hd clerly in
mind nd hd lredy iven expressin t the views which were t
rm the rnd-wrk  the Rermtin. This ws the yer bere
Lther's jrney t Rme, nd Ersms himsel ws jst resh rm
the impressins  n Itlin residence. The wrldly lives 
cler ymen, rm ppe t rir, the brden  mnstic vws, the
i nrnce  thel ins nd their schlstic bckers, the wickedness
 indl ences, the llies nd sperstitins  sint-wrship,
the crel wei ht  ceremnies which hd n spprt in ny wrthy
thrity--ll these thin s were s bldly pinted t by Ersms in
1509 s ever they were t be shwn by ny rermer   lter dy.
The Prise  Flly crried his prclmtin int  thsnd hnds
tht wld never hve tched the mre sber, bt nt mre seris,
criticism  less brdly hmn critics.

Ntrlly the Prise  Flly clled rth  certin criticism rm

individls beln in t sme  the clsses ttcked. T this
criticism Ersms replied nly by renewed nd mre bitter cmment
in the sme spirit. Qite dierent, hwever, ws the dmnitin he
received rm his excellent riend, Mrtin Drpis  Lvin, nd
dierent t crrespnd ws the spirit  his reply.[83] He ddresses
Drpis thr ht s  sincere mn nd schlr, whse view hd
been bscred by the misnderstndin s  thers; in ct, when y
cme t the bttm  it,  ne mn, by whm is dbtless ment
the nhppy scpe t, Nichls E mnd. Drpis hd dispprved the
_Mri_ chiely n ccnt  wht seemed t him its lippnt tne
nd the tendency it mst hve t excite hstility  inst relly
d nd vlble thin s. Ersms deends himsel n the rnd tht
the lippncy is nly pprent,  mere li htness  tch t cmmend
the seris prpse nderneth. He hd been bitterly bsed, bt he
bses n mn; n the cntrry, he hs tken ret pins t vid ny
persnl ttck r even n ttck pn ny clss  men s sch.
[83] _Epistl pl etic d Mrtinm Drpim Thel m_, ix., 1.
"I hd in view n ther bject in the _Mri_ thn I hve hd in
ther wrks, bt sed nly  dierent methd." He mentins specilly
the _Enchiridin_, the _Institti Principis_, nd the Pne yric
n Philip  Br ndy, seris wrks en h in ll cnscience. He
ives the milir stry  the cmpsitin nd irst pblictin
 the bk. He hd jst retrned rm Itly, ill nd wrn t by
the jrney. He ws t Mre's hse nd be n t ply with the ide
 the _Mri_, nt with ny intentin  pblictin, bt jst t
while wy the time.[84] He shwed his riends wht he hd written,
nly tht he mi ht enjy his l h the better in cmpny. They liked
it, nd nt nly r ed him t inish it, bt sent it ver t Pris,
nd there it ws printed, bt rm crrpt nd even mtilted cpy.
Hw displesin it ws Drpis my jd e rm the ct tht within 
ew mnths it ws reprinted seven times in dierent plces. "I y
think this ws  lish perrmnce n my prt, I shll nt deny it."
[84] He sys elsewhere tht Mre ws the cse (_ctr_)  his
writin the bk. iii., 474-D.
Yet it hs been pprved by the mst ms thel ins, men  the
hi hest chrcter nd lernin , "wh hve never been mre riendly
with me thn since its pblictin, nd wh like it r better thn I
d." He wld ive their nmes nd titles were it nt tht this mi ht
expse them t the bse 
"thse three thel ins r rther, when y cme t tht, 
_tht ne_." "I I shld pint him in his tre clrs n ne
cld wnder tht the _Mri_ is displesin t sch  mn; ny,
I shld be srry i it did nt displese sch peple, th h it
des nt sit me either. Yet it cmes the nerer t plesin me
becse it des nt sit sch chrcters s tht."
I Drpis cld nly lk int his sl he wld see hw mny thin s
Ersms hs _nt_ tched pn, lest he ive ence, nd lest he sy
nythin indecent r seditis.
Or nlysis  the _Mri_ is well sstined by Ersms' ttempt
here t shw tht by _stltiti_ he des nt men mere hmn
lishness. "There is n dn er tht ny persn will here im ine
tht Christ nd the pstles were relly ls." They nly hd 

certin element  wekness cmmn t ll hmnity, nd which,

cmpred with the eternl wisdm, my well seem nt lt ether wise.
The tne  the whle deence is dmirbly clm, nd shws  sincere
re rd r Drpis, th h, like certin islnders, he des need t
hve  jke explined nw nd then.
Ersms did nt ex erte the immense nd immedite pplrity 
the _Mri_. Or bibli rphy enmertes rty-three editins in
the thr's lietime, nd it hs been trnslted nd reprinted
since then n ininite nmber  times. Hlbein msed himsel
by decrtin the mr in  his cpy with these rde bt clever
wd-cts which hve cme t be the permnent types  the vris
rders  Ersmin ls.

The third visit  Ersms t En lnd ws br ht bt, i we my
trst his wn ccnt  it, by very r ent reqests n the prt 
his En lish riends. He liked t spek  the "mntins  ld"
which hd been prmised him i he wld nly cme thither, nd it
ws  deli htl rievnce r him t ncy tht he hd been trn
rm his belved Itly, where he hd cnsistently cmplined  his
lt, nd t which he lked bck s the srce  ll his lter
physicl ills, nly t ser  new series  misrtnes in En lnd.
The ct very likely ws tht, herin  the chn e  vernment
in En lnd, nd hvin dne wht he went t Itly t d, he hped
r sme dvnt e rm  mve, nd snded his En lish riends
n the prspect. Or erliest cle is  letter rm Mntjy,[85]
t which, crisly en h, the dte 1497 hs been ixed in the
cllectin. Mntjy speks  receivin tw letters rm him, which
re, nrtntely, lst t s, nd ls  hvin written him
persnlly  cn rtltry letter n the cmpletin  his Ad es,
which letter, t ether with the berer, hd been lst n the wy.
It is evident, therere, tht s r s Mntjy ws cncerned,
Ersms hd nt, in ny strict sense, been "invited" t cme int
En lnd. Evidently he hd cmplined  his misrtnes in Itly, nd
cnslted with Mntjy bt  chn e:
[85] iii., 7-E.
"Yr letters ve me t nce jy nd pin. Tht y shld, s
y  ht, milirly nd s  riend, cnide t yr Mntjy
yr plns, yr th hts, yr misrtnes nd trbles, ws 
jy indeed; bt t lern tht y, my derest riend, t whm
bve ll I desire t be  service, were ssiled by sch
vried shts  rtne, tht ws  rie."
Even bere the kin 's deth  letter[86] hd been sent t Ersms
by the Prince  Wles, bt it cntined nthin mre thn  rml
cmpliment pn the ret clerness  his style, nd  mild repr
tht he hd hd the bd tct t recll t him the recent lss  his
ryl brther, the Kin  Cstile. Next time, he hpes, he my write
 smethin mre  reeble.

[86] iii., 1840-E. The letter, 1839-E, rm Henry s kin , sed
by Mr. Frde t this pint t shw hw r ently Ersms hd been
invited t En lnd, beln s prbbly mny yers terwrds.
Bt, i he ws nt "clled" t En lnd, certinly Ersms hd resn
t believe he wld be welcme there. The ccessin  the yn
kin , whse eners dispsitin nd tste r the reinements 
lie were well knwn, seemed t pen p  vist  prmise r ll
kinds  tlent. Mntjy writes[87]:
[87] iii., 7-E.
"I hve n er, my der Ersms, bt tht when y her tht
r prince Henry _ctvs_, r rther Octvis, hs by the deth
 his ther scceeded t the kin dm, ll lm will t nce
vnish rm yr mind. Fr wht my y nt prmise yrsel
rm  prince whse extrrdinry--ny, lmst divine chrcter
is well knwn t y; t whm especilly y re nt merely
knwn, bt knwn milirly--why, y hve even received letters
rm him written with his wn hnd-- thin which hs hppened
t ew men. I y knew hw like  her he nw ppers, hw
wisely he cndcts himsel, hw he lves trth nd jstice, wht
vr he is shwin t men  letters, I dre swer, th h y
hve n win s, y wld ly ver t s in ll hste t reet
this new nd spicis str.
"Oh! my der Ersms, i y cld nly see hw wild with jy
everyne here is, hw they re cn rtltin themselves n
hvin sch  prince, hw they pry r nthin mre ernestly
thn r his lie, y cld nt help weepin r jy. The very
ir is ll  l hter, the erth dnces, everythin lws with
milk nd hney nd nectr. Avrice slinks wy r rm the
peple; enersity sctters welth with lvish hnd. Or kin is
e er, nt r ld, nt r ems nd precis stnes, bt r
virte, lry, nd immrtlity. I will ive y  tste:--the
ther dy he ws wishin himsel mre lerned--'ny,' I sid,
'tht is nt wht we wish r y, bt rther tht y my
welcme nd encr e lerned men.' 'Why shld I nt,' he
replied, 'r indeed witht them I cn scrce exist.' Wht
nbler wrd cld hve llen rm  prince's lips? Bt I m 
rsh ellw t ventre t pn the cen in my slender brk;
let this tsk be reserved r y. I wnted t prece my letter
with these ew wrds in prise  r divine prince, s tht,
i ny lm remins in yr hert, I mi ht stri htwy bnish
it, r, i it is ll ne, tht I mi ht nt nly cnirm the
hpe y hve rmed, bt mre nd mre increse it....
"I cld cnsle y nd bid y be  d cheer, did I nt
believe tht whtever y cld dre t wish r, y hve
lredy n yr wn ccnt very resnble hpes  ttinin .
Y shll think tht the lst dy  yr trbles hs dwned.
Y shll cme t  prince wh will sy:--'here re riches; be
the chie  my pets.'"
The letter then briely smmrises the cntents  the lst epistle
nd cntines:

"I will nw  bck t yr wrk, which ll re prisin t the
skies. Abve ll the rchbishp  Cnterbry ws s plesed
nd deli hted, tht I cld nt et it t  his hnds. 'Bt,'
y will sy, 's r nthin bt prises.' The sme rchbishp
prmises y  livin i y will retrn nd hs iven me ive
pnds csh t be sent t y r the jrney. I dd s mch
mysel, nt relly s  it, r this is nt the kind  thin
t be clled  it, bt nly tht y my hsten t s nd n
ln er trment s with ln in r y.
"Finlly, there remins nly this bit  dvice t ive: dn't
im ine tht nythin cn be mre rtel t me thn yr
letters r tht I cld be ended by nythin rm y. I m
exceedin ly trbled tht yr helth hs becme impired in
Itly; y knw I ws never retly in vr  yr in
there. Bt when I see hw mch wrk y ccmplished nd hw
mch me y hve wn there, by Jve! I m srry I did nt 
with y. Fr I think tht sch lernin nd sch me wld
be well b ht with hn er, pverty, nd pin, ny, even with
deth. Plese ind enclsed  drt r the mney; lk t r
yr helth nd cme t s s sn s y cn."
Certinly  mre thn riendly letter. Tre, Mntjy mkes n
deinite prmises n his wn ccnt, bt his lwin pictre 
the ret times cmin r En lish letters ws en h t ire the
mbitin   less credls schlr thn Ersms. The deinite
prmise rm Archbishp Wrhm   chrch-livin nd the ernest 
 it r trvellin expenses were ttrctins nt t be resisted.
Ersms rrived in En lnd in 1509, nd remined there ntil the
erly prt  1514. O these nerly ive yers we hve bt little
stisctry ccnt. There is n indictin tht it ws nyne's
ir t lk ter him in ny wy. We knw tht he lived chiely
t Cmbrid e nd Lndn. He my even hve mde  shrt trip t the
Cntinent in the intervl. He ws evidently mch cncerned with mney
mtters, mkin cntinl cmplints  pverty; bt t the sme time
he lived in pprent cmrt, nt t sy  kind  lxry. Wht he
ment by pverty ws the bsence   sicient estte rm which
t live s he wld hve liked t live. He certinly hd mney mre
r less re lrly rm Mntjy, nd t sme time drin his En lish
residence he ws ls hndsmely rnished with  re lr incme by
Wrhm. The peclir thin bt these En lish pensins ws tht they
were enerlly pid when de, nd tht ws mre thn cld be sid
 ny  the ther beneits prmised t Ersms, either bere r
The rrn ement with Wrhm ws ne qite in ccrd with the prctice
 the dy in sch cses, bt nt lt ether in hrmny with sme
 Ersms' lty pretensins bt pecniry brdens. When Wrhm
ered Ersms the "livin "  Aldin tn in Kent, it ws rther 
severe test  the ms critic's sincerity in his tternces n
chrch mrlity. A mre l rnt cse  bse  chrch nds, s
r s the principle ws cncerned, cld hrdly be im ined. Here
ws  needy rei ner, wh hd, t be sre, the rdintin  
priest, bt wh rm the mment  his rdinin hd never dne 
sin le clericl ct, t be set ver  cn re tin  En lish sls,
nly tht their cntribtins mi ht  t spprt him in  lie 
schlrly prdctin. T be sre there were excses en h in the
hbits  the dy, bt it ws precisely s  critic  sch crrpt
prctices tht Ersms ws nw bere the wrld. Anther pllitin

my be nd in the ntre  the wrk which the schlr hped t d
in the leisre ths cqired. He ws lyin ret nd r-rechin
plns r sch n dvncement  thel icl stdy s shld brin
in  relly new er  Christin ith nd prctice. Still ll sch
resnin cld nt bscre the rel ct tht t ccept sch 
prish livin ment t tke mney r which n prper eqivlent ws
iven t thse wh rnished it. This ws nt Wrhm's mney, bt
nly  trst in his hnds r the beneit  the sls  Aldin tn.
Ersms' wn ccnt[88]  the trnsctin represents himsel s
very relctnt t tke the beneice, nd Wrhm s insistin pn
it s r ently tht he inlly cld n ln er resist. Frtntely
we hve the ri inl dcments[89] in Wrhm's wn wrds, nd there
is n hint  ny relctnce n Ersms' prt. The ct ws, t ll
events, tht he tk the livin , did nthin by wy  service, nd
in  ew mnths resi ned it in exchn e r n nnl pensin 
twenty pnds. Wrhm's ccnt  the mtter es r beynd the
rdinry limits   deed  recrd, nd is in ct nthin less thn
 rnk pl y r  prctice which he did nt himsel pprve. It
ws r t cmmn r  prish priest t resi n  livin with dties
in exchn e r  sbstntil lie-pensin witht dties, nd Wrhm
declres his determintin nt t permit this srt  thin in the
dicese  Cnterbry. He mkes, hwever, n exceptin in Ersms'
cse, he sys, r severl resns: First, he is
[88] Kni ht's Lie  Ersms, p. 155, nte .
[89] Kni ht, Appendix, xl., nd Vischer's _Ersmin_, 1876, pp.
"mved by the cntless d qlities  Ersms,  mn 
cnsmmte bility in Ltin nd Greek litertre, wh drns
r  e with his lernin nd tlent like  str, t drw bck
 little rm r enerl principle. And n ne  ht t think
it strn e i in the cse  s rre  mn nd ne plced
beynd every hzrd  enis, we th ht we  ht t chn e
smewht  r previs cstm. Fr when we hd cnerred n
him  beneice with the cre  sls, nmely, the chrch 
Aldin tn, lth h he ws extremely lerned in thel y,
s in every ther brnch  lernin , still s he cld nt
prech the wrd  Gd t his prishiners in En lish r hld
ny cmmnictin with them in their wn tn e,  which he
is entirely i nrnt; r this resn desirin t ive p the
bere-mentined chrch, _he be ed s t prvide r him n
nnl pensin_ in the sme. We th ht tht _t  ree t his
s estin_ wld be pritble t the sls, nd t the sme
time he wld be ble the mre reely t prse thse literry
stdies t which _he is cmpletely devted_. We were ls nt
 little mved by his nsl ectin twrd the En lish,
r he hd iven p Itly, Frnce, nd Germny, where he mi ht
hve lived prspersly en h, nd preerred t betke himsel
hither, tht he mi ht pss the remnnt  his lie here mn
riends, nd tht these in trn mi ht enjy the cmpninship 
s lerned  mn."
Here is the plin evidence   seris dcment  recrd tht
Ersms nt nly tk his pensin ldly, bt ctlly be ed r

it, nd it is qite in hrmny with this tht we terwrds ind him
qrrellin with his sccessr bt certin tithes which the ltter
th ht were t be dedcted rm the twenty pnds.
This dcment bers dte the lst dy  Jly, 1512, s tht Ersms
ws nqestinbly well prvided r rm tht dy n. The dte 
his irst indctin int the prish ws Mrch 22, 1511, nd s he
ths hd  ri ht t the whle incme  the plce drin  yer nd
 third, there is n resn why he shld nt hve hd  tidy sm t
his credit.
The letters  Ersms drin this En lish visit re ew nd ive
bt little insi ht int his wy  lie. The mst interestin  them
re thse written rm Cmbrid e t nther rei ner, n Itlin,
Andres Ammnis, wh, like himsel, hd wndered t En lnd t
seek his rtne, nd hd becme  Ltin secretry t the yn
Kin Henry VIII. In dditin t this nctin he ppers lter
s hldin sme ppl cmmissin in En lnd. With this cheerl
nd prcticl specimen  the y Itlin Hmnism  the dy r
schlr crrespnded with ret reedm. Ammnis ws nt trbled
by Ersms' dred  plce-hldin , nd ws rnkly enjyin the
snshine  the crt. He seems t hve dvised Ersms t try his
rtne ls in Lndn. Ersms replies:
"As r yr seris dvice tht I shld py my crt t
Frtne, I cknwled e the tre nd riendly cnsel, nd I
will try it, th h my mind rebels  inst it mst strn ly nd
predicts n d nd hppy tcme. I I hd expsed mysel t
the risks  Frtne I shld hve pt mysel nder the lws
  me, nd, i I hd t beten, shld be mkin the best
 it, knwin , s I d, tht this is jst Frtne's trick, t
set p sme nd restre thers s she pleses. Bt I th ht
I hd prvided mysel  inst hvin nythin t d with this
wntn mistress, since Mntjy hd br ht me int hrbr nd
int  settled thin . Nr des the kindness  Frtne twrds
thers, n mtter hw nwrthy, trble me ne prticle, s help
me Gd! The sccess  y nd the like  y brin s me  rel
nd ncmmn plesre. Even i I were cmpelled t  int 
clcltin  my merits, my present rtne wld seem beynd
my deserts, r I mesre mysel by my wn t nd nt by yr
Little inclined s Ersms ws t try his hnd t crt, it ws nt
r lck  theries s t hw ne mi ht best et n there. He ives
Ammnis the beneit  them in this clssic pss e[90]:
[90] iii., 122-B.
"Nw then I, the sw, will prceed t tech Minerv; bt, since
y rbid it, I will nt philsphise t mch. The irst thin
is, ive yr rehed sch  rbbin tht y will never blsh
t nythin . Mix yrsel in everybdy's bsiness. Elbw side
everyne y cn. Lve n ne nd hte n ne with yr whle
hert, bt mesre ll thin s by yr wn dvnt e. Let the
whle rderin  yr lie be trned t this ne im. Give
nthin witht hpe   retrn;  ree t ll thin s with ll
men. 'Bt,' y sy, 'these re cmmnplces.' Well, then, since
y insist pn it, I will ive y  specil piece  dvice,
bt in yr er, mind y. Y knw the jelsy  these
Britns; mke se  it r yr wn d. Ride tw hrses t

nce. Hire vris sitrs t keep t y. Threten t leve

nd be in t pck p. Shw letters cllin y wy with ret
prmises; tke yrsel  smewhere, tht bsence my shrpen
their desire r y."
This is  very exct descriptin  Ersms' wn tctics in the
Btts dys, nd cntines t it his ctin very well whenever he
ws cnsiderin  chn e  residence.
In 1511 he writes t Ammnis:
"I y hve ny trstwrthy news, I wish y wld let me knw
it. I wnt especilly t her whether Jlis is relly plyin
Jlis, nd whether Christ keeps p his ncient cstm 
specilly tryin with the strms  dverse rtne thse whm
he desires t mke specilly his wn."
Writin rm Qeen's Clle e in A st, 1511, he sys:
"I m sendin y sme letters which I hve written t Bmbsis
[his lerned riend, we remember, in Bl n]. As t mysel
I hve nthin new t write, sve tht the jrney ws mst
ncmrtble nd tht my helth is s r very dbis n
ccnt  tht ver-exertin. I expect t mke  smewht
ln er sty in this clle e, bt s yet I hve nt iven mch 
mysel t my herers, desirin t lk t r my helth. The
beer in this plce I dn't like t ll nd the wine is r rm
stisctry. I y cn rder me  l n  Greek wine, the
very best y cn ind, y will mke yr Ersms hppy, bt
let it be very r rm sweet. Dn't wrry bt the mney; I
will py in dvnce i y like."
Ammnis sent the wine, nt s mch s Ersms hd expected, bt
resed with sme het t her  py, nd we hve Ersms' reply:
"Y hve iven me  dble plesre, mst mible Ammnis,
by sendin with yr merry wine letters r merrier still, nd
smckin exctly  yr enis nd dispsitin, nd these in my
jd ment re the sweetest tht ever were. As t my mentin 
py which mkes y s n ry, indeed I ws nt i nrnt  yr
chrcter, which is wrthy   kin ly rtne. Bt I sppsed
y were in t send me  ret l n, en h t lst me
severl mnths--yet even this is t lr e r  mdest mn t
receive witht py.... I mrvel tht y stick t yr nest s
perpetlly nd never tke  li ht wy. I y shld ever be
plesed t visit this Acdemy y wld be welcmed by mny, by
me irst  ll. Y bid me cme bck t y i I et t tired
here, bt I cn't see ny ttrctin r me in Lndn except the
cmpninship  tw r three riends."
Ammnis ccmpnied the En lish rmy in the Flemish cmpi n 
1513, nd Ersms writes t him in cmp, thnkin him r the vivid
descriptin  rmy lie which he hs sent hme, nd intrdcin him
t vris riends  his wn in the Lw Cntries.
"O hppy mn," he sys, "i Gd permits y t retrn sely
t s! Wht merry tles yr experience  these hrrrs
will spply y with r the rest  yr lie! Bt, my der
Ammnis, I beseech y  in nd  in, s I hve ctined
y in my recent letters, by the Mses nd Grces, lk t

tht y d yr i htin rm  se distnce. Be s ris

s y like--with yr pen,--nd sly with it ten times ten
thsnd men  dy." As r himsel, he sys he is hn in n t
Cmbrid e, "lkin bt me every dy r  cnvenient chnce
t ly wy. Only n pprtnity ers. I m kept ls by
the thirty nbles which I m expectin t Michelms. I m s
n ire with zel t re-edit Jerme nd t illstrte it with
cmmentries, tht I seem t be inspired by sme d. I hve nw
nerly cmpleted the revisin nd hve cllted mny ncient
texts, nd ll this t ret expense t mysel."
At Cmbrid e, s elsewhere, Ersms seems lwys t hve been n the
eve  li ht, wrkin wy t wht interested him, bt ne lectin
everythin else s r s pssible.
"I wrte t y nce nd  in in cmp," he sys t Ammnis,
"bt menwhile ws in  n less seris wrre here with my
emendtins  Senec nd Jerme thn y with the Frenchmen.
Alth h I ws nt in cmp, Drhm hs iven me ten crwns
rm the French plnder;--bt I'll tell y ll bt this
when I see y, nd menwhile will be n the lkt r yr
militry letters.--Gd-bye, best  riends. I dn't need t
sk  y wht y re lwys din  yr wn ccrd, nd
yet I d sk tht i ny chnce ers y will help me ln
with  wrd  recmmendtin. Fr these ew mnths I hve cst
nchr secrely. I thin s  well, I will ncy tht here is my
ntive lnd, which I hve preerred t Rme nd where ld  e
is cmin pn me; i nt I will brek wy, it desn't mch
mtter whither, nd will t ll events die smewhere else. I
will cll pn ll the ds t ber witness t the cnidence by
which _he whm y knw_ hs rined me. I I hd prmised with
three wrds wht he hs repeted s ten nd in sch sndin
phrses, I knw tht wht I prmised I wld hve perrmed.
My I be dmned i I wldn't rther die thn let  mn wh ws
dependent n me  destitte. I cn rtlte y, der Ammnis,
tht Frtne, nt lwys s njst s she is t me, is nw, s I
her, smilin pn y. Gd-bye  in."
"Fr mnths nw," he writes, "I hve been livin the lie  
snil, sht p t hme nd brdin in silence ver my stdies.
There is  ret del  slitde here; mny re wy thr h
er  the pl e,--th h even when everyne is here it is 
slitde. The expense is intlerble nd there is nt  rthin
 prit. Think  it! I swer by ll tht's scred tht in the
ive mnths since I cme here I hve spent sixty nbles nd hve
nly received ne rm sme  my herers nd tht with mch
relctnce n my prt. It is certin tht drin this winter I
shll leve n stne ntrned nd, s they sy, shll wei h the
nchr  my sety. I thin s  well, I shll mke mysel 
nest smewhere; i nt, I shll certinly ly wy rm here, I
knw nt whither; i nthin else I will t lest die elsewhere."
Ammnis reprts pn his pr ress in be in r Ersms, nd
Ersms, qite in the tne  the ld crrespndence with Btts,
thnks him nd r es him t rther ert.
These dlrs letters ber dte 1511, bt cnnt ll beln in tht

yer, nd mnth nd dy re ten bvisly incrrect. Dted erly in
1512 we hve  letter t the bbt  St. Bertin. Ater explinin
why he hd nt reprted himsel erlier, Ersms es n t sy:
"I y cre t her hw I m ettin n: Ersms is lmst
cmpletely trnsrmed int n En lishmn, with sch
distin ished cnsidertin m I treted by very mny thers,
bt especilly by my incmprble (_nics_) Mcens, the
rchbishp  Cnterbry,--ptrn nt  me lne, bt  ll
lerned men, mn whm I hld the lwest plce, i indeed I
hld ny plce t ll. Eternl Gd! hw hppy, hw prdctive,
hw redy is the tlent  tht mn! Wht skill in nrvellin
the mst wei hty mtters  bsiness! wht ncmmn lernin !
wht nherd- rcisness twrds ll! wht enility in
cmpny, s tht,-- trly ryl qlity,--he sends n ne
wy rm him sd. And besides ll this: wht ret nd redy
enersity! Finlly, in sch  cnspics psitin  rtne
nd rnk, hw bsltely ree rm h htiness,--s tht he
seems t be the nly ne wh is i nrnt  his wn retness.
In crin r his riends n ne is mre ithl r mre
cnstnt. In shrt he is indeed _Prims_, nt in rnk lne bt
in ll prisewrthy thin s. Since I hve this mn r  riend,
why shld I nt deem mysel exceptinlly rtnte, even i
there were nthin mre?"
It is idle t ttempt t determine which  these mds represents
the rel stte  mind  Ersms t Cmbrid e. Prbbly he ws t
his ld tricks  mkin himsel vled by thretenin t leve n
nberble sittin, nd t the sme time mkin tht sittin
pper s deli htl s pssible t nyne tside wh mi ht
cnceivbly rise  bid r him in nther qrter. He tells Ammnis
 in hw chrmin Itly ws t him nd wht  prspect he hd iven
p there t cme t En lnd. He thinks he will cme t Lndn, nd
be s Ammnis t ind him  wrm ld in nt t r rm St. Pl's.
He cnnt  t Mntjy's s ln s "tht Cerbers" is there.
Evidently he did nt hve the rn  mny hspitble hmes in Lndn.
As re rds Ersms' icil psitin t Cmbrid e there is sme
rm r dbt. He ppers in the lists  niversity icers s
the "Ldy Mr ret's Pressr  Divinity," bt precisely wht this
mens is nt cler. The Ldy Mr ret ws the Cntess  Richmnd,
mther  Kin Henry VII., never qeen hersel, bt climin the
dbtl hnr  bld-reltinship t sixty r seventy persns 
ryl line e. This benevlent ldy, inlenced ndbtedly by the
dvice  Jhn Fisher, terwrd Bishp  Rchester, hd nded
in 1503  redership in divinity t ech  the ret En lish
niversities. The endwment hd been intrsted t the bbey 
Westminster with instrctins t py ver the slry t the hlder.
The electin t the ice ws t be biennil, nd besides the
chncellr ll dctrs, bchelrs, nd inceptrs in divinity were t
hve the ri ht t vte. The plce ws t be n sinecre. The reder
mst red _libere_, _sllenniter_, nd _perte_. He ws t hve n
ees beynd his slry, nd mst red sch wrks in divinity s the
chncellr with the "clle e  dctrs" shld jd e necessry.
He mst "red every ccstmed dy in ech term, nd in the ln
vctin p t the ei hth  September, bt mi ht cese in Lent, i
the chncellr shld think it, in rder tht drin tht sesn
he nd his ditrs mi ht be ccpied in prechin ." Evidently it
ws cntemplted tht the reder  the Ldy Mr ret shld devte
himsel whlly t this wrk. The slry ws the very respectble

sm  sixty-ive dllrs  yer, en h t prvide  mdest livin

r  mn  qiet hbits. We re lmst whlly witht inrmtin
s t Ersms' perrmnce  the dties  this ice. Everythin
pints twrd the belie tht in the sense described by the ct 
ndtin he never illed it t ll. The nly reerences he mkes
re t his ttempts t tech Greek, certinly nt ne  the
nctins  the Ldy Mr ret Pressr. It hs ten been ssmed
tht[91] Ersms' cmplints bt his Cmbrid e lie were csed
by  sense  ilre in his wrk s  techer. We re prepred t
believe rm ll his previs experience tht he never cred t
scceed s  techer, nd, rther, we my be tlerbly sre tht,
r this qite sicient resn, he ws nt  very d techer.
He held his redership, we my believe, r tw terms  tw yers
ech--i indeed he held it t ll--nd menwhile tried t ive Greek
lessns, bt cld et neither ppils nr py. Mr. Mllin er sys,
"Disppinted in his clss-rm, he tk re e in his stdy," s i
his literry wrk were  kind  lst resrt n the ilre  his
tre pressin.
[91] Fr exmple, by Mr. Mllin er in his Histry  the
University  Cmbrid e, p. 50 & _._
The trth wld seem t be jst the ppsite  this. Wht relly
cmmnded the lle ince  ll tht ws best nd mst eective
in Ersms' mkep ws his stdy nd writin . His prper medim 
sel-expressin ws his pen, nd ntil he tk his pen in hnd he ws
nt his best sel. I he ws cpble  ny sincere tternce he ws
sincere when he sid t Ammnis tht he elt himsel mved by n
lmst divine inspirtin when he t in n his Jerme. A ew mre
limpses t the wrkin  his mind t Cmbrid e nd we will pss
n t see wht he ccmplished there in the wy  cntribtins t
lernin .
Besides Ammnis his ther mst imprtnt crrespndent drin this
time ws his ld riend, Jhn Clet, nw deinitely settled in
Lndn s den  St. Pl's nd retly bsrbed in the wrk which
ws t be his mst lstin mnment, the new schl r bys. The
crrespndence seems t hve be n by  be in letter rm Ersms
in which he hd ne beynd the limits  d tste, nd t which
Clet hd replied with sme het. It is nt beynd r belie tht
Ersms my hve iven his letter  jcse rm, nd tht Clet,
En lishmn s he ws, hd nt seen the jke. At ll events, Ersms
"Y nswer serisly  letter written in jest. Perhps I  ht
nt t hve jked with s ret  ptrn, yet it plesed my
ncy jst then t try  little 'Attic slt' n sch  very der
riend, bein mindl rther  yr entle chrcter thn 
yr hi h psitin. It will be the prt  yr riendliness
t mke llwnces r my wkwrdness. Y write tht I m in
yr debt whether I like it r nt. Indeed, my der Clet, it
is hrd, s Senec sys, t be n nwillin debtr, bt I knw
n mn t whm I wld mre willin ly be in debt thn t y.
Y hve lwys hd sch kind eelin s twrds me tht, even
i n d ices hd been dded, still I shld hve been
retly yr debtr; bt nw y hve dded s mny services nd
kindnesses tht i I did nt cknwled e them I shld be the

mst n rtel  men. As t yr embrrssments I bth believe

in them nd rieve r them, bt my wn diiclties were s
mch mre pressin tht I ws cmpelled t tke dvnt e 
yrs. Hw nwillin I ws t d this y my ther rm the
ct tht I ws s ln in skin wht y hd ln since
prmised. I dn't wnder tht y, ccpied s y re with s
mny irs, shld hve r tten yr prmise; bt when we
were in yr rden tlkin bt the _Cpi_,[92] I prpsed
t dedicte sme jvenile wrk t r ythl prince, nd y
sked me t dedicte the new wrk t yr new schl. I nswered
with  smile tht yr new schl ws  trile pverty-stricken
nd wht I needed ws smene wh wld py csh dwn. Then y
smiled. Then, when I hd tld ver mny resns r expense, y
sid with sme hesittin tht y cld nt ive me s mch
s I needed, bt wld ldly ive iteen n els. When y
repeted this with n e er ce, I sked i y th ht tht
ws en h. Y nswered e erly  in tht y wld willin ly
py tht. Then I sid I wld ldly tke it. This reminder
will perhps brin the mtter t yr memry. I mi ht pile p
mre r ments, i y hd nt ith in me  yr wn ccrd.
There re sme, nd riends, t,--r I hve n delin s with
enemies nd dn't vle their wrds ne hir,--wh sy tht
y re  little hrd, nd in ivin mney  trile exctin .
They sy tht this des nt cme rm menness--s I nderstnd
them--bt becse rm the very entleness  yr ntre y
cnnt resist thse wh press nd r e themselves pn y,
nd re the less eners with yr mdest riends becse y
cnnt stisy bth.... I it wld nt brden y t send me
the remnnt  wht y prmised, s my irs re t present,
I will tke it, nt s  debt, bt s  it t be repid when
I cn d s. I ws srry t her, t the end  yr letter,
tht y were s nslly brdened by bsiness cres. I cld
wish y were s r s pssible remved rm the cres 
this wrld, nt r er tht the wrld's llrements cn ly
hld pn y, bt becse I shld like t see sch enis,
elqence, nd lernin s yrs whlly devted t Christ. I
y cnnt escpe, lk t tht y d nt sink deeper nd
deeper. It mi ht be better t il thn t by sccess t s
ret  price, r the hi hest d is pece  mind. These
re the thrns tht ccmpny riches.... I hve inished the
clltin  the New Testment nd m in n t Jerme. When I
hve inished him I will ly t y."
[92] _De dplici cpi verbrm et rerm._
Sin lr tht in ll Ersms' cmplints  his Cmbrid e lie he
mkes n reerence t ny ilre n the prt  the thrities
t py him his de stipend. It seems cler either tht he held n
psitin which crried  slry with it, r tht his be in ws r
"extrs" beynd the mdest needs   celibte schlr. Sme li ht is
thrwn pn this pint in  letter t Clet, dted Octber, 1513, bt
qite s likely beln in , s Mr. Drmmnd s ests, in 1511.
"I m nw whlly bsrbed in the _Cpi_, s tht it seems like
 re lr eni m t be in the midst  plenty [_cpi_] nd yet
in the depths  wnt. And wld tht I mi ht brin bth t 
cnclsin t nce; r I will qickly mke n end  my _Cpi_
i nly the Mses will vr my stdies mre thn Frtne hs
p t the present time vred my estte....

"In yr er  mney I rec nise yr ncient d eelin
twrd me nd I thnk y with ll my hert. Bt there is
ne phrse, th h y se it in jest, tht stin s me t the
sl:--'i y wld be hmbly.' Perhps y men, nd very
prperly, tht t ber my lt with sch imptience cmes whlly
rm hmn pride, r, indeed,  entle nd Christin spirit
mkes the best  everythin . Still mre, hwever, I mrvel hw
y pt t ether hmility nd shmelessness: r y sy, 'i
y wld be hmbly nd mke yr demnd shmelessly.' I,
ccrdin t cmmn s e, y men by hmility the ppsite 
rr nce, hw re impdence nd mdesty t be pt t ether? Bt
i by 'hmbly' y men 'servilely' nd 'bjectly' y dier
very mch rm Senec, my der Clet, wh thinks tht nthin
cmes hi her thn wht is b ht with pryers, nd tht he des
 r rm riendly service wh demnds  his riend tht lwly
wrd, 'I be y.' Scrtes nce sid, cnversin with sme
riends:--'I shld hve b ht me  clk t-dy i I hd hd
the mney,' nd Senec sys:--'he ve t lte wh ve ter
thse wrds.' ...
"Bt nw, I pry y, wht cld be mre shmeless thn I,
wh hve been  pblic be r ll this time in En lnd? Frm
the rchbishp I hve hd s mch tht it wld be mre thn
inms t tke ny mre, even i he shld er it. Frm N.
I hve be ed bldly en h, bt s I sked witht shme s
hs he witht shme replsed me. Why nw I seem t shmeless
even t my der Lincre, wh, when he sw me in wy rm
Lndn with brely six n els in my pcket, nd knew hw eeble
my helth ws, nd tht winter ws cmin n, yet e erly wrned
me t spre the rchbishp, t spre Mntjy! Bt I will rther
pll mysel t ether nd lern t ber my pverty brvely. Oh!
tht ws  riendly cnsel! This is why I especilly lthe my
te, tht it des nt permit me t be  mdest mn. As ln
s my stren th wld crry me, it ws  plesre t hide my
need--nw I cnnt d tht nless I chse t ne lect my lie.
And still I m nt yet s lst t shme tht I sk ll thin s
 everyne. Frm thers I sk nt, lest I et  resl, bt
rm y with wht ce, pry, cn I sk? Especilly since y
yrsel hve nne t mch  this kind  ds. Yet, i it is
bldness y like, I will end my letter with the very bldest
clse I cn. I cnnt s pt side ll shme s t be  y
with n excse,--bt I m nt s prd s t rese  it, i
sch  riend s y shld ive it me willin ly, especilly in
the present stte  my irs."
These selectins rm the En lish crrespndence hve mde it cler
tht Ersms in En lnd ws precisely wht he hd lwys been, 
keen-si hted bserver  men nd thin s,  hter  ll shms bt
his wn,  strdy be r,  jvil cmpnin nd crrespndent when
he ws in the md, bve ll n independent liver nd thinker,
dredin ny rtine tht ws nt sel-impsed, bt cpble  stedy
nd persistent wrk when he cld pt his time n cn enil tsks.
O these lbrs, t which he devted himsel in En lnd, the new
editin  the Greek New Testment, r, s he preerred t cll it,
the "New Instrment," held the irst plce in his interest. It ws
nt t be pblished ntil 1516,  yer r mre ter he hd let
En lnd, nd Ersms sys tht he cnslted mnscripts in Brbnt

nd Bsel bere printin ; bt it seems tlerbly cler tht 

cnsiderble prt  the preprtry wrk ws dne t Cmbrid e.
He writes t Clet,[93] s erly s 1511: "I hve inished the
clltin  the New Testment," by which he mst men tht he hd
dne ll tht he intended t d t it in En lnd. In spekin 
the wrk t Bsel he reers t the ret hste with which it ws
pshed, the bject bein , prbbly, n Frben's prt, t et hed
  similr ndertkin reprted t be nder wy in Spin. This
ltter wrk, t be knwn s the "Cmpltensin Ply lt," ws in
n nder the directin  Crdinl Ximenes t Alcl (Cmpltm).
It ws t inclde the whle Bible, nd th h the New Testment ws
cmpleted in 1514 it ws held bck t pper with the rest in 1520.
When Ersms sys[94] tht he sed "very mny mnscripts in bth
ln  es, nd thse nt the rediest t hnd, bt the mst ncient
nd mst crrect," he is spekin ter the stndrds  his dy.
In ct, recent schlrship hs shwn tht he nt nly sed very
deective mnscripts  n ret ntiqity, bt tht he iled t
mke deqte se  the best ne t his dispsl.[95]
[93] iii., 107-E. It relly seems  little t mch t plce this
be in letter, s Mr. Drmmnd des, in 1512, ter Ersms hd
received his pensin rm Wrhm.
[94] vi., _d init._
[95] C. R. Gre ry, _Prle men_ t Tischendr's New Testment,
i., 207-210.
In spite  the ct, then, tht the ctl wrk  pblictin ws
dne t Bsel, we my irly cnt this ret wrk s ne  the
rits  the En lish perid. Ri htly t estimte the vle  this
service t the cse   resnble Christinity, we mst cnsider
r  mment the cnditins  biblicl schlrship in the yer
1511. Tht the ltimte ppel in mtters  Christin ith ly
t the inspired wrd  the rec nised cnn  Scriptre, n ne
dbted r  mment. Tre, the vernin pwers  the Chrch hd
insisted tht ln side this srce  trth there were tw thers
 eql imprtnce, the trditin  the Chrch nd the thrity
 the Rmn ppcy; bt Chrch nd ppcy hd lwys been cnceived
 s expressin their wn jd ment thr h their interprettin
 Scriptre. Nthin which they cld ly dwn cld ever be in
cntrdictin t the tre techin  the cnnicl writin s. A
mdern mind wld sy, therere, tht nthin cld hve seemed
mre imprtnt t these interpretin  ents thn t knw precisely
wht the writers whm they were interpretin hd sid nd ment.
One wld think tht every ert wld hve been mde rm the
be innin t secre nd mintin  versin  the Scriptres in their
ri inl rm,  sch nqestinble ccrcy tht ll devitins 
interprettin cld be nticipted nd checked.
The immense presti e which the Rmn vernment  the Chrch mi ht
ths hve secred t itsel ws delibertely thrwn wy. Nt nly
did the chie chrch thrity d nthin itsel t prmte s
prcticl nd s pritble n ndertkin , bt it systemticlly
checked the erts  individls nd rps  schlrs t
cntribte twrd this end. It rested ll its wn interprettin
pn  trnsltin int Ltin, the s-clled _Vl t_, which hd
been mde by Jerme in the yers jst bere nd jst ter 400, nd
repetedly declred by the Chrch t be the sle thrised versin.
This trnsltin ws, s r s the New Testment ws cncerned,

 revisin  erlier Ltin versins crelly cmpred with the

Greek ri inls. The Old Testment ws trnslted rm the ri inl
Hebrew with clse reerence t the Sept int nd the erly Greek
cmmenttrs. The bvis mtive  the Chrch in clin in t this
deective presenttin  its wn spreme thrity ws the mtive 
nirmity. The ln er the crrectin  errrs cld be pstpned,
the mre hpe tht n eective criticism  instittins restin ,
perhps, n errrs wld rise.
O ll tendencies in hmn sciety nne ws s retly nd s
jstly dreded by chrch thrity s the tendency t criticism.
And by criticism we d nt men  crpin ppsitin. We men
nly wht the wrd prperly dentes: inqiry int the exct cts
bt ny iven sbject. In prprtin s the ret strctre
 ecclesisticl thrity hd rwn mre cmplicted, this
nervs dred  ree inqiry hd incresed. Nr ws the centrl
thrity lne respnsible r this stte  mind. Every prt
 the chrch r nistin hd dne its shre t ix this ntin
 n nchn in nirmity pn the Christin wrld. The whle
philsphy  the Middle A es, which prided itsel, bve ll else,
pn bein  Christin philsphy, hd exhsted itsel in ivin 
psed-scientiic rm t the mst nscientiic view  trth the
wrld hd ever seen.
The ret service  Ersms ws, therere, tht he prpsed t ind
t s nerly s he cld wht the writers  the New Testment hd
ctlly sid. O crse his pprts r this inqiry ws still,
rm the pint  view  mdern science, very deective. He hd n
erlier scientiic cmmenttrs t cnslt, with the sin le exceptin
 Lrentis Vll, the Itlin hmnist, wh  ew yers bere hd
pblished nnttins t the Greek text. His criteri  jd ment hd
t be evlved rm his wn sense  ccrcy s he went ln . All
tht vst ssistnce t intelli ent editin which in recent times hs
cme rm the cltivtin  the histric sense ws wntin t him.
Nthin ws rther rm Ersms' mind thn ny rdicl discssin 
Christin dctrines. He cntinlly declres his ixed determintin
t bide by the ith  the Chrch, nd whtever dverse criticism
he hd t mke ws  inst evil prctices which lwys seemed t
him nly perversins  the essentil Christinity  pstlic
times. S we re nt t lk t his New Testment r strtlin
innvtins. Wht ve ence t his enemies ws the sme qlity
which ve vle t the bk,--nmely, the sin le ert t pt
thin s s they were. Wht the "men  drkness" wh hd cme lr ely
t cntrl the prcticl wrkin  reli is irs lest  ll
desired ws precise trth t cts. They were ettin n cmrtbly
with  versin  trth which sited them very well, nd were nt
inclined t see their precis ese invded by ny restless seekin
r ltimte ccrcy. They elt, nd qite trly, tht ny jrrin
 the ndtins mi ht brin the whle strctre  ceremnies nd
s es in which they were thrivin , bt their ers. Ersms mi ht
prtest s he wld, bt the instinct  sel-preservtin n the
prt  thse wh were enjyin the hi h plces  the Chrch ws
ri htly lrmed.
The ther wrk n which Ersms spent mst  his time in En lnd ws
his shre in  new editin  St. Jerme, which ws bein br ht
t by the ret printin hse  Frben t Bsel. It will be mre
in rder, perhps, t spek  this when we hve llwed Ersms

t the Cntinent nd seen him estblished in the ll creer  n

editr nd thr which ws t ccpy the reminder  his lie. It
my nt be t  plce here t qte his wn descriptin  the
principles which verned him in his editril wrk. He ws ccsed
 inccrcy nd nde hste in ivin t the wrld the reslts 
nripe schlrship. He cknwled es the cts, bt deends himsel s
llws,[96] spekin t the mment  the epistles  Jerme:
[96] _Ctl s lcbrtinm_, i.
"I ve sch cre t this wrk [the editin  1524] tht the
ttentive reder my esily see tht I did nt ndertke this
revisin in vin. The cntrl  ncient mnscripts ws nt
lckin , bt these cld nt preclde the se  cnjectre in
sme plces; bt these cnjectres I s mdiied in the ntes
tht they cld nt esily deceive nyne, bt cld nly
stimlte in the reder  zel r investi tin. And I hpe it
my cme t pss tht smene eqipped with mre crrect texts
my restre ls thse pints which hve escped me. T these
I will ldly render the prise de t their indstry nd they
will hve n resn t ind lt with my ttempts; r while I
hve been rtnte in restrin mny pints, in sme I hve
been cmpelled t llw the ncient prverb:--'nt s we wld,
bt s we cn.'
"Fr there re men  sch  dispsitin tht i they cn dd
nythin t the erts  their predecessrs, they clim ll
the prise r themselves nd mke  tremends ss i ne
hs even ndded t ny pint r nt ccmplished wht ne hs
ndertken. I knw nt whether we  ht t despise mre the
rdeness  sch persns r their in rtitde. N ne stnds in
their wy, i they wish t prdce smethin better. They sy
tht nthin  ht t be pblished tht is nt perect. Nw,
whever sys tht, simply sys tht nthin t ll shld be
pblished; nr ws ever nythin prperly edited dwn t the
present dy. I ws editin these thin s r Btvins, r mnks
nd thel ins, wh were r the mst prt witht clssic
lernin ; r liberl stdy hd nt yet penetrted s r s
"I ne will jst cnsider, he will see tht I m enterin
pn n nwrthy r nritl ield. Will nt Itlin critics
ive the sme indl ence t brbrins which they hve been
cmpelled, willin r nwillin , t ive t their wn schlrs,
t Filel, t Hermls, r t Vll, whenever drin the
pst sixty yers they hve ided the lernin  the cmmnity
by their zel in trnsltin Greek thrs r emendin Ltin
nes? Thse wh pblish nthin vid ll blme, bt ern n
prise;--ny, while they re brely vidin the blme  men,
they ll int the wrst kind  blme;--nless, indeed, he is
less blmewrthy wh ives t his mished riends nthin rm
his splendid tble, thn he wh reely nd ldly ives wht he
hs nd wld be ld t ive mre smpts thin s i he hd
them.... I cness mysel retly indebted t Bets Rhenns,
wh hs iven s Tertllin emended t mny pints, th h
it is incmplete nd beside tht is thick-swn with blnders.
He des n injry t his repttin wh ives  service
prprtined t his dy nd pens the wy t thers t d mre
inished wrk. Nr hve I sered rm ny mre njst critics
thn thse wh pblish nthin nd d nt even tech, s i they

be rd ed ny selness t the wrld, r s i whtever they

ve t the cmmnity were  lss t themselves. And i ever
they detect  hmn errr, wht snickerin s, wht bse, wht 
[Illstrtin: DEVICE OF FROBEN.]
These re relly dmirble sentiments, wrthy   mn  literry
cr e nd enersity. On the whle Ersms lived p t them. He ws
imptient  criticism nd inclined t believe his critics ctted
by mtives  persnl dislike; bt where he elt the riendly nte
in criticism he ws redy t ccept it nd t discss the pint
in the spirit  wrthy rivlry. Mch tht he wrte ws hsty nd
incmplete, bt _he wrte_, nd he did indeed pen the wy r thers
 less individl qlity t llw his ledin .
As  rit  the En lish residence, we mst briely ntice the
tretise, _de dplici cpi verbrm et rerm_,[97] written by
Ersms, s he sys, t the reqest  Clet, nd dedicted t him in
 relly betil nd tchin prece. The _Cpi_  Ersms is 
text-bk  rhetric, intended r dvnced Ltin schlrs wh hve
lredy mstered the principles  rmmr nd re well n the wy
t the cqisitin   d style. Its vle r r prpse is in
ivin  cle t the principles  cmpsitin which were t vern
Ersms in ll his writin ; nd ths preprin s t interpret wht
he sys with the reter intelli ence. N pinin s t his menin
n ny qestin cn be wrth mch which is nt bsed pn  cler
cmprehensin  his literry methd. He ws  literry rtist nd we
re here intrdced t sme  the mst vlble secrets  his rt.
They mst never be r tten when we try t ind t wht he relly
mens t  iven mment.
[97] i., pp. 1-110.
The wrd _cpi_ is  diiclt ne t trnslte. Its irst menin
 "bndnce" is lible, s Ersms be ins by shwin , t be
nderstd s mere verbsity.
"We see nt  ew mrtls, wh, strivin t emlte this divine
virte with mre zel thn sccess, ll int  eeble nd
disjinted lqcity, bscrin the sbject nd brdenin the
wretched ers  their herers with  vcnt mss  wrds nd
sentences crwded t ether beynd ll pssibility  enjyment.
And writers wh hve tried t ly dwn the principles  this
rt hve ined n ther reslt thn t disply their wn
pverty while expndin bndnce."
He prpses t ive nly certin directins, nd t illstrte them
by rmls which my prve cnvenient t writers. _Cpi_ incldes
the ides  richness nd vriety, bt mst vid the errrs  mere
qntity nd chn e. Nt ll lness cntribtes t cmpleteness
 eect, nd nt ll vritin in style helps twrds rel
illstrtin  the th ht. Here, s elsewhere, we ind Ersms
the tre pstle  cmmn-sense. Ater ll, the prpse  rhetric
is primrily t sy smethin wrth syin , nd t sy it in sch 
wy tht it will cmmend itsel t the reder. The prpse  these
directins will therere be t shw hw the essentil pint my be
cndensed int ew wrds nd yet nthin be let t, nd hw, n
the ther hnd, ne my expnd int _cpi_ nd yet hve nthin in

The irst rle  the _Cpi verbrm_ is

"tht speech shld be ittin [_pt_], d Ltin, ele nt
nd pre [_pr_].... Wht clthin is t the bdy, style is t
the th ht; r jst s the bety nd di nity  the bdy re
hei htened r diminished by dress nd cre, s is th ht by
wrds. They re therere retly mistken wh think it mkes
n dierence in wht wrds  iven th ht is expressed i
nly it cn be nderstd. S ls there is the sme principle
in chn in the dress nd in vryin the speech. It is r
irst cre tht r dress be neither men, nr nsited t r
i re, nr   wrn pttern. It wld be  pity i  i re
d in itsel were t be spiled by men rments; it wld be
ridicls i  mn were t pper in pblic in wmn's dress,
nd  dis rce i ne were t be seen in  prepsters rb r
with his clthes trned bck side bere.
"And s, i nyne tries t pt n n ecttin  _cpi_
bere he hs ttined the prity  the Ltin tn e, he is,
in my jd ment, n less ridicls thn  pr be r, wh,
hvin nt  sin le rment it t wer, shld therepn chn e
ne set  r s r nther nd cme t int the mrket-plce
t shw  his be ry r welth. And the tener he shld
d this, wld he nt seem s mch the mre lish? I think
he wld. And jst s lish re thse wh ect _cpi_ nd
yet cnnt sy in plin wrds wht they wnt t sy. As i they
were shmed t pper t stmmer  little, they mke their
stmmerin nly the mre ensive in every pssible wy, s i
they were n  w er with themselves t tlk s brbrsly s
ever they cn. I like t see  welthy hse rnished in ret
vriety, bt I wnt it ll t be ele nt nd nt t be illed
p with rticles  willw nd i -wd nd vessels  Smin
crckery. At  splendid bnqet I like t hve mny kinds 
d br ht n, bt wh cld ber it i nyne shld serve 
hndred srts  d nt ne  which ws it t et?"
Hvin ths dmirbly lid dwn the rle  mdertin nd d
tste, Ersms es n t detils. He shws wht kinds  wrds
re t be vided nd t wht extent. His cmments n the se 
bscene wrds re interestin in view  the enerl prctice  his
time nd, indeed, pn ccsin,  his wn prctice. Certin wrds
re bscene becse they represent bscene thin s; thers becse
they re twisted rm their hrmless menin s. "Wht then is the
principle  bscenity?--nthin mre nr less thn the s e, nt
 nybdy nd everybdy, bt  thse whse speech is crrect." O
himsel it mst be sid tht in enerl he lived pretty well p t
his principles. Where he ends in this respect it is enerlly in 
kind  cmpsitin, s, r exmple, in mny  the Cllqies, in
which he simply lets himsel , prdcin his eect by  reedm
which he crelly vids in ther rms  writin . He ws, i ne
my sy s, rtisticlly bscene.
In spite  his dmirtin r pre Ltinity, he des nt hesitte t
dmit Greek wrds ccrdin t  rther dn ers cnn. Greek wrds,
he sys, my be sed when they re mre si niicnt, r shrter, r
strn er, r mre rcel, "r n Ltin wrd cn eql the rce 
 Greek wrd." In shrt,
"whenever ny certin pprpriteness [_cmmdits_] invites s

we my prperly interweve Greek with Ltin, especilly when

we re writin t lerned men; bt when we re nt s invited
nd delibertely weve  discrse tht is hl Ltin nd hl
Greek, this my perhps be prdned in yths wh re trinin
themselves t rediness in bth ln  es, bt r men this
kind  disply is, in my jd ment, r rm becmin nd is s
ndi niied s i ne shld write  bk in prse nd verse
mixed p t ether, s, in ct, hs been dne by sme lerned
As t repetitin,  trick  rhetric ten emplyed by Ersms, he
dispprves it in thery, bt dmits tht it my be dne "when the
repetitin helps the th ht nd when the weriness  it cn be
vided by  certin vriety." Cicer repets, bt he sys "thin s
similr, nt the sme thin s."
"I insist pn this the mre ernestly becse I hve herd
prechers  cnsiderble me, especilly in Itly, wstin
their time in ected synnyms  this srt, s, r exmple,
i ne interpretin the wrd  the Pslmist, 'crete in me 
clen hert, O Gd!' shld sy, 'crete in me  clen hert, 
pre hert,  sptless hert,  stinless hert,  hert ree
rm bseness,  hert nspiled by vice,  hert priied, 
hert mde clen,  hert like snw,' nd then shld d the
sme in ther wrds, this kind  _cpi_ is nt r remved
rm mere bbble."
S he es n, thr h the whle rn e  i res  speech, lyin
dwn  enerl principle nd illstrtin it with  welth 
clssicl lernin tht is simply verwhelmin . It is rther drery
redin , bt is relieved every nw nd then by lshes  sense nd
hmr tht mst hve cmmended the bk t ll ir-minded men. "N
wrd  ht t seem t s hrsh r bslete which is t be nd in
n pprved thr. On this pint I dier r nd wide rm thse
wh shdder t every wrd s  brbrism which is nt t be red in
When he hs mde his principles cler he prceeds t illstrte still
rther by rin in ll pssible chn es n  mdel sentence, _t
liter me m npere delectrnt_, t the extent   printed li
p e. The develpment  _semper dm vivm, ti meminer_, ills
tw li p es. The ppil wh shld crry t these illstrtins
intelli ently wld be lmst  mster  Ltin prse. The reter
prt  the rest  the _cpi verbrm_ is illed with rmls
r the expressin   mltitde  ides mst likely t ccr in
the wrk  the clssicl ppil. This is pre hck-wrk,  mere
mechnicl enmertin, bt likely t be  ret se t thse r
whm it ws intended. It wld be n dmirble thin i r wn
hi h-schl ppils cld be mde t cmmit ret prts  the _de
cpi verbrm_ t memry.
The pln  the _Cpi rerm_ is similr t tht  the rmer prt.
It is n elbrte nlysis  the vris wys in which discrse
my be enriched nd mpliied. Ersms pts mch less  himsel int
this prt, bt t the clse sms p the r ment with his sl d
sense nd jd ment.
"He wh likes the brevity  the Sprtns will irst  ll
vid preces nd expressins  eelin in the mnner  the
Athenins. He will stte his cse simply nd cncisely. He will

se r ments,--nt ll bt t lest the chie nes, nd will
present these nt in detil, bt cmpctly, s tht the r ment
shll be lmst in the very wrdin , i nyne cres t wrk it
t. Let him be cntent t mke his pint nd be very sprin
with mpliictins, similes, exmples, etc., etc., nless these
be s essentil tht he my nt mit them witht ence. Let
him ls bstin rm ll kinds  i res which mke ln  e
rich, splendid, tellin , elbrte, r ttrctive. Let him nt
tret the sme sbject in vris rms, r s explin sin le
wrds by expressins  menin , tht mch mre is nderstd
thn is herd nd ne thin my be thered rm nther. On the
ther hnd he wh seeks r _cpi_ will desire t expnd his
mteril pretty nerly ccrdin t the rles I hve lid dwn.
"Bt let ech bewre, lest thr h ecttin he be crried
ver int the lt which lies nerest him. Let the lver 
brevity see t it tht he des nt merely se ew wrds, bt
tht he sys in the ewest wrds the very best thin he cn....
Fr nthin is s cndcive t brevity  style s ptness nd
ele nce  wrds, nd i we dd simplicity, it will be esy t
vid bscrity,  vice which is very pt t llw  strivin
ter brevity. Bt here  in we mst lk t tht r speech
des nt rw cld thr h lck  ll wrmth  eelin .
Therere let the mtter be s pt bere the eye tht, 
itsel, it my silently tke  certin hld pn the mind. Let
ll be sweetened with the Attic chrm."
The _Cpi_ prved its vle by  ret nd rpid sle. It ws irst
printed in 1511, nd went thr h nerly sixty editins in the
thr's lietime. Since then it hs been repetedly reprinted nd
epitmised. Cmin s it did s sn ter the Prise  Flly, nd
written s it ws in the intervls  very seris ccptin with
the New Testment nd Jerme, it ve t the wrld  very strikin
pr  Ersms' immense verstility  tlent nd wide-rechin
intellectl interests. Tken t ether these wrks mke it qite
cler tht when Ersms let En lnd in 1514 he hd cmmended
himsel t every clss  thinkin men by sme direct ppel t wht
specilly cncerned it.
In ll the bi rphies  Ersms it seems t be tcitly ssmed tht
he ws n intimte terms with Thms Mre drin this ln residence
in En lnd. In ct, hwever, cntemprry evidence n this pint
is lmst entirely wntin . There is bt ne letter rm Ersms t
Mre in this perid, nd nne whtever rm Mre t him. I it be
sid tht there ws n need  crrespndence, since the riends
cld meet t ny time in Lndn, the sme is tre  Clet nd
Ammnis, rm nd t whm we hve s mny letters. When Ersms
es t Lndn it is Ammnis wh inds him  ld in ; he it is wh
sends him his wine nd helps him t  hrse. Mre ws certinly
retly ccpied with pblic irs t this time, bt he nd
leisre t write his Utpi, which ws pblished in 1515, very sn
ter Ersms' deprtre rm En lnd. The rel reltins between
these men, wh, in spite  similr tstes, were  qite dierent
chrcter, seem t hve been expressed rther in their lter
crrespndence thn in ny clse intimcy t this time.
Drin this residence
Ersms t the shrine
 Thms Becket t
very ms cllqy,

in En lnd ccrred dbtless the visits 

 the Vir in Mry t Wlsin hm nd t tht
Cnterbry, which re immrtlised in the
_Pere rinti reli inis er _, the Reli is

Pil rim e.[98] Th h pblished sme yers terwrds, there is

every resn t believe tht this dil e ithlly represents the
writer's stte  mind in 1513-14. The essentil prt  it is the
skill blncin between cnrmity t prescribed s e nd n pen
cntempt r the whle prphernli  relics, mircles, vtive
erin s, nd lyin tles,  which these nd similr plces were
the centres. Ersms represents himsel s  devt believer in the
Hly Vir in nd in the hliness  sints; bt s  ttl sceptic
re rdin the whle mchinery  their wrship. His ctis ln  e
nd his prtesttins  chrity r i nrnce nd hmn rilty
cnnt in the lest cncel his rel dis st t these perversins 
n hnest nd hnrble sentiment.
[98] i., 774-787.
In the visit t Cnterbry, Ersms represents himsel s ccmpnied
by  hi h clericl di nitry  En lnd, whse pen expressins
 distrst nd scndlised piety he endevrs t mderte. Tht
this persn ws Clet is mde cler by  lter reerence. The ct
serves t cnnect Ersms with the eelin , rwin hencerth mre
intense nd inlly clmintin in the sppressin  the En lish
mnsteries, tht  vst perversin  tre reli in hd tken
plce. It ws nly  qestin  time when the evil wld becme
intlerble. Ersms dbtless cntribted his shre in the sterin
 this rebellis eelin ; bt he ws r rm bein lne in his
pinins. The enli htenment  his enertin ws ll pintin
the sme wy. All tht ws needed ws  rmltin int sme
deinite pr rmme  ctin, nd r this,  crse, Ersms ws
cnspicsly incmpetent. The implse ws t cme rm  mixtre 
mtives, mny  them s nwrthy s thse they s ht t replce.
In his tretise n the Tre Wy  Pryer, 1523, Ersms sms p his
ttitde n the qestin  relic-wrship in  ew wrds[99]:
[99] _Mds rndi Dem_, v., 1119-F.
"In En lnd they expse t be kissed the she  St. Thms,
nce bishp  Cnterbry, which is, perchnce, the she 
sme hrleqin; nd in ny cse wht cld be mre lish thn
t wrship the she   mn! I hve mysel seen them shwin
the linen r s n which he is sid t hve wiped his nse.
When the shrine ws pened the Abbt nd the rest ell n their
knees in wrship, rised their hnds t heven, nd shwed their
reverence by their ctins. All this seemed t Jhn Clet, wh
ws with me, n nwrthy disply; I th ht it ws  thin we
mst pt p with ntil n pprtnity shld cme t rerm it
witht distrbnce."
This is the key-nte  the "Ersmin Rerm," nd we shll her it
snded mny times  in bere the mment  ctin rrives.


Ersms let En lnd in erly smmer, 1514, n d terms with his
En lish riends bt witht mkin sch cnnectins s cld hve
served t keep him permnently in the cntry. He ws bnd t
hve explntins redy r ny emer ency, bt we need nt trble
rselves t seek ther resns r his levin En lnd thn tht
he did nt wish t sty. He hd ccmlted  cnsiderble stck 
mnscripts nd knew tht he cld et them int print better t
Bsel thn in Lndn. I we my trst  letter[100] sent bck t
Ammnis rm the cstle  Hm, in Picrdy,  which Lrd Mntjy
ws vernr, he cme ner lsin these precis ppers thr h wht
he lwys ncied t be the specil mlice  the En lish cstms
icils; bt hppily they were sely restred t him.
[100] iii., 137.
The shrt sty t Hm is memrble r  ms letter written
rm there t Prir Servtis  the mnstery t Steyn, where,
we remember, Ersms hd pssed the ew yers  his mnstic
experience. We ther rm this letter tht Servtis,  rmer
cmpnin  his t Steyn, hd written t er him  residence there
where he mi ht pss the remnnt  his dys in pece. Ersms, in
respectl nd seris ln  e, reminds Servtis tht he hd never
relly elt ny cllin t the lie  seclsin, nd es ver
the milir rnd  his bdily nd mentl nitness r it, the
bsrdity  sppsin tht  by  seventeen cld knw himsel
well en h t decide nce r ll s mments nd cmplicted 
qestin, nd the cmpellin ttrctin   ree lie devted t
intercrse with the hi hest thin s. He shws tht his lie hs
been, hmnly spekin ,  wrthy ne: he hs cltivted virte nd
vided vice; he hs hd  delicte bdy t tke cre  nd knws
tht Hllnd wld be deth t him. As t the cnventl lie itsel,
Ersms lets himsel  in sweepin cndemntin, yet preservin
still  certin di nity tht is r mre cnvincin thn ny
extrv nt bse.[101]
[101] iii., 1528-A.
"Y, perhps, wld think it the hi hest elicity t die mn
the brethren. In ct nt nly y bt lmst everyne is
deceived nd impsed pn by this ntin tht Christ nd tre
piety re t be nd in certin plces, in dress, in d, in
prescribed ceremnies. We ncy  mn is rined, i he pt n
 blck wn insted   white ne, i he chn e  cwl r 
ht, i he rm time t time chn e his residence. Bt I dre
sy the ppsite, tht ret injry t Christin piety hs cme
rm thse s-clled 'reli is' cts, lth h they were,
perhps, irst intrdced with  pis prpse. Grdlly they
hve incresed nd brken p int six thsnd diversities. The
pprvl  the spreme pntis hs been iven t them, bt in
mny wys qite t esily nd indl ently; r wht is mre
crrpt nd impis thn thse lse reli is prctices? Why,
i y spek nly  prisewrthy, even  the mst prisewrthy
nes, I knw nt wht im e  Christ y will ind in them
beynd certin chillin nd Jdisin ceremnies. By these
thin s they plese themselves nd cndemn thers,--lth h it
is the techin  Christ tht ll the wrld is s ne ret
hse, r s it were ne mnstery, nd ll men re its cnns
nd its brethren; tht the scrment  bptism is the spreme
ct  reli in nd tht we re t cnsider, nt _where_ we

live, bt _hw_ we live."

He jstiies his wnderin lie by the d chrcter he hs
everywhere mintined.
"I I m nt pprved by everyne-- thin I d nt strive
r--srely I m in d stndin with the chie men t Rme.
There ws nt  crdinl wh did nt receive me s  brther,
th h I hd n sch mbitin r mysel, especilly the
crdinl  St. Ger e, the crdinl  Bl n, crdinl
Grimni, the crdinl  Frnv [?], nd he wh is nw spreme
pnti, t sy nthin  rchdecns nd men  lernin ; nd
this hnr ws pid, nt t welth, which I neither hve nr
desire, nr t mbitin, t which I ws ever  strn er, bt t
letters lne, which r cntrymen l h t, bt the Itlins
"In En lnd there is nt  bishp wh is nt ld t slte me,
wh des nt seek me s  tble-cmpnin, wh des nt wish
me s n inmte  his hse. The kin himsel, jst bere my
deprtre rm Itly, wrte me  mst ectinte letter with
his wn hnd, nd still speks  me in the mst hnrble
nd riendly shin. As ten s I py my respects t him
he embrces me mst ectintely nd lks t me with sch
riendly eyes tht y cn see tht he thinks s well  me s
he speks. The qeen wished me t be her techer; everyne knws
tht, i I hd chsen t spend even  ew mnths t the ryl
crt, I mi ht hve heped p s mny beneices s y plese,
bt I sbrdinte everythin t the pprtnity  leisre r
Then llws  very lwin ccnt  the mney he hs received in
En lnd rm Wrhm, Mntjy, nd thers.
"The tw niversities, Oxrd nd Cmbrid e, re vyin with ech
ther t et pssessin  me; t Cmbrid e I t ht r mny
mnths Greek nd scred litertre, nd tht r nthin s I
m determined lwys t d.[102] There re clle es there, in
which there is s mch  tre reli in tht y cld nt il
t preer them t ny 'reli is' lie, i y shld see them.
There is t Lndn Jhn Clet, den  St. Pl's,  mn wh
cmbines the retest lernin with the mst dmirble piety,
 mn  ret inlence with ll men; he is s nd  me, s
everyne knws, tht he lives nt mre intimtely with nyne
thn with me,--t sy nthin  cntless thers, lest I wery
y t nce with my bstin nd my mch spekin ."
[102] I this mens nythin , it mst men witht ees rm
stdents, r, sppsin Ersms t hve held the Ldy Mr ret
ndtin, there ws certinly  slry ttched t his psitin.
As t his writin s he clls the ttentin  Servtis t the
_Enchiridin_ s dpted t led mny t piety, the _Ad i_ s
sel t ll kinds  lernin , nd the _Cpi_ s serviceble t
prechers. The Prise  Flly he ntrlly nd prdently leves
"Drin the lst tw yers, besides mch ther wrk, I revised
the epistles  Jerme, mrkin with n bels spris nd
interplted pss es. By  cmprisn  ncient Greek texts

I hve emended the whle New Testment nd hve nntted

mre thn  thsnd pss es, nt witht prit r the
thel ins. I hve be n cmmentries t the epistles  Pl
nd shll cmplete them when I hve dispsed  the thers.
Fr I hve mde p my mind t spend my lie in scred stdies
nd t this end I m devtin ll my spre time. In this wrk
men  ret repte sy tht I cn d wht thers cnnt; in
yr kind  lie I shld simply ccmplish nthin t ll. I
m n intimte terms with mny lerned nd seris men, bth
here [En lnd?] nd in Itly nd in Frnce, bt I hve ths r
nd n ne wh wld dvise me t retrn t y, r think it
the better crse. Ny, mre, even yr predecessr, Nichls
Wittenhers, lwys sed t dvise me rther t ttch mysel t
sme bishp, ddin tht he knew bth my ntre nd the wys 
his brethren."
Finlly he es int the ld stry  his mnstic wn, "lid
side in Itly lest I be killed, in En lnd becse it wld nt be
tlerted," nd cncldes by repetin his determintin nt t
retrn t  kind  lie in which, nw mre thn ever, there ws n
plce r him.[103] This letter shws s hw Ersms cld pint his
En lish lie when it ws  qestin  risin his mrket price. The
sme nte  sel-vltin is snded in  letter t his ld riend,
the bbt  St. Bertin in Flnders, written rm Lndn in 1513 r
1514. He is serisly cnsiderin retrnin t his wn cntry nd
wld be ld t d s, i nly the prince--presmbly Chrles 
Br ndy, the tre emperr--wld ive him  rtne sicient
r his mdest leisre (_cilm_). "Nt tht Britin displeses me
r tht I m tired  my Mcenses." He ets en h nd cld et
mre, i he wld  rnd bt it ever s little,--we remember his
letters t Ammnis,--nly times re bd; n islnd is n islted
kind  plce nywy, nd wrs re mkin En lnd dbly n islnd.
Then cmes ne  his sl tirdes  inst wr in the bstrct.
[103] It is qite pssible tht the ms Grnnis letter,
skin the ppl dispenstin rm the mnstic dress, ws
desptched t Rme t the sme time tht this letter t Servtis
ws written rm the cstle  Hm. The interestin mnscript
discveries  Pressr Vischer  Bsel[A] hve led the
lerned inder t tke  step beynd my s estin   strn
resemblnce between the rm  this letter nd tht  the lter
Cllqies (see p. 5). He es s r s t believe tht bth
the letter nd the reply t it were  deliberte brictin
 Ersms ter the whle mtter  the dispenstin hd been
settled. Its bject ws, he thinks, t cver p the trces  
previs ne titin with the ppcy crried n thr h Ammnis
nd intended t ree Ersms nce r ll rm ny dn er 
bein rced bck  in int the mnstic lie. Vischer's
dcments ive s indeed  very stisctry explntin  sme
 the mysteris llsins in the crrespndence with Ammnis
in 1516 nd 1517. They shw s plinly tht Ammnis, wh is here
described by the ppe s  ppl "Cllectr," ws nt nly the
meditr in Ersms' behl, bt ws the ppl  ent in rntin
the dispenstin issed in 1517. All this, hwever, des nt mke
it even resnbly cler tht the Grnnis letters were  pre
brictin. With ll his shitiness Ersms wld hrdly hve
ne s r s tht. These letters still remin, s t their
dte nd precise interprettin, s mysteris s ever; nd
their vle s histry is nt incresed. Vischer's view tht the
especil ccsin r Ersms' nxiety bt the dispenstin ws

the tmlt rsed by his New Testment is  resnble ne.

[A] Vischer, W., _Ersmin_. Bsel, 1876.
Grdlly n lmst cnventinl rm  reerence t En lnd
develps itsel in his writin . Frm  letter[104] written t
Crdinl Grimni in 1515, evidently ter he hd been in Bsel nd
retrned t En lnd  in, we qte  specimen. He be ins with n
pl y r nt cceptin the invittin iven by the crdinl
t their irst nd nly meetin t retrn t him with  view t
reminin in Itly.
[104] iii., 141-C.
"I will explin this t y very simply nd, s beits  Germn,
rnkly. At tht time I hd lly decided t  t En lnd. I
ws clled thither by ncient ties  riendship, by the mst
mple prmises  pwerl riends, by the devted vr 
the mst prspers  kin s. I hd chsen this cntry s my
dpted therlnd; the restin -plce  my declinin yers [he
ws rty-ne t the time]. I ws invited, ny I ws imprtned
in repeted letters nd ws prmised ld lmst in mntins.
Frm ll this I, hithert  mn  severe hbits,  despiser 
welth, cnceived  pictre in my mind  sch  pwer  ld
s ten strems  Pctls cld hrdly hve wshed dwn. And
I ws rid tht i I shld retrn t yr Eminence I mi ht
chn e my mind.
"Fr i y s wekened, s ired my mind t tht irst
interview, wht wld y nt hve dne, i I hd cme int
clser nd mre permnent reltins? Fr wht hert  dmnt
wld nt be mved by the entle crtesy  yr mnner, yr
hneyed speech, yr cris lernin , yr cnsel s riendly
nd s sincere; especilly by the evident d-will  s ret
 prelte. I lredy elt my decisin perceptibly wekenin nd
be n even t repent  my pln nd yet I ws shmed t seem s
incnstnt  persn. I elt my lve r the City, which I hd
hrdly thrst side, silently rwin  in, nd in shrt, hd I
nt trn mysel wy rm Rme t nce, never shld I hve let
it. I sntched mysel wy, lest I shld be blwn bck  in
nd rther lew t En lnd thn jrneyed thither. [Flyin we
hve seen, ws Ersms' vrite methd  trvellin n pper.]
"Nw, then, y will sk, hve I repented  my decisin?
D I re ret tht I did nt llw the dvice  s lvin
 cnsellr? Lyin is nt my trde. The thin ects me
vrisly. I cnnt help  ln in r Rme s ten s the
ret mltitde  ttrctins there crwds pn my th hts."
Then he enmertes reedm, librries, literry sscitins, nd s
"These thin s mke it impssible tht ny rtne, hwever kind,
cld bnish this Rmn ln in rm my hert. As t En lnd,
th h my rtne hs nt been s bd s t mke me re ret it,
yet, t tell the trth, it hs nt t ll crrespnded either t
my wishes r the prmises  my riends."
He recnts the vrs, ctl nd expected,  his En lish ptrns,
especilly  Wrhm, t whm he here pys ne  his sl lwin

tribtes: "S it cme bt tht wht I hd bndned t Rme rm s
mny distin ished crdinls, nd s mny ms bishps nd lerned
men, ll this I seemed t hve recvered in this ne mn." Ater ll,
the pictre rws  little bri hter s he es n. Nw he is redy
r Rme  in. Tre, thin s re lkin p  in in En lnd,--he
wishes it t be qite cler tht he is nt bein trned t  the
cntry, bt he hers tht nder the ptrn e  the ret Le ll
tlent is stremin twrds Rme. He tells wht he hs dne nd wht
he prpses t d, pts in  d wrd r the persected Rechlin,
nd prmises t be in Rme the cmin winter (1515).
A letter  the sme dte t Rphel, the crdinl  St. Ger e,
repets the sme impressins  En lnd--vst prmises,  which we
hve n ther dcmentry evidence, nd disppintments, eqlly
witht witness. On his wn evidence we knw   sicient
prvisin in En lnd t spply ll mdest reqirements   schlr,
nd we hve  ri ht t tke him t his wrd tht he wnted nthin
Frm Hm, Ersms mde his wy pretty directly t Bsel, tkin the
rte by the Rhine vlley. His trvellin experiences re smmed p
in the very msin Cllqy clled _Diversri_, "The Inns," which
hs been s eectively emplyed by Mr. Chrles Rede in his "The
Clister nd the Herth." The especil pint  this dil e is
the dierence between the inns  Frnce nd  Germny. As t the
rmer, Ersms tkes thse  Lyns s typicl. Bertlphs be ins
by syin tht he cnnt see why s mny peple wnt t sty tw r
three dys t Lyns--r his prt, he lwys wnts t et t his
jrney's end s st s he cn. Willim replies:
"Why, I wnder hw nyne cn ever ter himsel wy rm there."
BERT. "Why s?"
WILL. "Becse it is  plce rm which the cmpnins 
Ulysses cld nt be trn wy; there re sirens there. One
cld nt be better treted in his wn hse thn there in n
BERT. "Wht d they d?"
WILL. "At tble there ws lwys sme wmn present, wh
enlivened the mel with her hmr nd her chrms. Then y ind
there the mst  reeble mnners. The irst ne t meet y is
the ldy  the hse, wh sltes y, bids y be merry nd
excse the lts  wht is set bere y. Then llws the
d hter, n ele nt persn, s y in speech nd mnner tht
she wld hve cheered p Ct himsel. They cnverse with y
nt s with strn e ests, bt s with milir riends."
BERT. "I rec nise the reinement  the French."
WILL. "Bt, s these cld nt lwys be present n ccnt 
dmestic dties nd the welcmin  ther ests, there ws
lwys t hnd  mid-servnt thr hly psted in ll kinds 
ch; she lne cld tke p the jkes  everyne, nd kept
thin s in ntil the d hter cme bck. The mther ws qite
ln in yers."
BERT. "Bt hw bt the prvisin? r ne cn't ill ne's

belly with stries."

WILL. "Relly splendid. I cn't nderstnd hw they cn
entertin t s smll  price. Then ter dinner they mse y
with merry tles, s tht y cnnt et tired. I th ht I ws
t hme nd nt in  strn e lnd."
BERT. "Hw bt the chmbers?"
WILL. "Alwys sme irls bt, l hin , rlickin , nd
plyin . They sked  their wn ccrd i we hd ny siled
linen, wshed it, nd br ht it bck resplendent. Need I sy
mre? We sw everywhere nly irls nd wmen, except in the
stbles, nd even there the mids were ten brstin in.
When y  wy, they embrce y nd dismiss y with s
mch ectin s i y were ll brthers r the nerest 
BERT. "I dre sy tht sits the French well en h, bt r
my prt I like better the cstms  the Germns s bein mre
sited t men."
WILL. "I hve never hppened t be in Germny, s, i y dn't
mind, pry let s her hw they receive  est."
BERT. "I cnnt sy whether it is the sme everywhere, bt I
will tell wht I hve seen. N ne welcmes the newcmer, nr d
they seem t wnt ests; r tht wld seem t them men nd
lw nd nwrthy the serisness   Germn. When y hve been
cllin  ln time, smene sticks his hed t  the little
windw  the rm where the stve is, like  trtise t 
its shell. They live in these rms lmst ntil midsmmer. Y
hve t sk him whether y my sty, nd i he desn't sy 'n'
y knw tht y re t hve  plce. Y sk where the stbles
re nd he shws y with  mtin  his hnd, nd y my
tke cre  yr hrse s best y cn. In the lr er inns 
mn shws y t the stbles nd pints t  pr en h plce
r yr hrse. The better plces they keep r the lte-cmers,
especilly r the nbility. I y cmplin, the irst thin
y her is, 'I y dn't like it here,  t nther inn.' In
the cities it is ll y cn d t et  little hy nd y hve
t py r it bt s mch s r rin. When y hve cred
r yr hrse y  ver int the cmmn rm, ridin -bts,
b  e, md, nd ll."
WILL. "In Frnce they shw y  seprte rm where y cn
chn e yr dress, brsh p, et wrm, nd even tke  np i
y plese."
BERT. "There's nthin  the srt here. In the cmmn rnce
y pll  yr bts, pt n yr slippers, chn e yr dress
i y will; yr drippin clthes y hn by the stve nd
betke yrsel there t dry . Wter is redy i y wish
t wsh yr hnds, bt enerlly s nsty tht y hve t 
hntin bt r mre wter t wsh wy tht irst bltin."
WILL. "It's  ine thin r men nt t be spiled by lxry!"
BERT. "I y rrive t r 'clck in the ternn y'll nt
et yr spper bere nine r ten."

WILL. "Why is tht?"

BERT. "They et nthin redy ntil they see ll their ests,
s tht they my serve them ll t ne time."
WILL. "They re tryin t ct it clse."
BERT. "Y're ri ht, they re. Smetimes they will crwd int
tht swet-bx ei hty r ninety persns, tmen nd hrsemen,
merchnts, silrs, crters, rmers, bys, wmen, sick nd
WILL. "Why, tht's  re lr mnstery!"
BERT. "There is ne cmbin his hir; nther wipin  his
swet, nther pllin  his cwhides r his ridin -bts;
nther smells  rlic. In shrt there is  cnsin  men
nd tn es s nce in the twer  Bbel. Bt i they see 
rei ner   certin di nity they ll ix their eyes pn him,
strin t him s i he were sme new kind  niml br ht
rm Aric; even ter they hve st dwn t tble they screw
their necks bt nd cntine their zin , even r ettin t
WILL. "At Rme, r Pris, r Venice, n ne mrvels t nythin ."
BERT. "Menwhile it is  crime t sk r nythin . When the
evenin is r ne nd there is n prspect  ny rther
rrivls, there ppers n ld servnt, with white hir, 
shven hed,  crked ce, nd dirty clthes."
WILL. "Sch  ellw  ht t be cpberer t  Rmn crdinl!"
BERT. "He csts his eyes bt nd cnts the ests, nd
the mre he inds the mre he hets p the stve, th h the
wether be bilin ht. Fr in Germny it beln s t d
entertinment t set everyne t drippin with swet, nd i
nyne nccstmed t this stemin pens  crck   windw
t sve himsel rm sctin, he hers t nce: 'Sht it!
sht it!' nd i y nswer: 'I cn't stnd it!' y her: 'G
ind nther inn then!'"
Willim enlr es _d nsem_ n the dn ers  this herdin  men
t ether, bt Bertlphs nswers:
"They re t h peple; they l h t these thin s nd tke n
th ht  them.... Nw her the rest  the stry. This berded
Gnymede cmes bck nd spreds s mny tbles s re en h r
the ests--bt, ye ds! nt with linen  Milets; ne wld
sy with the cnvs  ld sils. T ech tble he ssi ns t
lest ei ht ests. They wh knw the wys  the cntry drp
where they re pt; r there is n distinctin  rich nd
pr, mster r servnt."
WILL. "This is tht ncient eqlity which tyrnny hs nw
driven rm the wrld. I sppse tht's the wy Christ lived
with his disciples!"
BERT. "Ater ll re seted, tht crked ld Gnymede ppers

 in, nd  in cnts his cmpny. Then he ives ech ne 
wden bwl,  spn  the sme metl, nd  lss cp--sme
time terwrd sme bred, which everyne ets p t pss the
time while the sp is ckin ; nd s they sit smetimes the
spce  n hr."
WILL. "Des n est menwhile sk r d?"
BERT. "Nt ne wh knws the wys  the cntry. At lst they
brin n wine-- d Gd! wht  tste  smke! The sphists
 ht t drink it, it is s keen nd shrp. I ny est, even
erin extr mney, sks r nther srt, they irst pt him
, bt lk t him s i they wld mrder him. I y press
them they nswer--'S mny cnts nd mrqises hve pt p here
nd there ws never  cmplint  my wine; i y dn't like
it, et y t nther hstelry.' They think their wn nbles
re the nly men in the wrld nd re lwys shwin y their
cts  rms."
S the bnqet mves n t its end, thr h lternte crses 
met nd sp, ivin Ersms bndnt pprtnity r ibes t his
despised Germns. Cld ny d thin cme t   lnd where
peple wshed their bed-linen nce in six mnths? We my be tlerbly
sre tht these erly impressins  Ersms were nt witht their
eect pn his cnceptin  the menin  the Rermtin. Indeed,
he ws nt the nly ne wh ws inclined t reject the whle mvement
 Lther rm the strt, prtly r the resn tht it cme rm the
repted crse nd drnken lk  Germny.
Ersms remined in Bsel nly  ew mnths. In Mrch, 1515, he ws
 in in En lnd. The visit t Bsel ws, hwever,  lstin imprt
t him in mny wys. It mde him milir with the plce which, mre
thn ny ther, ws t be his hme drin his reminin lie. He
nd himsel hnrbly treted, the climte sited him, d wine
cld be prcred witht t ret diiclty, nd he ws ner 
rp  schlrs wh were t be mn his mst eicient helpers
in ll his tre wrk. Fremst mn these ws Jhn Frben, the
ret printer nd pblisher, t whm we we mny  the very inest
prdcts  the erly sixteenth centry press. Frben ws  mn 
the Alds type,  schlr himsel nd with  tlent r enlistin
schlrs in his service. Tw pictres, ne rm the brsh  Hlbein,
nd ne rm the pen  Ersms, hve iven s  cler impressin
 this mible bt rcel persnlity. Ersms wrte ter his
[105] iii., 1053-E.
"The lss  my wn brther I bre with ret eqnimity; bt
I cnnt vercme my ln in r Frben. I d nt rebel t my
rie, resnble s it is, bt I m pined tht it shld be
s ret nd s lstin . As it ws nt merely ectin which
bnd me t him in lie, s it is nt merely tht I miss him
nw tht he is ne. Fr I lved him mre n ccnt  the
liberl stdies which he seemed iven s by Prvidence t drn
nd t prmte, thn n ccnt  his kindness t me nd his
enil mnners. Wh wld nt lve sch  ntre? He ws t his

riend jst  riend, s simple nd s sincere tht even i he

hd wished t pretend r t cncel nythin he cld nt d
it, s rep nnt ws it t his ntre; s redy nd e er t
help everyne tht he ws ld t be  service even t the
nwrthy, s tht he ws  ntrl nd welcme prey t thieves
nd swindlers. He ws s plesed t et bck mney rm  thie
r rm bd debtrs s thers re with nexpected rtne.
"He ws  sch incrrptible hnr tht never did nyne
deserve better the syin 'He is  mn y cld thrw dice with
in the drk,' nd, incpble  rd himsel, he cld never
sspect it in thers th h he ws ten deceived. Wht the
disese  envy ws he cld n mre cmprehend thn  mn brn
blind cn nderstnd clr. Even seris ences, he prdned
bere he sked wh hd cmmitted them. He cld never remember
n injry, nr r et even the smllest service. And here, in
my jd ment, he ws better thn ws ittin r the wise ther
  mily. I sed t wrn him smetimes tht he shld tret
his sincere riends becmin ly, bt tht while he sed entle
ln  e twrds impstrs he shld prtect himsel nd nt t
the sme time et cheted nd l hed t. He wld smile ently,
bt I tld my tle t de ers. The rnkness  his ntre
ws t mch r ll wrnin s. And s r me, wht plts did he
nt invent, wht excses did he nt hnt p t rce sme it
pn me? I never sw him hppier thn when he hd scceeded
by rtiice r perssin in ettin me t ccept smethin .
A inst the wiles  the mn I hd need  the tmst ctin,
nr did I ever need my skill in rhetric mre thn in thinkin
p excses t rese witht endin my riend; r I cld
nt ber t see him sd. [One eels tht Ersms' rhetric ws
rnnin wy with him  little t this pint.] I by chnce my
servnts hd b ht clth r my clthes, he wld ind it t
nd py the bill bere I sspected it; nd n entreties 
mine cld mke him tke pyment r it. S it ws i I wnted
t sve him rm lss; I hd t mke pretences nd there ws
sch  br inin ; qite dierent rm the sl crse, where
ne tries t et s mch s pssible nd the ther t ive s
little s pssible. I cld never brin it t pss tht he
shld ive me nthin ; bt tht I mde  mst mderte se 
his kindness, ll his hsehld will ber me witness. Whtever
wrk I did r him I did r lve  lernin . Since he seemed
brn t hnr, t prmte, nd t embellish lernin , nd
spred n lbr r cre, thinkin it rewrd en h i  d
thr were pt int the hnds  the pblic in wrthy rm, hw
cld I prey pn  mn like this?
"Smetimes when he shwed t me nd ther riends the irst
p es  sme ret thr, hw he ws trnsprted with jy!
hw his ce lwed! wht trimphnt wrds! Y wld sy
tht he hd lredy tken in the prits  the whle wrk in
llest mesre nd ws expectin n ther retrn. I m nt
exltin Frben by decryin thers; bt it is ntris wht
incrrect nd inele nt editins sme pblishers hve sent s
even rm Venice nd rm Rme. Frm his ice, within  ew
yers wht vlmes hve ne rth, nd in wht nble rm! And
he hs lwys kept his hse ree rm bks  cntrversy,
by which thers hve ined ret prit, lest the cse 
d litertre nd lernin shld be deiled by ny persnl
hstilities.... Srely it will be n ct  rtitde r s ll
t pry r the welre  the deprted, t celebrte his memry

by de prises, nd t lend r vr t the hse  Frben,

which is nt t be clsed by the deth  its mster, bt will
ever strive t its tmst t crry rwrd wht he hs be n t
still reter nd better thin s."
This chrmin cmpnin pictre t the ccnt  the Aldine
estblishment in Venice is prbbly in the min crrect. It s ests
the reltin between pblisher nd thr, which we hve lredy
tried witht entire sccess t mke cler. Apprently, n his wn
sttement, Ersms ws in  wy n emplyee  Frben. The nxiety
which he betrys nt t seem t tke py rm the pblisher, ws
plinly the sme eelin which mde him reject with sch scrn the
chr e  Scli er, tht he hd been in Alds's emply. He ws
nt shmed  his wrk, ny mre thn  Erpen physicin  
enertin   ws shmed  his; bt he desired t hve this wrk
viewed s  lbr  lve, nd ny rewrd--which,  crse, he
cld nt entirely d witht--ws t be cnsidered s  it reely
ered, nd t be ccepted nly nder  kind  prtest.
Besides Frben himsel, we ind Ersms mkin riends with the
brthers Amerbch, sns  Frben's predecessr in the bsiness.
Writin t Ppe Le X.,[106] t sk his cceptnce  the dedictin
t the wrks  Jerme, Ersms enmertes his c-lbrers in the
ret ndertkin :
[106] iii., 154-C.
"The wei htiest cntribtin ws tht  the brthers Amerbch,
t whse expense nd by whse lbrs, in cmmn with thse
 Frben, the wrk ws minly crried thr h. The Amerbch
mily ws, s it were, pinted t by the tes, tht Jerme
mi ht live  in thr h their exertins. The excellent ther
hd his three sns edcted in Ltin, Greek, nd Hebrew, r
this very prpse. Upn his deth he cmmended the wrk t his
children s n inheritnce, devtin t its ccmplishment ll
his resrces. And these dmirble yths enterin pn the ir
ield cmmitted t them by n dmirble ther, re lbrin
dili ently therein, nd hve s divided the Jerme with me tht
they re din everythin except the epistles."
It wld pper, then, tht Ersms' shre in the Frben Jerme
ws the persnl respnsibility r the epistles, the writin 
 dedictin which ws, ter ll, nt ddressed t Ppe Le,
bt t Archbishp Wrhm, nd the se  his nme s  enerl
recmmendtin  the whle. Perhps ls he exercised  enerl
spervisin ver the wrk  the thers.
It ws here ls, prbbly, tht Ersms hd his irst persnl
reltins with Jhn Rechlin,  mn ter his wn hert, bt lredy
t mch invlved in ctive cntrversy with estblished pwers t
mke him lt ether  se investment r  prdent schlr wh cld
see smethin wrth hvin n bth sides  every qestin. Ersms
speks  him t Le[107] s
[107] iii., 154-B.
"tht illstris mn, lmst eqlly skilled in Ltin, Greek,

nd Hebrew, nd s well versed in every srt  lernin tht he

cn hld his wn with the best. Wherere ll Germny lks p
t him nd reveres him s the phenix nd the chie lry  the
In the letters t Crdinls Grimni nd Rphel, dted jst  mnth
erlier thn this t Le, Ersms speks mch mre hertily 
Rechlin. He hs been expressin his determintin t devte the
reminder  his dys t wht r thers sed t cll "cris
lernin ," nless envy, "mre tl thn ny serpent," shll
[108] iii., 144-B.
"s I hve ltely seen with the tmst re ret in the cse 
tht ret mn Jhn Rechlin. Fr it ws ittin nd it ws time
tht this mn  reverend yers shld enjy his nble stdies
nd shld be repin the hppiest hrvest rm the ithl
plntin  his ythl lbrs. A mn skilled in s mny
tn es, nd in s mny kinds  lernin ,  ht t hve been
ble, in this tmn  his dys, t pr rth int ll the
wrld the rich prdcts  his enis. He  ht t hve been
sprred n by prise, clled t by rewrds, ired by thers'
zel. And I her tht men hve risen--I knw nt wh they
re--wh, nble  themselves t brin nythin ret t pss,
re seekin r repttin by the bsest  methds. Immrtl
Gd! wht  tmlt they hve stirred p nd n wht rivls
rnds! Frm  little bk,  mere letter, which he neither
pblished nr wished t hve pblished, sch  strm hs risen!
Wh wld ever hve knwn tht he wrte this letter i thse
ellws hd nt pblished it t the wrld?
"Hw mch better it wld hve served the cse  pece,
sppsin he hd erred in ny wy,--s ll men d err,--t
cncel this, r rnkly interpret it, r srely t prdn it
t  cnsidertin r the distin ished virtes  the mn.
I m nt syin this becse I hve nd ny errrs in him;
tht is r thers t decide; bt this I will sy, tht i
nyne ter the sme mlicis shin,--nd s the Greeks sy,
, houl x lo h book of S. Jom, h oul f
my  hg vy ly ffg fom h v  of ou
holog. To h  h   h  m vbl
 y   l houl fo  ff of o mom, b
gg o umol of h o,  h
h h h o , I
blv, lo v y. Woul h h mgh hv   h
lbou  h m  fuhg h
u of ho uy!
I of h, h,  m ohy of ll  ,  volv 
vxg qul o h g gf  g of ll l m,
  of ll Gmy. A y ll hv ho  h hough
, o guh  m my b o o
lg  o h ol."
Th  l o Rom  bhlf of Ru
hl  oubl  
u fly v
 o Emu' . So f h
u of Ru
u of ou lg, u  m l,   l
hfo o fully o ll Emu' ym h. L, h h
m of Ru
hl  Luh
m o b jo ogh  of ll
 o g movm, h  hll f Emu hg  v

lg hmlf holly go of h l quo   u.
Aly,  o
, h
fully vo h quo hh Ru

my hv   y y--h  o h ff.

O oh of Emu' ly Bl 
  Bu Rhu,
of S
hl,  Al. Emu mo hm o Po  Lo  "
youg m of  lg  h k

ly h  

om lh  Bl ug h gh moh o

o of Emu' f v 
o y. I m o hv b 
o of bgg. H  o Ammou  O
"I  gg o fly h ul hy bg o h u h
ov. Jom   og. Thy hv ly bgu o h
N Tm. I
o y o 

ou of h olbl

h of h ov,  I
o lv o 

ou of h ok

h  bgu  h
o obly b
hou m.... If my hlh m, I hll y h ul
Chm; f o, I hll h u o Bb o go
gh o Rom."
Evly,    of
ogl ok,
 o u h mo
oo, h l
u  ly uy
 lookg bou hm fo
, h
h h  qu u o o
m ov. If 
oul k hm  h o  ho oom  of mo

ou  h l h h o 

om lo of h ok. H ly
h   k louly  h o  f
   ko by h ul
h h mu hv b vy buy ug h f Bl y.
h, 1515, h  of h l ho hm g  Egl,
fo h u o  o o ko . H
o h Cmbg
 bok, h o  
u, h  o, o f  
ko , kg y fuh m loym. Pobly h my hv b
-xmg mu
  fo h N Tm. I  fly

h h  o h
o g by h ly umm.
If  follo , v h llo 
 fo l bl o, h g of
Emu' l  houl hv o
lu h h   Egl
fo  hl  1516,  g  1517. M hl h oul hv b
  Bl  hv   mo o l m  Louv, Bul,
 l h. M. Dummo 

  h ul, bu, v h

Emu' l m ,  m hly obl h h

om lh h ok h , h h

oul u o
vbl o u
h fqu  olog jouyg. O h oh
h  f  bough u  
hg g hm by h

h h  h m  ml g. H f hmlf
lg h h v uook  jouy hou goo 
 h h ok of h lf.
W hll obbly b f  hkg h Emu h  g
gf of lg om ly o ok  ug oh hg ou of
h m hl h  ll of ok  o hm, h mvllou gf
o h
h h m mo  uo h h gf of
gu. Sll, f 
o h 
ul m of h ok
of g x, h 
y of   u of book, h

umulo of ml, ll of h

h ough o b  h fo

om o, h vg of fqu
om mo obvou  Emu' g  o mu
h h mo
x l
o o
 ug h h y, fom 1515 o 1518, 
full of f
 o h quo of  m 
. To jug

fom h o oul u o hm o b fmly fx  h oo of
 lm fo lf. No   Egl, o Fl, o Bl,
o P, h v  o h  hough of Ily g 
h b
kgou   obly. W houl o b gog f og f
b h o  h  h
h Emu  joyg
o h full   ly 
qu  of o   vlu. No ul
f h  
 of h N Tm  1516
oul h fl h
h h mo o h ol  o
 h g of h 
 h  ou of h u o. I  obbly u h,
  my o hv b qu u h h  bg o hmlf o
Svu  o y bfo, h y
ouy  Euo  oul b gl
o hv hm,  lmo o h o  m. H lk o fl hmlf

z of h ol   g h joy of  uvl
o uly, oo g o l fo v.
H  h  g glm  of h y of lf, h

obl g of o y. A l[109]  o
youg Bu    Louv  h uum of 1518 gv 

ou of h jouy hh fom Bl.

[109] ., 371-C.
"I lf Bl," h y, "  lgu  v
lk  m ho h o y go o goo m h ou-of-oo,
o log h I b hu u  h hou,  y bu h

 ok. [Th f o  log ll h
h h k 
hm oo hough h umm.] Th l  o u l,
oly h o  oo h h of h u  h
o v. W   B
h,--h o k of  .
h  ough o kll you  h fl o h h

"To  gh   u ou o 
hlly o , ho m
I '
 o ko , o f I k , houl I
 o  k
. Th I  ju bou kll."
H follo   
 o, lmo h m  h  h
_Dvo_, of h hoo of  Gm , l y h h ulu
ov  h
l fgu.
"I h mog   ou ou of b by h hou of h
lo  I  o bo h hou u   hou
l . W 
h Sbug  bou  o'
k  h
fooo   y ll  h,  
h fuh h . A  of h fy 
o h  oo hy ll
m o l
om u.... Th
 o o S  by ho   v  ho of  ol
hough ful umou  bo. My Eglh ho  ju
bou u u  

ly go o S . Th 
oul of 
kmh h o bu hm h boh h   bu
h  ho o. A S  I ook mylf quly ou of h
   o my f Mu  by. Th h , 
m of lg 
ulu,  m fo  o y h
g k. W m h by
 Hm Bu
h. Th
jouy by
g o Wom  Mz. Th h  o
h m
y of h m o,
ho um  Fbul-- ho houl y, 'F-Hll.' H
 m h g o o h jouy   Mz oul
o uff m o go o h
ommo , bu ook m o h hou

o   m o h bo h I  off.

Th h  vy gbl  h voyg ll ough oly
h h lo  o mk  log h  
h mll of h ho  u l....
"A Bo  I  lkg o h v-bk hl hy 
kg u  bo  omo ho k m gv my m o
h oll-
o. Th m' m  Cho h , I
blv, C
m u, o  h vulg ogu, E
hfl. I
 mvllou ho h fllo jum  fo joy. H gg m o
h hou  h o  ll bl, mog h oll-
ly h g of Emu. H
 ou h h   bl
ll h f, h
hl,  ll h f. To
lmoou bom h   o jug of   h hy
bu ou o 
lmou h  om mo,  om
h o h u h ll m h oll b
u hy hv
bough hm o g  gu. Fom h I  
o  f
 Coblz by Joh Flmu, h of 
ov of om h,
 m of gl
uy, of ou  ob jugm,  of
uuul lg. A Coblz Mh, 
h l of h bho ,
ook m o h hou,-- youg m, bu of l y, of

u L lg,  hooughly   h l 

ll. Th  h  my u . A Bo h
o [o of
h fllo -vll] lf u,  o o vo h
y of
Colog, h
h I lo  o vo. My v h, ho v,
go h hh h h ho; h  o f o o
h bo hom I
oul  f hm,  I h o

 h lo. O Suy mog bfo x o'
k,  ml
h, I v  Colog,  o  hol, gv o
o h v o g   o-ho
ll fo
bkf  . I  o m, bu o bkf! Nohg 
o bou h
g. I  o g  ho, fo m 
of o u,--o ul. I  h  u ; hy  yg o
k m h. A o
 I o my ho o b go y,

k o omu  gv ov h oh o h k ;
h o my lm g I hu off o h Cou of Nu, 
 of fv hou. H  yg  Bbuum  I   fv
y h hm o lly  quly h I go hough 
goo  of my vo h; fo I h bough h m  
of h N Tm."
Fom h o h l oubl of h jouy bg. Emu
h uff fom bol  Bl  h  o y of g fom
Sbug o S  h ggv hm. No h
ugh  hvy
by foolh x ou o      o 
g. "Som
Ju  o vl gu obb m, o of hlf my   Ho
y, bu of h hol; fo o hlf h h ol h I vu
o Colog." Th oy  oo log fo ou u o  qu oo
mu fo ou , hough   uy  holog
l hoy 
mgh   mo hy
. Th oo m' go 

om lly u ; h bol oubl hm o h h  o ko
hh g o vg  h o. Flly,  h l g,
h fou  fou-ho
g gog o Louv, go  l
 v h mo  h lv. Of
ou h  f of
h lgu, , , h f hy
 ummo quly ol
h o l of h hou h h h h lgu, om o  
, bu
m  hm o mo. Oh 
ll  gv
vou o o. A J o
o  h oly h h h  ou
 boy. O  o hg  o oh ul flly, "gu
h o
o I
omm mylf o Ch h G Phy
." Af
h bl
luo, h bg o go b,  oo kg

foo,   o
 bg o ok o h N Tm oof. H h
 h f o o
om o  hm, bu hy
m   h
hm  o m h fou k of h m om  qu h ly.

ou of h jouy fom Bl o Louv 

 h Emu
obl ou
H h mo h o ho   l o v. Th ho 
h  o h bo hv h vll by ,   ly
h  g  h f y o vl. H  k h  
lf of mg o ol o h l jouy. Cg h m
o hv h; bu h  
 u x o h
h go o ho h
g  o x
luvly fo h u of h h. H y
h Ul
h Fbul
m by
 o h m
g h hm,
 g o h l g h hmlf g o 
g gog o
Louv. I  oo ly o hk of gul ubl

, bu
 ly  vll  o obj
 o hg h
x  h oh. Ou   o obv h u
h vllg
mu hv m l  lg ouly  mu hv go f o 

fo Emu' 
om l of ovy.
Fom Louv Emu o b
k  m-humoou ll l o h
f, h l oll-gh of Bo [110]:
[110] ., 353-D.
oul hv b mo ux 
 h h I houl f
 Bo   E
hfl,  u of my ok?-- ubl

vo o h Mu  o lbl lg! Ch m 
h o h Ph h hlo  ubl
go bfo hm o h kgom of hv; ll m,   o
qully hmful h   mok houl b lvg fo
luxuy  h v
 of h bll, hl ubl
g h
u of lbl lg? Thy 
hmlv holly o guzzlg, hl E
hfl v hmlf
b  h K  h u! You ho  lly ough
h o o you h fom of m;  I hll hv o ll,
f h gh of m h o ubb off  ll of .
"Bu, l
k! l
k! h jolly   of you mghly

kl ou bom' f,  full-b  bbulou fml;
h oul' h  o of , hough hy k 
llg fo
om. Sh k ll h   h h  o ! Sh ly
l  m-v h  mghy ll  
oul hly
o h fgh. Th h h go o bo h  fo h
m  ho g hm o h Rh. Th you
 h o  of you .
I  oh o
g h Emu   h lm 
Louv  h ul of  fk o h  of ho vl f of
h h lk o f
y hmlf h  
l v
m. To mk h

lmx mo ff

v h 
u h joy of mg h Louv
"Wh ! h  l
om! h lk I  omg
mylf! I h 
, f h uum houl b  l o,
o go ov o Egl  o 

  h h kg h o my

m off m--bu oh! 
ful ho  of mol m--
H h  ll of  f k, ug mo of h
h m h 
ly  ok,  h h go quly b
k o h logg 

h Uvy   h o mo of Egl. W ko of o  

off fom Kg Hy, o , o f, of y 
 off fom
hm hv.
Whl Emu   Bl, h , o h ll u, v by Duk
E of Bv o
om o h uvy  Igol. H  k
of h   l o h bho of Ro
h,  o mog h
o of h fvou h h
h h f o of
h N Tm h b 
v. H h o my off h h

oul o mmb hm. "Som bho  Gmy ho m I hv
fogo"  hm fo h uvy. H ko  h  u ohy
of ll h hoou, bu  l o f h ll h 
hv  h  ovl of goo m. "My  o g h

 u ho
of h hy oul v hv  hm
oh ,  my o vy h  bgg o uy Gk."
I  l[111] o Ammou fom Bul  1516 Emu ll of
 off of  bho 
[111] ., 137-D. L
' , 1514,  obbly 
"Do you  o lugh? Wh I go b
k o Bul, I  o

ll o my M
, h
llo [Slvgu]. H u o h

llo ho  g bou  : 'Th m o'
ko y h  g m h ." Th o m: 'Th P
yg o mk you  bho  h ly gv you  vy
bl   S
ly. Bu h h 
ov h h 
 o h l of ho h
ll "v,"  h
 o h o  o g h  ovl fo you.' Wh I h
h, I
oul o hl lughg; y I m gl o ko h goo
flg of h kg o  m--o h of h
ho,  h m,  h kg hmlf."
Som h l  o
y hl h h o  h  o of  off
fom Kg F
 I. of F
. I
om o u   l  by
h F
hol, Wllm Buu, o Emu hl h   h
Lo Cou. Buu y h Wllm Pvu (Gullum P),

ho oo vy  h kg, h ol hm h o
y  h
ou of 
ovo bou ly m, h kg h
x  h mo[112]
[112] ., 169-A.
"o gh h
   o h kgom by h mo
m l    o fou  F
  my, f I my o

ll , of 
hol. Pvu h log b 
hg fo u
o ouy, bg o mly  u o of ll lg, bu
l m of you,   h  h o o
Emu ough o b v h vy f o,  h h

oul mo o ly b o by Buu ...  flly, h h
kg, mov by om obl m ul,  bough o h o of
yg h h off houl b m o you by m  h m:
h f you
oul b u o
om h o lv  vo
youlf o ly ok h  you  o o o ov h,
h oul om o gv you  lvg oh  hou f

 mo. No you u h my flu

om  oly
o f  I um h  of  mo, o of   oo,
 m ly  o o you  goo fh h I hv h fom

Buu h go o o y h h h ll o o h

ff, bu h f Emu lk , h my ll om hmlf 
f oo  P.
"Immol go! h  hoou fo you! h   l fou
 h jugm of ll l m, o b ummo o 
 l by h g  mo lluou of kg o
h ol 
ommo of you lg!... A f  o

gu, h  o b h fou of   l uo,
o h  h fuu, qu oh  h  h , lbl
lg my m o b  hg of of."
L Emu houl f
y h h of h kg o b " hm, h
o  l jugm," h f o h
vy fvoubl o o of Emu hl by S h Po
h, bho of
P,  quo hm  yg h h kg h  h h
of lg lg  h
ov h hm o h ubj
bgg ogh m m  
holh .
"I  o hm  h m, h you mgh b
ll o
 h  hooubl ovo  om h I oul
k  u o mylf  bg  o . I  h you h
u  P  k F
  ll  h l
 of you
bh. I hk h ll b mo fvoubl o you.... I x 

h Wllm Co , h kg' hy
,  m l  boh
ogu,  f  ll- h of you, ll  o you
bou h , oh h  by h kg' o; o v h
kg hmlf."
Co  , 
o h h olbl vboy of Buu,
 vy bf o,  h
h h y h h kg, u by
Pvu  oh, h o hm o   ou Emu  o
oo u h
h h oul b llg o
om o P.
Th m o hv b h hol oy of Emu' "
ll" o
P:   o by o m of 
ovo h oh, mo
x o of goo ll o h  of h P 
hol, bu
hly  f om of yhg. A b, h o ol  h
h houl k 
h lvg,  o h h , mo o l o
, l y 
l. H  ly o Buu  g.
H y:
"I h hly go mylf ll ou of h vy oy l,
h I gu ll b  ou o you  h g   
o m  h g, h oh l of you
m o m
h you x  h k o of h Mo Ch
Kg o  m. I ll   bfly, o o bo boh you 
mylf o h h vboy  lo b
u I hv o 
o my oh. Th kg' u o  ohy of  
v of u
  h. I  ov  mo hghly.
"H  l l fo m I o 
hfly o you, my f,
ho hv 
u m, o  I m, bu  you oul h m
o b;-- h  you o  k  mu
h  m. Th m
  mo gly   h kg' m by h mo
lluou vo
, h bho of P, hom you 
you l o l uly h g h
lly. I oul b  log
oy o
om  o o l ll h o 
o. I 
h you v
 ,  I vlu  h mo b
u   gv
by  m  o
uou,  vy fly o m. Fo f

v h   l
 fo h Gk ovb: 'Th gf of h
ufly  o gf  ll,' I hk    m of
. Bu hl I
of h I m  ly b, o oly
o you ll, bu  
lly o you mo x
ll  gou
kg, I
o mk y f   ul I hv 
h l h h Ch
llo of Buguy, ho h go o 
jouy o Cmb.... I ll oly y   h F

 v  o m o my 

ou [  mmb h ff

fo h Collg Mogu,  h f
 o h 'ughll
of  P']   o 
v o m fo o o og
h h Buu  h. I h  o o o mk m
ou  g  you o fo, f  my blv h m -mk,
Holl oo    of F
No o Emu
omm hmlf y mo 
ly  h ol
l h
h h   h m m o Kg F
.[113] Th
l  fll h ulo, bu x  lo h '
ho  ovl of h kg' momy ol
y of 
. Th fl
h, "o hom I holly gv  
 mylf," mu o b

ou  hvg y mg hv. Th off  h

  o  . W my ll oub hh  h y 1516
Emu oul lly hv
h hmlf o h F
o o y oh o y m.
[113] ., 185.
H mo  vl l
,   g of h g fvou ho 
hm by F
 I., h f
 h h h 
v  mo fly
uog h l fom h kg. Su
h  l h  b fou
mog   lg o Emu  Bl. Ho mu
h  my hv m
h  my jug fo hmlf:
"Ch  bo my. Nou vo o
hg  o
h  b
m m Clu Cu
ul,  ou,  vou 
l u
ho   ou, qull vou o
uum l
oy,  y jou  foy,
fz  o o  o. Ch  bo my, o Sgu
vou    g.
 Gm  Ly l 7m jou  jull.
[I Emu' h],
  o  mu._"

"J vou vy qu y vou

voul vy qu vou  l
by vu

I h b uul o x l h lu

h hmlf
y h  h m, by
 oblgo o  h youg Kg
Chl I. of S , l h Em o Chl ., g fom h
 om o 
oullo' oo  h oyl houhol. Th
om u
h off
  gv hm  o bou h y 1516  qu

; bu h h  v k fo h v

 my b oub,
 h o 
om l oul 
 h h v 
v y

obl molum fom h off

. A l o h m l

oullo Colu  1524 ho  lgh u o boh h F


ll  h m l o.[114]

[114] ., 794.

"To  ly  o
 o you l  h of h Ly Mg,
I ll y  f o h   o mly mok h h
h  ho g. O h
oy, om m go, h
h, Bho of P,  h F
h mbo  Bul,
bfo Chl  m o, h off m  h o  m, ov
 bov h kg' bouy, fou hu
o  b ll
x , omg m lo h my lu  my fom of
movm houl b uub.... Th o hy h kg of

ll m o my m h x l by h mg.
H h m o blh  P  Collg of h Th
Lgug, u
h  h   Louv,  h  m o b
h h of . I x
u mylf, ho v, mmbg ho
h my  oubl I h bo h fom om holog
o h 
o of h Bul Collg. Y my v, h h

m b
k fom F
,  o o
 fomo h 
uy o fo  hou ou  y  g fo
m h.
"I hv o o f b mu
h of  bu o h uy of my

, fo my o h oly o
 b  hfom. I
h b o
u by oh o
, hou y x  o
h uy. I
o m  g l o lv h,  

ou of my fqu ll--hough  I m 

oh y o  ll  goo mg h moy. I hv ly

  goo my b, o h, v f my hlh oul
m m o lv, h  my
o oul o. I houl,
hfo, b vy gl, f 
 b o, o hv h o
fo  l o y  ov o h mg, o lv my
y. I   l of h m o, mkg h
m qu."
Ag  1525 h [115]:
[115] ., 874-F.
"By h f of S mb h ll b u m gh hu
gol flo, h ym, h , of fou y. I o' 
h goo I m o g ou of h ly ul 
 I m o
 moy  h Ely Fl."
A o
 mo  1527 o Luu[116]:
[116] ., 1009-F.
"I hv  o you boh  you h, bu I  o ho 
of h m o' o ul I u hh. Fo h m
 fo ll bough u 
l  h  ly  m m
 h m of h Ly Mg h boh h o  oh
hg ohy of m  y fo m f I oul
om b
k. So
I o o hk h you boh, loqu   o
 h , ough o b  h h ff. Th m o h
 o h o o b  o m ou of
ou, bu h
 mo ly oby h h o  x h h h
o fo  mom blv h h holg of h hoouy
l qu y ol 
  h oyl
ou h
h Emu' fom of moo h h  o mov. Th

 l fu of h  om  h ll 
h _Iuo P
  Ch_,[117] , obbly, 

ko lgm of h hoou  
 o h youg 
. Th
vy mbl b of v
om o- 
 o h gy

u o h 
' fh  bou  lv y bfo. I 
ulk h ly fom
  bg lmo ly f fom
xgg ol ulo;   lk   h fom h
h  ly o  fo h gu
 of h 
 ul of

ml o ho h
h ough o gov h vul Ch m
 h lg h h ol of h fllo -m. Y h 
 o h m
ommo l
 of moly. Th 
 ough o b 
goo m  h Ch mg of h m, bu o mly goo,
 y v m mgh b. Emu h  vy o  o
fo h 
ul x
 of vu h my b
ommg,  h
hfly fom h b ul of quy, 
  ho , of
ou, h   
omm of h

 lu. To m gh h gf

of Emu' 
lo o ubl
y,  mu mmb h 
 lg h 
om oy of M

hvll, ho _P

h  ol ff
 o h mol o of v ,  ly

ulo  mu
 , hough o
 ul 1532. Whh   ko  o Emu 
o y. If
 , h
oul hly hv m  mo
om l  ly o  h
h. M

hvll ook h ol   ,  

lly h Il
 of  h
h h k b, , umg h h o
-bulg h
h h  gog o ll bou hm  o
log ml l, h m ly l o  h 
 l of u

h o
. Emu, o h oh h, umg h hum o
  mol ogm,  o

hfly h ou  o
momy u

, bu h h h hgh mol fu

o of h
ul. H blv h u

 fou u o moly oul b hgh

 mo ug h h h
h  u o m x 
y. Th

l o of v h M

hvll  h o of h 

Emu hough of h 
 oly  h v of h o l.
Boh  , o hough hy  , h  o fom

o; bu M

hvll ough fo h lluo  ho

o of 
 hoy h h 
 l m o b ok
ou o g  ug ol
l u
u, hl Emu 
fom h 
y of 
ly h m uo h lo of h
 of mol oblgo  of h lo.
[117] v., 593-612.
Ph  h b  mo  xm l of h mho of
m  fou  h
h  o xo. I ll b v
h h quo h
h  ubg h m hv o y

o g h ol. Subu fo " 
" h o "govm,"
  ll   h mo of h f
l oblm of ou 
y  bug quo  h y of Emu  Thom Mo;
fo  Mo' Uo   hv  h m h m mol lvo
 l o h m quo   h _Iuo_. Emu
[118] v., 593-594.
  ll u h my bllo hv 
fom mmo xo. Th goo 
 ough hfo o
 o  h h m of h o l houl b  ll
 obl ub by h m. L hm f obl
gov hou x  o hm. Th off
 of h 
lofy o b u fo moy-mkg. Th goo 
 h fo h
o  hv h lovg ubj
 hv. Th hv b my

hh ho u ohg o h u fom vg

h  v gloy lo;  om, lk Fbu Mxmu 
Aou Pu,   v h. Ho mu
h mo, h, ough
h Ch 
 o b f h h
 h v  M ho lv
o goo  hou m l  . Th  m ho buy
hmlv h ohg bu fg ou  v
h o l,  hk hy  b vg h 
mkg hmlv h m of h ubj
. L hm ho
l o hm ko h h  f fom h u l of 

"Th vy b y o 
 h vu  o
u off
y x , og  y h buom v
vog   jouy h  lk ,
kg h
g of off
l,  yg h o gov ll h h

 h, h o g mo. Oh , f h  o mu
h x by h g o h mbo, h lm o  of
xo ll h b? Fo   f   l y
g  g  h  h o
 bgu ul,

og o h ol ovb, h ov  o  ll bk 

h xhu 
 of h o l bu foh o bllo,
hby h mo o ful m  hv b u.
"Bu, f 
y m h omhg hll b x

of h o l, h   h  of  goo 
 o o 
h  y h h l bu my fll u o ho ho
hv l. Fo  my b  goo hg o ummo h 
h o
fugly, bu o
om l h oo o hug  h gllo 
 o mly hum, bu gou  ll.... L hm ll
o h, h  x  o
u  om mg
g o h vg of h 
 o h obly,

v b bolh. Wh h mg
y  , o oly ough
h bu o b k fom h o l, bu h ouly of h
fom o ough,  f  obl, o b m  m
goo. L hm ho
 fo h o l b  of h

. If h jo
lmy of h o 
o gv o hough o , h   f 
 b fom bg 

, o m by h m h 
"I ough o b ov fo h h b o oo g
quly of lh;--o h I oul hv yo  v
of h goo by fo
, bu h
 houl b k l h
lh of h hol
ommuy b lm o 
 f . Fo
Plo oul hv h
z h oo 
h o oo oo,
u h oo m
o b of of o h ,  h

h m, f h k, o o  o of . No o

 v g lh by x
o of h o. If yo
oul ov h, l hm
o ho mu
h l h 
ook fom h ubj
, ho mu
h mo hy gv,  y ho
h mo of vyhg hy h, b
u  g  of h
 x l  b  h fg of ho ho

v hm, bu oly  vy mll  v g o h 

"Th, hv hg  
ommo u by h m of h
o l, h  goo 
 ll x  lghly  obl, 
fo xm l,
o, b, b, ,
lohg,  oh hg
hou h
h hum lf
o go o. Bu o h hg 
lly bu,  h  my ff y: f, by

h vy hvy x

o of h
o h
h h o l

ll z, h by u h

h hv lo h
 flly by moo ol h
h bg ll o h 
, bu

uh h oo by hgh 

"So h,  I hv , l h 
om of h 


og o h ol ovb: 'Thf 

 g vu.' Bu f om u
o b vo  h
 of h o l m , h l h bu fll u o
fog  oulh , h
h hv o o h h h
luxuy  fm of lf h h 
y,  h
 u by h 
h lo,  fo xm l, f l, lk,
u l, fum, ugu, gm,  vyhg of h o.
Fo h bu  fl oly by ho ho fou
  ho by h ym  o u
 o , bu

   mo fugl, o h by lo of moy,
goo mol  m ov."
I oul b gog oo f o y h h 
v  of Emu  uly ogl; hy  oubl gh
fom h g of h 
lly fom Plo 
Aol; hy , ho v,  h f
vl of h o  m  hy ho u h h m  okg
u o m of lg ubl
m o,  ll  u o h mo uly

holly .
I oul b m obl fo Emu o go hough y  o
ff hou yg omhg bou h 
folly of fghg,  o  f hm
lug h _Iuo_
h  o h ukg of . I  h fml
gum, bu  
lly follo  h o h  houl o b
uk ul ll oh mho of
om og ff
hv fl. "If   of h m h oul hly v b 
 y h." H ho  vy
lly ho lom h llg
of  ff
 h o l of 
ouy. Su
u  uully h
v ff of 
u o 
 off oh  om fl,  h
 v m, bou loh by mg o om u
hg, h  h o h o l   hol? Th goo 

mu ll hg by h vg of h o l, oh  h
 o v  
. Th l  o h m o  m 
o  b.... Bu f om o  b  

hy o h o o b? Th  o my bho ,
o my bbo, 
hol, ou mg, by ho jugm
h  m mgh f mo 
ly b
om o h by o
h mu, llg,  mfou houghou h ol."
H  ol bo, u  m l,  o
 g  h Uo , , o f  I ko , o o b fou 
y mo  bfo Emu;  m  y  h m  log
o m o, bu,  h v bb  flo of hum ff,
v  o om f lo.
Ph  h mo kg gum of Emu g   h
u ho l of    m of gg h ulm goo of
h .
"'Bu,' hy y, ' h fy ll h v b, f o o
uu h gh?' By ll m l gh b uu, f

h b of vg o h , bu l o h gh of

 b oo
oly o h o l. A y h fy
 h o , h vyo  uug h gh o h vy
h? W   g fom ,  follo g u o ,
 o lm o  o h
ofuo. So  
l ough h
by h m ohg  

om lh. Thfo oh m

ough o b . Ev b  f h oul b o bo
ul hy omm m
o, o o h oh. Th
hub of o
 hg o h f, h hmoy
b  hm my o b bok. Wh o  b, bu ?
hl gl
ll foh gl  quy v
log g h h lmo  g of oy  v of h
ou of h youg 
, fo ho f
o ll h
om  u foh.
"I oub o, mo lluou P
, h you  of h m
m; fo o you  bo  o you hv b ugh by h
b  mo 
h. A fo h , I y h
_Chu o mu mxmu_ my o  you obl ffo. H
h gv you  m  hou blooh; h ll  h
you v  v f fom bloo. My 
om o  h
hough you goo  om  my  l hv   fom
h m . P
 ll b m 
ou o u by h mmoy
of vl   ou gu o you ll b oubl by h
mfou of oh m."
All h o Chl of Buguy, ly Mo Chol
Kg of S ,
h  y o b l
 Holy Rom Em o,   fo
h x go o u Euo  o  bl-fl fo obj

h o o of h umou ubj
 o l h h mo
! Evly h m ho
oul gv oly u
oul  h
 o lkly o b ough   m v of h 
. I
  hv o o o u o h Emu' lm  Louv
h mo h  oml
o h h  om  m l

llo. H  
llo mu
h  h  of h mo
Gm "Ghmh."
Emu ook u h 
  Louv  1516, o, o f  
ko ,  h
y of  gul 
h, hough h o

u   oom
 h uvy. Th  h uul u
y  o h mov
 flg bou h
hg. Wg o Ammou fom Bul 
h uum of 1516,[119] h y, "I m mo g o h ho ou
bu  gg o." Su
h g of myou mg o

 lmo vy l o h fllo -

h Ammou 
oully okg  Emu' . Thy 
o m om h
l by h 
ov of W. 
h  Bl.
Th f
  obbly o h goo h h  
g o h  o h
h b   f moh l. I
 obbl lo h Ammou  ug   o  h
Egl o 
u h gul ym of h f' llo 
. Th
l go o:
[119] ., 137 E-F.
"I m gog o   Bul. Whv you my  o

Tull [h Eglh mbo  Bul] ll b h

o m  o
; I m 
oul lo h hm. I m o
 o o go o Louv. Th I houl hv o b yg my
uy o h 
  my o 
o. Th youg m oul b
yl g  m ll h m: '
 h o; o h  l,'
o ll b
llg fo h uho, o fo h. Th 
o o h ho
 b h  hl o  
o o m.
B ll h I houl hv o l omm o h
lg of h uo-holog, h mo u l k
of m. Lly h h  o of h ho h  u
lmo  umul g m, o h I m o holg h olf by
h , bl h o kll hm o o g  y. H fl
m o my f
  b bh my b
k, om m  f 
off m  my. Woul h mghy Jov oul mh u h
l of m  mk hm ov g; fo hy
ohg o mk u b o , bu  l y mkg
oubl h vyo."
Bu hvg h h gumbl, Emu m u h m o go. Dug
h x fou y Louv  mo h hom h y oh l
H lf ,   hv , of  fo moh ogh, bu 
m o hv u hm  ll  h  llg o b u
y h. H 

ou of h lo h h l

  h o l
o  h u
 o oh ubj
Wh  ho m f h lm h  o Tull:
"I f h holog  Louv m of hgh

lly Joh A, Ch
llo of h Uvy,
 m of 
om bl lg  o  h  fm.
Th  h o l holog
l lg h  P, bu 
 of  l o h
l  og o."
Ag,  h uum of 1518, h :
"Th  hu f m u; h hv b f
ll,  ho of  m o fom l h."
A o h vul 
hol, h fou hmlf o h b of m
h M Do u, h

of h _Mo_, of hom h  
1520, "o 

ou of h guh l fo lg 

oul o h hm v h h  m u of g
m by vl mg." Do u
ou o b h f  m,
   fom h l o Bu,  h
h h  
b  o
of Emu'
omfo ug h ou ll f h
Rh jouy.
Dug Emu' 
  Louv o

u h fouo of

h Collg of h Th Lgug by Jom Bul, boh of
hbho of Bo,  hmlf 
llo of h
Kg of S . Emu   1518 o  h boh, gu,
fg o h m   mkg    h fo Jom:
"Ho my 
o hv  lo  h o m! I

ly mg you flg  h lo of you boh, h
h hol
hou of goo  l m  bkg o o
lm. Bu hy h m y g, hy h ul ? W
 ll bo o h f."
H  o ll f h h   h  vly h om
f h h bqu ll o b

"A o foug h

ollg,  h you  o l  y fom
h u o. Blv m, h hg ll o oly
mo h I
 y o vy b
h of lg bu ll lo
 o h m of Bul, ly o guh  my
y, o ll 
 of hoou   lou."
Th f  o juf; h
ollg  fou  h
 of Emu  ough  h ff
ul m of fg
h o fll h 
h. W hv vl of h
l  by hm  h 
hg of h
ommo. O of
h, o Joh L
,  v Gk 
hol,  g 
vl y. I  o of h
l lluo of Emu'
o  of 
 m h  m of bu   h. H
f  h m of Bul' bqu o fou 
" h
h hll b ugh ubl
ly  hou x 
h h lgug, Hb , Gk,  L, h h
ly  l ly of bou vy u
, h
h my

og o h vlu of h o. Th Hb

h  o h. My 
om g fo h
Gk ofoh , bu  h l y b my o o h 
v Gk houl b o
u, o h h h my g
o  o
. All h u of h
ukg g h m  hv
ommo m o v,
 h bhlf, homv I houl jug ubl fo h
oo. I hfo bg you, boh by you o k
o m  you voo o h
u of lg, f you ko
yo ho you hk oul o hoou o youlf  o m, o
 hm hh  oo  you
. H ll hv moy fo h
jouy, h ly,  h logg. H ll hv o o h
m of hoou  fm. H my hv h m
my l  f h ff  l h  hu
B  goo m  bg my b  ll m hou bo.
You l
 h o  m,  I ll  o  h h hll
o g
Th Hb 
h f o   J m A,
oul  , o h m 
 l of m loyg v 
h. I
mu hv qu  y v o 
omm h  om of 
J , v 
ov o,   m h h ff of Ru
ug o ju h quo of  
 fo Hb lg, h
 o g h ol of 
hol. Emu
A o gu Bul   l[120] of ou 

. Fou h ju ho  hm  h y;
[120] ., 353-A.
"h   Hb by bh bu log 
  Ch by lgo,
 by ofo,  o kll  h hol Hb
lu h  my jugm h  o o  h y o b

om  h hm. Bu f my o o h o uff

h you, ll hom I hv ko   Gmy o  Ily ho 
v  h lgug, hv bo h m moy. H o
oly ko  h lgug f
ly, bu  hooughly 
h h my of h uho  h hm ll  h
fg' .... Py
omm m f h  yhg  h
you hk I
Th L ofo mo  Co Go
lu, h m of ll

oh hom Emu l

 om f y l, h h hough h
 gog o ,  h
of of h mo m hough 

O my 

ou, h 

  Louv ough o hv b o
of h mo f
oy of Emu' lf. H   h m of 

vy o lm by y 
b u, f fom
g xy bou moy, 
u  y mom of om hooubl
 om f h
ho o 

  ,  fly goo hlh,  h

okg o  qu umh by v
g y.
I h y 1518 h
 b o quo h h m of Emu
 h mo ly ko   hoou mog Euo  
H N Tm h   ly of lg   vlo
 l of

m, h mo h
 ou hk u o h mo m o quo of lgou

. If  k o f h 
 l  hll b
ubl o fx  by y
go of hloo hy o of holog

. I h l ly   bough b
k vy m o h

 l of
ommo  okg u o h 

b of
h xg
h ym.
H fom of  
h h l y b k 
fully h h
bou of o
l ohooxy. H
oul fly fy h

o o  gl 
 of yhg h mgh by y obl
 o b 
b  hy. H k h  h

o f   h go, h  u o by h b o o of h
m of lghm vy h,  lyg u o h u o h

oul u o h
of o of  m ho fl hmlf o h
g .
Th go  h
h Emu h go  u o h ffh y
 mly o of og  vy fom of lghm 
x o. H   y-fv h Columbu 
ov Am
gv h f m ul o h ox
g  of lml
obly h
h fom m o m h z u o  go
of m 
  o o g um h--bu l y lo o
 om mo kly fl h  u

. Alog h h

ovy of h h h go h qul, v h mo  

, h 
ovy of m. Th b h
h houghou h Ml
Ag h l u o h hum    vul, h o  of
 o   h gh o u hm,   ly bg lf. Th

ug lb ho h l ho o mx h ubl g

of gu o   u  o h h of h fllo - lb, h
ugh h ol  gum g h gh of 
, mo
o h ll h hloo h fom Mglo of Pu o  h
b bl o fuh. Th oh lb gou ho h l u o
h mvllouly m l v
 of mul lyg
o  of g by
m of movbl y , h o  u obl of u
hfo of 
hvm, ho  h mgo of m
oul o

om .

A f, oubl, h v oulook o h uko  h f
 ll  f
 h ol. All blh uo ho

lm o x
  u o  u u o, mbl l
h fouo houl b hk. P
  h uo of h
z h gu o   h h.
Th gu of h u of hough h
h h
om o  fom
h  hu  h  g of "gou"  bo

hough h l by h buy g- .
Bu gully h  ho h b lly. Th o
voluo h by gu o   ly  h b o f
h h
h  h by ym. E
l  oul o
b bok  h fo
v ug h l
fouh  ly ffh
u, h b gully bough
o    hmoy h h fo
 of o  o.
 mo h g lg o  h
om ou of  log

oou, hough mof. Th -govm h ov
om h

k of
ouolm,  m o b mo  
ool h v. Th mo
hy of F
 I., of Hy III.,
 Chl . m o hv b o  vy o oo, bu 
h lo l  lo. If  oul
ool h ubl
of  vl ,  mu lf m h v m of
, o f  
oul o o hou bog  o 
u m ogv. So h  
y, h by h ggv

ouolm of h ffh-

l, h ov
h g  ug h lfm of Emu h m o 
mo h  
 g. Bu  h u
h h 
by v jum o
oul o
hg. I, oo, 
 u h b
om "lgh"  go o f o h vlg
lblm of hough h  h  v  of  g. I mgh
ll m  l k o u h  o of h "hgh

y h
h  lf u og h
u of

lg h vy ou
No g oof of h   jum of o og fo

oul b off h h 

o of Emu' N Tm, h
 of h

holh of h m, o Po  Lo
hmlf. I   bol ok, bu  . Th u  ovl of
h o  gv Emu  b
kg oh mo o hm  h mom h
y  of 
hol lk hmlf. Bu  bou hm lo h mo
fmly o  llg
 h  o bk, l h fom of u

ou o hm  lf houl b g.
W hv  ok of h
ouol o oo o h  
y by h
l. Plll h h  of
h  h go  o oo go g ou of ol .
Th, oo, h  
y m o hv ov
om by h m ol
y of
jum. I h llo  h lg 
o  o ol
ool of
h Chu
o h  u m lh ,  h v
gv m h o h ol  by uhg o h umo 

lm o b o mog h o  of Euo . Th hol ol


vy of h  
y ug h mo 
v go  b
u o  
ogo of h ol    y m o g
ogo  u fo  o  ll vlo  ovgy. A
o ' "
" o " h "   goo  _ _ fo  oyl hou 
h off g of y 
ly fmly  Euo .
om l,  ly,  h jum of ll h fo
Euo  o
y h h g oubk of h Luh fom
om l u    
bl ho
k o ll

blh uo. Th ho

, , 

ouy h l of vlo m h
oful movm, h  mok,   ob
u o   h mo
oh of Gmy,  h y of ll Euo  o hmlf by ghg
u o o o x o h log-u  o g
h yy of h om
h ym. Bu, o h uf
hg,  h y 1517, h  ll o o o h ho

ouy. To ll  

 h g m ul of W
lf  Egl
h  ou h h u o of o  Lolly ju  hu
y bfo. Joh Hu, h  ul h of W
lf, h b

  1415 o 
ombo of fo
, om of
h  o ov hmlv  ly h ou ll of h
 h  . Tu, h f  Co
 h kl 
flm  Bohm, h
h f ll ffo of o   m o o
u  ou ul o h h y of vol 

h h ml o h
h  f. Bu f h Cou
Bl (1431-1443) h g jum
 Bohm, oo, log
o h gl 
hm of
lo. A h mom  y,
foh o b ko   h y of lghm, z u o h
y,  h Thom Pu
ll (N
hol ., 1447-1455) bg
h  of hum
o ,  Sylvu P

olom (Pu
II., 1458-1464), Gulo ll Rov (Julu II., 1503-1513), 
Gov ' M
 (Lo X., 1513-1521), ho  y o 

ll oh  o h ggm of h ol o  
h v
m of  hgh
ulvo  fm of lf.
I mu b  h  h hg m
 mo bou  h  o
go bfo h y 1517, h govm of h Chu
h  u h o l of Euo . I   y-gog ym.
I  o
ll fo y  l
o of h    of quy o
h vlg uo  Chu
h  S. I  o g
u o y oo g moly h  h
lgy o  h ly.
No, o h oh h,   ovzlou  g  o 
oo f. Th   gm  of humou  h u of h
h o   o  uo, o log  h x
o h  o muo of vu   gh. All h
ym k  o b l lo. Th Chu
h k h my of 

lm h
om o b bu. No h  h o ll uoo 
 Ily  bov ll  Rom. So fk  "hh"  Lo X. 
o lkly o  oo gly u o  o 

h h
k o b m u o of h vulg--o lkly, h , o
 h m ul hy  
If, o h oh h, hy houl b 
k, oul h  
b hoough-gog ough   lghm   ff

o l hm go, o oul  lly o h f
 ll h fo

o? Th  h oblm of h Rfomo o. If
o  o
h  fom h  of lghm, o   o

m  h h v o ouy o  o h  
y. I h
ly ju lf o o my
hg,  h o of fou
y of kg h g ou of   movm h
h m o
h  vy lf, h gu m, lk Emu, mgh ll
oug o ho  h  oul o
 mo  o h o

Th ol of Euo   fll h fly

m of  fom
 mho; bu  y h h b f vo
D,  h  o  gl govm fo h ol (_
h_), ll
lg o h mvl
 o of   
mo of Chom, oly h h lgou 

ly ubo o h m ol. Ev W
lf  Hu h
b l o fy h  
y oly by h log
of v; holy
o   l ogo of
h lf  o  l  of
h ogl ogmm. Ev Mglo of Pu h v o h
y    h of 
vy, lm oly by
gh of govm  o l. Th lu of h
ovg h f hlf of h ffh
uy, o o

g off h  ll of h  l , bu m o

ool  g o h ubl
lf. A
y  h l of h m, o  Chu
h hou   
All h 
k h mvl ym h m h mzg u

I h l  blo   gly, bu h g ff
. Wh 
m h b b
k u by o ful ,   W
Egl,  h m o fl  h b  m. Wh 
omb h oh  g hm,  g Hu 
,  h h h  h 
I my b  h om
y h f h  
y of h 
hlf of h ffh
uy h b 
l o m

hlf- y,

m oul o hv u o holy. A o
look ov h fl of Euo  o
y  ol
  h  o
go bfo 1517 o fl o f yhg h

ll  -Rom " y." By " y"  m h  u

lu of
ogo h  ogmm o " lfom" of  o  o  h

om lhm of h
h  b 
hf ffo. I h ,
h  o y  Chom h
h m  h ovho of h
 l ym.
O h oh h  mgh b  h h  o g ubl

  Euo  h
h  o mo o l 
ly h
by h  
y  lkly, hfo,  y o ou mom, by
om l  h  l ol
y o v by h m 
y u o om o 
oul o gv u , o b u fom
  fl o o  o oo. F mog h ubl


 l of oly. Th  
y h,  
hv ,  ly ju lf o h o oo, bu h
jum  obvouly ubl. Ho g   oul 
b? To h lgh of
oul h  
y ffo o go
ogg h gh of kg o mg h ff of h
kgom hou f
? W h quo of lgo, o
of ubl
mol o obvouly byo h  h of m ol
h y
y mu
lg o h gh of fl jugm
 hm o go o h ll? Wh  h y 1341 h Em o Lu g
h Bv, h
lm fo hmlf h v gh o 

ov hub, h h mgh
my h o h o  bg h o y o 
 h Bv
, h   lmo uvl
y of hoo  h ul
u o  
 ogv of h Chu
h. Ho oul  b o ,  o
hu y l, f  kg, l u y of Egl, houl f

ov o vo
  f  my oh fo o o
bu h h ll  o? Coul h  
y ffo o y h 


, o
oul  b ffo o lo fo v h
 of Egl? Th  h k of quo  o h
y fom h  of h ol .
So g fom h o of v of h v
g hough of h
y;--ho f
oul h  
y fly go  mg h v
M  movg o  by  fom o u
ou hough o
oh, ul   bgg o m  f h  o lm
o h  
ulo of h  k hum  . Th Chu
h h

go  g u o  ym of hough  h

h h uo, h
blh o, h
l, h o, h b vyhg,
 h vul h b ohg. I h b  m' f uy,
o o hv  of h o , bu o k ho h
h  off
o hm by h hgh vlg uhoy. So f ll o oo
o h mho of hough h b ff
ully l
. Joh Hu
l h h 
 of h Chu
h ly   bg h
mbly of blv 
ko lgg Ch lo   h. Hu
h b  o of,  g h  
y h  um h. Th
m m ho h  mo gly h
omo of Hu  
h mom g h
u by ug fo   hoy of
lf h
h hu h  
y o h b
kgou  oul hv
bough o  l
  lglu of ol
h  h u
x o of h ll of W Chom. Th o oo oo
h b ov
Bu o  mo ubl vlo m of vulm  bgg
o mk lf fl. Th Chu
h h hu f u

  k g

lf bfo h ol  h o ol  uff
 mum of
lvo fo ful m. I h vlo   v  m og
ym of mo b  m  Go by  hoo, 

mo,  hloo hy of mol,   lboly


mho of bookk g h h

 of h fhful.
I, o lbo h h oul-vg m
hy b
om h
h    of  h h ubly of  . A
mm o oo of  gy h o b vo o k g h
ym gog. Wh o oul h  f omho  houl b m

l o h Ch


 h h   ho y o
lvo,  mo 
,  l x v, , mo h ll, 
b-blh y? Ho f oul h Chu
h  o
y of gog hlf y o  u
h    h?
Th  u o h o
m  h vvl of ll h gou of
oo h
h, fo l
k of  b m,  x  by h o
"Augum." Sg  ll fm of hology fo
h mom, h o Augu   o u h
of h vul hum oul   ful hg, ho  ou  ll
 k  olo u o  gy  of buo, fom
h ohg
 v  bu h by 
o of h g
Go. H  vulm ! W hv  ho h Chu
h h
go o h h h
vulm of h R
-- h 
hm hhm,  h
l x log of quy o jufy
h ffo ll u Ch lf- 
,  y,
f ll,   o
ofom lf o ll xg fom
of o
l  lgou ogo. Fom u
h vulm 
h h Chu
h h ll 
 juy o f. I lugh h
     u  fo  u o. Poggo B

ol, h
mo foul-mouh bl
kgu of h 
o go of Il
Hum,   h lf   l 
y hou f 
hou  o
o of , h h m m ul h
h ov
h u
off o  h
 of ly
o houl hv fo
 Luh  Clv o  h-uggl
h h hol xg
h o! Th Chu
h h ol h
vulm of ; ho f
oul  ol h vulm
of h oul? Th o h 
l h h lvo of h hum
m  o b fou by gog b
k o h uflg ou

ulu  h Gk  L

. Th oh  o 
h h oly lvo of h oul  o b fou by ovl g

ll h v 

umulo of fom  o of h 

hou y  gog gh b
k o h ly o
lmo of
h v g
 hough fh  Ch lo.

Whl Emu  uyg, g, lg,  vllg, h

Louv  h
 of h mfol 
v, h g ul
 ghg  fo
   qu of h ol fom h
mgh l hv b x 
. Th oh of Gmy ly lmo
ly byo h

l of vo of Emu  u
h  h.
Th Uv of L zg  Efu, h mo m o of h
hool, h hu f
obu ll o h v
ulu. Thy  ll mly u h flu
 of h

o, gu by u
h m  ho ho h b m
h bu of h _E ol ob
uoum voum_. Th Uvy of
Wbg, fou  1502 by h El
o F
of Sxoy, 
ju  m o g fo 
h om of h f-fu of h
l  , h
h m lk Ru
hl  Ruolf Ag
h m o o Gmy fom h Il fouh. Th
of M Luh  1508 fom h Augu
lo  Efu
o  ofoh of hology  Wbg, hl 
o b

b   moo  fvou of h N Lg, bough
 youg m o 
v ofol ok ho  ly fml
h h    of uy  ho  lkly o  ly  o h
hg, hou bg u
 by  h

Th vo of Phl Ml
hho fou y l o 
h Gk
  mo oou
lo h Wbg  o look fo 
 o b
k  g h o of  u
o. Ml
 omg youh of  y-o,  lv  u l of Ru

omm by hm fo h l
. H  ly ll ko   

om lh G
,  mbl, bu 
o b hough  lfm of
oo h bl
- hl of h
Luh y.
o b ou u o o h h h fml oy
of Luh' ly
. F  m lk hv o
h umo o  bfo u h ggg bu of myou
oly of h m. Ou oly 
 b o v vy
bfly u
 of h vlo m  my v o llu
h ml  h ff
 b  h
ou  h of
Emu  hu   u o u h
o of h
l h h fom movm of Luh. If ou l jugm
 o h youh of Emu 
  hll hv o blv
h Luh' y of  
h  f mo uly y of
hh  uggl h  h. Povy,  
 uf  lf h lflog mk u o  hy

ouo o oo og, bu

oul o
uh h h

oug h
h ov h om

W k  v hough h 
o of Luh' l y fo

o of h omy, o zl fo m ovm  h

oo bou hm h

h lmo y u of h l fom
oul u o o b h movg m ul of h
. Cofomy
o h m of h mm uoug   mk  
h hm   
  l h Emu. H go
 o  h  b. H   moy of h o  f

ofom h ful x
 o h qum of h
ul. Ev log f h h bgu o l h fgh g h
lmo of h xg o, h
ou o  h 
 o lv  h
lo of h lo
l Augu. Th m ul
o h Luh fom
o, hfo, b fou  y l
 of ol lmo o Luh' . I mu b ough
 om g, ov o g
o h
h ov hm ou of h
u of
ofomy o h u of 
Th ovmg m ul
m  h fom of h Augu
o oo   ju o xmg--h o oo h h
lvo, o, b ll, h juf
o, of  m' oul 
om, o hough y uo, o hough h u fom

of yhg hv, bu hough h 
 of h g
 of Go,
, fuhmo, h h oly
oo of 
vg u
h g

  ho o g of h oul o  
o,--o,  holog
lgug, "fh." Luh  o  g "holog,"  h o
 u,  v
 by om   
ul by oh. H h
o ok hmlf ou o
l by  
hv h  o f hmlf by 
mho, h 
lmo u o
ofu hmlf 
o  xggo.
l of vo
m h by  fbl o
vlo  lf-lo,  h  b
m h lf- oblm
o   o oh h h bough u
h bu llumo
o o hmlf. Th bol of Luh  o h of
 m f by u, ho joy h gm of gv  k, bu
h h of  m ho u off h mom of h 
k ul h

 o o o log,  h l hmlf go, v fom bh,

  , by  ll g h h o   g h
h h 
o l.
Wh  u   mho lk h Emu
oul v hv h
h ym hy. Com  h  o v  of Ily. W hv  Emu
kg h h   of 
holh ,
ulvg h o
of l m, lyg h l of h fmou 
hol hmlf,
mkg hmlf 

 bl o h o  h , gg ou of

Ily h h
omg  y  lg ll h hf of
h bg  ly u o h o
y h h h b flg
hmlf  hom. H
oul  h b  k h y of Alu,
 h hol hm u o h lugh of h ol.
Luh  o Ily  lmo h m m o   fom h
Sxo Augu o h gl
h   Rom. H vll 
 mok, o g  h hou of h o log h y. A Rom
h v ll h h of h , lk h mo ou of
lgm. H  lmo oy, h y, h h   lvg,
o my  h vg off o h oul of h  
 h l of v g
. H fom h
k o h l
ou fo v y log o fulfl
h u  mok, ,  
h, hou y ou  ho of
holy o h Rom ym. Oly  h 
hg  g, o

 h y v
  h gug 
of "fh"  h o uff
 gu of  lf "juf" o
"ju" o h v qum. H  o k h fgh; h
  h l
 ul h bl ough hm ou  h h 
o fu h
Com  g h mg 
 l of h  o m. If  b
u h fh lo  h uff
 b of ll juf
bfo Go, h  oul m o follo h h vul ll

h ll o o h mg h f of m h h o

hf. Su f
lly v , h o
 m o l
h h

l of  k of bl flm. Su
h  o
h hv
b h v 
 h y of Augu, hv h ubj

h b omly bfo m' m. "H Chy bough u
ou of h ol flm of h Gk oly o lug u o  
flm,  h, bu o  
uqu,  h ol o?"  k
 Augu' o  m. No h h Augu y v fl
o  mo o l 
ly h v
luo fom  o 
m. I h l y  h h ll of m  o molly
f, bu  lv by 
 l of vl, h
h h
 o m h h "fll of Am"  b m fom
fh o o v 
No h Chu
h h l y g Augu  o of  g
om. H  o of h "fou Fh" u o hom,  u o fou
ll,   mj
u. Y  

, h Chu
h v lv u o h o
 of h lv ll. Wh,
 h h
uy, h Sxo Go
hlk,  ul ogo
of h Sxo Luh, h u h u 
u o h
  h ok ou o 
luo h o
 of  oubl
o, h Chu
h, hough  bl  v,
m of Rhm, h om ly flogg hm  hu hm u fo lf
h h oul o o hm. So f  h Chu
h h v fomul
 v  o h m,  h b "Sm-Plg." I 
 hum juf
o boh h g
 of Go  h ll of m,
bu  o  h bolu
luo  o h
 of o ov h oh. I f
 h Chu
h h o
omhg b h o  
ul. I h 
. I h volv 
mvllou ym of jufyg g
, m by lf,
 h  o  mmb,  

 f o  hoy, "Do h
hg  you hll b v." Whl h x
ll m
ok, h  obvouly o o

o fo y goo Ch o

oy bou h
oo of juf
o,   f
, fom h
h o h ffh
uy, h Augu o
 bough omly bfo h ol fo 
uo. I  oly
h m bg o
 mo o oub hh h
h mho of og
hg  gg
 fo hm , f ll, h
oly y, o v h b y, o f o' jum h Go,
h h hol gou of ubj
 bg, o
 mo, o m h
o. Th o
 of h lv ll, o  volg
hough  my m o h lg hough of ou m,  h o g
g hough h
h  y mgh b fou o h vy m lg
of v . Th ol l lo ly  h m vo of o-y b
h floog gloy of   ly  o-moo .
Wh houl  x 
 o f Emu,   hv b mkg

 h hm o h y 1518, o h g  quo of
hum juf
o? Ou   mu follo  o m l. F,
 o h gl oo of h fom of h ll,  my fly

lu fom ll h mol 
hg u o h m, h h 
of Luh  lf oul b mo  ug o hm. Th hol o
of h E
ho, fo xm l,  o m h h fu
o of
h vul

o. Th
ll o uy
 m v; h um o  h m
 o h h ough o
o. Th fom of h ll  hum 
o  o
om lly um
h h  o  of 
ug . Th ulm  l  v
o y ou o . If, o h o h, Emu vo ll fl

l uhoy, o, o h oh h, h
qully vo f
 o  holog
l "g
 of Go" h

o o ou mol ok fo u. Th m m o

om fom  uy
of h Ch P
. Th 
," o b
l um  h h of Go, o b
u h  
fhful v of y
h uhoy, bu b
u h o h
uy   m,  h o o h
h h 
ll. H ough o o
h hg o h m ly b
u   h gh  h  hg
o o, g mo 
ly o  h lf of h ubj
h  of h 
 hmlf. Th Ch   u
u   o   lo of h 
hg of Ch, o
o o o y b
 l  fo  by h
o  o by y 
 okg of h v g
o o of v  hu ly ugg. I o f  h
Luh oo l h m   vul bg,  obl

ly o Go, hou h  of y vg hum g
o f 
oul o fl o
omm h ym hy of hv  mo
ou  mo 
  h hough of Emu. H mol  l
om lly f fom y lly
g f

o  hgh
h bul, ho 
o mu b fl. O

f ly of g  h
h h h, v bfo 1518, x 
 fo h  l ym; bu  oul b h o hk of
y o of h   g h lly  
Eh hy  uly
ovol, hvg o bg u o h u
of h Rfomo, o hy  v "hgg," u  o gu
h uho g h u 
o of hvg go oo f o h y

m. I  l y ff
ul o ko h
h of h lv 
h l lf; bu hv  Emu' mol g  m o fl
h g of  
 moo,   l y h h   lg o
h l ml of m--v h h  mkg h  olog
o h o  h b.
Ag,   l, o
 fo ll,  ly  1518, h Emu h
o  hm h uff ou of h
h g l of m 

m  m. No o oul hv 
ko lg h mo ly
h h,  ohg
oul hv b fh fom h l of h
mbo h u
h lh . Ev f  mk lg u
o fom

ou of h g oo h h 

l, ough m
o mk u qu u h, f h h
ho, h mgh hv hl y
o of my l
, h
h, by h vy m o
, oul hv gv
hm  ff
v lvg u o Euo  ff. Su
h flu
h h fl h of h gf o of h . Su
h ff

 h mgh hv u o h
ou of v mu
om hough h
hl of h ok   

Th ff
uly of ou oblm  gly 
 by h lmo
ho l
om l
o of quo h
h  o h o
g moo 
ll h Rfomo. Ev  h 

of m   m obl, hou og o om h lg
glo, o y   gl h h h u of h
Rfomo . Sll l, of
ou,  u
obl o o ho oo,  Emu ,  h m of h
   v-hfg  of
u o o y ju h h g-gou , o h h
h o of
u h  llg o f.
Luh l h Th o Iulg
 o h oo of h
h  Wbg o h l y of O
ob  h y
1517. Wh  h h   of h 
h Emu 
o o ko . I  m obl h 
 hv b mo h 
f k bfo h, 
ommo h ll llg o, h

 h f o

lmo of   h  o b o h h.
Th Th 
k ulg
, bu h  oly h ou 
fom u h
h h hol hoy of  m
l lvo 
x . If h ulg
  og, o mly  

, bu
 hoy  ll, h h hol
h ym,  o f   
 oul-vg  u,  og oo. Doubl h  oom fo
f fm u o h m l u
o. Th m h
bou ulg
 h b u foh my m bfo. M h

om o h m

luo by my ff o; bu v y
h y o o vll o my of h o. I Luh h
 ok h mok, ho h  fhfully h mho of
h , ho h go 
ly o h oul of m h h

oolo of lgou ho ; h 

hol, ho h
ugh h glm
of h  lgh of o h
hgg h hol  
hum hough; h o, ho  h fllo -
ouym v
by  v fog o o;  flly h m, ho h ok
hough h  ful oblm of hum ful ul h  
olv by f
 o h
ommo h
 of humy.
Th  hy Luh'  l  h. Evyo o hom 
m fou
ho of h o  x 
. Fom vy  of Euo 
 fom vy hum 
m lmo mmly   o
h ho  h  vo
 h b h fo h
h m h log
b g. Th Th   m  o
um. Th o of
, v of vol
, h  o mk o mu
h of Luh'
l g,  h  y oly ugg by   

y of u
. Aly Luh  ok  o ho
oul o
hl . A l h
 h fo
 lf u o hm,  fo
hm, bg h m h , h  o lv. Th fom of h
Th  h of 
hllg o 
uo. Luh u hmlf
fo    l, ho    o
hg h v hv
 b o houl  . Th  l,  o f  hy 
hol, m ly
ou h 
Pobbly h  o oh m  Euo  fom hom  
v o
 h fvou oul hv b o l
om o Luh   o  h
mom fom Emu. No, o h oh h,  h 
hm o
hom h xg ym oul mo glly hv  o  .
Th o  o  ok, bu h  Emu y hmlf 
y fkly  o oo o Luh. I  hv o o o
blv h h u  ll  mgu 
lly  o
h hough.
Som hg h  oly oo
lly. H
lv, ly
l m

v h ug  fom mgh  hmlv b o
v hl ful, hl h og u of hm  hmful  h xm.
So h 
 o y: L u m h og u
of h hg, bu l u o ub h o
  hl ful

 lf. Whv ubj
 h ou
ll ou  o
mg o . H   
u of h hg h
 o x   blv hmlf o b hghg h ff

of h 
u h h f u o  ul  oul b
u  h vy ff
 h h m   f. Th 
of f 
o   mbl o. Th quo of h hou,
ho v,  o o b olv  h y. Th m h
om h m
 gog o   blo h fm   bou o k
h fl quo: hh fom  ym h
oul o b
h  of ly u by l hum u hou go bu,
 o b fom ou of x
 fo ll. Emu
, "B goo  ll h vl ll vh." Qu u, bu f

ll m  goo h oul b o  of uo  ll. Th
quo , hh h x m h o b  log ough,
 h  h u h
h Emu m o o hv g .
Fo h mom h 
uo u o h quo of ulg
O h ubj
 Emu h m o u
oul b
ommg hm o h hoy   hol. I h P
of Folly h h 
ul h go bu of h 

lly h
oug u of h y  y of m o fom
Pugoy,  f lvo   hg of h mul l
hg of h E
ho  ho lly g y u

 o of mol go. Ayo ho h  Emu
o hv  mom' oub h h ym of ulg

 houghou Euo , mu hv b  ulv o hm  h
xm. Th  h Emu
oul v hv v  y 
h ff
fo h vg of h o  oul o h of yo 
o hm,  goquly bu. Moov h

 of h
l l of ulg
  Gmy h
ll ou h h of
Luh  u
h  mu hv m qully ougou o Emu.
Th bf
 o  h h
h h P
o of Mz h
l hmlf o h  l x
o, o
oo h hlf h
lu houl go o h o  o
k o y fo h _ llum_ h
y lf h ju g hm, bough ou o
lf h uly m
l u of h hol 
o. I
qu ll h h- lg of ll h 
hool o
y  m
hough h g of h bg  lv hm  l h y
 hv fo h ym h m  obl. Y h
ly h f h
h Emu   ly o fom.
W g  glm   h okg of h m o h ubj
l o olzu,
ll foh by

m of h E
  Augu, 1518[121]:
[121] ., 343-E.
"If yo f ful h h  oou o o of h
vulg, h
h gv o h hgh vu h lo  l
lly ho
k by um o vl 
h v, h o  gh y
ll o 

ou  f
o fvou ho vl h
h m o hm l h om oh
vl; o  f h 
o b
h hk oh  v b. So f o 
h h  
f o u  goo  h  h  l o, h 
omg ho o, bu  gvg h f
h  mo

o h h 

hg of Ch.
So lo, f o hk h hy 
 mo ly ho y 
hom  look f h v 
hl, h hy ho go
ug bou o Rom o Julm o Com oll,  h
h moy   log  gou jouy  mu
h mo
ouly   u o h ohy  ho oo, o  o

omg h ou m ul of ho o, bu  oly

fg h
om  o u y. I uh   o
 ful of ou m lo o 
 vl  f hy
 h oly o, hl  mooh ov,  f hy  o
vl  ll, oh f o h ho   bug."
O fl h  lluo o h ovm h o ou 
ogo h
h  o b Emu' g obj
o o h
Gm fom. I of h h oul hv h u vlu of h
uo o
lly bough ou h  oul

y o bu. Th l  o of h l 
 of Emu'
g  Bl bfo h log ll of h
h h  k  h
l bou h jouy o Louv. H h   h y 1518

hfly  Bl  l uy. H v  Louv oly,

  hv , o bk o  g. I  1519 bfo  f hm
ly o h Luh
Th l o olzu ju quo     f
 o of h E
ho  1518. Th f   h

o o
 h Luh  k by Luh hmlf  M
1519,  m o hv b ugg by h vy g  hv
h m u of o ho Emu' flg bou ulg
. Luh'
o  h f l  mly

of h u
ug h ly y of h ubl

vy. I  mo
g o  g. Wo fl hm o x  h
mo fo h g 
hol. I  lly moou h hy
houl o ko 
h oh, h h h o log b oh g 
[122] ., 423-D.
"Who  h ho mo bg  o fll by Emu?
Who  o bg ugh by Emu? I hom o o Emu
g?--I m, of
ou, mog ho ho hv  u lov of
l. Fo I m gl ough  I 
ko  mog h gf of
Ch, h h  my ho o o  ov of you. By h
 h gf of  lovg fom ho of  gy Go,
ogul you h hl you  mo 

 bl o ll
goo m, you  qully lk by ho ho oul lk o b
hough h oly g o  h oly o o b 

Bu h m I,
lumy fllo ,  o
hg you hu fmlly
h u h h  hou foml h of v
hoou,  o uko  o mgh  oh. I bg you
by you k u, ly h o h 

ou of my ff
o my x 
. I uh, I ho lf h b 
mog h 
hoolm, hv o o mu
h  l ho o 
 uly l m by l. Oh , ho I oul hv
 you ly h  l! I oul o hv uff
you lo o  k o m ll h m  my uy. No , 

I hv l fom Fb
u C o h my m  ko  o
you hough my fl bou ulg
  l lo fom
you mo 
 o h E
ho, h my oo
hv o oly b , bu hv lo b 

  by you, I
om ll o 
ko lg, v hough  bbou yl,
you obl  , h
h m  ll m.... A o, my
  mbl Emu, f you hll  f, 
og h
you youg boh  Ch,   mo vo m of
you, bu ohy,  h go
, oly o b bu  h

o  o b uko  o h m ky  u h you."
Th l
lo h  ff
o ulogy of Phl Ml
 h  bl
om o of h u.
Th  o o o oub h 
y of Luh' u 

l mom. I  qu u h Emu  f byo
holly m   uo. I  u lo h h
l mg of Emu' f
 o ulg
  h f
h E

o h Luh' o  oo 

h Th. If h
oul b m o ,  om mo 
 m, o

omm hmlf o Luh'

u,  oul b  g o g

fo fom.
Emu gv hmlf  o moh bfo  g h f v

of Luh. H  ly  h  mgh, fom ou vou ko lg,
. Th l  l o hm ogly[123]:
[123] ., 444-D
"Blov boh  Ch, you l  mo 

 ho g h ubly of you gu  bhg h vy
  of Ch."
Th h o  oly
om   h 
om lly bob 
h ff
 of Luh' 
o u o hmlf.
"I hv o o o ll you h  x
m you book hv
 h. U o h  mom h fl u 
b o fom h m of h
u h you ok hv
b  by my 
  h I m h -b
of h 'f
o'  hy
ll . Som hk h  hl 
gv hm fo 
kg ou lg, o  h
h hy hv
 ly h   off
 g H Tholog
l Mjy,
fo hom hy
 vly mo h hy o fo Ch,--
lo fo quhg m, hom hy f
y o b of om vl 

ougg lg.
"Th hol ff 
 o h houg, h ol

ug, h l  

ky, o h f I h o 
--y, v fl  mylf, I oul v hv blv, o
y uhoy, h holog
oul b o . You mgh
u o    gul lgu;  y h oo of h vl
bg h  f 
  o h my, o h o  g
 of h mu
h fqu uvy  f
 h h
ooou . I hv  o h you  olly uko 
o m, h I h o y  you book,  hfo h
I h  ov o  ov yhg  hm. I oly
v hm o o k b lg ou o hfully o h o l
bou you book, h
h hy h o y , bu o   h
jugm of ho ho o o ough o hv mo gh. I
bgg hm o
o hh   ll o bu bfo 
o  hg h
h ough mo o ly o b fu
 book o 
u by l m,  
lly  h 
bu o o o  o h x
 of h uho' lf. Bu
ohg  y goo;--o fuou  hy  h uh
H, Emu, b
om  o
l o  h o  fl of
vo. Luh h f  Egl, v om  Louv.
"Bu I k mylf, o f  I
, _gum_ [hll  y
om om'?]  o h I my h b v h
u of l;  I hk  ll-m v

om lh mo h vol

. W ough o k 
v m , l  b  ol by g, h, o vgloy;
fo  h vy m of  zl fo lgo h hg 
  o b lyg   fo u. I m o ugg you o o ll
h, bu ju o k o  you  og. I hv gl

(_guv_) you
omm o h Plm; hy  l o m
gly  I ho  hy ll b of g vlu."
W hv om  g of
ommo l
 bou moo 
gl, h
h mu hv hl  o mk h l h

omfo o Luh. If  m yhg o hm,  m h Emu

lly g h h v  o ulg
  h  of h
h  gl, bu  ly g h ff
 of ug
h v  bolly 
lly bfo h ol. Wh Luh 
 h  g of 1519  o ou xhoo o k h m ,
bu  g of h h   fk o of  ovl. Whh Emu
 gog o hv  b m h h m of k  Louv

oul o  hm. Th quo : oul Emu  by
hm,--y o o?  o f h    o 
ougg. To o
ho k h k of lgug Emu  o o  ly o h
o o,  mu hv m goquly ou of l
 fo hm o
xho Luh o gl of  
Th  of bg
hg h h uhoh of Luh' ok 
of oh ml  h u o, m o hv b h o hg
u mo  h m of Emu ug h y 1518  1519.
o o
  full of . H ook ,   fho h
h h v bfo ho , o  hmlf gh h ll h g
o h hom h h y
Th l  h gou of  olog
l bough ou by h

hg h Luh  oly x g Emu'   om h

bol fom  o  o Cl Woly  My, 1518.[124] H
bg h h f  o b
om o fml:
[124] Th  L
' . S
h f D
. 18, 1517.
"Luh   uko  o m  h  o yo, o hv I
h lu o u ov h book x
  h  h
 g;--o h I hk fom h ok, bu h oh

u o lf m o m fo . A y

 I h,  yg h I hv b hl g hm. If h
h  ll I v o ; f oh  I m
o blm--
  ll h g o o mu
h  o jo
 m,  yo
 ov h ho h o vg
. Th m' y of lf   ov by ll,  h  o
lgh gum  h fvou, h h
  o ou
h o v m
 f yhg o

. Bu v
f I h v o mu
h m fo g hm I
o k u o
mylf o oou
 u o h g of o g  m, v
hough o y boy  vy h, h h g bol,

lg h o b fl  h o b h
l. A o m
 I   ll h u o Luh, fg h om
fo my g ou lg mgh b gv,  g
o o  h
u bu y fuh. Fo I
oul o
hl g ho mu
h my oul b ou f hg 
o b bok u fom h
h hv  bg   by
"Th   f qu  umb of o oo bou  l
; h o  oh m hl bou

. Wh I h h
 o  g o ublh
h I ouly v g , l hy houl b
g o h my g lg. Th ll b 
of h, v m ho h ll o Luh. Flly h

  m of m hl; o o  m g hm; o o h

m g hm o o g hm. Fo I m o o h 
o  ov h I hv o , o u
k  o

om h I ko ohg bou,--hough h  o y 


 of ho ho ough o ko b. Gmy h
om youg m ho gv g om of lg  loqu
hough ho ok I 
 h h my om y hv
u o
bo  Egl  o bog h h b of o. Of
h o o  olly ko  o m x
  Eobu, Hu,
 Bu. Th m  fghg h vy fom of  o
g h m of h lgug  of ou lg,
h ll goo m  fvoug. I houl m mylf h
h fom of  
h  olbl,  I o ko 
h hmful fho hy  oy boh  ubl
v. Th o o llo hmlv  ubl

hool,  bqu, o 
lm yhg hy l  h
mo hful, y,  h mo obl m, bfo h
go mulu, y hk   ubbl hg f o of
hol  o
omm. Why! h vy b hv g
o k h h hy  hu  fl hv h o f
hmlv f hy  
k. Wh

om h  
go? Thy mk 'h
' of hom hy ll, bu mov hv
 h f yo
ll hm l....
"I m  fvou of h 
hol  h : h I look
h o h vu h o h v
. A h o

o ho ok  v
  ho m ho  Ily
 gv h f m ul o h vvl of 

lg, o
o hl fvoug h m of ou ho

h h h holog
o oul o ll
o m hm h h bu hm.
"No hv hy   u 
 o b my ok, v h
you  Egl, f oly m of ff ho
om hh fom
h  llg h uh. I, I
of fkly: I
hl mg h l, bu  oo f  I  ov  o
m. F Hu  ou   jok h _Nmo_; vyo ko 
h gum of   m folly, bu h Louv holog
k  yg   my ok,  hy f
y hmlv mo
h -gh h Ly
u hmlf. Th
m h _Fb_
[lo by Hu]; h  m oo! hough h hol  
 yl of  ff fom m. Th   h _Oo_
of Mollu  h
h h k h  of h h lgug
g h ogu-lh. Thy hough o mk m m
fo , v h I h o y h h h _Oo_  
;  f hv
om o h h of h m o
h m o , I mu b 

oubl fo  o  f I h

o ough o o o f h I hv  mylf. Thy
 Gm; hy  youg m; hy hv ; hy  o
g  bly; o  h l
kg ho ho 
hm by h h, o ho ho  u hm o,  h ou

ol  o hm.

"All h I hv   my l o k h fom
h bou;  ll v o o 
k h lg m of
h Chu
h, l hy ovok g lg h holy of
ho vy m hough ho og   g u g
 m  hu bu h f of ol l h
h my. Bu h
 I o? I
 , bu I
om l.
To mo my o  yl  h my o , bu o o  

fo oh' . Th mo 

ulou hg  h h 

ok of h bho of Ro
h g Fb  
b o m,
h h ff
 of yl   g  I m f mov
fom h lg of h v l. Why! h  om
hg Mo' _Uo _ u o m! hv    m,
llg o o....
"I hv v  foh  ok,  I v ll, hou
ug my m o . Som m go I o fo mum my
_Mo_, hou ml
 hough h  h mo h ough
fom of  
h. Bu I hv l y k  h ohg
houl go foh fom m h
ou  youh by 
y, o
oul  y y off lgo, o gv  o
o o y vol
, o mk  gl bl
k l u o h
goo m of oh. Th   I hv   u o h m
h b    g ol lg   v
g h
lgo of Ch. All  hkg m fo  o vy h,
 g  vy f holog  mok, ho fu o b
m h b o mo l....
"If yo
 o mk h l h ll f Emu vg
h S of Rom h h hol h   
lly Lo h
h, o ho y h  ll   ho mu
h h  b."
ly h m o of vou xy bou hmlf   
 l o Cl Cm ggo, h  l lg  Egl.[125] H
u hm h, o f   hm ly, h h  o m h

u of Ch  h Chu

h. Of
ou h
o l vyo,
bu h h b f h h  of h b m fom Po 
Lo o .
[125] ., 436.
"Bu ," h
, "h v  ugful ll- ll of
om m. Thy o o u o g  gum, bu

k m h lou 
k. Whv book
om ou 
h y,  h
h yboy  oo f h h k, hy
u  u o m. Th   h _Nmo_--fo h  h m
 lly book; hy
hg m h   oul
hv m ou h
 f h gy uho h o  

lm h ok fo hmlf. Th
m ou

foolh l  h  ly of o l o y I h
hl  o  hm. Flly h
m--I ko o h h
g-- ok of M Luh,  uho  uko  o m
 h mo uko  o  h ol; I hv o y  h
book hough  y  h vy bgg hy k  yg 
 my ok, h uh bg h o o ok    m."
H bg Cm ggo o
lou l,  o 
u h h v h   v ll  book of h
o. Th
l'  ly   fly  ug 
b h, bu my  u  
lly b
u  mk o 

 o h Luh movm.
To Po  Lo Emu o  g o h 
o o of h N
Tm.[126] Th f o h b, h y, ll 
by ll bu vy f . H 
 o of h f



[126] ., 490.

"Som  oo u  o b

 by obl gum;
om oo
 o b llg o l b; om oo
ob o gv u h oo, b hough  b; om oo
ol o ho  v o o yhg oh og; om o mbou
h hy
o b o m o hv b go of yhg;
bu ll  m of u
h  k, h   o oh hl o
y fo h  ovl. I h  
lv yg of
: 'Th  o l by hom   b o b bu h
"Amog h o l h  

 o ho h  my book.
Thy  f fo h o , om v fo h g,
f h ol houl bg o go . Wh hy hmlv
lly hk I ko o, bu hy y o mk h uu

o  blv h  ko lg of h lgug  h

ll goo l  o o o h uy of hology,
h h  o 

 o h
h hy   g hl
 om. Th m, bo u h h of h Mu 
h G
,  fghg
lly g lg, h
h ou y  ju g o g fuful. Th

hf ho  of v
oy   lou 
ky. If hy
ou  book hy m ly by h folly  go
If hy  m by og, h v uh ov
hm  o
. So hy
of hmlv o mkg  u o
h h go mob  mog foolh om, ho  y
o m o u o,  
lly u h x of lgo,
h h o l  ofully
lv  umg. Thy
u foh bl o--'hy!' 'A
h!' Thy k

lg h h Ch lgo   g  ly
o lg ov,   h hy  holg  u o h
houl;   ll h hful
hg hy mgl h
m of h lgug  of ol lu. Th hobl
hg, hy y, hv  ug fom ' oy'--fo o hy
hv blog o lg lg--h , hv hy
hmlv o o u. Su
h o  h hy o o
h o blh ou  ubl
mo,  h k o b

ll hl of  ool

! Thy bu h m of h
Rom off  of h Rom ,  hg 
 o vyo,
  ough o b.
"By h 
k hy   g o ul h
of l, o ju bgg o flouh,  lo h
uf hology h
h  lg o ko o
 mo  o 
u ou
. Nohg  lf u; vy o of
 hough ou g ho by ho ok h u m
o b go g;  mog h hy 
ko m. No , ho mu
of m o
 I hv
obu I ko o, bu uly I hv
v h ll my mgh o kl m fom ho
gumo  h
h hy h o log b foz u , o
zl fo  hology h
h houl b  o
 mo u  mo
ou. A h h lbou h o f o b  v I

v fom h, h
 o  fuou g m,
o vlu yhg h
h hy  o bl o 
 hm o l. Bu, ug o Ch  my ,
hom my g bov ll oul gu, o h jugm of you
Hol, o my o   of gh,  h  ovl of o my
guh m, I hv l y g h yl g of
h o l. Whv ll l I hv,  h b, o

fo ll, 
 o Ch;  hll v h gloy lo; 

hll v h Rom Chu

h, h 
 of h Chu
h, bu
lly you Hol, o hom I o  mo h my hol uy.
"I mgh, f I h l o oh gum, hv b
 o lh  g; I
 ov by h mo olm
moy h h I m yg  u. Bu h m o m 
g  ; I f o v h gloy of Ch, h
h my o . Fom  boy I hv m  my
 v o 
yhg lgou o 
ulou o g uhoy. O f I
h  y  ll oo fly, f h hb of
ly ohg b
om my  g bu ou 
holy hg. No o  v m o h h bl
k o h
l lgou by my g; o ub
 h v 
o v hll  o my 

ou. No ml
 of my 

hll v ov
om h fx mo of my m. L
oh  o  h hy ; I m o jugg h lv of
oh; l vy m  o fll o h o  m. My oly
gf  h hough h b
oov of om o
 of lg  of h Ch
ommo lh  bg
H h m o hf h gou fom h 
k of h m of
k o h Luh "gy."
"Th ff m o log o b
 h h  o of
gum, bu h bl g h vol bu o boh ;
bg m hl  h  o  h u o   llg
o m, h muul ml
o. Th  o o, ul
h  mo h m, ho o o omm l , bu h
hum l , f hy  of u
h o h 
o k 
hm, ough o b
 h Ch
hy. No hy
 ug o vl v h h
h  ghly  ok, of
h h
h hy o o u. Wh b o hy mk
 o h
h mgh hv b hl by Ch gl;
hy l by hh m hom hy mgh hv k  by
k. Th o 'hy'  gh y  h mouh, f
 y o hy ff o h o m o ff. If yhg
o o x
ly u hm, hy  ou
 mog h
u  uugh o l. Th hg,  gg fom lgh
bgg, hv of kl   

om o  h  vl, ovlook  f  of mll

g ll by ll, flly bu foh
o  ou ub
 of h 
 of Chom. G
  u o ho x
ll kg ho hv qu h vy
bgg of h o,  Hy III.  Egl,
 I.  F
. I Gmy, b
u h
v u mog o my ll kg, h m
o b o.
Amog u, 
  hv bu ju 
qu ou 
.  l
 m o, Ju 28, 1519], g  x
h , y h  o f mov h, u o h  m,

 m  x

g umul hou  oof. I hk,
hfo, h you Hol oul b 
g mo 

o Ch f you houl m o l
 u o u
h  houl o fo h hol Ch ol h Hy
 hv o, 
h fo h o  kgom. You y 
bgg h mo o ful kg o hmoy;  m fo
you, by h m m, o o o lg h 
  u. Th ll
om o , f by you o hy ho

o  k hll

 h bbblg g ol lg,
 hy ho hv o ogu fo blg hll


ho ho  vo o h ogu."

Th l   om h
ful g. T o   obvouly
bfo h ' m: F, h
u of ou lg  
o o hology, h
u h h
h h f hmlf
om lly h vy 
k u o  m  ol ul u o
hm,  _v
 v_. S
o, h Luh u g, o bgg
o ho  obl of g. Emu m o m, bu
h olm g o h o   o h ll flm h my go
oumg f m o o lly ough o Luh, 
o o
fully   b  Gmy  h

h of F
ofm h . I   g
o h
l of gh, bu v o h o of

hlh   uggo of  my. Th  ll m o

 o oly _g mou vllo_ fom h fl of Luh'

vy, bu h vy
ouo of Gmy m  uly ou of
h quo h h
oul k y 
o hv g Luh
  by h
o of h 
 ho  h mm ovg.
Th "_gul_," h "ll kg"  Gmy, h o bough h
u of
 o uff y u
h bug 
h k 
ug-off of h by y m o  ho
youh, Hy  F
omm  ll  Loo o P.
No  h y mo om  Emu' uggo h h o 
houl o h  
 o k l
. Th L zg
 uo of Luh h Joh E
k  July of h m y (1519)
 o bg ou
lly h, f ll, h l u ou
h h
 l uhoy,  h h  quo   l o mg
h y  l 
o hv
oul lly ff
ou of
 vo u o h uggo  h 
o Cl Cm ggo of h  h of
  l of Pul
 1519.[127] Af  mo flg ulogy of Lo X. fo h g
  ou lg, Emu y:
[127] v., 969.
"If  m of 
o  ough fo, I hk  mgh
mo ly b 

om lh f h o  houl

omm h

h o    m of h o  blf   
foh, hou bu of o og v , o h h m
of ogu   my b ,  
lly by ho o
hom u
ool blog. Bu f h   ff
 of h  h ou jugm ff lk ou ,
l h hol
oo b hl h h lm of
 o u ov o m x
. A f h b y o
lly ou
hg u o o
--fo vyhg ough o o b
gg , 
k  hl, u h h of o
u by m ho  hooughly v  h my
of h fh, ho ll o k h o   u h

 of h fh  ho ll
y o h ff h
u jugm, o h ou ub
Emu hk h
 ly u Cm ggo  h h
ll ly u h x
ll Lo. Wh h u hum bg
 o b fou ho ll
y ou h o
 uggo h o
o y. W  bou o gv hm
 fo y
h my hv h,   ll h g h  ohg h
h  o ov
v lg h h.

If o my jug fom h l o Lo, Emu' ly

of h Luh movm  mu
h lk h h
h vl  Rom.
I   qubbl of mok; Luh   Augu, Tzl 
. Mo mok  m of lg--Luh   m of
lg, bu 
l o vol
  o llg o k h m
o  uly ll
ul u. H , of
ou, gh o my
o, bu  gog oo f    g f hm my foolh
o l, ho ough o b hl 
k by h blh o .
Qu h m o     log l[128] o Alb of
hbho of Mz, h  l g  h Gm
 of 1517  h 
lgym  Gmy. Emu
k h o ouy of 
ko lgg h gf of  lovg-
u fom
hbho o go  lgh o h Luh quo. H 
 g hough h mum of h o  ol ff
ul. Fo 
m, h y, h h m 
 h h "holog"  Louv.
Thy  o hol h 
lou ogu; h  o o h b
o k h  ll. If oly hy h h h 
hbho '
u o
k h muul fh , h gm mgh hv l log.
A  ,  uh y l, bly uoo  o  ,
h bough o  
k mo fuou h v. H bg o
x l[129]:
[128] ., 513-D.
[129] ., 514-A.
"I h f l
, I hv v h yhg o o, h
h h Ru
hl bu o h h ff of Luh.
Whv Cbl  Tlmu my b, hy hv v 

m. Tho
oo b  Ru
hl  h follo  of
Hoog  mo  lg o m. Luh  o m
uko   h mo uko  of m. H g I hv o h
m o , x
 g h I hv ju bly kmm ov
om of hm."
I  vy ff
ul o blv h h m  u.
Emu h  hmlf  Ru
hl' ff ough o 
o  o Rom
l  h bhlf. H k ough bou Luh'
g o hv
 hmlf h h o  oo 
u hm; f h h o  vy o of hm, h  hooughly
fom  o h
o. Th mov of h l   
h x o:
"If h h  ll, o  blog o m, f o h
 ohg h
 b l o my
hg.... I  oy h
h book of Luh  ublh  h f om g
o oh of h bg o b ho  bou, I  my b o
v h ubl
lly b
u I f h
om umul oul b
u hby. Luh h  m 
l  h I hough  vy Ch    I  ,
g h m o o  yhg ou o ol
g h Rom off, bu o 
h h  ool

h u h   ll gl. I  h olly h
 mgh hv h mo ff
. I  h h  om h
ho fvou hm, h h mgh h mo 

ommo hmlf o
h jugm. No om hv mo u ly   h
o  f I fvou Luh, h o o of ho o
gv hm y v
; I  h oly o ho  hm. I m

h h 

u of Luh, o h o, o h jug. A

o h m'  , I  o jug hm, fo h   mo
ul m,  
lly f I mu jug hm ufvoubly.
"A y, v f I  fvou hm   goo m, h
h h
m m hm o b; o   

u m,  h h l 

m v o  o jug; o   m o  
o  by ho ho, u om m-u x,  okg ll
 g u lg, h gou of ful-fg
g m  h, o log  I o o mx mylf  h
m? I f,  m o m h  of  Ch o
fvou Luh,  h , h f h  o
 I o o
h hm o b
uh by h f
o of h 
k; f h 
og I h hm o b  gh, o u....
"Bu o
 holog hom I ko  h g
hg Luh, bu  oly h m ho lg vlg
hm bfo h o l  g hm  
 h h mo
vol bu 
oully hvg  h mouh h o
'hy!', 'h
', 'h
h!', '
hm!', '
o b  h h
lmou   mog h
o l
hfly by m ho h v  h book of Luh.
I  ll ov h hg 
om by h o l 
l  Luh h
h  B o Augu   
ohoox, y,  ou o. I  hm  h bgg
o b fom
lmou of h o  o
y o h
ff h h g  gum. I  hy ough
o ubl
ly o
om h hy h o  
hough ou, I ll o y, uoo. Th I ol hm 
omg fo holog o
y yhg hough by
, fo h jugm ough o b of h mo ou
k,  h   o  y hg o g h o
by gg g  m ho lf   ov by vyo.
Flly, h h    o  f hg o ou
h u o
h m bfo  mx
o ,  h
h h  my ho
gly lk h
ofo of 
   f h
houl h h h  holog ho y o  o

of ll ful, hy ll ly 

h    g 
v oo. No hough ll h mu k vy m of
    o m, y fom h fly moo hy
v h u 
o h Luh' book   g
 m,  ou
  Louv, h o o ok 
hm  m o ublh h my ko lg o my ll. Sll,

g u o h fl u 
o     of ll l,
hy hv  h ub
 mo fuou h I hv v
  my lf.
"Fuh, hough h  
l fu
o of holog  o

h, I  my o y ho  og ohg bu
om llg
m, bgg hm o u o o l
, h Augu,
v  h
 of h Do, ho  o mly h

bu fuou bg, o o  ov ho ho oul mly

om l, hou lo 

hg hm. M o hom gl 
 uy, m o b m ly hg fo hum bloo, o g
 hy o   u Luh. No h  lyg h
h, o h holog. If hy  o ho hmlv
g holog l hm
ov h J , l hm u o
Ch ho ho  g o hm, l hm m h ubl

mol of Ch, v mo

ou  h ho of Tuk.
Wh ju
  h  lg hm o uhm, ho h o

f o o fo 

uo hg h
h hv l y b

u  ll h 
hool of holog? Why ough h o b

u, ho bg o b u
, ho ubm hmlf o
h jugm of h Rom S  of h 
hool, h
h hy

ll 'uv?' A f h fu o u hmlf  h

h of
 o ho oul h  hm
uh h
, uly h  o g."
Fo  m ho   ol g o Luh  h book, Emu
ho  hmlf u gly ll fom.
"L u xm o h og of h  oubl. Th
ol  bu h hum v
, h h o o  h
ogm of h 
hool, h h yy of h M
ho, hough hy  h v of h Rom S,  mkg
hmlv  g o h o  hmlf  v o kg, by
h o   h umb. Wh h o   okg fo
hm h  mo h  Go; f h o yhg
oy o
, h  of o mo 

ou h  m. I m

omg hm ll; bu vy my  h k of o,
ho fo h k of o   g  kg o 

 of m. Wh hml ffoy hy 
bgg o lv ou Ch ly  o 
h ohg bu
h o  ovl  m u o
. Abou ulg
 lkg   y h o v o
oul . Though
h  my oh hg h vgou of  ool

gully  g    lkly o h  h hg
oul go fom b o o ul h  k of Ch y
houl b xguh, fom h
h h yg flm of Ch
lov mgh hv b kl. Th hol of lgo 
ug o  mo h J h
molm. Goo m gv
ov ll h hg. Ev holog ho  o mok, 
om mok,
of o hm  v
ovo. Th 
h hg,  I hk, h
h f mov h h of Luh o
 hmlf bolly g h olbl ol

o. Fo h l
 I u 
 of  m ho  mg 
h hoou o lh? A o h o oo h
h hy
 o  Luh, I m o   
ug hm, bu
oly h m  h o

o of hm.
"Luh  o hv oub bou ulg
, bu oh
bfo hm h m bol ough m bou h. H
 o  k h uly bou h uhoy of h
Rom off; bu oh h ho  ll ough  
h m,  mog hm  
lly Alvu, Sylv, 
l of S So. H    h jugm of
S. Thom, bu h Dom
 h lmo  Thom bov h
Go l. H   h m of h
ofol o 

u l, bu  h hg h mok hv gl h


 of m hou lm. H    o  
luo of h 
hool; bu hy h l f oo
g gh u o h,  y
o g u o hm mog
hmlv, bu  l y
hgg hm,
ug ou h ol
 ug   . Th    o ou oul: o h 

ly  o bou h  ool

bu o l h h 
 , log  ov by
h Chu
h,  o qu qu,  o h  ubl

hg lom  o of Ch, bu l y of h o  of
h o   h o o of h mo; o ko h h
ou  fll h lu of g, h fl,

"I hk h blm ough o b u u o h hg, f Luh
o  ll oo volly. Whov f h  ool

 f h o , ho  
hf hl,  h 
of h bho   h hl. All bho    h l

of Ch, bu mog hm h Rom off  f. W
mu blv of hm h h
 fo ohg mo h h
gloy of Ch, ho m h bo hmlf o b. Thy
v vy bly of hm ho 
b o hm hg h
h h
oul o hmlf 
og  h
h  f fom hl ful o
h flo
k of Ch. A y om ho  g u h
o  o og  ou of lov fo h o , bu 
bug h uhoy fo h o  of  o . W hv,
 I blv,  ou o ; bu  h v floo of ff
h  my hg of h
h h  go, h
h v f
h oul h
o g , bu  gl y, h v 
'   log by h   h
 h o h .' H
hfo  g h goo- ll of h o , ho xho hm
o ho hg h   
lly ohy of Ch.
"I  o 
 h h  o ho  g u
h Hol g Luh  g ll ho  o mumu
g h ogm. Bu h g 
 ough h o

o h  m by h m ll of h o ,

h by  loyly xo by b m. Wh k of o l
h uho of h o  I
oul mk f

l, f I  o f h hl I m llg h uh I

my m o b ug bu. My of hm I ko mly;
my hv 
l h quly by h g, o h o
oul mo
lly fl
 h mg of h h 
lf. Woul h hy ho k u h Co' o o v ou
of h S of Ch homv hy ll, h uk mo
 ly of h 
hg  h   of Ch....
"I y h hg h mo fly b
u I   vy y
uly   fom h
 of Ru
hl  Luh. I houl
 o  hg of h o, o
lm o mu
lg fo mylf  o f h oh hv , bu
o hl mkg h myy l: h ho m [h
o o of Luh]  mg  omhg qu ff
fom h hy . Thy hv log b ubl o b
h  of ou lg  h lgug flouhg, h

omg o lf, ho  ul ju o lyg

ov h u   u by moh, h ol

ll b
o h ogl ou
 hmlv. Thy mbl fo h o 
m , hy  u llg o   go of yhg;
hy f o lo omhg of h o  uhoy. Thy hv
log b g u o h o,   l  h bok,
fo h 
oul o log b
l. Bfo h book of
Luh   hy  mo ug  h hg,  
  Cml, of hom I oul h my  o
k h go.
"Wh Luh' book
m ou hy z u o hm  
hl  bg o bg h
u of h lgug, of ou
lg, of Ru
hl  Luh, y, v my
u lo,

ogh o o bul,--mkg o oly  b x oo, bu

lo  b 
o. Fo,  h f l
, h h ou
lg o o h h quo of fh, ,  h x
, h hv I o o h h
 of Ru
hl  Luh?
Bu h o l hv
ugly mgl h m ogh
o  o volv  o
ommo h ll ho
ulv ou
lg. Th hy  o 
g holy  v fom h
: hy
of h h  o o mog 
 o mo
 ho h o m mk  hy ll mk  h

of yo ho obly f hmlf; bu hy o hy 

ov h   o ly xm o o o  o? Thy
 o ub b
u Alvu  h
l of S So
 Sylv P hv of ; hy y o  o of
h b
u hy  Dom
. Thy
y ou g Ru
lo b
u h   hu
lov of h lgug;
g Luh b
u hy mg hm o b o  h ou
lg, h h h bu ju bly ou
h . Luh h
 my hg h hly h 
kly,  mog h
hg hy   
lly g b
u h h ll  

fo Thom Aqu, b
u h  mhg h vu fom
, b
u h
 ll fo h bggg F,
u h y l  
 o h ogm of h 
h o h Go l, b
u h k o 

ou of hum
gumo bou  u o. Iolbl h h
"Bu h hg hy  ov  mk hful
hg o h
o , h m ho  u  g oly  og hm.
Fomly h h
fully  bolv f h
gv f
o, bu f h   
, h
xm ly  h h  o m o h
of h Chol
h. No h
hg of hy   ff
hg  y, fo om lgh o, o m h,
gh y h mouh  full of h
y: 'Th  hy!'
Fomly h   h
ho ff fom h Go l o h

l of fh o fom omhg h
h h  uhoy qul
o h. No , f yo ff fom Thom, h 
; y, f h ff fom om  -fgl log
u bu yy by y o h of h 
hool. Whv hy o
o lk, hv hy o o u,  hy! o ko
Gk  hy! o  k
ly  hy! hv hy o
o o  hy! I
of h h
hg of volo of h
fh   ou o, bu o y  vy quo ough o
b u o  quo of fh. Thy ho l h m
of fh ough o b f mov fom vy fom of mbo,
of moy-mkg, of ol h, o of vg. Bu h
h o l 
 h, ho
 b  oub?
If o
 h  of h g  l loo, hy ll bg
vy h o g g vy goo m. Flly hy ll
h h bho  hmlv  v h Rom off;
 you my
ll m  l, f   o g h
o by om ly. Ho f h o of h Dom
 o go  my l fom Jom Svool  h
of B.[130] I m o bgg u g h b m of h
o, bu I m oly gvg g  o h  mu look ou
fo f hy  o u

  hv hy  bol ough o

uk. Wh I hv  hu f h ohg o o h
u; I m  kg oly of h m  h g
of . Th
 of Ru
hl h o  h k u o hmlf.
Luh' bu  f o h uv  hv

hy my 
  o k of m."
[130] Th f
lb fu   by h
 of B o mo h u oy ov h

 vl. Th fu  
  h gl
 bu lv, 1509.
Th l
lu h h o fml oo h h,
Emu, h ohg hv o o h h  oubl, bu 
mly gvg  mly g.
Th l o A
hbho Alb  h mo m o  h gou
og. I ho  u 

lly vy  
Emu' oo  h y 1519,  ugg h umou l
omm ho. Th l
g  of   ho h
f o hmlf olly. Th my b uff
ly x l by
h joy  f
yg hmlf 
u h
h  hv o  hm
fom h f. I  bu vy lgh fouo fo hm o
bul u  hol fb
of mgy ul, m  hm b
h  h o g ou
 fom h
h ll ll
ul gy mgh
m o flo . I  lk h vy o b vly fl f
omo ugg h Luh
oul v hv o h h h o
hou Emu' hl ,  h mgf h uggo by yg
 ov  ov o h umou
o o  vy obl
vo. Th   
lo h h k ohg bou Luh
o h book  oo lly o v o. H ho  h mo

om l
om ho of h Luh  og,  


 hmlf h h  
 of  f l by g h
h h "k  " of
 Luh book  b gly

 by hm.
uou o  h 
 u o gou g Luh 
hl ogh  g hmlf ov g hm. I f
o of v of h  o m   l  ff  
h of Emu fom h of hm. Ru
hl  bov ll hg 
Hum,  m of "h lgug,"  h "gy"  h
h h 

, h qul h h Dom
 of Colog, h f

o h u h
h mgh o ly b m of Hb by  ou
holh . All h 
ly vy
loly ll
h h ok of Emu  h o 

o h h of
Luh; y Emu, fuouly xou o o m o hv yhg

ommo h h, h o 
u l  jog hm ogh  o

ommo  o
All h gv  ff
 of  o Emu' u o 
h Rfomo   o ob
u h 
ul v
. So f 
 g  h l mg,   omhg lk h: h l
uho of h  oubl  h myou o l hom h
oully f o  "
 o" o "ho m," 
hom h o

olly f mo  

lly  h mok o h
m of ou lg. Luh  gh 
llg o o
h vl of
h lf; h  o h f o o ,  Emu
hly g h hm. "Tho o l"  
kg Luh b
hy fl,  ll hy my, h h gh  vlg 
 g, f m  gog o l o h

m. Thy 

hg, hfo,  vy x
u o
hg hm h hy.
Emu ff
 o blv h o ,
l,  ll goo 
obl m ll  hough h m   ll h o
v h Chu
h by 

 g h  vlubl  h Luh

g u o   o

Bu,-- h  h l of 

o,--h  lo 
Luh'  l  lm of o
,  m l
o  l h
h Chu
h  fl o  o  
hg  o h 
b  Go  h oul of m. Th
 of h o
m l
o ,  Emu mu hv fl  o
, of h mo
hg o,  h  o   o follo hm u . A
lo  Luh' fvou oul hv m o

omm hm o h o

l  ll  o h 

fom Luh' m.
Th gv  l  ho of obl o h fm
o b  mly g ov h ok of Luh 
mkg u
ful uy of hm  oul bl hm o m  
 ly. O h 23 of S mb, 1521, h  o Bombu 
[131] ., 665-B.
"I m holly o

u  h vg my N Tm  om

oh ok, yg lk h b gully o l
k o h 
u ou
 of my l. Bu oo I ho  o hv mo
lu. I hv b yg h o u Al o gv
m mo o  Luh' g; fo o y h ol
 full of y
o h  z-fgh. H  m h
oul o o h hou   
l m fom h o ; o
I h you oul g h fo m  h fom of om k of 
bf. Fo I o o  o gv  hl o h kv, ho
oul lk ohg b."
H _b o_  Louv m o hv b  o
Egmu,  Cml mok, ho my v u  h y  of "ho
o" ho  yg o fy Emu h h Luh
Wg[132] o h _R
o Mgf
u_ of h Uvy of Louv,
ll  1519, Emu y h h Egmu h b x g h
ou ho  h  S. Pul h b
ov fom  
o  o
o of h Chu
h, o Emu  Luh mgh om y b

[132] ., 537.
"Wh ll b
om of h m? Th o hg hy  
o o hm  om y,   off hm h I m o 
Luh,   I m o, x
   o f  Luh v
h gloy of Ch. I ko h I m h f of ogu,
bu y o o h h m  ov h o
 of Luh. I
hv v k  o  h book, x
 g  f g,
 h h kmm h . You
oo g
Luh I hv l y
oly fvou, bu f mo you
lly ho of Joh Tuholu, ho,  I h,
 o h 
holly y  hou
H h o  Luh, y h h ly  ov h Louv

oo g hm   

lly h g of  m of hom
h ko  oly by hy h h   goo m !
"If h [Luh'] book  o b bu, o o oul f m
y h . I hv  vly   my hg o
v hm fom g o ouly,  y I m

Luh! If h jok mu you uvy, I m m ough

o b hm; fo I oul h o h h k vg fo
hm; bu  my jugm h
u oul b b v by
oh mho. 
hgg m h h umul 
Holl,  h
h f  mo foolh 
ou, h
bg o o h; h h uh  I hv v 
o y Du
hm h fo Luh o g hm."
H  o Moujoy  h m y[133]:
[133] ., 538-C.
"Whl you  h y fo o my o I m
om ll o fgh
 mo h h m. By H
ul! I oul lk
o y h loqu
 mgh o,   o h  I ly my
h u o h hl 
 Ch moy, lk Pll 
Hom, z m by h h   m."
So f Emu h oo   u of u uly. W
hv o gh fom h m h  fom h u
u of h
 ou m o  o h  o h
h h ym h
lly ly. If h ol
oul oly hv oo ll log ough
fo h  
uou uggo o ff
 h , ll
mgh y hv b ll. Uh ly fo h Em of ll m,
h ol mov,   o o mov 

og o ul.
Ev hl Emu  xhog o ml, v  fo
m o  u h
h m h
oul of o vl.
Th  ough m ho fl oly h og h
h h
fl oly 
lly, o fo
uo o h fghg
g. Th mo h b
om v, h mo
lly   Emu
movg ov fom h oo of ym h
uly o  h
fomg y o h of u 
l holy.
I h
o o
  hv ju quo, h gh of m h 
o h ovo
o h
h h fom h 
v. Thy  y
vol, bu h m  o,  f h hgh uhoy
  ll,  oul o b o
om l h m of k
o l
 h h h x
ll Luh  h ohy follo .
Ho f Emu, hh  1519-20 o  y l m, lly

hg h o o o y of h o  u, ll obbly

l y m  ubj
oovy. W 
 h h

hg of m h by h
h h fl u  m.
T o l of 1519, o o Phl Ml
hho,  h
 of h
m ,  o o h Dom
ob Hoog, h h
of h Iquo  Colog, ll v o ho ho vly  h
m Emu bu h 
 l h fl hmlf
ll u o
o m o h   mo umuluou go.
 hly hl mlg  h g fom h l
o h gl  
-lovg Ml
hho, by ll m h
 -u of ll h Rfomo
hm o. Emu mk hm
om vy y
om lm o h book  h go o[134]:
[134] ., 431.
"Bu, f you ll k v
 fom Emu, I h you oul
k mo   g foh goo lg h  
 m. Thy   ohy of bg l by goo
m h vy o of bu, bu, f I m o mk, 


om lh mo  h y I v. B,  ough o

fgh  u
h fho h  my m o b h u o,
o oly  loqu
 bu lo  moy   goo bg.
Evyo h  ov of M Luh'
, bu h
 v o o  o h blf. I mylf hv o y
 h book. C hg h  gh 
llg o
o, bu I h h h o   h ly  h h bolly. I
hv  bou hm o Duk F
Th l o F
of Sxoy,[135] g  ou
m h  ogly  obl h x
 of Luh  
m, , hl 
lmg ll   h o
, ug h
o o f hm g h 
[135] Kl Hfl, "F
h  W vo S
h u D.
Emu,"  _Z
hf f vgl
h Lug

., N. F., v., 1891.
Doubl h  o l fvoubl o Luh h h   h
follo g y, h h El
o F
, fg hmlf  Colog
o m l bu, h  v h Emu, of h
h h
oullo  bog h S l gv  

[136] _F
h  W Lb u Zg
h_, vo G.
S l, J, 1851, . 164.
"Th  Colog h mo l Emu of Rom  h
h El
o, ho lk h hm o ll k of ubj
k hm f h blv h Do
o M Luh h  
h g  
hg. Tho h    L: 'Y,
o  o o, mly, h h h 
k h
o  of h
o   h bll of h mok.'"
Th h El
o lugh  h 
ll h yg  y o o
bfo h h (1525).
obu o ou m o of h v  h
o M  h h El
o F
of Sxoy h 
v h Emu  Colog  1519  h gv hm 

lok   f  o S l: 'Wh k of  m 

Emu? o
o ll h o  h hm.' A Duk
Gog , f h fho: 'Plgu k hm! O v
ko  h h  . I lk b h y of h Wbg;
hy y y  o.'"[137]
[137] Wl
h, Luh' _Wk_, xx., 1623-4.
Th l o Hoog, ho h b h
hf my of Ru
 h bol vu of Emu  h ly g of h
o. I   moum o h ' kll  fg
 o  of  quo  o
. I    Augu, 1519, 
[138] ., 484.
"Wh I  g, om m go, h book  h
h you
qul h Ru
o, I  of m ll o
 o you, f by Ch lov, h by h ofo

of ou
ommo u  fuh by h  
l ff
h h
h fom  boy I hv v g you O [!], 
lly by  u
o o  you, hom I u
o b  m of gbl 
ouou m. Th you 
mo gly vo o ou  u, you g
lm, h
h ff
 houghou fm  lg

o  lv o oub h you o o   o ou
All h m  Emu o gv hm om goo v
; bu h, o
h oh h, h fl
 h goo v

 glly hm h v. Th bho of Colog, ho v, h
mov h 
u l, , f h ll h uh bou Hoog,
Emu hk h my vu o om gl moo. A f h
 fully ffl
hl' vol
; bu h f
ol hm h Ru
hl mu hv h bl ovo
o, fo h
h  ully h ml of m. Th
 o  h
hg of Hoog,  flly, h Emu
m o  hm,
om ll o y h h h lk hm b bfo h
bg o f hmlf. Th,  ll hl f, h h 
u " oh o' lby"
 fuou l g
Hoog , ll  h l hm, h  bl ly o
u hm, hvg  h m hl h
h h
ll hm foh.
H  o fghg Ru
hl' bl; h Hoog', fo h
 yg o ll hm h ll b fo h vg. If h  
h h  m ly h off
  quo, vy ll; l hm
fom h off
, bu  u
h  m h h my m o vyo
o b og olly h v
 of Ch.
"H you o o you uy h f o my y  u
om of m hl you h 
u  qu ob
u m, ho
h  oul v hv b ko   ll, f you h o m
hm fmou?  h f h Rom off, lg h h
ff  of u
h  k h   b o o  h
k   go y log, h o l
. If y
o gou o Ch y  ,   f o b

fully ok ou by h 

uo of l m  h
 o b  o o h bho . Wh you hv o h you
  quo  o. You hv m h quy  hv
bough  bfo h o  uho. You  o
u o o  u hv  h  o  u
h umul 
h. Woul h you h    mu
h ,  mu
h moy
hg h Go l of Ch. If you h, I m
gly mk o J
ob Hoog oul b  g m
h h  o ,  h m oul b f mo hoou mog
ll goo m, o  l oul b l h. A  , 
g  of h h fll u o you O, h
h, hvly
bu ly by ou hol o my 

ou, ough
o o b gh o  by  o."
Th follo   log f
 of om o of Emu quo by
Hoog, hou mg h uho, bu h
h m o 
hm o h Ru
hl qul. "My Ch b  fvoubl o m 
I m ll fvoubl o h Cbbl!" H
 ohg fo h J :
"Who  h mog u ho o o uff
ly h h

 of m? If    Ch hg o h J ,  
ll goo Ch ough! Th o hg h mk ll h
oubl  h gl
 of lg. You ll b vg mu
b h
u, o oly of h Dom
 o, bu lo of

Thology   hol, f you ll

k by you uhoy h
 bu of
 o ho vy h,  ubl

ou,   uo,  bqu,  h 
mo ou,  ubl

hg  b lg g kll 
h lgug  g ol l, mglg h h
h of h,
 of 'A
h!' 'hy!'  oh
vol o of h o, h   f
l ho
gly h Chu
h  b o m kll  lgug 
. Th u o o h h gy of hology,
bu mk  mo l; o o o o , bu v . You
oul o gh y b h  of mu
l, f

 om mu
  o b  h   b
Th o of h m  o b
om, bu hoou  ll o
b  o h u.... If Thology ll jo  og hoou
o h u h ll  u b o by hm; bu f
h bu  vl hm, I f  ll
om o , 
Pul y, h hl hy  lg 
h oh h muul
b, hy ll m ly b h h of 
h oh."
I v of h
o o
 of 1518-19  my ll
o h
h mu
u quo of Emu' ol
oug. Of ll
hg bough g hm o boh  h of my 
h mo fqu. Of ll h x lo of h u o 
h Rfomo h  h mo obvou  h mo o ul. If

  ,  l om ly  o

 fo ll  mulu
of  lxg quo. "Why  Emu o o o y h hg
o h hg? H  f." I uu
 of ou 
 l o o
 o ko h mov of vy 
 of Emu' lf,  hll
o m  o gv o   h ll f ll
, bu hll
vu o b  ll Em oulv  y o v h m
fom mo h o .
W hll hv o ou ok bu bly o f f  hv o m

l h Emu blv  h gh o bg ll hum
uo o jugm  h b of h o  m 

Nohg h
h off h o   of gh
oul b holly

 bl o hm. I o f h   vul, 

lm h
gh  u
h. A  vul, h  m 

 of h
o , h h  gh, o oly o hv o o u o vy ubj
hum , bu o x  hm. Th  o
ll u o hm, y
mo h u o  hu oh, o  hmlf hu o kg,

, l, o , quo,  u
 hm  o h
uy   g ubl

. H  h ou of om m llg
 of uy  of gh. If  my u y
h v  o ,  my ly u o h: h h fl hmlf h
 okm of 
u g h hmlf,--h
u of  f 
holh .
H   vul, bu of h ffh, o of h ghh

uy. Th g o of lv

 o h mo m, h
ogo go um_," h o y b  ok. M  ll
o hk of hmlf  hmm  by  of hough  
 fo hm by h o  m, bu gv o hm    of
h hum h
 fom h o of h . No m of
vul fo

om l hou h lmo. If Emu
h lv  h ghh
uy, h mgh hv b  ol;
bu h  o lvg  h ghh
uy. H  h h
m  ou of jo, bu h  o blv hmlf
ll u o o
  gh. H fu
o  oly o o ou h vl , o
f  h
oul, o  l o ho  uhoy o my hm.

A m mly m  ohg mo

oul hv fou  f 
y o k hmlf f fom y g of 
uo. H mgh
m ly hv k  l,  o o
oul hv    h uy
o  k ou. I qu  vy
obl x
o y v  mu
h  Emu  llg o y,   y h
Svool h o lly b o o h fo mly m g
o  u  Flo
  kgom of Ch hou h hl of h
o . Th m of h Iquo  log,  
h  vgl,
   o  ubl. A m ho vlu mly h o  

of m oul hly b lkly o 
u   lu. So f 
my go  gg o Emu h quly of
oug. H k h 
mkg m mog o ful v . If h 
of ou lg  obl

m  o vl, h, 
h fquly , h of of  v boy of l
 hg  gog o b mh,  hy
oul o uff h hou mkg  g moo of h
o .
O h oh h, ohg  fh fom h u h y k
of o  u u h blh fom of ogo. H h of
 x o h ol of uo. Rvoluo  bho
o hm, b
u h hough  vl  g h y vg
 mgh bg. Th mom h f
 h  h  
voluo, v  h f 
, h  m ll o mofy 
x l   ul h h, fo h mom, f h  of
h    u.
Th gu of Emu  mly

l, o
H mfou  o lv  
 h h mly

u oul o log v. Th uggl fo 
 bgg,  h  h Emu bg o fl. M 
lookg o hm fo lh . Pobbly h goly xgg h
g o h
h ll h

m of h y 
hg u o hm.
Th xggo  ohg mo h  mgh x 
 fom h
vou vy  h u
oollbl m ul o mk lu
hv h ook   h. Sll 
o ju h gm of
uh: h h ol of 
hol fl h o   oul hv b
gl o follo h l f h h
ho o k  l' l
Ho ul h x 
o  h Emu oul o h  my
 fom  y  h y of Alb D.[139] I  h y
1521. Luh o h u fom Wom h b    y, o o
k hh. Rumou of h h    bo 

o o h umou follo . Th m l-h  ho h
y bfo h v Emu  h Lo Cou  ov hlm
h my. I h m of h o
ll jog o  of
vl, g, ,  y bgg h uly
bk ou o  l of  :
[139] Alb
h D' _Tgbu
h  R   Nl_.
E. F. L
huh, 1884, . 83, 84.
"Ah Go!  Luh ; ho ll h
foh o
foh h Go l o u? Ah Go! h mgh h o hv 
 h x  o  y y! Oh! ll y ou Ch m,
hl m ly o y  mou fo h Go-  m,
 y o Go h h  u oh lgh m.
"Oh! Emu of Rom, h  hou? Bhol h h

uju yy of hly o , h mgh of k,

H, hou
hm o of Ch!  foh by h  of h
Lo Ch; f h uh; g h my'
o ! A 
, hou  bu  fl ol m. I hv h h y hou
h gv hylf bu 
ou l mo y of 
v v
  hm, I y, o h of of h Go l  h u
Ch fh  blv m h g of Hll, h S of
Rom,  Ch h , ll o vl g h. A
hough hou b
om lk hy m Ch  b hm
fom h l of h ol  o   ll l,
y l hou o mu
h h oo  fom h uo lf 
b glof  Ch. Fo f hou hl k of h
u h
k of, o l hou g h hm  jug h quy hm
h hv o foolh. O Emu!  by u, h Go my
 h,    of Dv; fo hou  mghy 
 ly Golh; fo Go  by h holy Ch

h,  h  lo mog h Rom, 

og o h
v ll."
Doubl h hfl o of h x
ll D  
h f m ul of my  ho oul ho hough of Emu 
 m ghfo   hmlf,  hou y  
l ko lg
of hm jum  o h
luo h h  h ul l of
 m go. No u
h lluo
oul log ff
 yo ho
om o ko hm  h u
[Illuo: ERASMUS.
I  om h ff
ul o mg h Emu oul hv o f
h ol fy h b ouly bough o quo. I
 o m obl h, f h u of 
o o uhm
h v b quly  o hm by y uhoy
 bl of
g  jugm, h mgh hv  o  hgh l of

o h h  v  f

ll u o o 
h. Su
 h h o m  holly fom vul,  g o

og uhoy h of Chu
h o S,  h f
l y h h hgh o  boh h ol h  ov
hm. Th jugm   ll v mo fvoubl h Emu 
l o m fo hmlf. Wg o R
h P


l y 1521 h y[140]:
[140] ., 651-C.
"Wh hl
oul I gv Luh, by mkg mylf h
om o
of h g, x
  h  o m houl h  of
o? I
o o ough  h m   h
h h h
,  uly h h bough g my u o h f
of ou lg. H h gv u my  l yg 
g; bu oul h h h o  ol h goo hg by
h olbl ful. Bu v f vyhg h o h b
gh, I h o o of ug my h  g fo h
k of h uh. I ' vy o h h h gh fo
myom,  I ly f h f y umul houl ,
I houl follo h xm l of P. I oby h 
m o  o  h hy  gh, b
u h  my uy;
h hy  og I b , b
u h  h f l.
Th I blv o b m v o goo m f h  o
ho  of m ovm."

ly h o. Emu  y o b h ll of
h ol b
u h  o o   h  o o my hm.
Wh oh bg o k h my o h o  h, h h

oul   h ffo oly o,

ofuo, o,  ll
h  boo of hoo.

W hv follo  h
ou of Emu' hough ug h f

l y, 1518  1519, h h u o of h Luh
movm  h g lf o  f ol
y. I
oul o
b  h Luh h  h ou y " ogmm" hv.
H lh  o b f by h l log
of h
v h
h  o follo g   f u

h lg
o h x h
om llg fo
. I 1518 Luh h go  f
 Augbug o m h  l lg Cju, ho h m ly
o hm o 
. Luh h  l h h  y o
b u
, bu ul b fom, h  _bou_ by h
o of Go 
oul o hk oh  h  h . H h
go fly ou of Augbug, bu v g k hmlf h
h  l g . I 1519 h h 

hllg of Joh
k of Igol, o of h mo klful  u of h y

og o h 
mho, o m hm  L zg u h
o of Duk Gog of Sxoy  h 
u h u
 by h Th. So log  h 
uo h k  o h
ol l of mvl gumo Luh h fl hmlf
  vg. H h
hf u h flg  flly
h llo  hmlf o b   o h mgf
of o  h
h h h 
l h  h g of h

om h
, Joh Hu, h  mu
h h  "gh Ch
l." Fo h f m  ly hou h o  ll
h h  h h  
y  o  l lm of h

h ogo.
foh h  o oom fo
om om. Th  
y, o fly
ou o h mgu of h uo,  l  1520,  E
om g, h  l  o, h bull of x
o. Th
 o fll boluly hml. Th 
youh of Wbg,
h Luh  h h, m
h  fv o
o o h
Elg, kl  bof,  h o  h offg
um. Bu h  o ll. P l bull h of m h f
bfo, hou ou lo of g fo h uhoy h
h ly
bh hm. Th m, ho v, o mly h bull  quo, bu
o y of h Co L , h hol boy of lgl uhoy o
h h o  o u bull , 
omm o h flm.
Th m, o mly h Luh  ll ho u o hm fu
o oby h 
, bu h hy o o o m
hmlv, o
 fo ll, fom h
ool of h hol ym h
  . Wh h  h Luh movm  fom h
g of Rfomo o h g of Rvoluo.

A h o h mly

v u of Luh' gu
bg o  ly lf. H h o j
 o uhoy  o
  ll uhoy. H h o ho   o 

o, o lv h Chu
h hou y o  ll. I ho
 l o
lmo of h y 1520, "Th Bbylo C vy of
h Chu
h," h "A o h Ch Nobly of Gmy," 
h "Fom of h Ch M," h ufol h ogmm fo 
h o o h b of h Ch .
Luh'  olog  Gmy hv ough o v hm fom h

hg, ful o Gm , of bg  voluo. L u,

z of  o o h
h voluo h m oly h 

o  lg   b-o ubl
lf, m fkly h
o of Noh Gmy  h y follo g 1520 , o f

h m 
, voluoy,  h oly 
  b juf o uoo. Tu,   f h
 h b f v 
  bg mly  u o  o
of hg o
 l  h ly Chu
h. Bu h  boy of
uo hv hl h o  fo  hou y h ovho

o b gu by y gl fgu of  

h bou m
fomo  oo.
Th h ol of Euo   1520 fl lf volv   ok
of voluo  buly ov by h 
o of vy y

. Th h  
y houl o g   lf-v. All
fomo h
h houl go byo h g of mly
omg v
 mu m o  voluoy. I
fuml o oo  h ll h
h  h,   
l y b,  h vy ovo mu hfo  o oy
omhg l o h vy u of h Chu
h. Fom h mom
h h  l govm bg  ll o
om h h mg of
h Gm vol,  bg o    voluo.
Mo kg ll, ho v,  h  y h h
h ll h
l lm of o
og h h   
k o h o  
 of voluo. Hly h Luh' f
o oo, m   mo  hy , b u foh,
h,  h mm

l of flu
, m  fou ho 
y o  h l log
 fom hm. If   u
h m  juf  h gh of Go olly by fh, h
obvouly h  o  of y mg g
y hv. A y
h ll fom, hoo,
m  o mu
ul ubbh l u by
u of og! If   u h
Go' lg h m  
, h hy mgh
o m look fo mm  o of h v    of ol
bfo ll h m
hy of   fom h b v? If
h o of Go  o o b bou by   
y, hy l  b bou
 book,  h
h,   ll ko , h   ly
of o  fl? H Go, h,
m? All h quo  k by m of hough  u
 h    o lo 
omg. Thy
m,   m of
g o
l u hy l y
om,  h fom of l ho
lm, o of h
h  qu hou  b of
o, bu h
h, k ogh,
ll u  ghly  

oul b o oh m h Rvoluo. Th mg of lv

fom h bog of ol  hou h  of 
h blhm  ll  ly o  ummo o
 fom vy fom of   o o. Th m of
hoy, h Cl  h Mz,
 h o o h m
o  of uffg. Fom 1522 o 1524 h go l of fom
hough fh  bg ok ov o u h  of h v

 o ulo of Ml  W Gmy. I 1524  1525 

bu ou  h fuou
y of h o 
l fo quly
of gh  h o
l x o of h quly of lvo.

u ,  l y,  ok   lg 
h m 
Ju  h  
y  qu
k o 
og h voluoy mg
of h Luh o oo, o Luh 
og ho lly
voluoy  ll h  movm h
h, qu g h
ll, h m u of h v o g h y fo hmlv.
I h  o h Wbug f h D  Wom h h of
l og of Cl  h o h fom Z 
Wbg. A o
 h  h g  hu o m . H

  ufyg Wbg fom h  of f

m oly
   f   ov h l. H
foh  b
h  h mo m o  
ly h mo ff
ul oblm
of h Luh y o ho o h ol 

v , hou h g fo  mom fom  ogl
oo of holy o h  l ym.
A, flly, fom h ol
l , h voluoy 

of h Luh oo  o l
lly vbl. Luh'
ly ou 
 h ho  hm fom h f h h Gm
o l  o o b
  y by y b
o of mo

No, o h oh h,  h y ho  of vvg h 

uhoy of h m o. Luh'  l o h Gm obly
 b o h f
 h hv ol
l vu h  
Gmy  o b fou   
,  h  o of h

 ov hm qul o h mg
y. Th
ll o f h
 lgo volv lo h o 
om l lv
ll m l
Th full mg of h Luh movm , of
ou, f
o u h 
oul hv b o yo  h y 1520,  y
 ly  1525 vy o of h o of v ju 
og by vy houghful obv. Th 

 l; h quo , ho oo  ho f oul 

vlo o f
I u
h  mol f  h h  h oom fo oo
Emu? Th   o h quo  h hoy of h v
mg y of h lf--y  full of 
vy  y h
h go bfo hm. Po  h mgh h h uggl 
o of h,   v h  fom h l uo of h
hough   fom hm h u
 by h
h h
m h v 
 b m. W my, hou uuly

hg h mg of h
hgg u o  h fom,
v  o h g. Ul 1520  fl h o of ym hy
 h  mly o  x
. Af h y, 

gly  h 
l ul bg o  ,
 f h u of 
 holy b
omg mo oou
Flly, u h 
g u o jufy hmlf  h
holy,  f Emu lyg o   mo foml h  h
hloo h
l  holog
l oo  g h of h
Luh y.

S. .  o m. L m m

,  m vul m
u m  u Agl. Hb  H 
Lum lum. Zug qum  lbum u uo 
vulum vu Fbum 
m. u Cl Tolu
u. Eo mouo o u v. O u oum v. I

v  lb v  mu m. N

o qum fm h

umulu  hbuu. Nm omo   om  

 qu m  bhou. S 
  u ou 

  m [o] of

. Dvo m
o  ,

ummoum gum ul o ug, 
vo,  x ug.
D Phl o, clampadi qud sci c veam ex alium
litteis. Utamque epistlam tuam accepi. Bee vale vi i
dmi mihi clede.
LO ANII, pstid. Cal. Au .
ERASUS ex aim tuus.
I shuld be sy f Lee, if he had t bee s vilet i
the matte; s badly is he teated eve by his   E lishme.
I Spai thee is a secd Lee. A cetai Zui a has, I hea,
published a tleably sava e b a aist Fabe ad me. The late
Cadial f Tled had phibited it, but  that the cadial
is dead, he has ive fth his pis. I have t see the
, ad let him be ae that it des t cme it my hads! I
 t hat ill be the ed f this distubace. Eveythi
pits t ads evluti, a thi I have al ays abhed. If
it must be that ffeces cme, at ay ate they shall [t]
cme fm me. Thse peple ae cspii ith all thei mi ht;
they ae besie i the cuts f the mst ptet i s ad I
fea they ill vecme them. All that I  abut Philip ad
clampadius I have leaed fm the lettes f thes. Bth f
yu lettes I have eceived.
Fae ell, belved i the Ld.
Yu mst devted
LOU AIN, Au . 2, [1521?].]
The up f lettes cited abve eflect a a itated, evus
ucetaity f mid  Easmus' pat. They ae filled la ely ith
e atis, s aa ed as t balace each the ith csideable
success. They leave  u mids the impessi f a dual
pesality:  the e had a ma childishly sesitive t abuse
ad facyi that evey misdiected shaft f the ppula it 
feeli as aimed at him;  the the had, a ma f ide ad clea
visi, ith a utl ve the hle field f huma iteests ad
ith a pefectly sud cmpehesi f the ultimate piciples by
hich these iteests must be e ulated. His chief suce f
difficulty as his failue t admit the distictis bet ee the
destuctive ad the cstuctive fces f the efm. While Luthe
as usi all his ee ies t mae clea t the ld that hat
he aimed at as ecstucti, Easmus pesisted i cfudi
i e s eepi cdemati all the elemets f distubace he
sa abad i the ld. As he had cected Luthe ad Reuchli
i his declaatis f i ace ad hstility, s, as time et
, he mi led Lutheas, Aabaptists, Z i lias, ad all the
s am f ppula a itats i his idictmets. Yet he cstatly
lets it appea that he e as ell as aye the deep-seated

distictis i the efmi ups. He chse t cfuse them i his

public utteaces, i de t eep himself i ht ith that eat
Establishmet hich as the mtal eemy f them all.

ea hile the pactical pblem f the Luthea efm as shapi

itself apidly i accdace ith the hle pevius develpmet f
the Gema peple. The death f the Empe aximilia as a evet
f sli ht imptace, excepti as it peed the ay f e f thse
eat electal ctests, hich fm time t time came t emid
the Gema ati f its   peculia plitical chaacte. We must
dismiss ce f all the facy that the elected empe esembled,
except i the va uest fashi, the eat heeditay machs f
E lad, Face,  Spai. S fa as his impeial quality as
cceed, he had l sice becme the meest aachism. He as
empe f thi but a title; ad he  ed his title t a up f
pices hse libeties he as bud t espect, eve t the pit
f self-destucti. Teitially, he mi ht be st  ea,
accdi t the pesal sveei ty hich he held befe he became
empe. Plitically he had as much ei ht as he culd pesally
cmmad, ad  me. He mi ht be a Gema  he mi ht t.
The electal cavass f 1519-20 as the mst elabate the empie
had eve see. The i s f Spai, Face, ad E lad ee all, at
e time  athe, am the cadidates. A Gema atial paty,
hich sa the hpe f the ati i a plicy f sepaati fm all
"impeial" iteests, as ea e f a puely Gema empe ad put
f ad as its cadidate the veeable Fedeic, Pice-Elect f
Saxy, the immediate sveei  f Luthe. If Fedeic had acted
pmptly ad put himself decidedly at the head f this Gema
atial paty it seems as if he mi ht have bee elected. He
hesitated, declied  uds f pesal distust, ad fially ave
his electal vte f that e am the fei  cadidates h
seemed least liely t abuse the cstitutial pivile es f the
Gema pices.
Chales ., ads f aximilia thu h that Achdue Philip
t hm Easmus had itte his pae yic i 1504, ads als
f Fediad ad Isabella f Spai thu h thei dau hte Jaa,
ads a ai f that ay f Bu udy h had caied the L
Cuties as he mst pecius d e t he husbad aximilia, as
a yuth f t ety, a Gema ly by vitue f a stai f badly
diluted Habsbu bld, educated ude Spaish ifluece i the L
Cuties, i at f the Gema t ue, ad ttally usympathetic
ith the chaacte ad taditis f the Gema peple. The vey
ccepti f the Gema state as a lse fedeati f pactically
idepedet picipalities as uttely fei  t his taii ad
his iheitace.
The electi f Chales . ave cua e t all defedes f the
existi chuch de. As t his pesal thdxy thee culd be 
questi hateve. N as thee ay me eas t dubt his lyalty
t the taditis f his family as t the duty f a Chistia ule
t ad the istitutis f hat passed f Chistiaity. If thee
had bee ay m f questi  these pits, it uld have bee
emved by Chales's acti i the L Cuties i the vey fist
yeas f the Luthea evlt. He had tae hld f the matte ith
a st had ad demstated his lyalty by pmpt acti a aist
heetical bs ad pess. His fist eat public declaati f
plicy, h eve, as at his fist appeaace  Gema sil at the
famus Diet at Wms i 1521. It as, ppely, e aded as a piece

f libeality that Luthe as ivited t cme pesally t Wms ad

defed himself befe the empe ad the le ate f Ppe Le X., that
same Aleade h had bee a fell - e ith Easmus i the Aldie
shp at eice. Luthe as aleady a cdemed heetic. The ly
questi as hethe the Empie as such uld atify the acti f
the ppe ad led its am t efce the papal decees.
Luthe's juey fm Wittebe ad his appeaace i Wms ee a
demstati f his ppulaity thu hut Nthe Gemay. Chales
., yuth as he as, as t cleve a pliticia t ffed t
deeply at this utset f his ei  a hle peple hse sevices he
mi ht at ay mmet sely eed. He head Luthe ith patiece, he
espected his safe-cduct, ad let him etu t Saxy i safety;
but he published as the fmal decisi f the Diet the Edict f
Wms, heei Luthe as declaed i the ba f the Empie as he as
aleady i the ba f the Chuch, ad his bs ee cdemed t be
bued heeve fud.
The Edict f Wms defied the fficial attitude f the Empie
t ads the efm fm this time fth. It laced thi i
cleaess ad fiality. Hecefth, heve ithi the limits f the
Empie habued eithe the ma  his ideas as subject t immediate
puishmet. The questi, h eve, still emaied, h the Edict
f Wms as t be efced, ad the as e t that questi is
the histy f Gemay ad eve f Eupe f the ext eeati.
Eu h f u peset pupse t say that the immediate pessue f
plitical ad militay demads utside f Gemay cmpelled the yu
empe t pstpe defiite a essive acti a aist the Luthea
paty util the cuse f evets had sepaated the hle th f
Gemay fm all but a mial cecti ith the Empie. We ae
cceed ith the acti f Easmus up these evets ad thei
eacti up his cuse f life.
Easmus left Luvai i 1521. As t his mtives i this cha e e
ae as much i the da as abut ay f his fme mi atis. We
 hat his citics said abut it ad hat he eplied t thei
citicisms. They said he as afaid t stay i a cuty hee
heetics ee bei aested evey day ad hee, as he had all
al bee declai , he as e aded as the head ad ft f this
hle ffedi . He eplied that this as pue sese, as culd
be clealy pved by the fact that afte leavi Luvai he still
li eed f seveal mths i the L Cuties befe tai up his
juey t Basel. He et t Basel, he said, f the same eass
hich had caied him thithe befe; amely, t supeited the
publicati f sme f his s.
The mst detailed accut f this iteval bet ee Luvai ad Basel
is ive i a l lette,[141] dated i 1523, t acus Lauius,
dea f St. Datia at Bu es. The te f this lette is that hich
had  becme habitual ith Easmus, amely, f elabate defece
a aist all cha es,  matte fm hat suce, hich culd i ay
ay affect his lyalty t the Rma Chuch  the e had  t his
  piciple f fee citicism  the the. His especial ievace
is the cha e f c adice i leavi Luvai.
[141] iii., 748.
"As l as I as at Luvai," he ites, " heeve I et t
Bussels  echli, thu h I had pmised t etu ithi te
days, thse peple, h ae ashamed f thi , uld spead

a umu that I had u a ay thu h fea. The he I as

tai a hliday f my health at Adelech, a place clse by
Bussels, hee the i 's palace is, ad fte ui bac t
Luvai,-- hy the, I as i hidi ! Fequetly, I as at the
same mmet d  ith a hpeless feve at Luvai ad had falle
fm my hse ad died f applexy at Bussels; ad this at a
time he I as--thas be t Chist!--eve bette i my life.
It as t eu h t have illed the hapless Easmus ce f
all, but they must eeds butche him ith s may diseases, slay
him ith such a vaiety f ttues!
"I did t  t the assembly at Wms,-- as leaed me ae
 be ii t call it at 'utt-headt ,'--althu h I as
ivited, patly because I did t ish t be ivlved i the
affai f Luthe, hich as the viletly discussed; patly
because I easily fesa that i such a eat se a e f pices
ad me f vaius aces, the pla ue culd t fail t appea as
it did at Cl e he the empe as fist thee.
"Whe the empe came bac t Bussels, thee as scacely
a day that I did t ide thu h the maet-place ad past
the cut ad fte I as abut the cut; i fact, I as
almst me a esidet at Bussels tha at Adelech. I daily
paid my cmplimets t the bishps, thu h diaily I as
t vezealus i such mattes. I died ith the cadial. I
cvesed ith bth ucis; I visited ambassads ad they
called up me at Adelech. Neve i my life as I less i
ccealmet, eve me pely befe the eyes f all me. Ad
mea hile thee ee sme am thse babbles h te t
Gemay that Easmus as sme hee i hidi ,-- hich I eve
fud ut util I t hee i Basel. Ad a ai he the empe
as at Bussels ith the i f Dema, ad Thmas, cadial
f Y, as thee as ambassad f the i f E lad, yu
 yuself, eve if I had ept myself t yu huse, h much
i hidi I shuld have bee; sice yu had all,  at least the
chief di itaies f the cut at yu table ad I as sitti
am them a elcme uest, as I believe, t them all. H fte
I luched  died ith the femst me, eve ith the i f
Dema, h ated me as his daily table-cmpai! Whee did I
t  idi , fte i cmpay ith yu! At hat festivity f
the eat peple as I t peset-- at the impeial cut,
 i the family f the cadial f Y,  at e huse, 
at athe! Yet I fte efused ivitatis; f I am by atue
a hme-lve ad my studies equie a hme-eepi life.
"I the same ay that I as the hidi , I afte ad a a ay!
F six hle mths I as etti eady f my juey t Basel
ad that pely befe all me. Why, the empe's teasue
paid ve my pesi befe it as due, because I tld him I as
i t Basel! N as the eas f my juey u , it
bei the same f hich I had aleady s fte e t Basel
befe I became afaid f thse hees!... I as all eady t
stat, aiti ly t decide up the ad ad t have a safe
esct. ea hile I had t cllect mey i dives places ad
f this pupse spet six days at Luvai,--hidi thee t,
f cuse, as my custm as,--at a i hee  uests eve
came, s that it is a mst etied place! It is at the si  f
The Sava e. By the puest accidet thee as thee at the time
Jeme Aleade, ith hm I lived  the mst fiedly tems,
smetimes sitti ith him ve liteay tal util fa it the

i ht. We a eed that if a safe esct shuld ffe, e uld

juey t ethe. Retui afte a fe days I fud Aleade
etti eady t stat, just as I as.... It as my bithday ad
that f the apstles Sim ad Jude."
Havi thus pved that up t the vey mmet f his depatue he as
 the best f tems ith eveye i the L Cuties fm hm he
culd have aythi t fea, eve ith Aleade, the achfied f the
Lutheas, Easmus es  t descibe his juey. Thee is thi
especially te thy i this descipti. It is the same ld sty
f da es ad eaiesses by the ay, f Gema is ad Gema
stves ad the tubles they bu ht him. Yet i the little tes f
pess hm he met ad h they eceived him e et sme f the mst
si ificat ad attactive limpses f the idespead elatis f
Easmus ith evey ade f schlaly activity. I these accuts f
jueys ccu fequetly the ds _sdalitium_ ad _fateitas_.
At Stassbu Jacb Spie el, a impeial secetay, peseted him
t "the fateity." Fm Schlettstadt "cetai f the fateity"
escted him t Clma. These ds seem t efe t the up f
schlas i ay city ad ive us a pleasat su esti f the  i
cmadeship f leai all thu h the the cetes f cultue.
He tells us h amly he as eceived at Basel by the bishp, the
ma istates, ad the chief me f the chuch ad the uivesity.
Eveybdy e that he as thee, ad yet
"thse fls ee speadi the sty that I had e ve t
Wittebe . Is thee aythi they uld be ashamed f? y
health as faily d at Basel util the ms be a t be
cld. Whe I fud that this cld as ubeaable t thes, I
suffeed a mdeate fie t be built  ad the, but this
d-atue cst me dea. S a vile heum be ut ad
theeup fll ed the avel."
The his di esti et t pieces--util, hat ith e thi ad
athe, he as etched eu h "t suit eve Nichlas E mud," his
Camelite te at Luvai.
I spite f his pais, h eve, he et t  ad ept at it s
steadily that ithi a sht time he fiished his atatis t
the thid editi f the Ne Testamet, ad did the hle f his
Paaphase f atthe . This latte  he set t the empe, ad
as ifmed that it had bee eceived ith eat favu. The best
pf f this as, that at a mmet he may pesis ee bei
tae a ay  cut d , he as pmised that his shuld be maitaied
ad pehaps eve iceased. He taes this ccasi t defed himself
a aist the cha e f stayi s l a ay fm the empe thu h
fea, as as alle ed. The ly thi he feaed as that he mi ht
be called up t ite a aist Luthe "by e hse equest culd
t be deied. Nt that I favued that seditius affai, bei as
I am a ma h shis fm all ctvesy by a cetai istict
f atue; s that if I mi ht ai a laded estate by a la suit I
uld athe lse my estate tha push my claim." He es  i this
stai at such le th that e ca hadly avid the cclusi that
e ae hee tuchi up the eal eas f his leavi Luvai.
It is a tleably safe piciple that he Easmus is especially
isistet he is tyi t mae the se appea the bette eas. He
isists that he as ttally ufit f such  f ctvesy ad
eds up by sayi that i spite f all this he uld have e bac
t meet the empe if his disease had pemitted. Ideed he tied

the juey, t as fa as Schlettstadt, be d  cmpletely, ad

baely t bac alive t Basel. By this time it as t late t see
the empe, h as t sail f Spai abut ay 1st. S Easmus
stayed a hile l e at Basel, estless ad fid eti as usual. N
it as a e deam f Italy that hauted him. He as,  believed
himself t be,  ished thes t believe that he as, ivited by
a hst f disti uished ell- ishes thee t cme ad tae up his
esidece am them. I fact he made a juey t Cstace ith his
yu fieds Eppedf ad Beatus. They ee chami ly etetaied
by Jh Btzheim, a ca f the place, ad e  e t this visit e
f the vey fe desciptis f atual sceey hich Easmus has
left us. He seems f ce eally t have bee captivated by the
deli htful situati f Cstace, the beautiful lae, the cuse
f the Rhie, "hldi islads i its smili embace," the falls
at Schaffhause, ad the t ei Alps li d  up the hle
scee. We may ell believe that, at least he he te these ds,
the setimet f Italy as st up him. A esct, he says, as
just eady t stat f Tet. "The Alps smili d  up me clse
at had beced me . y fieds dissuaded me, but they uld have
de s i vai, if the avel, that ptet at, had t pesuaded
me t  bac t Basel ad fly up it my est a ai."
He emaied thee ees at Cstace i eat suffei , t ship as
fa as Schaffhause, ad s bac as fast as he culd ide t Basel. I
cfess t a st impessi that these t  tips, t Schlettstadt
ad t Cstace, ee meely excusis, such as Easmus as
cstatly mai fm ay pit hee he happeed t be livi , ad
that he had  me iteti f i t Italy i the e case tha
f etui t Luvai i the the. Yet e uld equally hesitate
t say that he had a fixed pupse f emaii pemaetly at Basel.
O his etu Easmus ejyed a euie sesati, hich seems almst
t have maed a epch i his life. This seemed the favuable
mmet t pe a paca e f chice Bu udy, set t him sme time
befe by the episcpal cadjut f Basel. "At the fist taste it
did t hlly please the palate, but the i ht bu ht ut the
ative quality f the ie." He felt himself a e ma. He had al ays
believed that his disease as bu ht  by vile su ad adulteated
ies, " thy t be du by heetics, puishmet fit f the st
malefact." He had tied Bu udia ies befe, but they ee
hash ad heati . This as just i ht, eithe s eet  su, but
pleasat, ad s . He busts ut it a eul y f Bu udy, that
happy lad, " thy t be called the mthe f me, sice thu hast
mil lie this i thy beasts!" "I tell yu, my dea Lauius, it
uld tae little t pesuade me t mve ve f d it Bu udy.
'F the ie's sae?' yu as. Why, I uld athe mi ate t
Ielad tha ty athe attac f the avel." This seds him ff
a ai it declaatis that he is evey hee a elcme uest.
The pit f all this seems t be that he ishes t have it quite
clea that hile it is  the e had pefectly safe f him t
  stay hee he ill, he is,  the the had, equally fee
fm ay pemaet ties ay hee. Smee had epted that he had
bu ht a huse ad acquied the i ht f citizeship at Basel. This
he deies. T be sue, the huse i hich he is  livi had bee
ffeed him by sme fieds, but he has t accepted it. As f
citizeship, he has eve s much as deamed f it. "A cetai pes
f imptace at Zich has me tha ce itte t ffe me the
i ht f citizeship thee. I deed hy he shuld d this, ad
eplied that I pefeed t be a citize f the ld, athe tha f

ay e city."

Oce set i  this subject it seems as if Easmus culd t stp.
He  pays his espects t thse h epted, ith sme eas,
he says, that he as thii f i t Face. Havi fud the
secet f his disease i the badess f his ies, he be is t
de hat ill happe t him if, by eas f as, he shuld be
uable t et his Bu udy diect. Pehaps, afte all, it uld be
ise t  ve it Face, hee he uld at least be sue f
his ie. He eve et s fa as t et fm the Fech i thu h
his ambassad at Basel a safe-cduct f the juey, ad ept
emidi himself h fd he had al ays bee f Face--a fdess
hich, by the ay, he had sh  by eepi ut f Face f 
abut fiftee yeas. If he had ly accepted that "ma ificet ffe"
f six yeas befe, he uld have bee spaed all these "ta edies"
ith thse stupid babbles at Luvai. Pehaps his health ad his
ftues mi ht have bee bette t. It uld be pleasat t be ea
the bdes f Babat, s that he mi ht u ve ad see his fieds
thee. But thee as just e bstacle: the a bet ee the thee
i s. T Chales he as bud by a ath; t Hey ad the hle
E lish peple by ties f affecti; t Facis als by iesistible
attachmet  accut f the i 's iteest i him. Of cuse it
uld eve d f s imptat a pesa e as Easmus t ffed t 
f his yal fieds by i t live ith the thid.
Why did he t cme bac t Babat? He heas that thee is thee
just  a eat scacity f eveythi , but especially f Fech
ies, ad besides "a s d has bee ive t cetai vilet me,
t hm e ca be eithe a cllea ue  a ppet." Thee ae
eemies i evey diecti.
"Rme has he Stuica; Gemay has sme h ca't say a d
d f me. I hea that cetai 'Lutheas,' as they call them,
ae cmplaii because I am t etle ith the pices ad
t fd f peace. I cfess I uld athe e  this side,
t ly because it is safe, but because it is a me hly
cause. Eveye t his taste. Thee ae thse  the the side
h ty t cast  me the suspici f bei i lea ue ith the
N each paty seemed t Easmus t be tyi t catch him by
stii him up a aist the the. They tld him his bs had bee
but i Babat by H staate, hpi t mae him ite smethi
a aist the iquisit hich uld dive him ve defiitely it the
Luthea camp. P Btzheim at Cstace te, _pee exaimatus_
("scaed almst t death,"), that Easmus' bs had bee publicly
cdemed at Rme by papal de. These taps had bee spu i
vai. He had see thu h the tic ad ept his peace ad the
tuth had cme ut. Fa fm cdemi him, the papal paty at
Rme had de its best t i him t its sevice, eve ffei
him a csideable beefice if he uld cme. The this a ai had
pduced cutecha es f bibey, hich he vey ppely dismisses
by sayi : "If I culd have bee da  it this fi ht by bibes I
shuld have bee da  i l a ." N he heas a thid umu,
se tha the the t : the ppe has itte sme id f a
pamphlet a aist him! but a ai he sees the tic; they at t mae
him say smethi a aist the ppe. Othes say that Lutheas ae
flci t Basel t csult ith him, sme eve that Luthe is i
hidi thee.

"Wuld that it ee tue that all Lutheas ad ati-Lutheas

t, uld cme f my advice ad a ee t fll it; the
ld uld be fa bette ff i my pii. ay pess have
cme hithe t see ad t salute me, smetimes i cmpaies ad
eeally u  t me; but eve has e called himself a
Luthea i my pesece; it is t my busiess t mae iquiies
ad I am  pphet. Befe this tuble be ut I as i
liteay cespdece ith almst all the schlas f Gemay,
t me a mst a eeable elati. Of these sme have ive me the
cld shulde, sme ae quite esta ed fm me, ad sme ae
my pe eemies ad seei my ui. Sme ee d fieds f
mie, h ae  me sevee t ads Luthe tha I culd ish
ad me tha is d f thei cause. I dismiss  e fm my
fiedship eithe because he is t fiedly  t hstile t
Luthe; each acts i d faith.
"e have cme t Basel h ee said t be ude suspici
f bei patisas f Luthe, ad I am eady t have this all
cha ed up me, if a si le e f them has eve cme by my
ivitati  if I have t ptested t my fieds that it
as exceedi ly disa eeable t me. If pess f this  that
facti cme hithe, ith hat eas ca this be laid up me?
I am t the ateeepe f Basel ad hld  ma istacy hee!
Hutte as hee as a visit f a fe days ad eithe came t
see me  did I visit him. Ad yet if it had depeded up me,
I uld t have deied him a itevie , a ld fied ad a
ma hse defully happy ad eial talets I cat eve 
help admii .... He culd t d ithut a stve,  accut f
his health, ad I cat bea e, ad s the fact is, e did
t see each the."
He uld t hesitate, he says, t eceive Luthe himself, ad uld
ive him sme hlesme ai s. Thee is d  bth sides. "I
am t sue that eithe side ca be put d  ithut ave disaste
t may d thi s." If ly it mi ht be pemitted him t be a mee
spectat f evets! But hee he is, pulled hithe ad y by the
paties, each tyi t mae him declae himself squaely a aist the
the. While e paty as accusi him f bei the auth f mst
f the Luthea iti s, the the suspected him f havi itte
Ki Hey's famus as e t Luthe. Up this elcme text Easmus
builds up a l sty f his fist acquaitace ith this yal
teatise, a sty as uimptat as the b itself. The utcme f
it all is that he is fimly cviced that the i te the b
ith his   its. "Eve if he desied the help f schlas, his
cut is filled ith leaed ad elquet me." A ai they tell him
that fu yeas a  he u ht t have etied fm the sta e, ctet
ith his eat sevices t thel y, his estati f the tue
suces f Chistiaity, etc. All this is vey flattei , but he is
held t his  by a _cha s_ hse des he dae t disbey.
Oce me, he is cha ed ith speai t hi hly f the ppe. What
he says f Le is vey ell, but, they say, h ca e be sue f
Le's success. Well, thee have bee d ppes befe Le, ad hy
t afte him? They say "Easmus u ht t declae: 'Thu, ppe, at
Atichist! yu, bishps, ae false leades! that Rma see f yus
is a abmiati t Gd!' ad may the such thi s ad se."
This is the ld Easmia methd, hich he had csistetly fll ed
fm the be ii --t cfie his citicism t evil me ad efai
fm citicisi istitutis. If me ee d, istitutis uld
be d.

Fially e cme t the cha e that Easmus, i his paaphase f the

ith chapte f the Epistle t the Rmas, had all ed "a little
smethi " t the feedm f the huma ill. This is u fist
ecute ith a stictly d matic questi, the e by hich the
hle Luthea psiti as t stad  fall. We have, h eve,
pepaed uselves f Easmus' ievitable attitude  this pit by
ti his isistece, thu hut all his mal teachi , up the
idividual ill as the dmiat mtive. F the mmet he defeds
himself ly by declai that i his Paaphase he is meely
fll i all the best authities i the Chuch fm Oi e t
Aquias. He te the passa e i questi i 1517, befe Luthe had
appeaed, s that it ca i  ay be thu ht f as a attac up
him. eve, it is the mildest pssible statemet f a fee- ill
"_Sme_ ei ht is t be ive t u ill ad u edeavu,
but s little that i cmpais ith the ace f Gd it seems
t be as thi . N ma is cdemed, except by his   fault;
but  e is saved, except by Gd's ace.... I sa  the
e had Scylla lui us  t cfidece i s, hich I
believe t be the st pla ue f eli i. O the the had I
sa Chaybdis, a se mste yet, by hm may ae  bei
attacted, h say: Let us fll u   lusts; hethe e
tmet uselves  idul e u ills, hat Gd has deceed
ill happe all the same."
S his la ua e has bee mdeate, ad he has hped simply t aid
me t vitue. The clse f this lette is a eally elquet bit f
"If ay thee be, h cat lve Easmus because he is a feeble
Chistia, let him thi f me as he ill. I cat be the
tha I am. If ay ma has fm Chist eate ifts f the
Spiit ad is sue f himself, let him use them f the ly f
Chist. ea hile it is me t my mid t fll a me humble
ad a safe ay. I cat help hati dissesi ad lvi
peace ad hamy. I see h bscue all huma affais ae. I
see h much easie it is t sti up cfusi tha t allay
it. I have leaed h may ae the devices f Sata. I shuld
t dae t tust my   spiit i all thi s ad I am fa fm
bei able t puce ith cetaity  the spiit f athe.
I uld that all mi ht stive t ethe f the tiumph f Chist
ad the peace f the Gspel, ad that ithut vilece, but i
tuth ad eas, e mi ht tae cusel bth f the di ity f
the piesthd ad f the libety f the peple, hm u Ld
Jesus desied t be fee. T thse h  abut t this ed t
the best f thei ability Easmus shall t be ati . But if
aye desies t th eveythi it cfusi, he shall t
have me eithe f a leade  a cmpai. These peple claim
f themselves the i f the Spiit. Well, let peple 
hm the divie spiit has beathed jump ith d hpes it
the as f the pphets. That Spiit has t yet seized up
me; he it des, the pehaps I t shall be cuted as Saul
am the pphets."
I this l lette, itte bviusly ith a vie t publicati,
e have epitmised, as Easmus himself ished it t appea, the
sty f his leavi Luvai ad his attitude t ad the chief
questis f the eat efm. Nthi that e ca add uld be me

si ificat tha the ccludi paa aph. If ly all me culd see
bth sides f evey questi as he did, ad uld ji ith him i
pius exhtati t eveye else t be d, he uld be deli hted
t be thei leade ad cmpai. This is ly e f thse umeus
"ifs"--thu h a uusually la e e--by hich Easmus s fte
saved himself i difficult places. It meat simply that he did t
ppse t cmmit himself at all. The Lauius lette as the eply
t umeus citicisms a aist the cuse f Easmus i the yeas
bet ee 1520 ad 1523, yeas i hich the vaius aspects f the
eat efm mvemet ee becmi me ad me clealy defied. We
disce i it ith eat distictess the vie f Easmus tae by
the leadi spiits f the Luthea paty.
N hee is this Luthea jud met f his psiti s vi usly
demstated as i his famus cflict ith Ulich v Hutte.
Hutte's pesality as ttally atipdal t that f Easmus. B
f a ble family i Wtembe i 1488, Hutte eceived the taii
f a sldie ad t his pat i the vilet feuds hich, i the
absece f a st cetal vemet i Gemay, ee ctiually
asti the ee ies ad the esuces f the eat class f the
l e bility. But Hutte as me tha a sldie. He had ealy
cme ude the ifluece f Reuchli, his cutyma, ad had ive
himself ith eat zeal t the cause f leai . He had masteed
the techique f the schla's pfessi, had made himself a
accmplished Latiist i bth pse ad vese, ad had leaed as
much Gee as as eeded t decate his Lati style. I his ay
he as as maed a idividual as Easmus. He, t, as a hmeless
ma, a utcast fm his family ad his a e S abia fathelad,
a adee, seei a livi by methds eve me pecaius ad
me questiable tha Easmus had emplyed, evey hee at hme
if ly the su f picely  pivate favu uld shie up
him f the mmet. But hee the esemblace eds. Hutte let his
idividuality cay him it ild ad ecless livi ad fially t
ui, but he did t let it alieate him fm the eat mvemets
f humaity i  abut him. I the Refmati he as quic
t disce all thse elemets f scial ad ecmic cha e hich
ee sue t fll up the eli ius appeal. What epelled ad
esta ed Easmus, the ma f peace, attacted ad held Hutte, the
ma f stife. I Luthe's pclamati f a salvati by faith he
sa the hpe f a scial ad eli ius ecstucti, i hich,
ievitably, the eli ius system f the iddle A es must  t the
all. He as t little f a speculative eius t be da  it the
l ical extava aces f the adical paty f ze ad his lie,
but the pspect f a lius fi ht, ith the eaps alie f the
itellect ad f the flesh, filled him ith a hly jy as it filled
Easmus ith a hly h. Withut aiti t cside  t mae
cetai hithe it uld lead him, he the himself ith passiate
ee y it the Luthea cause. Aleady he had made himself  ,
admied, ad feaed by his pat i the _Epistl bscuum vium_,
that meciless satie  the schlme hich had de me tha
ay the e thi t da the fces f li ht t ethe it e
camp ve a aist the fces f daess. This ctibuti t hat
thes e aded as his    did t, h eve, if e may tae his
d f it, please Easmus. He ated t eep all the satiisi
t himself, that it mi ht be held ithi pudet limits. Thus his
ealiest impessis f Hutte ee t favuable. He seems t have
felt i him by "a cetai istict f atue," as he mi ht have said,
a "usafe" pes. His ealy appach t ad him is cautius. Hutte
seds him his s ad be s f his fiedship. Easmus eplies ith
eseve, cusels him t eep ut f fi hts, t devte himself t the

uses, ad t peseve his   di ity. The e have the famus ad
chami lette[142] i hich Easmus descibes t Hutte the 
ad chaacte f Thmas e. But s it is evidet that Hutte is
etti ut f all patiece ith Easmus. The lettes f 1518 ad
1519, ith thei axius balaci f vie s, ee i ciculati, ad
had made up this upi ht ad d i ht fi hti ma the impessi
f a timmi , fetful, petty spiit. I Au ust, 1520, he ites t
Easmus i a ttally alteed style.[143] He has   time  tempe
f cmplimets. I sht, apid seteces he puts the case t the
eat ma as e i hich all shilly-shallyi as ut f place.
[142] iii., 472.
[143] _Huttei pea_, ed. Bci , 1859, i., 367.
"While Reuchli's affai as all i a l , yu seemed t be i
a me ealy te f thse peple [_ists_] tha yu u ht
t have bee. Ad  i Luthe's case, yu have bee tyi as
had as yu ca t pesuade his eemies that yu ee as fa as
pssible fm defedi the cmm d f the Chistia ld,
hile they e yu eally believed just the ppsite. That des
t seem t be a alt ethe becmi thi t d.... Yu 
ith hat lee they ae cayi abut cetai lettes f yus
i hich hile yu ae tyi t escape fm blame, yu ae
putti blame  thes i a hateful fashi eu h. I the same
ay yu have bee abusi the _Epistl bscuum_, thu h yu
admied them p efully ce; ad yu ae dami Luthe because
he has set i mti sme thi s that u ht t t have bee
mved, he yu yuself have bee hadli the same subjects
evey hee thu hut yu iti s. Ad yet yu ill eve mae
them believe that yu ae t desius f the same thi s. Yu
ill just hut us ad at the same time ill t pacify them. Yu
ae iitati the me ad usi hated by tyi t hide a
thi s pe as this."
We ae quite pepaed t udestad h u elcme t Easmus such
diect ad uequivcal la ua e as this must have bee. He had  use
f ay a umet that had t t  sides t it. Evets ee mvi
apidly. While the affai f Luthe as bei tied at Wms i the
summe f 1521 Hutte as atchi ad plai f the scial
vetu hich he cfidetly expected, ad ut f hich, he hped,
a e Gemay, e eeated i bdy ad sul, as t aise. I the
ite f 1521-22 he difted t Basel ad spet sme time thee. As
yet thee as  pe beach bet ee him ad Easmus. He seems t
have ished t meet him pesally ad t have met a flat efusal. I
the lette t Lauius Easmus declaes that he as pefectly illi
t see Hutte, but as he culd t edue a m ith a stve i it,
ad Hutte culd t be i a m ithut a stve, a itevie as
impssible! This silly sty eappeas i vaius the cectis.
It is quite u thy f seius examiati, but as udubtedly
a mee cve f sme deepe cause. What this as may eadily be
supplied. Witi t elachth _afte Hutte's death_,[144] Easmus
[144] iii., 817-B.
"As t my efusi Hutte a itevie , the eas as t s

much the fea f exciti hstility; thee

hich, h eve, I did t tuch up i my
utte pvety ad as seei sme est t
expected t tae this '_miles lisus_,'
my huse ad ith him that hle chus f
ame--ad thi but the ame."

as athe thi
_Sp ia_. He as i
die i. N I as
px ad all, it
'eva elicals' by

We may be quite sue that hee as Easmus' eal ievace. He mi ht

peted that he had eve see aye at Basel h called himself
a Luthea, but he e that if he t Hutte it his huse ad
appeaed  fiedly tems ith him, he culd eep up this petece
 l e. He e als by a fme expeiece that ay expessis
favuable t Luthe uld be made the mst f by Hutte. He culd
t affd such a fied ad he shut his d i his face.
Hutte's patiece, eve, e may believe, vemuch edui , as at
a ed. He made up his mid t mae such a public attac up Easmus
as uld cmpel him t spea ut ad thus cmmit himself ce f all
 e side  the the. Easmus head f this iteti ad te
him a sht lette[145] f expstulati, ai ad theatei
him at ce. I this lette he ives a ay his case as t the Basel
icidet i the mst cmplete fashi. He says:
[145] iii., 790. Als i _Huttei pea_, ed. Bci , ii., 178.
"I did t efuse yu a itevie he yu ee hee, but
be ed yu thu h Eppedf, i the etlest mae, that,
if it as ly a cmplimetay visit, yu uld stay a ay, 
accut f the emity ith hich I have l bee budeed eve
t the is f my life. What use is thee i aii emity he
e cat theeby be ay help t e's fied?"
The cmes i the stve a ai.
Hutte as, as ell he mi ht be, athe me a eed tha appeased by
this missive, ad s pited his _Expstulati cum Easm_.[146]
[146] _Huttei pea_, ii., 180.
Easmus had had t hea a d may bitte ds i the yeas just
past, but eve such sti i epaches as these. Dubtless the
pesal elemet played its pat i addi a fial ad t Hutte's
idi ati; but the _Expstulati_ is fa fm bei a mee pesal
eply t eal  facied  s. It is a scathi evie f the hle
attitude f Easmus t ads the efm. The chief te f the cha e
is c adice, deceit, ad time-sevi . The udelyi assumpti
thu hut is that Easmus as eally i sympathy ith the hle
attac up the chuch de fm Reuchli  ads. This assumpti
is pved ut f his   muth. At evey e sta e f the efm he
as sh  t have expessed appval, ly t cha e appval it
cdemati as s as thee as a pspect that aythi uld be
de. S,  the the had, Hutte sh s Easmus attaci all the
eemies f efm, the ppe, Aleade, H staate, ad the est,
ad the cha i his te t a ea, sivelli flattey as s
as he sa ay da e i pspect. A fe specimes ill illustate
the vi u ad peess f Hutte's methd. Afte the t isti s ad
tui s f Easmus' style, his eads lie a mdel f ste th ad
"Because f my health,  f sme the eas, I culd t be

a ay fm my stve l eu h t spea ith yu ce  t ice

i the hle fifty days I spet at Basel, thu h I uld fte
stad tali ith fieds i the midst f the maet-place f
thee hus at a time! Well, that is quite lie yu siceity,
t tae a pefectly simple thi ad ive it a false clui
ad t cve up the tuth ith a empty sh .
"As I thu ht the matte ve attetively seveal eass
ccued t me hy, pehaps, yu mi ht thus have falle a ay
fm yuself. Fist, yu isatiable ambiti f fame,
yu eed f ly, hich maes it impssible f yu t
bea the  i p es f aye else; ad the the lac f
steadiess i yu mid, hich has al ays displeased me i yu
as u thy f yu eatess ad led me t believe that yu
ee te-stice by the theats f these me.... Fially I
explai it t myself by the pettiess f yu mid, hich maes
yu afaid f eveythi ad easily th  it despai; f yu
had s little faith i the p ess f u cause, especially
he yu sa that sme f the chief pices f Gemay ee
cspii a aist us, that stai ht ay yu thu ht yu must
t ly deset us, but must als see thei d- ill by evey
pssible meas."
Refei t Easmus' cha e that the Lutheas had set  ft a
umu that H staate had bued his bs, i de t mae him
ite a aist the Chuch, Hutte says:
"N , suppsi it as u pupse t da yu it u paty,
h culd e hpe t d it easily i this ay, sice it as
pefectly cetai that yu uld eve dae t d aythi
a aist him  aybdy else util yu sa exactly h the lad
lay--uless, ideed, S itzelad be s fa fm Babat that e
culd hpe yu uld hea thi fm thee f a hle yea!
A ay ith this simple-heatedess f yus t sme the ld!
Ou Gemay  s  such mals as these.
"Whe the _Epistl bscuum_ came ut, yu appved ad
applauded me tha aye else; yu ave the auth a e ula
tiumph; yu said thee had eve bee discveed a me
cmplete ay f attaci thse peple; that babaias u ht
t be idiculed i babaus la ua e; ad yu c atulated us
 u cleveess. Befe u fleies ee pited, yu cpied
sme f them ith yu   had, sayi : 'I must sed these t
my fieds i E lad ad Face.' But s afte, he yu sa
that the hle muc f the thel es ee much distubed ad
that the hets ee stied up i all diectis ad ee
theatei ui, yu be a t temble, ad lest suspici mi ht
fall up yu that yu ee the auth  that yu appved the
pla, yu te a lette ith that same cadu f yus t
Cl e, tyi t et ahead f the umus ad mai a eat
petece f sympathy ith them ad e et at the affai ad
sayi may thi s a aist the hle busiess ad abusi the
If Easmus is such a ma f peace, hy, ass Hutte, des he  s
bittely attac the efmes? Sme peple had l sice accused him
f teachey, but at that time  e uld believe them ad Easmus
as satisfied t put it all up the Fates:
"a fie ti ad, as e  see, tuly Easmia! Yu say

that, bei the ma yu ae, yu must deal ith Gemas afte
thei   fashi. Well, this is t the ay f Gemas, but
f me hse ficleess ad icstacy ae alt ethe fei 
t Gemas, me h ca be tssed abut hithe ad thithe by
evey cha e f id, ith hm thi is fixed, but eveythi
slippey ad shifti ith the cha es f ftue. Get yu t
Italy ith such di s, t thse cadials hm yu ae 
tai ude yu i , hee eveye may live accdi t his
  mals ad his   chaacte! O else et bac t yu  
Fech-Dutchme, if, pehaps, this is a atial vice ad e
cmm t yu ad them!"
Refei t the use f the tem "Lutheas," abut hich Easmus as
s much distessed, Hutte says:
"Theefe, althu h I have eve had Luthe f my maste  my
cmpai ad am cayi  this busiess  my   accut,
ad althu h I am mst teibly ppsed t bei cuted i ay
paty hateve, evetheless, sice it is a fact that thse h
ae ppsed t the Rma tyay--am hm I desie abve all
thi s t be eced--ad thse h dae t spea the tuth
ad h ae tui bac fm huma diaces t the teachi
f the Gspel, ae cmmly called Lutheas, theefe I am
eady t bea the bude f this icame, lest I seem t dey
my faith i the cause.... N yu  hy I accept the ame f
Luthea, ad aye ca see that f the same eass yu t
ae a Luthea, ad that s much the me tha I  aye else
as yu ae a bette ite ad a me accmplished at."
Oe may seach the iti s f Easmus fm be ii t ed ithut
fidi a utteace t cmpae ith this i decisi ad clea-cut
discimiati f the tuth. At eat le th ad ith the appeaace
f etie siceity Hutte as Easmus f the da e he is  i
f appeai t be ly the hied ma f the papacy. He may still, i
his heat, be tue t his fme cvictis; but h ill believe
it? All this ba i abut his eat fieds at Rme ith thei
flattei ffes ca ly cfim the Lutheas i thei distust f
him. If he ill t be aed  , the let him  
"t fulfil the hpes f thse h have l bee li abut
f a leade f the eemies f the tuth. Gid yuself; the
thi is ipe f acti; it is a tas thy f yu ld a e;
put fth yu ste th; bed t the ! Yu shall fid yu
eemies eady! the paty f the Lutheas, hich yu uld
lie t cush t eath, is aiti f the battle ad cat
efuse it. Ou heats ae full f cua e; e ae sustaied by
a cetai hpe ad, elyi up u cscius ectitude ad
hu, e ill declie  challe e,  matte hithe yu may
call us. Nay, that yu may see h eat is the faith that is
i us, the me fuiusly yu assault us, the eee yu shall
fid us i defedi the cause f tuth.... Oe half f yu ill
stad ith us ad be i u camp; yu fi ht ill be, t s
much ith us as ith yu   eius ad yu   iti s. Yu
ill tu yu leai a aist yuself ad ill be elquet
a aist yu   elquece. Yu iti s ill be fi hti bac
ad fth ith each the."
The Lutheas ill tust i Gd ad jyfully tae up the ecute.
Thee ca be  dubt that Hutte as uttei the vice f the

eat Luthea paty, as it must  be called. Althu h called ut

by a pesal attac, the _Expstulati_ eeps itself thu hut 
hi he tha pesal uds. It is t a apl y f Hutte; it is
a fiece utbust f hest idi ati a aist a ma h seemed t
be th i a ay a ble mid ad cspicuus ifts thu h lac f
cua e ad simple hesty. Hutte's expessis f admiati f
his ppet have the i f abslute siceity. He had admied him
abve all the me, ad his ath is tempeed by pai ad hest
s at his failue t lead hee e culd lead s ell. If
Hutte made the mistae hich s may have made sice his time, f
asi fm Easmus a id f sevice f hich he as by atue
ufitted, it as a mistae hich hus him h made it. The time
f balaci d ad evil had e. If aythi as t be de, it
must be by the uited acti f all h ee i substatial a eemet
up the eat essetial questis f the hu. Thee had bee eu h
f apl isi ad timmi , ad this eat d f Hutte as the
pclamati f hat as ievitably t cme.
Whe it came it Easmus' hads he detemied at ce t eply, ad
the esult as the famus pamphlet hich he called _Sp ia advesus
aspe ies Huttei_, "a sp e t ipe ut the bespattei s f
Hutte." It is a  t ice as l as the _Expstulati_, itte,
s its auth says, i six days dui the mth f July, 1523,
but t published util the autum ad afte the death f Hutte,
hich ccued Au ust 29th. The _Sp ia_ is as distictly a  f
pesal apl y as the _Expstulati_ as the ppsite. It taes
up, e by e, the pits made by Hutte ad deals ith them afte
the fashi ith hich e ae  s familia that ay exteded
examiati uld i  ay ela e u udestadi f Easmus'
tue psiti. The eate pat f Hutte's cha es he accepts i
e  athe sese ad the ties t tae a ay thei fce. The
mst cmm ay f di this is by sh i that he has eve eally
bee icsistet ith himself, but has ly adapted himself f the
mmet t ive cditis lest the e eat cause f pue leai
shuld suffe by t eat zeal. N hee des Easmus sh himself
a me cmplete maste f the d "if." He ill admit eveythi
ith a "if." Hutte has accused him f eepi  t d tems
ith the ppe afte all the abuse hich he has heaped up thi s
papistical--vey ell, he has paised ppes, but he has de this
because he believed them t be me h meat ell t the cause f
Chist. If the ise he uld be the last t paise them.
Easmus' aalysis f the papal p e hee is a mumet f his sill
i tui abut ds t suit his pupse.
"I have eve," he says, "spe icsistetly f the Rma
See. Tyay, eed, ad the vices, aciet uds f
cmplait cmm t all d me, I have eve appved. N
have I eve ttally cdemed idul eces, thu h I have
al ays hated this shameless tade i them. What I thi abut
ceemies, my bs declae i may places. But he have I
abused the Ca La  the papal decetals? Whateve he meas
by 'calli the ppe t de' I am t quite clea. I suppse
he ill admit that thee is a chuch at Rme; f the multitude
f its sis cat cause it t be ay the less a chuch--if this
is t s the e have  chuches at all. Ad I assume that it
is a thdx chuch; f if cetai bad me ae mi led ith
the est, yet the chuch abides i the d es. Ad I suppse
he ill all that this chuch has a bishp, ad that this
bishp is a metplita ...  the am metplitas hat

is thee absud i ivi the fist place t the Rma ptiff?

f this eat p e hich they have bee usupi t themselves
dui seveal cetuies,  e has eve head me defed.
"But Hutte ill t edue a iced ppe;-- hy, that is hat e
ae all payi f, that the ppe may be a ma thy f his
apstlic ffice. But, if he be t that, let him be depsed;
ad by the same te, let all bishps be depsed h d t
duly pefm thei fuctis. But a especial pla ue f the
ld has bee fl i  f may yeas fm Rme. Wuld
that it culd be deied! N , h eve, has cme a ppe h is
stivi , as I believe, ith all his mi ht, t ive bac t us
that See ad that Cuia puified."
Yet Easmus had bee ve helmi the dead Le, the suce f this
pestilet fld, ith evey cceivable id f flattey. N he
abuses him, i de t mae his pit that thi s ae all i t
be set i ht by the excellet Adia. But this ay f setti thi s
i ht is just hat Hutte des t hpe f, he says.
"Yet thee ae may eass f this hpe, ad chaity,
accdi t Paul, 'hpeth all thi s.' If Hutte ee declai
a up evils, t up me, he uld haste t Rme ad help
this ppe h is  tyi t d the vey same thi s he is
himself stivi f. But Hutte has declaed a up the Rma
ptiff ad all his fll es.... The Rmaists uld lie
al ays t have such eemies as Hutte."
If thee as a hest Easmus ay hee ude this mass f ds, it
seems petty clea that he as f Hutte athe tha a aist him.
That Easmus had ay such hest side e is tempted t dubt he
e eads his defece a aist the cha e f tifli ith the tuth.
Hutte had accused him[147] f sayi that the tuth u ht t al ays
t be spe, ad that a eat deal depeded up h it as put
[147] _Expstulati_, 180.
"That blasphemus speech f yus," he had said, "u ht t have
bee thust d  yu that (my cause cmpels me t spea me
a ily tha I uld) if thse had de thei duty h ae 
cmpelli heetics t ecat  th i them t the flames."
Easmus culd t dey the ds, but eplies[148]:
[148] _Sp ia_, 274, x., 1660-E, ad _Huttei pea_, ii., 306.
"Whe Chist fist set ut the Apstles t peach the Gspel he
fbade them t declae that he as the Chist. If, the, the
Tuth himself deed that tuth t be ept i silece, ithut
the  led e f hich thee is  salvati t ay ma, hat is
thee sta e i my sayi that the tuth u ht smetimes t be
The he ives seveal simila illustatis f epessi f tuth by
silece  the pat f Jesus, ad es :
"If I had t defed the cause f a icet ma befe a
p eful tyat shuld I blut ut the hle tuth ad ui
the case f the icet ma,  shuld I eep may thi s

silet? Hutte, a bave ma ad mst zealus f the tuth,
uld,  dubt, spea thus: 'O mst accused tyat, yu h
have mudeed s may f yu fell -citizes, is yu cuelty
t yet sated, that yu must tea this icet ma fm thei
midst?' Well, that is abut as cleve as the ay i hich sme
ae defedi the cause f Luthe, by a i a aist the ppe
ith seditius iti s. O if he [Hutte] ee asi fm a
iced ppe a beefice f sme d ma, he uld ite t
him afte this style: 'O impius Atichist, destye f the
Gspel, ppess f civil libety, flattee f pices, thu
ivest basely s may a beefice t iced me ad still me
basely sellest them, at this e t this d ma that all
may t fall it evil hads.' Yu smile, eade; but these
peple ae pleadi the cause f the Gspel ith  me cauti
tha that.... But hat is me flish tha t call me bac fm
a place hee I eve as ad t summ me t the vey place I
am  i? He calls me bac fm the paty f the iced h
suppt the tyay f the Rmaists, h vetu the tuth f
the Gspel, h dae the ly f Chist; but I have al ays
bee fi hti thse vey me. He summs me t his   side; but
as yet I am t clea hee Hutte himself stads."
The hle aim f the _Sp ia_ ad its effect up the ld ee
simply t mae it pefectly plai that Easmus uld t tae sides.
If the pupse f the _Expstulati_ as t fce him t d s, it
as a cspicuus failue. Nthi culd be plaie tha Easmus'
[149] _Sp ia_, 176, x., 1650-B, ad _Huttei pea_, ii., 291.
"i s may lettes, s may bs, ad by s may pfs, I am
ctiually declai that I am u illi t be ivlved ith
eithe paty. I ive may eass f this detemiati, but
have t put fth all f them. Ad i this matte my csciece
maes  cha e a aist me befe Chist my jud e. I the midst
f such cfusi ad da e t my eputati ad my life I have
s mdeated my jud mets as eithe t be the auth f ay
distubace  t help ay cause hich I d t appve. If
Hutte is ea ed because I d t suppt Luthe as he des, I
ptested thee yeas a  i a appedix added t my Familia
Cllquies at Luvai, that I as ttally a sta e t that
facti ad al ays uld be. I am t ly eepi utside f it
myself, but I am u i as may fieds as I ca t d the same,
ad I ill eve cease t d s. I mea by 'facti' the zeal f
a mid s  as it ee t eveythi that Luthe has itte 
is iti  eve ill ite. This id f a setimet fte
impses up d me; but I have pely auced t all my
fieds that if they cat lve me except as a Luthea they
may have hateve feeli they lie abut me. I am a lve f
libety. I ill t ad I cat seve a paty."
Hee ce me Easmus saves himself by a defiiti. If t be a
Luthea ee t s ea t evey d f Luthe's, the, f cuse,
 ma i his seses uld cfess t the paty ame. Easmus e
as ell as aye that paties f acti ee eve fmed by ay
such test. e jied a paty because they ee i eeal sympathy
ith thes ad believed that the time f cmm acti had cme.
This cmm acti as the thi he culd t bea t thi f. T
him it meat _cfusies_, _tumultus_, _ta dias_, ad all the
the hs f pe cflict. We leave the Hutte episde, clsed

as it as by the utimely death f the billiat, ecless eius

h had bu ht it , ith the feeli that Hutte's cha e as
substatially tue. Easmus, ith all the best pat f him, as
fi hti the Luthea battle ad e he as di it. He eciled
befe the fea f vilece ad the had t justify himself.
It uld be iteesti t  h fa the defiiti f the papacy
as a metplita see am thes epeseted a eal pii f
Easmus. Pbably it as a hetical cclusi; but it ca hadly
have made the _Sp ia_ a elcme visit at Rme, ad it is t
supisi that this passa e as expu ated by the Rma cesship.
A icidet f the yea 1524 ell illustates the tempe f Easmus
at the time ad als the declie i e ad f him  the Luthea
side. A cetai Sctch pite at Stassbu had published sme
iti f Hutte a aist Easmus, pbably the _Expstulati_,
ith ffesive illustatis, ad i a secd editi had added a
ivective by athe auth, i hich " hateve e blac uad culd
say f athe" as said f Easmus. What tuched him especially
as that he as called a tait t the Gspel, ad cha ed ith
havi bee hied f mey t fi ht a aist it, ad meve as
accused f bei eady t be pulled i ay diecti by the chace
f a cumb f bead. Easmus te t  vey a y lettes[150] t
the ma istates f Stassbu asi them t puish the pite, ad
defedi himself i his usual fashi fm these cha es.
[150] iii., 793, 804.
Evidetly thi as de abut it, f sme time late
Easmus te t Caspa Hedi, e f the Luthea peaches at
Stassbu ,[151] cmplaii f this e lect. His su estis abut
the ay t teat a ffedi pite ae amusi .
[151] iii., 844.
"Yu say this Sctchma has a ife ad little childe. Wuld
that be thu ht a excuse if he shuld bea pe my mey-chest
ad steal my ld? I shuld say t; ad yet he has de a thi
fa se tha that. O pehaps yu thi I cae less f my
eputati tha f my mey. If he ca't feed his childe,
let him  a-be i . 'That uld be a shame,' yu say. Well,
ae't such actis as this a shame? Let him pstitute his ife
ad se a ay ith atchful se ve his cups. 'Hible,'
yu say. Ad yet hat he has de is me hible still. Thee
is  la t puish ith death a ma h pstitutes his ife;
but eveye appves capital puishmet f thse h publish
sladeus iti s."

Thee ca be  dubt that Easmus as u ed fm may sides t ite

smethi decisive a aist the Luthea paty. He held bac as l

as he culd, patly, e may be sue, fm eal sympathy ith the
chief pupse f the efm ad patly fm a dead f cmmitti
himself t, he e t pecisely hat. T estimate his psiti
ai ht e must bea i mid that the eal meai f the efm
paty as develpi yea by yea, tai  eve e aspects as e
iteest afte athe came t be cected ith the i ial eel
f ppsiti. S fa as ut ad thi s ee cceed Easmus as
baed fm may lies f attac by his   dami ecd. I these
mattes he culd ly idul e i va ue exhtatis t mdeati ad
i vlumius, but t vey cvici , apl ies.
He as theefe cmpelled, if he ished t meet the pessue f the
Rma paty by sme pe sevice, t tu t the me speculative
side f the efm. He thee fud a tpic atually adapted t da
ut his hstility, the tpic f the feedm f the huma ill. It
as a subject especially suited t the Easmia methd. Its pblem
ivlved the iddle f the a es: T hat de ee is the acti f ma
detemied by his   ill ad t hat de ee by sme p e--Fate,
Gd, Devil, call it hat e may--utside himself? That ma had a ill
f his vey   had eve bee ttally deied. The questi as, h
fa as this ill fee t act?
Withi the histy f Chistiaity this pblem had ealy fud its
expessi i the eat Au ustiia-Pela ia ctvesy f the fifth
cetuy. Bth f these paties had admitted that ma's ill as
smeh affected by the divie ill. The diffeece, the hpeless ad
pepetual diffeece, had bee  the questi f the pssibility f
_ d_ acti thu h the huma impulse ale. This pssibility the
Pela ia paty had maitaied, addi , h eve, that such i ial
d impulse f the huma ill as immediately aided by the divie
ace. The paty f Au ustie had deied the pssibility f ay
_ d_ acti ithut a _pevius_ impulse f the divie ace.
The Chuch, sae ad cleve al ays i the l u, had steeed
its cuse caefully bet ee the t  extemes. It had cdemed
Pela ius as a heetic ad eveeced Au ustie as a sait; but it had
eve e t thse le ths f pii hich mi ht be discveed i
Au ustie's iti s by e h ished t fid them thee.
I the ds, the Chuch had istictively ec ised that the
pblem is isluble. As the pactical admiistat f a system
f mals, it had cceed itself ly ith pvidi a machiey
heeby the csequeces f evil acti culd be aveted fm its
faithful membes. It had eve said t them, "Yu ae cmpelled t
these sis by a p e yu cat esist," but it had said, "Yu ill
ifallibly si ad yu ill suffe f yu sis, uless yu emve
them by the meas e ffe." S fa that had ed. The ld had
accepted the situati ad e meily ,  i he it sied,
but  i als that a id ad idul et Chuch uld see t it
that its sis ee tae cae f at a vey easable cha e. Oly
fm time t time me lie Savala ad ups f me lie the
Waldesias had aised thei cy f ptest ad called me bac a ai
t the sese f diect espsibility t, ad diect depedece ,
Gd ale.
That as the essece als f Luthe's ptest. Evey idividual
Chistia as ce a ai called up t deal diectly ith his Gd.
S fa the Luthea teachi as i cmplete hamy ith the hle
dift f Easmus' thu ht. But hee e fid athe illustati
f simila cclusis eached by diffeet ays. Easmus as

quite satisfied t let the hle speculative side f the questi

tae cae f itself. Luthe culd t est util he had hamised
his pactical aims ith sme thel ical piciple, hich shuld
ive them csistecy ad suppt. That piciple he fud i
the Au ustiia dctie f pedestiati ad the ufee ill.
Easmus as ctet, as the Chuch as, t accept bth sides f
the ctvesy at ce, ad tim them t suit each the. Luthe
caed little f ice distictis, but cviced himself that the
salvati f his cause lay i emphasisi , s fa as a mid s
emietly sud ad huma as his culd d, the idea f a divie fate,
espsible--yes, he uld eve say this if he must--espsible eve
f the seemi evil f this ld.
N it is bvius that, vie ed abstactly, the hle up f ideas
e call "Au ustiia" ae pe t the avest questi. They seem t
sap the fudatis f Chistia mality ad t th me bac up
the deay fatalisms fm hich it as the missi f Chistiaity t
elease them. I fact, h eve, it cat be deied that fm time
t time they have ed, hee the meas have failed, t ecall
me shaply ad ucmpmisi ly t the sese f si ad theeby t
a me vivid ad cvici mal pupse. Such a time as cme ce
me i the day f Luthe ad Easmus ad Calvi. This thel y may
have bee ill ical, but it ed. It u ht, pehaps, i all eas,
t have set me flyi ff it a mad idiffeece t mality,
sice thi they culd d uld ifluece thei ultimate fate; but
f evey ea ad shuffli csciece hich be ude this bude
thee ee a huded thes that ee steeled ad eved by it t a
cmplete mal e eeati. The dctie f the imptet ill has
pduced sme f the mst masteful ills befe hich the ld has
eve had t bed.
Hee, the, as a pit up hich Easmus mi ht safely attac
Luthe ithut cmpmisi himself. His essay  the Feedm f
the Will[152] as auced sme time befe its appeaace. I the
cuse f the yea 1523 he set a u h daft t Ki Hey III.,
pmisi , if this seemed th hile t the i "ad the leaed
me," t fiish it as s as his health ad cetai e a emets
uld pemit. A lette f Luthe t Easmus i 1524 su ests that he
had head f his iteti t attac i sme ay the dcties f the
Refmati, thu h he  hee alludes t the subject f fee ill.
This lette is iteesti as sh i the lfty te f a ma h
believes himself t be the spesma f a cause hi he tha ay huma
csideatis. He, lie Hutte, sees i Easmus a ally h, afte
the measue f the ift f Gd, is fi hti the same battle. Oly he
feels the limitatis f that ift.
[152] _De libe abiti sive collatio_, ix., 1215-1247.
"I see t at God as not yet granted you t e courage and t e
insig t to join freely and confidently wit me in fig ting t ose
monsters. Nor am I t e man to demand of you w at goes eyond
my own strengt and my own limitations. But weakness like my
own and a measure of t e gift of God I ave orne wit in you
and ave respected it. For t is plainly t e w ole world cannot
deny: t at learning flouris es and prevails, w erey men ave
come to t e true understanding of Scripture and t is is a great
and splendid gift of God in you. In trut I ave never wis ed
t at you s ould go eyond your own limitations and mingle in our
camp, for t oug you mig t elp us greatly wit your genius and
eloquence, yet since your eart is not in it it would e safer

to serve wit in your own gift. T e only t ing to e feared was

t at you would sometime e persuaded y our enemies to pulis
some attack upon our _doctrine_, and t en necessity would compel
me to answer you to your face. I ave restrained ot ers w o
were trying to draw you into t e arena wit t ings t ey ad
already written, and t at was t e reason w y I wis ed Hutten's
_Expostulatio_ ad never een pulis ed,--and still more your
_Spongia_, t roug w ic , if I am not mistaken, you now see ow
easy it is to write aout moderation and to accuse Lut er of
lacking it, ut ow difficult, nay, impossile it is to practice
it except t roug a singular gift of t e Spirit.
"Believe me, t en, or not, yet C rist is my witness t at I pity
you from my eart, ecause t e atred and t e active efforts of
so many and so great men are stirred up against you. I cannot
elieve t at you are not distured y t ese t ings, since your
uman virtue is unequal to suc a urden. And yet perc ance
t ey too are moved y a justifiale warmt , ecause t ey feel
t emselves attacked y you wit unwort y met ods....
"I, owever, ave up to t is time restrained my pen, no matter
ow itterly you ave stung me, and ave told my friends, in
letters w ic you ave read, t at I was going to restrain it
until you s ould come out openly.... Now t en, w at can I do?
Eit er way is most trying to me. I could wis --if I could e
t e mediator--t at my allies would cease to attack you wit
suc zeal and would permit your old age to fall asleep in t e
peace of God and t is t ey would do, in my opinion, if t ey
would consider your infirmity and t e greatness of our cause,
w ic as long since passed eyond your limitations; especially
now t at t e matter as gone so far t at t ere is little to
fear for our cause, even if Erasmus fig t against it wit all
is mig t, nay, t oug sometimes e scatter stings and ites.
Yet, on t e ot er and, my dear Erasmus, if only you would
consider t eir weakness and would restrain from t ose iting
and cutting figures of r etoric, so t at if you cannot or dare
not go wit us altoget er, you may at least leave us alone and
deal wit your own sujects. For t at t ey [Erasmus' 'Lut eran'
assailants] are ut ill earing your attacks, t ere is good
reason, namely, ecause t eir uman weakness greatly dreads t e
name and aut ority of Erasmus and ecause to e once itten y
Erasmus is quite a different t ing from eing crus ed y all t e
papists toget er.
"I desire to ave said t ese t ings, most excellent Erasmus,
in witness of my friendly feeling towards you. I pray t at God
may give you a spirit wort y of your fame; ut if God delays
wit is gift to you, I eg you meanw ile, if you can do no
more, to remain a spectator of our conflict and not to join
forces wit our opponents, especially not to pulis ooks
against me, as I will pulis not ing against you. Finally,
consider t at t ose w o complain t at t ey are attacked under
t e Lut eran name are men like you and me, in w om muc oug t to
e overlooked and forgiven. As Paul says: 'Bear ye one anot er's
urdens.' T ere as een iting enoug ; now let us see to it
t at we e not consumed y mutual strife, a spectacle t e more
wretc ed inasmuc as it is perfectly certain t at neit er side
is at eart opposed to true piety and t at if it were not for
ostinacy, eac would e quite satisfied wit its own. Pardon my
feele speec and farewell in t e Lord."

T e impression of t is letter is one of sad ut confident sincerity.

Lut er is not afraid of Erasmus ecause e is uns akaly convinced
of t e justice of is own cause, ut e would gladly e spared t e
necessity of going into an encounter w ic would make even more
evident to t e world t an it was already t e difference etween is
own and Erasmus' views of reform. His tone is lofty, arrogant if we
will, ecause e is speaking for w at e elieves to e divine trut
and to a man w o seemed to im as yet untouc ed y t e real divine
spark. He acknowledges is indetedness to t e great sc olar, ut
cannot see w y Erasmus may not continue to find full scope for is
talents on t e lines e as een following. He did not succeed in
staying t e pulication of t e essay on free will, ut at all events
t e moderation of its tone s ows a notale effort on t e part of
Erasmus to avoid irritating language.
T e treatise, pulis ed in 1524, is a s ort one, covering sixteen
folio pages. It consists c iefly of a careful istorical examination
of passages of Scripture, ot of t e Old and New Testaments, in
w ic t e suject seems to e alluded to. So far as t e argument
itself is concerned, t e work is of little interest. Erasmus for t e
most part carefully avoids original discussion and olds imself
closely to aut ority. Since t e eginning, e says, t ere as never
een anyone to deny free will entirely except "Manic us" and Wiclif.
Yet Lut er gives no weig t to all t is and falls ack upon Scripture.
Very good, ut t is is only w at all do. "Bot sides accept and
revere t e same Scripture. T e attle is only aout t e meaning of
Scripture," and in getting at t e meaning we oug t to pay respect to
talent and learning. Of course t e only sound interpretation comes
t roug t e gift of t e Spirit; ut w ere is t e Spirit? T e c ances
are muc greater t at it is to e found among t ose to w om God as
given ordination, just as we elieve more easily t at grace is given
to a aptised man t an to an unaptised one.
"If Paul commands is time, in w ic t e gift of t e Spirit was
flouris ing, to prove t e spirits, w et er t ey e of God, w at
must we do in t is fles ly age? How t en s all we judge t e
spirits? y learning? On ot sides t ere are men of learning.
By t e life? t ere are sinners on ot sides. In t e ot er life
is t e w ole c oir of t e saints w o approve t e freedom of t e
will. 'But,' t ey say, 't ose were mortals'; true, and I am
comparing men wit men, not men wit gods. I am asked: 'W at
ave majorities to do wit t e meaning of Scripture?' I answer:
'W at ave minorities to do wit it?' I am asked: 'How does t e
mitre elp in understanding Scripture?' I answer: 'How does t e
cloak elp or t e cowl?' I am asked: 'W at as t e understanding
of p ilosop y to do wit t e understanding of Scripture?' I
answer: 'W at as ignorance to do wit it?' I am asked: 'W at
can e done for a knowledge of Scripture y a Council, in w ic
it may appen t at no one as t e Spirit?' I answer: 'W at can
e done y private gat erings of a few men, among w om it is far
more proale t at no one as t e Spirit?' ...
"If you ask t em y w at proof t ey know t e true sense of
Scripture, t ey reply, 'By t e witness of t e Spirit.' If you
ask ow _t ey_ come to ave t e Spirit, rat er t an t ose
w ose miracles ave een known to all t e world, t ey reply as
if t ere ad een no Gospel in t e world for t irteen undred
years. If you ask of t em a life wort y of t e Spirit, t ey
reply t at t ey are justified y fait , not y works. If you ask

for miracles t ey tell you t at t ese ave long since ceased

and t at t ere is no need of t em in t e present clear lig t of
Scripture. If you deny t at Scripture is clear on t is point,
upon w ic so many of t e greatest men ave een involved in
darkness, t e circle comes round again to its eginning."
Now all t is is very clever--too clever, in fact; for it amounts to
not ing ut an elaorate defence of t e principle of uman aut ority
in elief. By means of t is introduction, Erasmus sets imself
squarely against t e principle of free interpretation of t e original
sources of C ristianity y t e lig t of reason and knowledge, for
w ic t e Reformation was really working and towards w ic e imself
y is own New Testament work ad een contriuting.
Anot er principle of Erasmus, especially irritating to Lut er, was
t at t e trut s ould not always e spoken, a maxim as oviously true
as t e application of it was liale to gross ause.
"Let us t en suppose," e says, "t at it e true in some sense,
as Wiclif and Lut er ave said, t at 'w atever is done y us,
is done, not y free will ut y pure necessity,' w at more
inexpedient t an to pulis t is paradox to t e world? Or, let
us suppose t at in a certain sense it is true, as Augustine
somew ere says: 'God works ot good and evil in us, and
rewards is own good works in us and punis es is own evil
works in us,' w at a door to impiety t is saying would open to
countless mortals, if it were spread aroad in t e world!...
W at weak man would keep up t e perpetual and weary conflict
against t e fles ? W at evil man would strive to correct is
life? W o could persuade is soul to love wit is w ole eart a
God w o as prepared a ell glowing wit eternal tortures t at
e may t ere avenge upon miserale men is own misdeeds as if e
delig ted in uman tortures?"
Here was an ojection to Augustinianism as old as Augustine imself,
ut t e fact was t at it ad never yet een sustained and was
not likely to e. Even if it ad een, t at could not affect t e
principle Erasmus was now concerned wit ; namely, t at trut w ic
seemed likely to make any confusion in t e world oug t not to e
[153] In a letter to Aloisius Marlianus (iii., 545-C), Erasmus
says: "I know t at everyt ing oug t to e orne rat er t an t at
t e pulic order s ould e distured; I know it is t e part of
piety sometimes to ide t e trut , and t at t e trut oug t not
to e put fort in every place, nor at every time, nor in every
presence, nor in every way, nor always in its entirety."
Having fortified imself on t ese preliminary points, Erasmus lays
out t e prolem wit great clearness and t en proceeds wit t e
examination of scripture passages on ot sides. It would e idle
to follow t is process, y w ic , proverially, anyone can prove
anyt ing. Of course Erasmus finds t e weig t of Scripture on is
side, as is opponents found it on t eirs. Far more important and
interesting is is own personal declaration of fait . Put in a word,
it was t at one oug t to allow to man _some_ s are in is own good
actions; not a great s are, only "_non ni il_." In fact, t is is
really t e only t ing e finds to criticise in t e Lut eran doctrine,
t e overemp asis on t e element of grace in uman action.

"[154]Doutless to t em [t e Lut erans] it seems perfectly in

armony wit t e simple oedience of t e C ristian soul t at man
s ould depend w olly upon t e will of God, s ould place all is
ope and trust in His promises, and, knowing ow wretc ed e is
of imself, s ould marvel and adore His oundless mercy w ic
is poured out upon us freely in suc large measure and s ould
entrust imself w olly to His will, w et er He wis es to save
or to condemn; t at man s ould take no credit to imself for
His kindnesses, ut s ould ascrie all t e glory to His grace,
earing in mind t at man is only t e living organ of t e divine
spirit, purified and consecrated y His free goodness, ruled
and governed y His inscrutale wisdom. T ere is not ing ere
w ic anyone can claim for is own strengt and yet one may wit
confidence ope from Him t e reward of eternal life--not ecause
e as deserved it y good deeds, ut ecause it as seemed est
to His goodness to promise it to His fait ful. It is t e part of
men earnestly to pray God t at e may impart and increase His
spirit in us, to give t anks if any good is done t roug us, to
wors ip His power in all t ings, to marvel at His wisdom, and to
love His goodness.
[154] ix., 1241-F.
"All t is I too most eartily approve. It agrees wit oly
Scripture. It answers to t e profession of t ose w o, once dead to
t e world, are at t e same time uried wit C rist y aptism, so
t at t roug mortifying t e fles , t ey may live and act in t e
spirit of Jesus, in w ose ody t ey are implanted y fait . Truly a
pious opinion and wort y of all approval, w ic takes away from us
all pride, w ic lays all t e glory and all our ope upon C rist,
w ic casts out all fear of men or demons and makes us distrustful
of our own defences, ut old and full of courage in God. I applaud
all t is gladly until it ecomes extravagant. For w en I ear t at
man is so completely wit out merit t at all t e works, even of pious
men, are sinful; w en I ear t at our wills can do no more t an clay
in t e and of t e potter; w en I ear t at all we do or will is to
e referred to asolute necessity,--my mind is distured y many
We see ow near e comes to t e Lut eran position. Its emp asis on
t e sinfulness of man and t e direct responsiility to God appeals
to im. Only, like so many efore and since, e revolts against t e
injustice of a t eory w ic would punis man for sins e as not
committed. He cannot escape from t e ordinary standards of uman
reward and punis ment. His idea of God is offended y w at seems to
im a cruel and unfeeling conception. He cannot ascrie to God any
quality w ic would e a disgrace to man ood.
"Surely everyone would call im a cruel and unjust master,
w o s ould flog a slave to deat ecause e was not eautiful
enoug or ad a crooked nose or was ot erwise deformed. Would
not t e slave e rig t in complaining to t e master w o was
slaying im: 'W y s ould I e punis ed for w at I cannot elp?'
And e would e still more justified in saying t is if it were
in t e power of t e master to remedy t e defect of t e slave,
as it is in t e power of God to c ange our wills or if t e
master ad caused in t e slave t e very defect at w ic e now
takes offence, as, for example, if e ad cut off is nose
or disfigured is face wit scars, as God, according to some
people, as wroug t all t e evil t at is in us."[155]

[155] ix., 1243-B.

T is is t e familiar argument of all anti-Augustinianism from t e
eginning until now. So long as t e discussion as to e carried on
wit t e weapons of t e ancient t eology, it is ard to see ow t e
issue can e stated ot erwise. So long as ot parties were acting
on t e t eory of a universe wit a God outside of it and assumed
t e existence of good and evil as asolute entities, t ey must
necessarily part company in t eir definitions of t is God and of
is relation to good and evil. Eac would fall ack upon suc uman
analogies as seemed to come nearest to is own divine ideal. T e real
issue was far eyond t e compre ension of eit er party. Eac was
seeking a solution w ere no solution was possile. Erasmus said:
"In my judgment free will mig t ave een so defined as to avoid
t at confidence in our own merits and t ose ot er difficulties
w ic Lut er avoids and also t e difficulties I ave enumerated
aove, wit out losing t ose valuale t ings w ic Lut er
praises. T is solution seems to me to e found in t e opinion
of t ose w o ascrie entirely to grace t e first impulse y
w ic our minds are set in motion, and only in t e course of
t is motion allow a somet ing to t e will of man w ic as not
wit drawn itself from t e grace of God. But since all t ings
ave t ree parts, eginning, progress, and completion, t ey
ascrie t e two extremes to grace and only in t e progress
admit t at t e free will does somet ing;--ut even t is it does
in suc a way t at in t e same individual act two causes work
toget er, t e grace of God and t e will of man, grace eing
t e principal cause and t e will t e secondary cause, w ic of
itself can do not ing, w ereas t e principal cause is sufficient
to itself. Just as t e native force of fire urns and yet t e
principal cause [of t e urning] is God, w o acts t roug t e
fire and would e sufficient alone, w ereas t e fire if t is
s ould wit draw itself could accomplis not ing wit out it."[156]
[156] ix., 1244-A.
T is as an almost Pelagian sound. It is in fact nearly t e attitude
of t e moderate anti-Augustinian party of t e fift century, w en it
was trying to s ow ow ort odox it was. Erasmus goes on to illustrate
t e same point wit aundant and clever illustration, and finally
comes to t e question of "original sin," t e inevitale _crux_ of t e
w ole discussion.
"[157]T ey exaggerate original sin eyond all measure," e
says; "t ey would ave it t at t e most splendid powers of our
uman nature are so corrupted y it, t at we can do not ing of
ourselves except to e ignorant of God and to ate Him. Not even
e w o is justified y fait can do any act w ic is not a sin;
t is very _tendency_ to sin left over to us from t e sin of our
first parents t ey call sin, and declare it irresistile, so
t at t ere is no command of God w ic even a man justified y
fait can fulfil; ut so many commands of God ave no ot er aim
t an t at God's grace may e magnified t roug is granting of
salvation wit out regard to our merits!... If God as urdened
man wit so many commands w ic ave no ot er effect t an to
make im ate God t e more, do t ey not make im out more
unmerciful t an Dionysius, tyrant of Sicily, w o purposely made
many laws w ic e expected most persons would not oey unless

insisted upon, t en for a w ile overlooked offences until e saw

t at almost everyone ad violated t em, and t en egan to call
t em to account, and so made everyone ate im?
[157] ix., 1246-B.
"T is kind of extravagance Lut er seems to delig t in, in order t at
e mig t, as t e saying is, split t e evil knot of ot ers' excesses
wit an evil wedge. T e foolis audacity of certain men ad gone to
extremes. T ey were selling t e merits, not only of t emselves, ut
of all t e saints. And for w at kind of works? for incantations, for
muttering of psalms, eating of fis , fastings, vestments, titles.
Now Lut er drove out t is nail wit anot er y saying t at t ere are
no merits of saints at all, ut t at all t e works of pious men are
sins, and will ring damnation, unless fait and God's mercy come to
t eir aid.
"Again, t e ot er party was making a profitale trade out of
confessions and penances, w erein t ey ad terrily ensnared t e
consciences of men; and also out of Purgatory, aout w ic t ey ad
anded down certain marvellous notions. T is error t eir opponents
would correct y saying t at confession is a device of Satan and
oug t not to e required; t at works can give no satisfaction for sin
since C rist as completely paid t e penalty for t e sins of all men,
and, finally, t at t ere is no suc t ing as Purgatory. So one side
says t at t e decrees even of t eir little priors can ind us y t e
pains of ell and does not esitate to promise eternal life to t ose
w o oey t em. T e ot er side tries to moderate t is extravagance
y saying t at all t e decrees of popes, councils, and is ops are
eretical and anti-C ristian. If one side ad exalted extravagantly
t e power of t e pope, t e ot er says suc t ings aout im as I dare
not repeat. Again, one party says t at t e vows of monks and priests
ind men y t e pains of ell, and t at for ever; t e ot er says t at
suc vows are utterly impious and oug t not to e taken;--or, if t ey
ave een taken, oug t not to e kept. Now it is from t e collision
of suc excesses as t is t at t e t unders and lig tnings ave arisen
w ic are now s attering t e world. If ot sides are to go on t us
itterly defending t eir extreme views I perceive t at t e attle
will e like t at etween Ac illes and Hector, w o were so equal in
savagery t at only deat could separate t em.... I prefer t e opinion
of t ose w o attriute somet ing to free will, ut a great deal to
grace. For we oug t not so to avoid t e Scylla of pride as to e
swept into t e C arydis of despair and indifference."
So t e treatise ends as it egan, y s owing w at all reasonale
men knew efore, t at t e question as two sides to it, ut wit out
giving t at kind of decided utterance w ic t e critical moment
demanded. Viewed as an astract treatment, quite independently
of t e circumstances, it was a moderate, clever, good-tempered
discussion of a p ilosop ic prolem; ut it did not give t at clear
note of leaders ip for w ic , aove all else, men were listening.
Intellectually, Erasmus' position was as superior to t at of Lut er
as was t e temper of is argument etter t an t at of Lut er's reply.
T e _De liero aritrio_ was welcomed y all t e moderates of t e
day and doutless did its work in olding to t e _status quo_ many
a wavering spirit w ic ot erwise mig t ave een drawn into t e
reforming ranks. W ile t e weig t of t e argument is oviously t rown
as far as possile on Lut er's side, it called attention s arply to
t e weakest points in t e Reformation t eology.

As soon as t e "Free Will" was pulis ed, Erasmus astened, as usual,

to justify imself y writing in all directions to t e persons
w ose approval was of most value to im,--to Henry VIII., Wolsey,
and Fis er in England, to Melanc t on and Duke George in Germany,
and to Aleander in Italy. He represents t e work as a proof of is
courage--"a old deed in Germany," e says to Wolsey, w ile to
Aleander e complains t at enemies of is in Italy are ausing im
for unsound sc olars ip.
"T ey call me '_Errasmus_' in Rome, as if your writers ad
never made a mistake. T ey say I am unfriendly to Italy,
w ereas no one speaks more eartily t an I of t e genius of
t e Italians.... I ave no dout t at you and I would get on
eautifully, if we could only live toget er."
Lut er waited a full year efore replying to t e Diatrie. It was a
year of especial trial to im, for wit in t ose mont s it seemed as
if t e worst prop ecies of is worst enemies were eing fulfilled.
All t e social and economic restlessness of t e time was eginning to
make use of is teac ing as a justification for revolt against t e
existing order of society. W olly against is will e found imself
eld responsile for confusions e a orred and for doctrines w ic
seemed to im worse, if possile, t an t ose e ad undertaken to
comat. His immediate duty was to clear imself of t ese imputations;
to s ow ow utterly foreign to is spirit and is aims were t e
t eology of Carlstadt, t e communistic speculations of Mnzer, and
t e revolutionary radicalism of t e peasant leaders. He accomplis ed
t is for all w o were ale to follow is argumentation in t e
remarkale series of pamp lets pulis ed in 1524 and 1525. T en e
returned to t e assault of Erasmus. T e most striking quality of t e
long and laoured treatise, _De servo aritrio_,[158] wit w ic e
replied to t e Diatrie, is its perfect frankness. Indeed Lut er
was almost compelled to frankness y is detestation of w at seemed
to im t e perilously s ifty met od of is opponent. Erasmus ad
deprecated violence; Lut er reminds im t at no great good ever came
into t e world wit out commotion and overturn of an existing order.
C rist came, not to send peace, ut a sword. Erasmus ad said t at
true t ings were not to e uttered at all times and ad given certain
illustrations; Lut er disposes of t is point y s owing t at t e
t ings proposed in t ese illustrations were not true and t erefore,
of course, oug t not to e told at any time. Erasmus ad asked: "If
t ere is no freedom of will, w o will try to amend is life?" Lut er
frankly replied, "No man. No man can. T e elect will e amended y
t e divine spirit; t e rest will peris unamended." Erasmus ad said
t at a door would e opened to all iniquity y t is doctrine. Lut er
says: "So e it; t at is a part of t e evil t at is to e orne; ut
at t e same time t ere is opened to t e elect a door to salvation, an
entrance into eaven, a way to God."
[158] Walc , Lut er's _Werke_, xviii., 2049. An Englis
translation y Henry Cole. London, 1823.
On t e crucial point of aut ority for fait , Erasmus ad especially
assailed w at seemed to im t e vague and uncertain evidence of
"t e Spirit." Lut er replies t at e is far enoug from agreeing
wit t ose w ose sole reliance is upon t e "Spirit," of w ic t ey
oast. He as ad a itter enoug fig t wit t em for a year past.
In t e same way e as een attacking t e papacy ecause t ere one
is always earing t at t e Scriptures are oscure and amiguous, and
t at we oug t to seek at Rome for t e interpreting Spirit,--t e most

disastrous t ing possile.

"Now we old t is, t at spirits are to e tried and proved
y a twofold judgment; t e one an internal, w erey a man,
enlig tened y t e Holy Spirit or y a special gift of God may,
so far as e and is own salvation are concerned, decide wit
t e utmost certainty and distinguis t e doctrines and opinions
of all men. As is written [1 Cor. ii. 15.], 't e spiritual
man judget all t ings, ut is judged y no man.' T is is an
essential part of fait , and is necessary for everyone, even
for a private C ristian. T is is w at we ave called aove t e
internal clearness of Holy Scripture and is per aps w at t ose
persons meant w o replied to you, t at all t ings were to e
decided y t e judgment of t e Spirit. But t is kind of judgment
cannot avail for anot er person, and is not in question ere;
for no one, I elieve, can dout t at it stands as I ave said.
"T erefore t ere is a second kind of judgment, an external,
w erey, not only for ourselves ut for ot ers and as regards
t e salvation of ot ers, we may most surely judge t e spirits
and opinions of all men. T is judgment elongs to t e pulic
ministry of t e Word and to t e external office and especially
to t e leaders and eralds of t e Word. T is we make use of w en
we strengt en t e weak in t e fait and confute our opponents.
T is we ave called aove t e 'external clearness of Scripture.'
And so we say t at all spirits are to e tried in t e sig t of
t e C urc wit Scripture as t e judge."
After t is long introduction, Lut er proceeds to take up, one after
anot er, Erasmus' references to Scripture, and to s ow t at e as
misunderstood t em ecause e as applied to t em a false principle
of judgment. We are not concerned wit t is t eological fencing.
Our interest is in t e attitude of t e two men towards t e ultimate
question of aut ority. Erasmus, t e "individual," t e man of t e
Renaissance, t e apostle of lig t, t e fearless critic of evils in
C urc and society, approac es t is great doctrinal question wit
t e timidity of a sc olastic, and refers it finally to t e judgment
of t e great aut orities of t e C urc . Lut er, t e man of feeling,
t e t inker w o only prayed to e instructed, w o gloried in eing
t e slave of a ig er will, comes out ere in reality as a c ampion
of t e oldest lierty of uman judgment. He would settle all t ings
y Scripture, ut e would read is Scripture wit is own eyes and
interpret it y t e lig t of t at evidence of t e Spirit w ic e and
e alone could read for imself. His tone is one of mingled umility
and arrogance, ut we ave no reason to question is sincerity in
eit er c aracter. His arrogance was t at of a man w o felt wit Paul:
"Woe is unto me if I preac not t e Gospel." He closes, as e egan,
y praising Erasmus' learning, t anking im for aving gone straig t
at t e eart of t e question, instead of worrying im, as ot ers were
doing, "aout t e papacy, purgatory, indulgences, and suc nonsense,"
and warning im t at encefort e ad etter stick to is trade of
literature and let t eology alone.

By t e year 1525 t e Lut eran doctrine may e regarded as

sustantially complete, in t e form w ic it was to take in t e
Augsurg Confession of 1530. Erasmus ad indeed, as Lut er said, gone
straig t to t e point y w ic t at doctrine must stand or fall, and
in rejecting it e ad made it impossile for anyone to rank im wit

t e reforming party. At t e same time e ad s own ow completely e

was out of sympat y, even t eologically, wit t e system of salvation
y _ona opera_, w ic t e C urc was trying to maintain. More t an
ever t erefore e found imself out of tune wit ot parties and,
since all t e world was now rapidly ranging itself on one side or t e
ot er, e experienced a growing sense of isolation t at was to colour
is remaining years.
Logically t is isolation was t e natural outcome of lifelong ait.
To e free of all oligations was, we ave continually noted,
Erasmus' c ief desire, and t at motive, consistently followed, could
lead now ere else t an to isolation. Yet ere we touc once more upon
t at ot er side of is nature w ic ad always een in conflict wit
t e instinct of freedom. In spite of is individuality e needed
approval. T e reat of adulation was sweet to im. He could e
s ay enoug to a friend, if e t oug t imself injured, ut t at
very sensitiveness etrayed is need of friends ip. We cannot wonder
t erefore t at encefort , wit increasing age and infirmity, is
utterances take on a tone of increasing sadness and sense of loss.
More and more, too, as t e doctrines of t e reformers spread downward
into all classes of society and outward over all countries, it
ecame clearer and clearer to t e estalis ed aut orities t at t eir
real quarrel was not wit t is or t at doctrinal quile, nor wit
one or t e ot er religious sect or social organisation, ut wit
t e underlying spirit of all t ese. It availed little t at Erasmus
rejected t e doctrine of t e Unfree Will, t at e refused to e a
Lut eran or a Zwinglian, an Anaaptist or a socialist. T e powers
t reatened y all t ese felt, and rig tly felt, t at e stood for
somet ing more dangerous still,--a somet ing wit out w ic none of
t e sects could ave stood alone for a moment. T at somet ing was t e
spirit of criticism and of science ased upon a first- and knowledge
of t e sources of C ristian trut .
T e year 1525 marks a distinct reactionary movement. As, on t e one
and, t e social and economic disturances were t e severest strain
on t e new religious awakening, so, on t e ot er and, t ey were
t e final argument to convince t e powers of conservatism t at it
was now or never wit t em. For a moment t e C urc ad seemed to
waver. In electing as pope Adrian VI., a Nort erner, an intimate of
t e young emperor, a sc ool-fellow of Erasmus, and well known as a
man of enlig tened and moderate views, t e Roman Curia ad seemed to
cut itself loose from an exclusively Roman policy. T at policy ad
more t an once roug t t e papacy to t e rink of ruin and was to do
so more t an once again, ut for t e moment reformers of all grades
elieved t at a sustantial progress ad een made. T e early action
of Adrian ad confirmed t is elief; ut t e pressure was too great;
t e papacy was stronger t an t e pope. Adrian died in 1523 after a
disappointing administration of a single year, and t e proverial
swing of t e papal pendulum roug t to t e c air of Peter once more
an Italian--not indeed a Roman, ut a man as completely identified
wit t e curial policy as Adrian ad een unfamiliar wit it.
Giulio dei' Medici, nep ew of t e great Lorenzo, devoted from is
earliest years to t e ecclesiastical profession, a politician
trained in t e same sc ool wit Macc iavelli, and accepting t e
papacy as t e natural culmination of is amition, was precisely t e
kind of man to rally all t e resources of t e C urc in defence of
its imperilled traditions. In t at rally, at t is perilous crisis,
no alf-way allegiance could e useful. W atever opes mig t ave

een placed upon Erasmus y Leo and Adrian were y t is time pretty
effectually dissipated. T e kind of sledge- ammer lows w ic t e
papacy of 1525 needed to ave struck in its defence were certainly
not to come from suc an arm as t is.
Yet t ere occurred no official reac wit any of t e great Cat olic
powers. On t e accession of Clement VII. Erasmus sent im an early
letter of congratulation. He almost repeats t e language of similar
addresses to former popes. T ings ave een going adly enoug , ut
now t e rig t man for t e emergency as come. Especially t e cause of
learning may well expect t e greatest t ings from a Medicean pope. He
as resisted all pressure to take sides against t e papacy, and yet
Stunica is raging against im in Italy unpunis ed, to t e disgrace of
Rome and t e injury of t e papal name.
"[159]Believe me, most oly Fat er, w oever is iring t at
play-actor, a man orn for t is kind of trickery, is doing a
very poor service to t e papacy or to t e cause of t e pulic
peace; e is simply serving some private atred and to t at
end making use of anot er's folly.... I ave always sumitted
myself and all my works to t e judgment of t e Roman C urc ,
not intending to resist, even if it s ould give a verdict
unfavourale to me. For I will suffer everyt ing rat er t an e
a reel; and t erein I place my confidence t at your Holiness'
sense of justice will not permit me to e given up to t e mad
atred of a few men.... T e Emperor and t e Lady Margaret are
calling me ack to Braant. T e Frenc king is inviting me wit
mountains of gold to come to im. But not ing s all tear me from
Rome ut deat ,--or t e gravel more cruel t an deat ,--if only
I can e sure t at your justice will protect me against false
[159] iii., 783-E.
T e familiar reference to t e mountains of Frenc gold, w ic
ave een serving t eir turn wit im any time t ese ten years
past, ut w ic ave no foundation in fact, serve to indicate t e
value of t ese declarations. It is unlikely t at Erasmus ad t e
least intention of going to Rome. T e p rase aout is call to
Braant appears again, somew at elaorated, in a letter to Cardinal
Campeggio, dated 1526, ut almost certainly of even date (Feruary,
1524) wit t e one to Clement just quoted. He speaks ere of is very
feele ealt , w ic as compelled im to take a ouse y imself
w ere e can ave an open fireplace. He cannot leave in t e winter,
ut is planning a vacation trip for t e coming summer, and would
gladly etake imself _ist uc_,--presumaly to t e German Diet at
Nuremerg w it er Campeggio was coming as papal legate. He goes on
to say of ow little use e can e under t e circumstances, t oug
e will gladly do w at e can in t e cause of peace. He promises
Campeggio to come to t e Diet if e can, at t e same moment t at e
is assuring Clement t at not ing s all tear im (_avellere_) from
is eloved Rome, if e is ale to move from Basel at all. If we
dout is intention to go to Rome we may e still more certain t at a
German Diet in 1524 was t e very last place w ere e would ave cared
to s ow imself. T is, y t e way, was t e Diet at w ic Campeggio
was warned not to wear is cardinal's at, and not to make t e sign
of enediction or of t e cross.[160]
[160] Ranke, History of Germany, k. iii., c . iv.

So far as we can ever say t at Erasmus ad intentions aout is

future, we may venture to elieve t at e meant to end is days at
Basel. On one suject it was almost impossile for im to exaggerate,
and t at was t e awful agony of is disease in its acute stages and
t e great weakness and depression in t e interval. T e wonder is t at
e could ave kept so steadily at work and could so often, in t e
midst of is reproac es upon fortune and is enemies, display t at
keen, playful umour w ic was is greatest c arm.

On one ot er doctrinal question, of vast importance in t e istory of

t e Reformation, we must examine t e utterances of Erasmus; namely,
on t e question of t e Euc arist. W ile t e prolem of t e freedom
of t e will involved t e most profound p ilosop ical speculation,
t e euc aristic controversy ad to deal wit a matter w ic , viewed
from one side, was a mere question of usage, ut from anot er led at
once into a region w ere lind fait was plainly set in opposition
to uman reason. From an early day t e organised C urc ad seen
t e value of t e ideas w ic ad taken form in t e service of t e
Euc arist and ad insisted wit asolutely unwavering determination
upon t e doctrinal formula w ic expressed t em. First roug t
s arply efore t e medival world y t e controversy of Pasc asius
in t e nint century, t e issue was revived y Berengar of Tours in
t e elevent , and all t e ingenuity of t e early sc olasticism of
Anselm's day was displayed in giving to t e idea a foundation t at
could e neit er misunderstood nor evaded. T us crystallised into
a p ilosop ic reality y t e great formulators of t e t irteent
century, t e crass statement of t e C urc ad een questioned anew
y Wiclif. Hus ad, on t is point, it is true, professed allegiance
to t e C urc , ut t e Hussite party, y its passionate insistence
upon t e rig t of t e laity to receive t e Euc arist under ot
forms, ad protested against t e w ole conception of t e sacrament as
a sacrifice. So also t e tendency of t e great mystical movement ad
een to accustom men's minds to a spiritual interpretation of outward
T at was t e stage in w ic t e Reformation found t e w ole suject
of t e Euc arist. Lut er early ecame clear on two points: first,
t at t e celeration of t e Euc arist as a repetition of t e
sacrifice of C rist upon t e cross, wit out any reference w atever
to t e individual communicant,--indeed, as was oftenest t e case,
wit out any lay communicant at all,--was an outrageous violation
of every truly C ristian conception of t e institution, a mere
piece of eat en idolatry. But, secondly, Lut er still clung to t e
notion t at a somet ing mysterious and miraculous took place w en t e
formula of enediction was duly uttered y t e priest, and t at t is
somet ing must still e expressed in terms of t e c urc tradition.
"_Hoc est corpus meum_" must ave some literal and p ysical meaning.
Especially as e saw t e "fanatics," w o were not afraid to use
t eir reason and take t e consequences, going far a ead of im and
repudiating all t e mystery of t e consecrated symol, e found
imself drawn more and more into sympat y wit t e traditional view.
T e Euc arist question t us ecame t e test of distinction not only
etween Cat olic and Protestant ut etween moderate and radical
Protestant as well. Plain men like Landgraf P ilip of Hessen, w o
wanted aove all else to see all t e forces of Protestantism united
in one great assault, were s ocked and puzzled to find t at men w o
seemed to t em to stand for precisely t e same t ings were eld apart
y suc a mere speculative prolem as t is.

Lut er said, and said truly, of is Protestant doctrinal opponents,

"t ese men are of anot er spirit," and at t e Conference of Marurg,
in 1529, w en t e w ole future of Protestantism seemed to ang
upon t e union of t e Swiss wit t e German ranc , is personal
insistence upon t e out-and-out literalness of t e Cat olic symol
prevented t at union forever. He saved t e Lut eran C urc from t e
reproac of fanaticism and left t e Swiss C urc free to follow
its more lieral course. T at is w ere t e Euc arist question
drew near Erasmus. He egan to feel t e approac of danger and,
c aracteristically, to prepare for it. We ave no special treatise
on t e suject from is and, t oug e is said to ave written and
suppressed two suc . His expressions in regard to it are scattered
t roug is apologetic writings. In t e "Apology against Certain
Spanis Monks," pulis ed in 1528, t ere is a c apter[161] in w ic
e replies to criticism on t is point. Here, as everyw ere, e
tries to draw a clear line etween w at is essential and w at is
non-essential to t e C ristian fait . Hutten, e says, found fault
wit im ecause e was not willing to expose imself to all perils
for t e sake of Lut er's doctrine, ut e ad replied:
[161] ix., 1064-1066.
"I would gladly e a martyr for C rist, if e would give me
strengt , ut I am not willing to e a martyr for Lut er....
Now if it were an important article of fait t at t e Mass
is not a sacrifice, as Lut er maintains, deat oug t to e
soug t and inflicted on its account.... W at I call articles
of fait are t ose anded down in all t e creeds w ic t e
C urc repeats,--and yet I do not deny t e use of t is p rase
for some doctrines t at are not expressed in t e creeds. As to
t e reasons w y t e Euc arist is called a sacrifice, t ere is
still a difference among t eologians as t ere is also on many
points aout t e primacy of t e pope.... W en I ave stated t at
we oug t to agree wit t e C urc in all points, even if man's
reason and t e apparent meaning of Scripture were opposed, I
make it clear enoug t at I will conform at once, if anyone
will prove to me w at t e C urc teac es on t is point."
As regards t e communion in ot kinds, is critics tried to trip
im on t e ground of a letter to Bo emia in w ic e ad seemed to
s ow some favour to t e new-old doctrine. He protests t at e never
meant to question t e teac ing of t e C urc ut only to suggest
t at more weig ty reasons t an e ad as yet eard oug t to e given
for c anging a practice w ic undoutedly prevailed in t e early
centuries of t e C urc .
"Nor do I dout t at t ere were suc reasons, w ic per aps on
account of some scruple t ey preferred not to mention;--for
it is not an impious t ing in itself to partake under ot
forms.... As for t e c arge t at on t is point as on many
ot ers I agree wit Lut er, if I s ould say t at is a straig t
lie, t ey would t ink me lacking in courtesy; ut ad luck to
t at crafty ook from w ic t ese extracts are taken! I try to
persuade men to conform to t e requirements of t e Roman C urc
in partaking of t e Euc arist; is t at agreeing wit Lut er? Let
anyone read w at e writes on t is usiness!"
So anxious was Erasmus to set imself rig t wit t e world on t is
all-important topic, t at in 1530, after is removal to Freiurg,

e pulis ed an edition of a treatise y one Algerus, a Benedictine

monk of Liege, w o died at Cluny in 1131. T is work, entitled A
Treatise on t e Sacrament of t e Body and Blood of our Lord, was
written in refutation of Berengar of Tours. In is dedication[162]
Erasmus says: "I ave never douted t e reality of t e ody of t e
Lord, and yet some ow y t e reading of t is work my fait as een
not a little confirmed, and my reverence increased." In t e course
of t is dedication e s ows us very plainly t e working of is mind.
T e _doctrine_ e admits to e of original validity, ut as to its
_form_, and as to t e precise expressions one oug t to use, t ere
as een an istorical development and t is as come aout y uman
means, t roug t e natural process of controversy.
[162] iii., 1274-1277.
"Would t at t ey w o ave followed Berengar in is errors would
follow im also in is repentance, and t at t eir error may turn
to t e advantage of t e C urc ! T ere are innumerale questions
aout t is sacrament, as, ow t e c ange of sustance takes
place; ow accidents can exist wit out a sustance; ow t e
read and t e wine retain t e colour, t e smell, t e taste, t e
power of satisfying, of intoxicating, and of nouris ing w ic
t ey ad efore t ey were consecrated; at w at moment t ey egin
and cease to e t e ody and lood of C rist; w et er, if t e
form e destroyed anot er sustance succeeds; ow t e same ody
may e in innumerale places; ow t e very ody of a man can e
under t e least crum of read and many ot er t ings w ic may
properly e discussed y t ose of trained intelligence. For t e
multitude it is enoug to elieve t at after t e consecration
t e read and t e wine are t e true ody and lood of t e Lord,
w ic cannot e divided, nor injured, nor is exposed to any
arm, w atever may appen to t e elements.... In s ort, in
answer to all t e douts of uman reasoning, t ere comes to us
t e unlimited power of God, to w om not ing is impossile and
not ing difficult."
In ot er words, Erasmus in 1530 is perfectly satisfied wit t e same
mental attitude w ic Pasc asius ad displayed in t e nint century,
at a moment w en European culture was ut just rising aove its
lowest point. His only criticism is reserved for t e excesses of t e
C urc system. His description of t e proper state of mind of t e
devout wors ipper is spiritual enoug to e adopted y t e most eager
"Once," e says, "w en t e C urc was in its est estate, it
knew ut one sacrament and t e is op alone performed it. T e
t rong of sacramental persons were attracted first y piety and
t en y gain. At lengt t e t ing as gone so far t at many
study for t e priest ood precisely as one man learns to e a
mec anic, anot er a coler, anot er a mason or a tailor. To
t ese t e Mass is only a means of liveli ood."
W enever we find Erasmus protesting wit especial ve emence t at
e does not elieve a t ing, we may e toleraly sure t at e as
already given good reason for suspicion t at e did elieve it. In
t e case of t e Euc arist suc suspicion was well grounded. T e
ojections to t e doctrine, even on its p ilosop ical side, were suc
as must ave appealed strongly to is common sense. T e auses of it
in practice, especially t e w ole t eory of t e Mass as a sacrifice,
performed y t e priest at so muc per performance, were precisely

of t e kind against w ic e ad declaimed all is life long. W en

t e doctrine egan to e criticised y t e reformers, especially
y is Swiss neig ours, e allowed imself some toleraly free
expressions of opinion. T e leader of Swiss t oug t on t is, as on
most t eological sujects, was colampadius, t e reformed preac er
of Basel. He ad pulis ed is view, and Erasmus' friend, Biliald
Pirk eimer of Nuremerg, ad replied, defending a view resemling
t at of Lut er. In June, 1526, Erasmus wrote to Pirk eimer reviewing
very riefly t e state of t e reforming ideas in t e several European
countries. He says[163]:
[163] iii., 941-A.
"I s ould not e displeased wit t e view of colampadius,
if t e consent of t e C urc were not against it. _For I see
no meaning in a ody wit out sensile form_, nor w at use it
could e if it were perceived y t e senses, provided only
t at a spiritual grace were present in t e elements. And yet I
cannot depart from t e consent of t e C urc and never ave so
departed. You differ from colampadius in suc a way t at you
seem to prefer to agree wit Lut er rat er t an wit t e C urc .
You quote Lut er wit a little more respect t an was necessary,
w en you mig t ave cited t e aut ority of ot ers.... Wit your
usual prudence _you will not s ow t is letter to anyone_."
In t e year following e egins a letter to Pirk eimer t us[164]:
[164] iii., 1028-A.
"From your pen, my dear Biliald, I ave never feared anyt ing,
aving long tested your cautious considerateness and your
persistent loyalty in friends ip; ut it did offend me to ave
colampadius mixing up my name in is ooks wit out any reason,
w en e knows from me, t at it is unpleasant to me to e named
y im, more unpleasant to e aused, and most unpleasant to e
praised. He keeps it up wit out end. I ave never ascried
anyt ing of t is to my dear Biliald; for many t ings grieve us
w ic we can ascrie to no one. If I ad some little dout aout
your unusually long silence, t at oug t not to surprise you,
considering t e c angealeness of uman affections.... And I do
not regret my little suspicions since t ey ave roug t me t ese
longed-for letters."
Apparently Erasmus suspected t at Pirk eimer ad, after all, let
colampadius know t at e was inclined to t e spiritual view of t e
Euc arist. Fart er on e writes:
"I said _among friends_ t at I could follow is opinion, if t e
aut ority of t e C urc would approve it; ut I added t at I
could y no means differ from t e C urc . But y 'C urc ' I mean
t e consent of all C ristian people.... How muc t e aut ority
of t e C urc avails wit ot ers I know not, ut it is so
important to me t at I could agree wit Arians or Pelagians, if
t e C urc s ould approve w at t ey taug t. Not t at t e words
of C rist are not sufficient for me, ut it is no wonder t at I
follow as interpreter t e C urc , upon t e aut ority of w ic I
elieve in t e canonical Scriptures. Ot ers per aps ave more
talent or more strengt t an I, ut I rest now ere so safely
as in t e certain judgment of t e C urc . Of reasons and
argumentations t ere is no end."


AT LEYDEN, 1703.]
In s ort, Erasmus ad on t is suject, as e ad usually ad on all
controverted points, one opinion for is friends and anot er for t e
world. His array of "ifs" and "uts" was only a cover for is nervous
dread of committing imself to somet ing. His attitude on t is
question is t roug out c aracteristic. If it meant anyt ing, it would
e a complete justification for t e suspension of all t oug t on any
speculative question. To say t at one would e inclined to a elief
if only t e C urc would approve it, is to emasculate one's own
intelligence. It could not elp t ings to say t at t e C urc meant
to im t e consent of all C ristian people. At t at moment t ere was
no consent of all C ristian people, and t e only conceivale way y
w ic suc consent could e reac ed was y a full and free comparison
of t e onest views of onest men, in order t at essentials mig t e
emp asised and non-essentials eliminated. It is a poor defence of t e
rig test and clearest mind of is day, to say t at e refused to
take is manly part in t e clearing up of precisely t ose speculative
questions aout w ic discussion must necessarily arise. It was idle
for im to talk aout avoiding dissensions. T e dissensions were
t ere, and t e real question was not ow to suppress t em, ut ow to
solve t em so t at rig t-minded and intelligent men could know w ere
t ey stood.
T e worst t orn in Erasmus' side on t is question was Conrad
Pelicanus, one of t e reformed preac ers of Basel. T e c ief offence
of Pelicanus was t at e ad soug t to support is spiritual view of
t e Euc arist y declaring t at Erasmus really elieved just as e
did. We ave t ree letters of Erasmus to im, all of 1526, and eac
more violent t an t e ot er. Let us notice only t e most decided of
t ese expressions.
"It is my way w en I am wit learned friends, especially w en
t ere are present none of t e weaker sort, to discourse freely
on all kinds of sujects, for t e purpose of making inquiries,
sometimes to try t em or for mental exercise, and per aps I am
more outspoken in t is matter t an I oug t to e. But I will
confess to t e c arge of murder, if any mortal as ever eard me
say in jest or in earnest t is word: t at in t e Euc arist t ere
is merely read and wine or t at it is not t e real ody and
lood of our Lord as some are now maintaining in t eir ooks.
Nay, I call upon C rist imself to e my enemy, if t at opinion
ever found a lodgment in my mind. For if ever at any time any
flig ty t oug ts ave touc ed my mind I ave easily t rown
t em off y considering t e measureless love of God to me, and
y weig ing t e words of Holy Scripture, w ic ave compelled
even Lut er, w om you set aove all sc ools, all popes, all men
of sound doctrine, and councils, to profess w at t e Cat olic
C urc professes t oug e is wont freely to differ from er....
"If I s ould confess to you as to a friend deauc ery or t eft,
ow utterly against all laws of friends ip it would e if you
were to ale it even to one person, to t e peril of your
friend. Now, w en you are scattering aroad among all men t e
most dreadful of all c arges, of t ings w ic my tongue, t oug
a free one, as never uttered, nor my mind ever conceived, ow
can you e forgiven for w at you are doing, my Evangelical

friend? Did you t ink to ause t e aut ority of my name in order

to enforce a elief you ave yourself ut lately egun to old?
I pray you, in t e name of C rist, is t at an Evangelical t ing,
to make so dreadful a c arge against a friend in order to drag
more persons into a new sect, as if we ad not sects enoug
already? If your doctrine is a truly pious one, ave you no
ot er means of persuading men to it except t is empty statement,
t at Erasmus agrees wit you? But if my opinion is wort so muc
to you, w y do you old it of no account on t e many points on
w ic I differ from you?...
"If you are convinced t at in t e Euc arist t ere is not ing
ut read and wine, I would rat er e torn lim from lim t an
profess w at you profess and would rat er suffer anyt ing t an
depart t is life wit suc a crime confessed against my own
conscience.... I will suffer you to ale out efore all men
w atever I ave said, in intimate discourse, soer or drunk, in
jest or in earnest, ut I will not suffer you to make me t e
aut or or t e supporter of t at dogma; for it was never eit er
on my tongue or in my eart."
T e est summary of t e view e wis ed ot ers to take of is own
opinions on t is point is found in a letter to is former pupil, t e
Polis aron Jo n Lasco.[165]
[165] iii., 917, D-F.
"I seem to read etween t e lines of Lut er's writings, t at
Pelicanus as given im some ints from our conversations,--t e
same w o as nearly stirred up anot er disturance ere. He ad
spread a rumour t at e ad t e same opinions on t e Euc arist
as I ad. I wrote im a letter of remonstrance, ut wit out
giving names. T is letter of [to?] Pelicanus was s own y Berus
and Cantiuncula to a few persons, was even read in t e Council,
and finally was translated into German and spread far and wide,
to my great distress. Pelicanus replied y letter. I wrote im
to stop is writing and, if e wanted anyt ing of me, to come
to me. He came. I asked t e man w at e meant y is letters.
He tried various evasions, ut w en I pressed im e finally
confessed t at e ad said e elieved t e same as I. I asked
im w at t en e did elieve t at could e in agreement wit
me? He replied after many attempts at evasion: 'I elieve t at
in t e Euc arist are t e ody and lood of t e Lord; isn't t at
w at you elieve?' 'Assuredly,' I replied. 'Do you elieve t ey
are t ere y way of a symol?' 'No,' e said, 'ut I elieve
t e _efficacy_ (_virtutem_) of C rist is present.' I went on:
'Don't you elieve t at t e _sustance_ of t e ody is present?'
He confessed t at e did not elieve it. After t at I asked
im if e ad ever professed t is opinion in my presence. He
confessed w at is t e trut , t at e ad never done so. T en I
demanded w et er e ad ever eard t is opinion from me. He said
e ad never eard it and, w at was more, e ad often eard t e
opposite. I continued: 'You pretend to ot ers t at I agree wit
you, and w en you say t is, you understand in your own mind t at
you agree wit me so far as to elieve t at t e ody of t e Lord
is present; w ile t ose w o ear you understand t at I agree
wit you in accepting t e opinion of colampadius.'"
T e more Erasmus protested, t e less could e convince t e advanced
reformers t at e did not in is eart agree wit t em. His fate

was t at of any man w o tries to s ift and s uffle in a crisis w en

onest men are forming t eir opinions and are grouping t emselves
accordingly. He was left outside all t e groups, and could not even
persuade t e one all-emracing, ever ospitale C urc t at e
elonged eartily wit in er fold.

Wit all Erasmus' anxiety to demonstrate in words is entire
independence of t e rapidly organising reform parties and is
unswerving loyalty to t e papacy, is action during t ese critical
years was as far as possile from timidity or alf- eartedness. Of
t is no etter proof can e given t an t e repeated editions of is
Familiar Colloquies. T e Colloquies, like t e Adages, ave a istory
of t eir own. T ey were egun, proaly, as early as t e residence of
Erasmus in Paris,[166] aout t e year 1500, and consisted at first
of rief conversations on familiar sujects, arranged for t e use of
eginners in Latin.
[166] Adalert Horawitz, _Ueer die Colloquia des Erasmus von
Rotterdam_; in Raumer's _Historisc es Tasc enuc _, 1887, pp.
As years went on, t ese early experiments were extended, partly y
expansion, partly y addition. In 1523-24 appeared an edition,
practically complete, wit a c arming little dedication to t e
aut or's namesake, Jo n Erasmius Froen, t e eig t-year-old son
of t e pulis er. T is dedication, we ave a rig t to elieve,
represents fairly t e serious t oug t of Erasmus as to t e real
meaning and purpose of is ook.[167]
[167] i., 627.
T e Colloquies were written to instruct y amusing. T ey touc
upon every class of society and upon every vice and weakness of
uman nature. Some are sparkling wit umour, some are too plainly
didactic to e very amusing, and some, especially t e later ones,
are downrig t dull. As in t e Praise of Folly, t e sermon is eard
t roug all t e rus of words and no one of t ese tales is quite
wit out its moral lesson. T e sujects most welcome to Erasmus'
satire are of course t e extravagances of monks and sc oolmen and t e
superstitions of religion. We ave already quoted freely from some
of t e more important for t e knowledge of t e writer's own life. A
rief survey of one or two of t e more widely popular will indicate
t e great range of interest and t e keen uman desire w ic commended
t em to so large a circle of readers.
In T e Aot and t e Learned Lady we ave one of several proofs t at
Erasmus regarded t e education of women as desirale and profitale
to t e community. T e aot reproves t e lady ecause e finds Latin

ooks in er c amer. Frenc or German e could ear wit , ut not

"_Aot._ 'I ave sixty-two monks at ome, ut you will never
find a ook in my c amer.' _Magdalia._ 'T at's a fine lookout
for your monks.' _A._ 'I can stand ooks, ut not Latin ones.'
_Mag._ 'W y so?' _A._ 'Because t at tongue is not suited to
women.' _Mag._ 'I s ould like to know w y.' _A._ 'Because it
is far from elpful in maintaining t eir purity.' _Mag._ 'Do
t ose Frenc ooks, t en, full of idle tales, make for purity?'
_A._ 'T en t ere is anot er t ing.' _Mag._ 'Well, out wit it,
w atever it is.' _A._ 'T ey are safer from t e priests if t ey
know no Latin.' _Mag._ 'O ! ut t ere is least danger of all
from t at quarter according to your practice, for you do all you
can to keep from knowing Latin.' _A._ 'People in general are of
my mind ecause it is suc a rare and unusual t ing for a woman
to know Latin.' _Mag._ 'Don't talk to me of t e people, t e very
worst source of good actions--nor of custom, t e mistress of all
evils. Let us accustom ourselves to w at is good, t en w at was
formerly unusual will ecome usual, w at was rude will ecome
polis ed, and w at was unecoming will grow to e fitting.'
... _Mag._ 'W at t ink you of t e Virgin Mot er?' _A._ 'Most
ig ly.' _Mag._ 'Was s e not versed in ooks?' _A._ 'Quite so,
ut not in t ese ooks.' _Mag._ 'W at, t en, did s e use to
read?' _A._ 'T e Canonical Hours.' _Mag._ 'According to w at
form?' _A._ 'T at of t e Benedictine order.'"
T e Yout and t e Harlot rings us to per aps t e est illustration
of t at freedom of language w ic was t e most common c arge against
t e Colloquies. T e argument is one employed previously y t e Saxon
nun Roswit a in t e tent century in er comedy _Pap nutius_. An
edition of Roswit a ad een pulis ed at Nuremerg in 1501, so t at
Erasmus may well ave taken is model at first- and. T e conversation
is of t e slipperiest, and yet t e impression conveyed is not t at
of immoral or even of unmoral writing. It is simply t e aldest
"realism" of treatment, and t e issue is distinctly a moral one. As
in Roswit a t e erring woman is won to virtue y t e C ristian fait ,
so ere s e is reformed y arguments of a more practical sort. T e
dig at t e monks is not lacking. T e yout as een on a journey to
"_Sop ronius._ 'I journeyed wit an onest man and y is advice
I took wit me not a ottle ut a ook, t e New Testament
translated y Erasmus.' _Lucretia._ 'Erasmus! w y t ey say e
is a eretic and a alf!' _Sop ._ 'Has is name got into t is
place too?' _Luc._ 'No one is etter known ere.' _Sop ._ 'Have
you ever seen im?' _Luc._ 'Never; ut I s ould like to see
im. I ave eard so many ad t ings aout im.' _Sop ._ 'From
ad men, I dare say.' _Luc._ 'O , no! from most reverend men.'
_Sop ._ 'W o are t ey?' _Luc._ 'O ! it won't do to say.' _Sop ._
'W y not?' _Luc._ 'Because if you s ould la and t ey s ould
ear it, I s ould lose a great part of my gains.' _Sop ._ 'Don't
e afraid. I am mum as a stone.' _Luc._ 'Put down your ear.'
_Sop ._ 'Stupid! W y need we w isper w en we are alone? Doesn't
God ear us?... Well, y t e eternal God! you are a pious arlot
to elp along _Mendicants_ y your c arity!'"
T e Colloquies ecame t e especial oject of attack from all w o
cared to assail t e reputation of Erasmus. Typical was t e action
of t e Paris t eological triunal, t e Soronne, w ic in 1526

condemned t e ook as dangerous to t e morals of t e young, and worse

still as containing t e same errors as t e works of Arius, Wiclif,
t e Waldensians, and Lut er. In presenting t eir case to t e supreme
court, t e "Parlement" of Paris, for its action, t e t eologians
of t e Soronne review t e steps already taken y t e spiritual
aut orities toward t e suppression of t e Colloquies. T ey ad done
w at t ey could, ut now demand t e aid of t e temporal powers. King
Francis I. appears to ave opposed t e action of t e Parlement, and
it was not until 1528 t at t e University as a ody condemned t e
ook and forade its students to read it.
Equally unfavourale was Lut er's judgment of t e Colloquies. In is
Tale-Talk e refers frequently to t em as t e most offensive to im
of all Erasmus' writings.[168]
[168] Lut er's _Werke_, ed. Walc , xxii., 1612-1630.
"If I die I will forid my c ildren to read is Colloquies, for
e says and teac es t ere many a godless t ing, under fictitious
names, wit intent to assault t e C urc and t e C ristian
fait . He may laug and make fun of me and of ot er men, ut let
im not make fun of our Lord God!
"See now w at poison e scatters in is Colloquies among is
made-up people, and goes craftily at our yout to poison t em."
Anot er product of t e years of greatest party stress were t e Latin
Parap rases of t e New Testament ooks. No one of t e serious
works of Erasmus was so widely influential as t is. Erasmus egan
is work on t em immediately after t e first pulication of t e New
Testament in 1516, and continued it at intervals during t e next
seven or eig t years. T e timeliness of t e Parap rases is s own y
t eir immediate translation into t e common tongues. Erasmus imself
says t at t ey roug t im very little odium, ut aundant t anks.
In a preface addressed to t e "Pious Reader"[169] e makes an ample
and admirale defence of ringing t e Bile to t e people ot in t e
form of parap rases and of translations. "I greatly differ," e says,
"from t ose w o maintain t at t e laity and t e unlearned s ould e
kept from t e reading of t e sacred volumes, and t at none s ould e
admitted to t ese mysteries except t e few w o ave spent years over
t e p ilosop y of Aristotle and t e t eology of t e sc ools."
[169] vii., _ad init._
T ere are two ways to t is end: eit er all men must learn "t e t ree
tongues," or else t e Scriptures must e translated. Erasmus makes
t e somew at startling suggestion t at, as t e energy of t e Roman
princes ad compelled all t e world to speak Greek and Latin, merely
to maintain t eir temporal Empire, it was quite wit in t e ounds of
possiility for t e princes of C ristendom to compel all men to learn
Herew, Greek, and Latin t at t e eternal kingdom of C rist mig t e
spread over t e w ole eart . However, e realises t at t is is not
likely to appen very soon and meanw ile will e content if eac may
know t e Scripture in is own tongue:
"if t e farmer, as e olds t e ploug , s all sing to imself

somet ing from t e Psalms; if t e weaver, sitting at is we,

s all lig ten is toil wit a passage from t e Gospels. Let t e
sailor, as e olds t e rudder, repeat a Scripture verse, and
as t e mot er plies t e distaff, let a friend or relative read
aloud from t e sacred volume."
Our limits forid us to go in detail into t e several long and
itter controversies in w ic Erasmus found imself engaged wit
t e defenders of t e ancient fait . T ey egin wit t e pulication
of is New Testament and continue for twenty years wit little
interruption. T ey were wit out exception undertaken y unofficial
persons, representing t e governing powers of neit er C urc nor
State. It was Erasmus' constant oast t at all t e really important
elements of European life were on is side and t at t e attacks
upon im were only so many reflections upon t e ig est aut orities
t emselves. T ere is trut enoug in t is oast to make it evident
t at t ese controversies were a private matter etween imself and
is immediate opponents; ut it was plain also t at at any critical
moment t e powers t at were mig t e enlisted against im.
T e c arges w ic caused im most anxiety may e reduced to two.
First, t e accusation of sc olarly inaccuracy, and second, t e far
more difficult and wide-reac ing accusation of eresy wit all its
multitudinous meanings. As to t e former c arge of inaccurate
sc olars ip, Erasmus ad two forms of defence. Sometimes e admitted
it and soug t to explain it away y alleging asty work and
defending imself y readiness to accept correction and to prepare
new editions of t e faulty texts. He liked to represent imself as
a pioneer, reaking t e way for ot ers more learned t an imself
and, e would venture to ope, stimulated to etter t ings y is
example. Or, again, e would deny t e trut of t e criticism and
would t en proceed to demonstrate at great lengt and, wit all t e
amenities common to literary controversy in is day, to demolis t e
contentions of is opponent. In t ese discussions of purely literary
and sc olarly t emes, w ere is antagonists were really men of some
consideration, e kept is argument in t e main to a reasonaly ig
standard. W ere, owever, t ey seemed to im men of small account e
descends to unmeasured personal ause.
In t e ot er kind of controversy called out y is attacks upon
ignorant and vulgar superstitions or upon t e excesses of clerical
ause, is met od was somew at different. Here e was always ready
to repay slander y slander, to exaggerate t e personal element
ot in attack and defence, and especially to insist t at e was
asolutely sound in is doctrinal eliefs. To t e former class of
controversies elong notaly t at wit Edward Lee, later arc is op
of York, called out y t e early edition of t e New Testament, t at
wit Budus, w ic was a lieral give-and-take of s arp criticism
on purely literary matters, and t at wit t e Spaniard Stunica. To
t e latter class elong suc wranglings as is dealings wit Natalis
Bedda of Paris, Nic olas Egmund of Louvain, and Ger ardt of Nymwegen,
t e reformed preac er of Strassurg.
T is controversial literature gives us ut little insig t into t e
real t oug t of Erasmus. Its value for us is only in furnis ing us
wit evidence of is astonis ing cleverness in winding is way out of
difficulties and is immense command of t e language of vituperation.
Its study leaves one wit an unpleasant sense of powers diverted for
t e time from t eir most profitale exercise into issues w ic did
not tell wit any great effect upon t e final result of t e sc olar's

T e anxiety of Erasmus as to t e reception of is works egins to
s ow itself from aout t e year 1526 in is dealing wit t e person
and t e proale fate of Louis de Berquin. T e story of t is first
martyr to t e reformed fait in France reflects etter t an any ot er
episode t e course of events and ideas in t e early stages of t e
reformatory movement t ere. Berquin was a gentleman of Artois, a
man of lieral education, serious in is c aracter, and moved from
t e start to apply is learning to t e remedy of ovious auses in
t e clerical life. T roug Lefvre e was led to t e study of t e
Lut eran leaders and ecame convinced t at ere e ad found t e true
way to lierty and recovery from t e low condition of t e dominant
religion. Like Erasmus e attacked principally t ose errors and
auses w ic seemed to rest mainly upon ignorance and superstition
in t ose to w om t e world ad a rig t to look for learning and
enlig tenment. T e sc olars of t e Soronne, t e eads of t e Frenc
ecclesiastical faric and t e leaders of Frenc monasticism, were
at once alarmed. T ey egan, early in t e movement of t e reform,
to ring every possile pressure upon t e young, enlig tened, and
would-e lieral king to act promptly and wit decision against t ese
first t reatening demonstrations of w at t ey were ready instantly
to stamp as " eresy." For six years, from 1523 to 1529, Berquin was
sujected to one stage after anot er of a persecution w ic e was
too rave to avoid. His c ief offence in t e eyes of is t eological
persecutors was t at e ad studied and translated into Frenc , wit
"lasp emous" commentaries, several of t e most dangerous writings
of Erasmus and ot er alleged leaders of sedition. Twice arrested
and imprisoned, e was twice released y t e special order of t e
king, w o seems to ave taken is case very muc to eart. Meanw ile
were occurring t at series of un appy events,--t e Italian campaign
of 1525, t e capture of Francis I., t e treaty of Madrid, and t e
negotiations following it,--w ic were driving t e king inevitaly
into t e ands of t e Frenc clerical party. To save is kingdom and
is " onour" e was forced to make sacrifices, and a ready victim
was found in t is man, w o ad defied t e powers w ic were now
clamouring for a royal edict of persecution. T e king wit drew is
protection and Berquin died upon t e scaffold on t e 17t of April,
T e relations of Erasmus wit Berquin egan y a letter from t e
latter written in 1526 and expressing t e greatest admiration for t e
learning and services to true religion of t e man to w om e looked
up as is c ief example. He assures Erasmus t at t e main oject in
persecuting im ad een to t row suspicion upon Erasmus' own works;
ut t at e ad assured is judges t at if anyt ing in t ese works
seemed contrary to t e fait it was t e result of misunderstanding
or perversion of t e original text. He ex orts Erasmus to write,
not casually, as e as already done to Bedda, ut at lengt , wit
arguments and wit t e aut orities from Scripture, to refute t ese
T is letter of Berquin[170] is a nole and touc ing appeal. Not a
word of complaint or of fear for imself, t oug e ad just for t e
second time arely escaped from t e clutc es of enemies w o were
determined to destroy im. He appeals to Erasmus, not in is own
e alf, ut in e alf of t at trut w ic e found aove all in t e
writings of t e man e was glad to call is master.
[170] iii., 1713-F.

T e reply[171] was as rief and cold as could well e.

[171] iii., 884.
"I ave no dout t at you are acting wit t e est of
intentions, most learned Berquin, ut meanw ile you are ringing
upon me, w o am too eavily urdened already, a weig t of odium
y translating my ooks into t e common tongue and ringing t em
to t e knowledge of t eologians."
Two later letters[172] ave t e same tone of petulant self-interest
and cold indifference to t e fate w ic e predicts if Berquin does
not moderate is attacks.
[172] iii., 1132, 1133.
After Berquin's deat e wrote to Pirk eimer,[173] giving an account
of t e affair as e ad eard it, and added:
[173] iii., 1189-F.
"If e deserved t is, I am sorry; if e did not deserve it, I am
douly sorry. T e real facts in t e case are not quite clear to
me. I ad no acquaintance wit Berquin, except from is writings
and from t e reports of several persons.... I always feared t at
t ings would end wit im as t ey ave, and I never wrote to im
except to urge upon im to cease from contentions w ic could
only ave an evil end."
T e same story is repeated, wit more detail, in a letter to
Uten oven.[174]
[174] iii., 1206. We are fairly well informed as to Berquin
t roug Frenc sources, quoted, for example, y H. M. Baird,
History of t e Rise of t e Huguenots of France, 1879, i., 130.
T e account of Erasmus agrees strikingly wit t ese ot er
sources, ut it seems a little too muc to reproduce it wit all
its literary decoration as a istory of Berquin's trial, as is
done y Mr. Drummond and in Haag, _France Protestante_, s. v.
In t ese letters t ere is not a word of real sympat y wit t e fate
of a man w ose worst fault was t e pulication of Erasmus' own
writings! Not a word of onest admiration for is courage--only a
grudging admission t at e was an onest fellow, ut really too
ostinately determined upon ruining imself! Worst of all is t e
s ay pretence t at Erasmus ad not really looked into t e case of
Berquin and after all was not quite sure w et er e ad deserved is
punis ment or not. Of all t e triump s of t e Erasmian "If," none is
more complete or more significant t an t is.
For several years, from aout 1523 on, Erasmus ad een engaged in
personal controversy wit individual t eologians at Paris; ut it
was not until 1525 t at t e Soronne Faculty as a ody was roug t
to act in t e premises. A decree of t at year condemned certain
passages in t e translations of several of Erasmus' ooks. In 1526
anot er attack was made especially against t e Familiar Colloquies
and t e Parap rases of t e New Testament. T e former were definitely
pro iited to students w o were candidates for degrees. T e decree of
t e Faculty was arranged under t irty-two eadings, eac concerning

some special point of alleged divergence from t e true teac ing of

t e C urc . In is reply,[175] pulis ed in 1529, Erasmus takes up
t ese points one y one and fills over seventy printed folio pages
wit specific answers. As to t e style of is defence we are prepared
to anticipate it. His met od is precisely t at of Berquin,--to
declare t at e is true to t e real doctrine of t e Fat ers and
t at is critics--not, of course, t e learned Faculty itself--are
t ose w o are in error. How t ese c arges can really come from t e
Faculty as a w ole e cannot compre end, ut e proposes to appeal
from t e Faculty asleep to t e Faculty awake. He as made errors:
to err is uman. But w y condemn as error in im w at t e greatest
lig ts of t e C urc ave said wit out reproof? W en Augustine is
praising virginity e goes a little far in dispraise of marriage; is
it strange if Erasmus in defending marriage as seemed to ave too
little respect for virginity?
[175] _Desiderii Erasmi Declarationes ad Censuras Lutetiae_,
etc., _IX._, 813-954.
We are not for a moment to suppose t at t e real audience to
w ic t is reply was addressed was t e Faculty of Paris asleep or
awake; it was t e reading world. A more splendid advertisement
for t e Colloquies t an t is t eological prosecution could ardly
e imagined. Erasmus says[176] t at a certain Parisian pulis er,
upon t e rumour, "per aps started y t e pulis er imself," t at
t e Colloquies were aout to e condemned, got out an elegant
andy edition of twenty-four t ousand, and t at it was at once in
everyone's ands.
[176] iii., 1168-D.
In England, w ere Erasmus mig t ave expected to find is est
defenders and is most sympat etic readers, t e Colloquies were
condemned in t e same year (1526) as at Paris.
A work w ic roug t muc later reproac upon its aut or was t e
Institution of C ristian Marriage, written in 1526 and dedicated to
Queen Kat erine of England. Our interest in it is in t e earing
upon marriage of t e c anges in pulic sentiment wroug t y t e
Reformation; and especially in t at w ole great prolem of t e
relation etween marriage as t e foundation of uman society and
t e w ole monastic and priestly limitation of it. Erasmus reac es
t is point after a long and systematic review of t e canonical
regulations as to marriage. He examines first t e evil effect upon
society of t e entrance into t e monastic life of persons already
under t e oligations of marriage, a t ing w ic e says was never
favoured even in times most kindly disposed towards monasticism
itself unless wit full consent of t e ot er party.[177] T at Erasmus
ad not entire confidence even in t e supervision of marriage y t e
most responsile ecclesiastical aut orities is s own y a striking
passage[178] in w ic e fores adows t e principle of civil marriage:
[177] v., 646-D.
[178] v., 651-F.
"It would in great measure do away wit t e controversies t at
spring from words present and future, from marriage celerated
and marriage consummated, from signs, nods, and writings, if
t e eads of t e C urc would deign to decree t at no marriage

s ould e considered complete (_ratum_) until eac party, efore

special magistrates and witnesses, in clear words, soerly and
freely, s all declare is marriage to t e ot er party, and t at
t ese words s ould e preserved in writing."
T e great ody of t e essay is taken up wit admirale injunctions
as to t e conduct of married life and t e education of c ildren.
Erasmus avoids ere any consideration of w at was ecoming one of
t e urning questions of t e day, t e rig t of "reformed" monks or
priests to enter into lawful marriage, ut returns at t e very close
to t e relation etween marriage and t e clerical life. T e urden
of is t oug t ere is t e duty of parents and all concerned to make
sure t at t e yout proposing eit er to take orders or to ecome a
monk s all e quite clear as to is calling and perfectly free to
follow it or not.[179] T roug out t is very attractive dissertation
t ere is a noticeale calmness of style, joined, owever, wit
entire clearness and decision upon t e essential points. It is one
of t e est illustrations of Erasmus' lifelong insistance upon t e
ig er value of t e life of nature as compared wit any life of mere
[179] v., 724-A.
T at Erasmus' silence on t e question of clerical marriage was not
due to lack of t oug t on t e suject is clear from a letter to C.
Hedio, Lut eran preac er at Strassurg in 1524, two years efore t e
treatise on C ristian Marriage.[180]
[180] iii., 845-E.
"And yet efore all 'Papists'--as t ese people call t em--I
ave always freely declared t at marriage s ould not e denied
to priests w o s all e ordained in future, if t ey cannot e
continent, and I would say not ing else to t e pope imself;
not ecause I do not prefer continence, ut ecause I find
scarcely a man w o preserves is continence. Meanw ile w at use
is t ere of suc a swarm of priests? I never persuaded anyone to
marriage; ut neit er did I ever stand in t e way of anyone w o
wis ed to marry."
Erasmus recognises t e need of reform in every detail; e professes
agreement wit every view of t e reformers, ut e will not advocate
any specific action, ecause it will open up some new outlet for
uman frailty. To follow im would e to condemn t e world, once for
all, to opeless inactivity, simply ecause t e world's usiness must
e done y finite uman eings.
One naturally compares wit t is elaorate defence of natural and
wise living, in t e C ristian Marriage, anot er treatise also written
two years earlier, dedicated to t e sisters of a nunnery near
Cologne and called A Comparison of t e Virgin and t e Martyr.[181]
T e good ladies, it seems, ad frequently sent Erasmus presents of
confectionery and ad egged im to write somet ing for t em,--a very
pious desire, e says, ut a poor c oice of a man. He only wis es
t at e could find in t e fragrant stories of Holy Writ somet ing to
refres t eir minds as t eir little gifts ave refres ed is ody.
So e runs on wit a page or two of pretty fancies aout virginity
and t en, in equally fanciful strain, aout martyrdom. On t e w ole,
virginity as t e advantage.

[181] _Virginis et Martyris Comparatio_, v., 589-600.

Comparing t e spouse of C rist wit t e spouse of a mortal usand,
Erasmus dilates upon t e vast superiority of t e virgin state. If one
is not willing to elieve t is from t e evidence of learned men, let
"call as a witness any one of t ose w o are appily enoug
married and ask er to tell t e true istory of er marriage.
You will ear t ings t at will make you quite satisfied wit
your own way of life. T en just put efore yourself t e example
of t ose w o ave married un appily, of w om t ere is a vast
multitude, and t ink t at w at as appened to t em mig t ave
appened to you...."
T is was written at t e very time at w ic Erasmus was giving to
t e world t e completed text of is Colloquies! How s all we explain
t ese apparent contradictions? Precisely as we ave explained t e
account of t e monastic life in t e _De Contemptu Mundi_.[182]
Like t at earlier essay, t is too was a piece of literary display,
written, not to rouse opposition, ut out of a largely conventional
impulse. We need not question for a moment t e entire sincerity of
Erasmus in t is kind of composition, as far as it went. It was only
t e natural instinct of t e man to counteralance every opinion e
uttered and every effect e produced y putting fort somet ing on
t e ot er side of t e same question--for every question as two
sides. T ere were doutless purely conducted monasteries, and Erasmus
was ound to elieve t at t e pleasant ladies w o were kind enoug
to feed im wit candy were examples to t eir kind. To suppose,
owever, t at t e p rases of ecstatic spiritual joy ere offered came
from very deep down in is eart of earts would place t e spirit of
Erasmus in closer kins ip wit Bernard and Kempis t an we s ould
quite like to put it.
[182] See p. 20.
During precisely t ese years, from 1522 to 1529, we ave a great
numer of treatises, generally s ort, w ic illustrate t is
more devotional and spiritual p ase of is literary activity. A
c aracteristic specimen is t e _Modus Orandi Deum_, "On t e True
Way of Prayer,"[183] addressed to Gerome Lasco, a Polis aron
and rot er of t e etter-known Jo n Lasco. T is is a systematic
inquiry into t e nature, t e purpose, and t e limitations of
C ristian prayer. It examines t e questions: to w om we may pray,
w at we may properly pray for, and ow our prayers s ould e framed.
In regard to t e first question, Erasmus discusses wit great
skill some of t e most delicate prolems of is day. He examines
aut orities on ot sides as to t e propriety of prayers to C rist
and concludes:
[183] v., 1099-1132.
"After diligently searc ing t e sacred volumes, and supported
y t e aut ority of our fat ers, I do not esitate to call t e
Son of God true God and to direct my prayers to im, not wit
t e idea t at t e Son could give w at t e Fat er may deny, ut
ecause I am persuaded t at t e Son wills t e same and can do
t e same as t e Fat er wills and can do;--t oug t e Fat er is
aut or and source of all t ings."

More difficult was t e question of t e invocation of saints. Erasmus

works is way up to a conclusion y a series of carefully prepared
stages. True, we oug t to affirm dogmatically only suc t ings as
are plainly declared in t e Holy Scriptures; ut we oug t to respect
everyt ing t at as een anded down wit t e approval of pious men.
Now we know t at t e invocation of saints was practised y very early
ort odox C ristians, t erefore, w ile we cannot say t at it is a
necessary article of fait , we may well ear wit it. We know t at
t e saints w en on eart were called upon to pray for ot er men; w y
suppose t em less capale of praying for us now t at t ey dwell wit
God in eaven?
As to t e proper ojects of prayer Erasmus makes a
analysis,[184] ut rings everyt ing round finally
t e Lord's Prayer. T e met od is almost sc olastic
its logical division, ut it is eminently sensile
its content.

very elaorate
to t e standard of
in its system and
and practical in

[184] v., 1122-F.

"We s ould pray for not ing t at cannot e referred to one
of t e seven divisions of t e Lord's Prayer. W atever we may
ask for w ic pertains to t e glory of God, elongs to t e
first clause: 'Hallowed e t y name.' W atever refers to t e
spread and realisation of t e Gospel, elongs to t e second:
'T y kingdom come'; w atever to t e oservance of t e divine
teac ing, to t e t ird: 'T y will e done,'" and so on.
To illustrate t e folly of asurd distinctions as to w ic divinities
mig t attend to w ic prayers, e tells a story of a certain man
at Louvain, simple rat er t an impious, w o, after e ad made is
devotions, used to run aout among t e various altars, saluting t e
saints for w om e ad an especial liking, and saying: "T is is
yours, St. Barara," and "Take t is to yourself, St. Roc us," as if
e feared t at t e saints would fall to fig ting over t e special
prayers elonging to eac .
A very modern, almost "evangelical" touc is found in a c apter on
extempore prayer.
"It would e very desirale if t e w ole service of religion,
ymns, instruction, and prayer, could e conducted in t e
language of t e people, as was formerly t e case, and t at all
s ould e so distinctly and clearly spoken t at it s ould e
understood y all present. But t ere are many t ings in life
rat er to e desired t an oped for. It is to e wis ed t at
pulic wors ip s ould not e too prolonged, for t ere is not ing
worse t an a surplus of good t ings, and t at it s ould e
t e same among all peoples of t e C ristian name. Nowadays,
w at diversities in almost every c urc ! nay, w at pains ave
een taken t at one s ould not agree wit t e ot er! Wit w at
tedious c ants and prayers are some monks now urdened, and wit
w at joy do t ey escape from t eir dreary performance!"
We ave ere an almost complete survey of t e outward forms of t e
religious life reduced to t e simple standard of C ristian common
sense. As a type of Erasmus' activity at t is time not ing can serve
us etter. He was fulfilling is mission as a preac er of simple
rig teousness, and no clamours of criticism on t e one side or t e
ot er of t e great conflict raging aout im could drive im for a

moment from is fundamental position. He watc ed all t e stages of

t at struggle and drew out of t e views of t e several parties t e
text for is continuous comment upon men and t ings. He eld imself,
as e said, _integer_, "uncompromised," ut e s ows w ere is real
feeling was. T e ruling order mig t get w at comfort it could out
of t e _Modus Orandi_ and similar treatises, ut if t e suggestions
t erein contained could ave een carried out, a somet ing very
like t e Protestant c urc es would ave resulted. T e aut ority of
Scripture as t e standard of religious life; t e Lord's Prayer as
t e all-sufficient test of t e forms of wors ip; t e laity as t e
essential element of t e C ristian community; t e common language
as t e only proper medium of communication in religious matters; a
wors ip of secondary powers so enfeeled y t e limits of common
sense t at it would surely fall away of itself--all t is makes a
programme t at is not ing less t an Protestant in its essence.
Stripped of its academic decorations and its elaorate alancing of
values, t is was a reforming tract of t e first importance.
Of course Erasmus used all t e trimming portions, ot of t is and of
all similar writings, to demonstrate is loyalty to tradition, ut
t e modern reader, like t e "Lut eran" of t at day, must see t roug
t ese to t e real t oug t eneat and must s are is impatience t at
t e man w o could go so far could not e roug t to take a step
fart er and carry out t ese suggestions--or at least elp ot ers to
carry t em out--into definite constructive action. T e reply must
always e t at t e world as no rig t to demand of any man w at is
not is to give.
So in alternations of calm religious reflection and composition wit
violent controversial encounters, of painstaking sc olarly editing
wit keenest satirical writing, t e residence of t e aging sc olar at
Basel drew to its end.

In t e year 1529 Erasmus left Basel and went to Freiurg in t e

Breisgau. W y e left Basel and w y e c ose Freiurg as is
residence are questions we can ardly ope to answer satisfactorily,
since t ey involve t at w ole very difficult suject of is personal
equation, to w ic we ave not yet discovered any sufficient key.
Per aps we may say t is: t at Basel ad een an attractive residence
for im ecause its political and religious condition corresponded
pretty accurately to is own state of mind. T e spirit of t e place
was eminently one of toleration and good feeling. Even t e violent
doctrines of t e extreme radical party, t e Anaaptists and all t eir
kin, were eard wit patience, ut were eld in c eck and not allowed
to influence pulic action. If we could trust t e extravagant eulogy
common just after is deat [185] we s ould ave to t ink of Erasmus
living at Basel as a kind of intellectual monarc , to w om
[185] i., _ad init._ _Epitap ia in Laudem Erasmi._
"t ere came not alone from Spain and France, ut from t e
fart est limits of t e w ole eart , not merely men of nole
irt ut also t e greatest monarc s of t e world, popes,
emperors, kings, cardinals, is ops, arc is ops, dukes,
c ieftains, arons, and countless princes, rulers, magnates, and
governors of various degree, etc."
T is is ovious nonsense; ut we gain enoug glimpses at is manner

of life at Basel to make us sure t at Erasmus lived t ere in onour,

wit every opportunity for congenial work and for association wit
men of is own kind. His ordinary aits were t ose of a soer
sc olar w o was compelled y t e natural demands of is profession
and y t e limitations of feele ealt to keep strictly wit in t e
limits of careful and quiet living. He seems to ave surrounded
imself wit young men, tale-oarders, w o came to im as t e
adviser of t eir studies. His relation to t em is very prettily
sketc ed in a letter[186] to a young Frisian, one Haio Caminga, w o
ad applied for a place at is tale. He gives t e young man fair
warning t at e will find a tale set wit learned conversation
rat er t an wit c oice delicacies,--as far from luxury as t e tale
of Pyt agoras or Diogenes. T e great productivity of t is period
would of itself e sufficient evidence of a regular and quiet life.
Nor need we dout t at a great many visitors were led to Basel y
curiosity or sympat y to make t e personal acquaintance of t e famous
sc olar.
[186] iii., 1128.
One feels at once t at t is was just t e atmosp ere for Erasmus.
His only real grievance at Basel seems to ave een is dread t at
e mig t e eld accountale for t e opinions of someone wit w om
e did not entirely agree. In t e course of time, owever, t is
condition of unstale equilirium grew more and more untenale. T e
actual "Reformation" of t e place could not e averted, and rat er
t an remain in a distinctly Protestant community Erasmus roke off
all is appy associations and wandered away again. He takes infinite
pains to assure everyone t at e was not driven away, t at e went
openly and wit t e good will of all concerned. His account of t e
religious revolution s ows t at it was a very temperate kind of
revolution indeed. His friendly feelings are neatly expressed in a
it of verse w ic e says e jotted down as e was entering is oat
to depart.
"_Jam, Basilea, vale, qua non urs altera multis
Annis ex iuit gratius ospitium.
Hinc precor, omnia lta tii, simul illud, Erasmo
Hospes uti ne unquam tristior adveniat._"
"And now, fair Basel, fare t ee well!
T ese many years to me a ost most dear.
All joys e t ine! and may Erasmus find
A ome as appy as t ou gav'st im ere."
At Freiurg e was well received y t e magistracy and given a
sufficiently splendid lodging in an unfinis ed palace of t e Emperor
Maximilian. He as, of course, douts aout is ealt , ut t inks e
will stay a year, unless e is driven away y wars. In fact e kept
pretty well until t e spring of 1530, w en e was attacked y a new
and painful development of t e disease from w ic e ad so long een
T e references to t is illness of 1530 occur generally in connection
wit some allusion to t e great Diet of Augsurg in t at year.
Erasmus says t at e was asked to go to t is Diet y many leading
men, ut expressly states t at e was not asked y t e emperor. His
illness gave im an excuse for not going. He says t at e could
ave done no good at Augsurg and we certainly need no assurance of
is to make t is quite clear to us. By 1530 affairs ad moved on

far eyond t e point w ere t e only advice e ad ever ad to give,

namely "e good and wise, and all our troules will end at once,"
could e of any service. In t e years from 1525 to 1529 t e w ole
Nort of Germany ad ecome welded into a solid mass of resistance
to t e Roman Cat olic system. T e Lut eran Reformation ad passed t e
stage of negative criticism and ad entered upon t at of constructive
Once more we ave to ask: W ere was t ere room for poor Erasmus?
It was a pleasant fiction for im, in is comfortale quarters at
Freiurg, to imagine t at e was really wanted at Augsurg, ut w o
in t e world could ave wanted im? T e time for is "ifs" and "uts"
was past and t e moment ad come w en men were ready to set all t ey
eld dear upon t e azard of a doutful war. T e Diet at Augsurg
oeyed t e emperor and renewed t e formal condemnation of Lut er and
is works. T e Protestant princes promptly replied y t e League of
Sc malkalden. T eir attitude was simply one of readiness, not of
aggression. For t e time it answered, and delayed t e actual outreak
of ostilities until long after t e deat of Erasmus.
It is evident t at Erasmus ad little fait in t e Diet. He writes to
Jo n Rinckius[187]:
[187] iii., 1299-B-D.
"Friends ave written me w at is going on at t e Diet. Certain
main propositions ave een made: First, t at t e Germans s all
furnis troops against t e Turks. Second, t at t e differences
of doctrine s all e remedied, if possile, wit out loods ed.
T ird, t at t e complaints of t ose w o feel t emselves wronged
s all e eard. To accomplis all t is an ecumenical council of
t ree years would ardly suffice. W at will e t e issue I know
not. Unless God takes a and in t e game, I see no way out of
it. If t e final decision is not agreed to y all t e provinces,
t e end will e revolution."
T en follows a minute description of is recent illness and again
allusions to is personal troules.
"I ave now for some time een anxious to go ence to some ot er
place. T is town is fine enoug , ut not very populous, remote
from a river, well suited for study, an awfully dear place, t e
people not particularly ospitale, t ey say, t oug so far
no one as given me any great annoyance. But I see now ere a
quiet aven. I s all ave to old out ere until t e outcome
of t e Diet is known. Some are predicting t at action will e
taken first aout pecuniary urdens, and t at t e question of
eresy will e postponed to a general council, and t at t e
priests, is ops, monks, and aots w o ave een turned out and
plundered will e put off wit words."
It is evident t at Erasmus saw clearly t e danger of t e imperial
position. His s rewd sense told im t at C arles was very far from
grasping t e real extent of t e German resistance. He writes to
[188] iii., 1303-A.
"If t e emperor is merely frig tening is opponents y t reats,
I can only applaud is foret oug t; ut if e is really seeking

a war, I do not want to e a ird of evil omen, ut my mind

s udders as often as I look at t e condition of t ings w ic I
t ink will appear if war reaks out. T is troule is very widely
spread. I know t at t e emperor as great power; ut not all
nations recognise is aut ority. Even t e Germans recognise it
on certain conditions, so t at t ey rat er rule t an oey; for
t ey prefer to command rat er t an e suservient. Besides it
is evident t at t e emperor's lands are greatly ex austed y
continual military expeditions. T e flame of war is just now
stirred up in Friesland; its prince is said to ave professed
t e Gospel of Lut er. Many states etween t e Eastern countries
and Denmark are in t e same condition and t e c ain of evils
stretc es from t ere as far as Switzerland.
"If t e sects could e tolerated under certain conditions
(as t e Bo emians pretend), it would, I admit, e a grievous
misfortune, ut one more endurale t an war. In t is condition
of t ings t ere is now ere I would rat er e t an in Italy, ut
t e fates will ave it ot erwise."
No more clever summary of t e situation t an t is can e imagined;
and yet t e only practical suggestion in it, t at some principle of
toleration for t e sects mig t e discovered is a complete denial of
everyt ing for w ic Erasmus pretended to stand. It would ave een a
recognition of t e rig t of revolution, and t at was t e one orror
w ic aunted all is dreams.
Indeed it was t e irony of fate t at t e man w o ad spent is early
man ood in open attacks upon t e Roman system, and is maturer years
in trying to make is peace wit Rome, s ould now in is old age
find is really virulent critics on t e side of t e ancient fait .
T e "sects," as e always contemptuously called t em, were quite
content wit t e actual service e ad done t em and were only too
eager to claim im for t eir own. T e one ort odox fold, in w ic e
steadfastly protested e elonged, was continually producing men w o
made is life a urden wit t eir reproac es.
As long as t e Diet at Augsurg lasted, Erasmus continued to assure
is correspondents t at e was under t e orders of t e emperor not to
leave Freiurg as e ad intended to do. T en t e winter egan and
wit it t e ravages of t e plague, "_nova lues_, formerly peculiar to
Britain, ut suddenly spreading over all nations." W y e s ould ave
een detained at Freiurg against is will e gives no intimation,
and, indeed, t e w ole story, appearing in letter after letter, seems
to s ow only is annual restlessness and desire to say w y e did
not do somet ing different from w at e was doing. At one moment
e t inks e must go to France to get some wine. T ey say it is a
dreadful t ing to die of unger, ut e really elieves it is worse
to die of t irst. He really must get some drinkale wine.
During t e summer of 1531 e went so far as to write to t e
magistrates of Besanon, saying t at even efore leaving Basel e ad
t oug t of moving to t eir city and now w en Freiurg is eginning to
e a dangerous place, is t oug ts are turning t it er again.
Freiurg was plainly growing less attractive--or, let us say, was
furnis ing more and more occasions of complaint. He ad spent nearly
two years in t e aandoned palace of Maximilian wit out knowing, if
we may elieve is own story, w et er e was t e guest of t e city,
or w et er e was iring t e ouse w olly or in part, or, if e

was iring it, w o is landlord was or w at e was to pay. W en,

after two years, e was called upon to move at t e end of t ree
mont s and to pay ack rent for a year and a alf, e affects to e
overw elmed wit surprise and indignation, and writes a two-column
letter to t e Provost of C ur, at t e far east end of Switzerland,
to explain.[189] T e result was t at e took t e asty, and, as it
seems to ave appeared to imself, somew at asurd step of uying a
ouse. He naturally egins t e letter, in w ic e tells t is news to
Jo n Rinckius, wit an enumeration of t e disagreeales at Freiurg
and ends it y declaring t at t e ouse s all not keep im t ere if
t ings go as e wis es. His account of t e affair may serve us as an
illustration of t e unconquerale umour wit w ic e faced life to
t e last.[190]
[189] iii., 1426-E.
[190] iii., 1418-D.
"But now ere is somet ing for you to laug at. If anyone s ould
tell you t at Erasmus, now nearly seventy, ad taken a wife,
wouldn't you make t e sign of t e cross t ree or four times
over? I know you would, and small lame to you. Now my dear
Rinckius, I ave done a t ing no less difficult and urdensome
and quite as foreign to my tastes and aits. I ave oug t a
ouse, a fine one enoug , ut at a very unfair price. W o s all
now despair of seeing rivers turn aout and run up- ill, w en
Erasmus, w o all is life as made everyt ing give place to
learned leisure, as ecome a argain-driver, a uyer, a giver
of mortgages, a uilder and, in place of t e Muses, is now
dealing wit carpenters and workers in iron, in stone, and in
glass. T ese cares, my dear Rinckius, w ic my soul as always
a orred, ave just aout ored me to deat . So far I am a
stranger in my own ouse, for, t oug it is spacious enoug ,
t ere is not a nest in it w ere I can safely trust my poor ody.
One c amer I ave uilt wit an open fireplace and ave oarded
it, floor and sides, ut on account of t e plastering I ave not
yet dared to trust myself in it."
Five weeks later e writes[191]:
[191] iii., 1419-F.
"T is ouse I ave oug t makes me no end of troule; and yet
t ere is not a place in t e w ole of it suited to my ody."
T e iograp er of Erasmus is tempted to draw a somew at pat etic
picture of is last years; an aged man, roken wit pain and
disappointment, rejected y all parties, wit out influence
in t e world, living under continual fear of some unforeseen
disaster,--t ese form, indeed, t e elements for a sufficiently
mournful description. And yet t e end of Erasmus' course was suc
as e ad een delierately planning for imself all is life long.
Isolation from all t e various groupings of men upon great pulic
questions ad een is avowed ideal, and e ad reac ed it. He ad
never aimed to form a "sc ool" and e left no followers e ind im.
On t e ot er and, is activities were practically unc ecked y
advancing years. His intellectual output during is residence at

Freiurg was ardly inferior eit er in quantity or quality to t at

of any earlier period of equal lengt . His correspondence falls off
somew at in volume, ut its style is as fres and t e variety
of persons to w om it is addressed continues as great as ever.
New friends take t e place of t ose e as lost, and is personal
p ilosop y, always a c eerful one, remains to comfort im to t e
last. He consoles imself y t e friends ip of individuals against
t e slig ts of parties and t eir leaders.
T e only falling off in Erasmus' productivity during t e years from
1530 to 1535 is in t e quality of originality. We are no longer
to expect a Praise of Folly or a new volume of Colloquies; ut we
can only marvel at t e vitality still evident in everyt ing t at
comes from is restless pen. His umour, unconquered y t e growing
weaknesses of is fles , flas es out wit almost its old-time
rilliancy. His industry seems undiminis ed. He is seldom wit out a
piece of editorial work, and e is constantly eing asked to write
dedications for works edited y ot ers.
In 1532 e pulis ed is _Apop t egmata_ or Sayings of t e
Ancients,[192] a work in some ways similar to t e Adages, ut s owing
far less of t e mac inery of sc olars ip. T ese are pleasant little
stories, generally told in a few lines in anecdote form and designed
to carry some moral lesson. T ey are arranged in groups under t e
name of t e principal person mentioned as, for example, _Socratica_,
Diogenes Cynicus, P ilip of Macedon, Demost enes, and so fort .
Doutless t e material for t is collection ad long een gat ering,
ut t e mere arrangement and revision of it was a work to tax
severely t e patience and endurance of a man so enfeeled y p ysical
troules as was Erasmus in 1532.
[192] _Apop t egmata lepideque dicta principum, p ilosop orum ac
diversi generis ominum_, etc., iv., 93-380.
A little treatise of 1533 on Preparation for Deat [193] is
interesting c iefly for t e t ings it does not say. Its emp asis
t roug out is on t e necessity of a C ristian life as t e true
preparation for a C ristian deat . T e very essence of Protestantism,
t e direct dealing of t e uman soul wit its God, may e found ere.
Protest as Erasmus mig t is devotion to t e forms of t e C urc ,
w en e wrote t is essay e was giving more aid and comfort to t e
enemy t an if e ad gone over to im wit all is arms in is ands.
Of course e explains away as muc of t e clearness of is statement
as e can, ut t e words remain and is own practice went far to
confirm t em. He emp asises at every turn t e duty of respect for
traditions, ut no man in t e year 1533 could write as e does ere
of t e nature of sacraments wit out knowing ow is words would e
interpreted. If t e sacraments were, even _quodammodo_, "symols" of
t e divine good will to men, t en t e w ole ojective, or, to speak
tec nically, t e "_opus operatum_" t eory of t e sacramental system
was roug t in question, and men would not stop until t ey ad pus ed
t is question to its rational issue. Here as elsew ere, if we would
estimate t e service of Erasmus to t e Reformation, we must try to
feel out of t e windings of is r etoric t e impression e wis ed
to leave uppermost in t e reader's mind, and as to t at we can
ardly esitate. Even a devout Cat olic could not read carefully t is
appeal to t e essentials of religion wit out feeling a diminis ed
sense of t e value of forms, and a wavering mind could ardly fail
to e carried over pretty far towards t e conclusion t at forms so
dangerous as t ese were etter reformed out of existence.

[193] _Lier quomodo se quisque deeat prparare ad mortem_, v.,

T e most important work of t e Freiurg period was t e great
treatise on t e C ristian minister, to w ic Erasmus gave t e
title of _Ecclesiastes_, or T e Gospel Preac er (_concionator
evangelicus_). In its printed form t e _Ecclesiastes_ fills over one
undred and sixty folio pages and would make more t an two volumes
as large as t is present one. Of all t e evils in t e existing
c urc system, none ad een more evident since t e eig t of t e
Middle Ages t an t e neglect of preac ing. T e very first effort
of t e organised Lut eran party ad een to restore t e rig t
alance etween t e sacramental and t e moral aspects of c urc
administration y emp asising t e preac ing and diminis ing t e
importance of all sacramental oservances. And t is is precisely
t e position of Erasmus. He egins wit a careful definition of t e
C urc (_ecclesia_) as t e assemly (_concio_) of C ristians. C rist
is t e great preac er and every ot er _ecclesiastes_ is only is
representative and erald. T e ig est function of t e preac er is
t at of teac ing. At first t e is ops were t e sole teac ers; now
t e teac ing as passed to priests and monks, t oug it is a function
far surpassing t e dignity of kings.
As a model of t e complete is op Erasmus gives a very eautiful
description of War am, dwelling especially upon is great efficiency
in a vast variety of duties, an efficiency made possile only y t e
strictest frugality of life and t e rigid exclusion of all luxury and
idle amusement.
T is rief notice of t e _Ecclesiastes_ concludes our review of t e
writings of Erasmus, and t is seems t e fitting place to note w at
was t e final judgment upon t em of t at C urc to w ic e declared
imself devoted and from w ose teac ings e insisted e ad never
departed y so muc as a air's readt . It was not until t e wave of
t e Cat olic Reaction ad egun to rise into a furious torrent t at
a definite policy of disapproval of Erasmus on t e part of t e Roman
aut orities took t e place of t e former leniency. Lists of ooks t e
reading of w ic was pro iited to good C ristians were pulis ed
in many parts of Europe y sovereigns, universities, inquisitors,
or commissions from 1524 on.[194] Suc lists were generally called
"Catalogues." T e papacy as suc took no part in t is process until
t e time of t e Council of Trent. T e earliest papal list or "Index"
was pulis ed y Paul IV. in 1559. It was arranged in t ree classes,
t e first containing t e names of aut ors w o were, as it were,
eretics y intention (_ex professo_), and all of w ose writings
were condemned, no matter w et er t ey ad any reference to religion
or not. In t e second class were names of aut ors some of w ose
writings ad een s own to tend towards eresy or t e superstitions
of magic, etc. T e t ird class comprised t e titles of ooks,
generally y anonymous writers, w ic contained specially dangerous
[194] F. H. Reusc , _Der Index der verotenen Bc er_, 1883, i.,
In t is first papal Index Erasmus takes a place of extraordinary
prominence. Not only was e placed in t e first class, ut a special
clause was added to is name: "wit all is commentaries, notes,
_sc olia_, dialogues, letters, censures, translations, ooks, and

writings, even w en t ey contain not ing against religion or aout

religion." T e Index of Paul IV. was, owever, y no means generally
accepted y t e people of Europe. In many countries it was flatly
rejected. T e Council of Trent at its final session (1562-1563) took
up t e matter and appointed a commission to revise t e ars est
clauses. T e result of t is revision appears in t e Index of Pius
IV. in 1564. T ere Erasmus as een dropped from t e first class
and in t e second appear only a few of is most doutful works, t e
Colloquies, Praise of Folly, C ristian Marriage, and one or two
ot ers. In 1590 Sixtus V. replaced im in t e first class, and in
1596 Clement VIII. restored im again to t e conditions of t e Index
of Trent.
T us t e fate of Erasmus after deat was very muc w at it ad een
in is life. As onest Duke Frederick ad said: "One never knows ow
to take im." T e ig est aut ority could not quite determine w et er
e was a t oroug -going eretic or only eretical "nort -nort -west."
In t e mont of August, 1535, after a residence of six usy years
at Freiurg, Erasmus returned to Basel. Once more, and for t e last
time, e as to account for a c ange of residence. At Freiurg e
ad een continually complaining of t e place, is quarters, and
t e people; yet e says e ad no fixed intention of leaving t ere
permanently. He ad een giving matter to t e press during t ese
six years wit out any special difficulty, ut suddenly e discovers
t at is _Ecclesiastes_ cannot e properly printed at Basel wit out
is presence. He as suffered so muc , e writes to t e is op of
Cracow,[195] t at e prefers to try a c ange of air even at t e risk
of deat . He was carried in a covered carriage, "made for women,"
to Basel, "a ealt ful and pleasant city, w ose ospitality I ave
enjoyed for many years. T ere, in expectation of my coming, a room
suited to my needs ad een prepared y my friends."
[195] iii., 1511-C.
It is marvellous ow t e permanent instincts of is life assert
t emselves to t e last. In Octoer, 1535, e writes to a magistrate
of Besanon:
"Almost incredile as it seems, I ave left my nest and flown
it er, meaning to fly to you w en I s all ave recovered my
strengt . T e wintry Septemer as compelled me to cast anc or
ere and so we s all ave to wait for t e swallows. T e pope
wants to gold-plate me w et er I will or no, and as offered me
t e provosts ip of Deventer now t at t e arpies are all got rid
of. But I am determined, t oug ten provosts ips were offered
me, not to take one of t em.... S all I, a dying man, accept
urdens w ic I ave always refused?"
Just as e arrived at Basel e ad written:
"W at as appened in England to Fis er and More, a pair of men,
t an w om England never ad a etter or a olier, you will learn
from t e fragment of a letter w ic I send you. In More I seem
myself to ave peris ed, so completely was t ere, as Pyt agoras
as it, ut one soul to ot of us. Suc are t e tides of uman
It is pleasant to elieve t at t e last days of Erasmus were c eered
y t e t oug t t at is protestations of fidelity to t e Roman

institution were not w olly unrewarded, t oug , as e says, t ere

were still men at Rome w o were doing t eir est to lacken is fame.
He ad welcomed t e election of Paul III. in muc t e same language
as e ad employed in regard to Leo X., Hadrian VI., and Clement
VII. He wrote to im at once, ut we ave, unfortunately, only t e
rief reply of t e pope. It is a very amiale and appreciative note,
recognising t e value of Erasmus' services and expressing entire
confidence in t eir continuance. It is quite in armony wit is
w ole career t at t ese congratulations of t e pope s ould ave
come to im in Basel, now t oroug ly converted into a Protestant
community, and in t e midst of friends t e most tried and true e
ad ever ad, all of t em Protestants, ut all willing to forget
differences in t eir common regard for t e dying sc olar.
We are not well informed as to t e end of Erasmus' life. T e last
letter in t e collection of Le Clerc, per aps t e last e ever wrote,
is to is old friend Goclenius at Louvain, under date of June 28,
1536. He is among fait ful friends, etter friends t an e ad at
Freiurg, "ut on account of differences in doctrine I would rat er
end my life elsew ere. Would t at Braant were nearer!" Again e
repeats is declaration t at e came to Basel only for a c ange of
air and was intending to go elsew ere as soon as e felt etter. T e
ruling passion was strong upon im even to is deat .
T e story of is last days comes to us t roug t e excellent Beatus
R enanus, is devoted friend and admirer. T e winter roug t on
a terrile attack of gout, succeeded in t e early summer y a
continuous dysentery w ic proved incurale. In spite of pain and
weakness e never lost a moment's opportunity of work, t e witness
w ereof is t e treatise _De Puritate Ecclesi_ and t e edition of
Origen. He was in t e ouse of t e son of is old friend Froen, t e
intimates of is earlier residence were all aout im, and evidently
were glad and proud to ave im again in t eir midst.
We ave no suggestion, in t e eleven mont s of is stay at Basel,
of any personal dealings wit t e Roman clergy, nor of t e presence
of any minister of religion at is deat -ed. He ad lived a
cosmopolitan of t e eart ; e died, so far as we know, a cosmopolitan
of t e world to come--a C ristian man trusting for is future to t e
simple fait in rig t doing and straig t t inking w ic ad really
een is creed t roug life. His deat occurred on t e 12t of July,
1536. Protestant Basel claimed as er own t e man w o ad turned is
ack on er w en s e was working t roug er own religious prolem,
ut w o ad after all een drawn to er again y t e sutle ties of a
sympat y e could not or would not openly acknowledge.
"How great was t e pulic grief," says Beatus, "was s own y t e
t rong of people to take t eir last look at t e departed. He was
orne on t e s oulders of students to t e cat edral and t ere
near t e steps w ic lead up to t e c oir, on t e left side of
t e c urc , y t e c apel of t e Blessed Virgin, was onouraly
laid to rest. In t e funeral procession walked t e c ief
magistrate and many memers of t e council. Of t e professors
and students of t e University not one was asent."
T e impression of Beatus' narration is confirmed y a letter[196] of
t e Leipzig p ysician, Heinric Stromer, written immediately after
t e deat of Erasmus to George Spalatin. He adds:
[196] Adalert Horawitz, _Erasmiana_; in Sitzungseric te der

Wiener Akademie der Wissensc aften, xcv., 608.

"T e great sc olar was completely asored in restoring t e
Greek text of Origen, so t at t oug is illness was extremely
painful, e would not give up till deat itself wrested t e pen
from is and. His last words on eart , spoken in t e midst of
is eavy groaning, were t ese: 'O , Jesus C rist, Son of God,
ave mercy upon me! I will sing of t e mercy of God and of is
judgment.' And t erein you can see t e truly C ristian spirit of
t e man."
T e last will of Erasmus, made in due form on t e 12t of Feruary,
1536, s ows im to ave een possessed of a comfortale property. He
appoints Boniface Amerac general executor of all is estate. He
gives sustantial legacies to several friends and servants, provides
for t e sale of is lirary to Jo n Lasco, and finally directs is
executor to give t e remainder to poor and infirm persons, especially
to provide dowries for poor girls and to elp young men of good
Expressions of grief and reverence for t e great sc olar came from
t e men of all parties w o could t ink of im as t e prince of
learning and t e advocate of rig t living. Only t ose w o could not
forgive im is refusal to enter t e ranks of any party failed to do
onour to is memory.

Let us ask once more in conclusion w at was, precisely, t e

contriution of t is man to t e work of t e Reformation. If y
"Reformation" we mean only t e work w ic Lut er elieved imself
to e doing, we must limit our answer to t e somew at scanty
acknowledgment e was ready to make of is indetedness to Erasmus
as a sc olar. But we ave learned t at Lut er's own conception of
t e Reformation movement was a very narrow and inadequate one. He
elieved it to e limited to a purely religious revival on t e asis
of a true understanding of Scripture. In reality it was t e w ole
great revolt of t e uman mind against aritrary and conventional
limitations, and it is only w en we study it in t is lig t t at we
can measure t e influence of Erasmus upon it. First and most
important was is insistence, egun in t e Enc iridion and continued
even t roug t e _Ecclesiastes_, upon t e principle of a sound, sane,
reasonale individual judgment, not in opposition to t e prevailing
aut ority of tradition, ut in interpretation of it. To e sure t is
was no asolutely new t ing in t e world. It ad een efore men's
minds since t e days of Petrarc , ut it ad never efore found so
many-sided and so consistent an expression in t e Nort . It ad taken
t ree generations since Petrarc for t e slower mind of t e nort ern
peoples to ripen to t e point of receiving t is idea. T ey took it
now from Erasmus wit ent usiasm. It came to t em in is satire in
suc form t at t e umlest reader could understand it. It spoke
to t em in is serious treatises in language w ic appealed to t e
sc olar at once y its literary finis and y its enormous learning
and seriousness. T e private judgment of t e individual is really, no
matter ow concealed, t e triunal to w ic t e reader is continually

Closely akin to t is is t e appeal, t e ot er distinguis ing mark of

t e Renaissance man, to t e essential rig tness of w at is natural.
T e medival ideal of morals ad een t at w atever was natural was
essentially wrong. It could e rig t only in so far as it was given
a formal guarantee y some recognised aut ority. Erasmus represents
uman life t roug out as eing, of its very nature, in armony wit
t e eternal law of morality. Especially family life in all its forms,
t e natural and mutual duties of man and wife, t e tender love and
care of c ildren, t e onourale uses of wealt in t e service of t e
state and of religion, t e oligations of friends ip, t e natural
piety of t e simple c ild of God, t e dignity and responsiility
of rulers as t e agents of a divine order among men, t e supreme
duty of peace,--t ese are t e constantly recurring sujects of is
well-trained pen. Even in is literary ideals t e same general
principle of naturalness prevails. Style is an instrument to e
cultivated; it as a c arm of its own wort t e careful attention
of t e sc olar; ut, after all, style is only a means of conveying
t oug t, and t e oject of it is to carry t e ig est t oug t in t e
clearest and most direct fas ion.
Now one may well ask: How is all t is noility and elevation of
purpose to e reconciled wit t e ovious personal limitations of
Erasmus' c aracter? How does t is profound interest in t e welfare
of uman society go wit a self-centred, nervous dread of criticism
w ic rises at times to t e ysterical point? How account for t e
fear t at t e very ideas e seems most to c eris mig t e spread
aroad among t e very people for w om t ey seem especially intended?
How explain t e elaorate contradictions in is own accounts of t e
motives t at led to is most open actions? Suc a personality, we
are tempted to say, is eneat our onest contempt. It is t e very
negation of all t e ideals of w ic t e man tried to pose as t e
c ampion.
T e answer to t is difficulty is t at we find ourselves ere efore
t e perpetual mystery of genius. Erasmus partially solved t e
prolem for us w en e declared t at w ile e was at work a certain
demon seemed to take possession of im and to carry im on wit out
is will. His pen seemed to ave a volition of its own and to oey
t e training of is years of practice y a certain instinct. Just as
is powerful will compelled is frail and suffering ody to do t e
idding of is unconquerale spirit, so t e literary impulse carried
im on to utterances far eyond t e capacity of is personality to
realise in action. If Erasmus could ave lived up to imself, e
would ave een t e greatest of men. Let us in our judgment of im
eware lest we make super uman demands upon im. It is as idle as it
is unjust to ask t at Erasmus s ould e ot Erasmus and Lut er at
once. Our narrative as not soug t to cover up or to disguise t e
repellent aspects of is outward attitude towards t e Reformation.
May it on t e ot er and avoid t e error of oscuring is immense
service to t e cause wit w ic is nature forade im outwardly to
identify imself.


Adages, first edition, 88-91;

Aldine edition, 136
Adrian, Herew teac er, 266, 267
Adrian VI., pope, 403
Agricola, Rudolf, 7
Alert of Mainz, 291;
letter to, 309-318
Aldus Manutius, 125;
correspondence wit Erasmus, 134-137;
is printing-office, 138
Aleander, Girolamo, at Venice, 143;
at Louvain, 349
Alexander of Scotland, Arc is op of St. Andrews, 144, 146;
deat , 153
Algerus, treatise on t e Euc arist, 410
Amerac , Boniface, executor, 460
Amerac , t e rot ers, 236
Ammonius, Andreas, correspondence wit Erasmus, 187-192, 262, 263
Andrelinus, Faustus, 41;
letter from Erasmus, 80;
writes a preface to t e Adages, 93
_Apop t egmata_, 451
Aquinas, T omas, Erasmus' and Colet's views of, 72
d'Asola, Andreas, 138-140
d'Asola, Francesco, 139, 141
Atensis, Jo n, 264
Augsurg Confession, 401
Augsurg, Diet at, 444-448
Augustinianism, 278, 283-285, 380-383
Augustinus, pupil of Erasmus, 93
Badius, pulis er at Paris, 134
Basel, residence in, 232-240, 347, 441-443, 456 _sqq._
Battus, James, 48;

correspondence wit Erasmus, 48-58;

deat , 61
Beatus R enanus, 239;
letter to, 241-246
Bedda, Natalis, 428
Berquin, Louis de, 428-432
Berlin, St., aot of, 223
Besanon, letter to magistrate of, 456
Bois-le-Duc ('s Hertogenosc ), sc ool at, 8
Bologna, visit to, 130-135
Botz eim, Jo n, canon of Constance, letter to (_catalogus
lucurationum_), 126;
visit to, 352, 356
Bret ren of t e Common Life, 8
Budus, William, letter from, 248;
letter to, 251, 427
Busleiden, Jerome, founder of t e College of t e T ree Languages, 265
Camrai, is op of and residence in, 6, 33, 41
Camridge, life at, 193-195
Caminga, Haio, 443
Campeggio, Cardinal, letters to, 302, 405
Carteromac os, Scipio, 148
C arles I. of Spain (V. of Germany), makes Erasmus
a councillor, 253, 262;
elected emperor, 343-345;
olds t e Diet at Worms, 345, 346
_Ciceronianus_, treatise on r etoric, selection from, 149-151
Cinicampius (Esc enfeld), 243;
letter from Erasmus, 246, 247
Clement VII., pope, letter to, 404
Clyston, attendant of Erasmus' pupils, 125, 127, 136
Colet, Jo n, 64, 65;
teac er at Oxford, 68;
founder of St. Paul's sc ool, 70;
is c aracter, 71-75;

invites Erasmus to teac at Oxford, 82-86;

correspondence of 1511(?)-1512, 195-200;
present at Canterury "pilgrimage," 217
Collge Montaigu, 34-39
Comparison of t e Virgin and t e Martyr, 436, 437
_Compendium Vit_, 4
Complutensian Polyglot, 201
Constance, visit at, 352
Cop, William, 250
_Copia verorum et rerum_, dedication, 197;
analysis of, 208-214
Cornelius, companion of Erasmus at Steyn, 14
Dante, _De Monarc ia_, 274
_De contemptu mundi_, treatise, 20-22, 28
Deventer, sc ool at, 5-7
_Diversoria_, colloquy descriing inns, 127, 226-231
Dorpius, Martin, criticises t e Praise of Folly, 176, 264
Drer, Alert, diary of, 333, 334
_Ecclesiastes_, 453, 454
Egmund, Carmelite at Louvain, 322, 428
_Enc iridion militis C ristiani_, origin, 96, 97;
analysis of, 98-111;
preface to second edition, 111-115;
its teac ing, 286
England, life in, 62-86, 179 _sqq._
_Epistol oscurorum virorum_, 279, 363
Eppendorf, Henry, 352
Erasmus, nationality, 1-3;
irt , 3;
at Gouda, 5;
at Utrec t, 5;
at Deventer, 5-8;
at 's Hertogenosc , 8, 9;

at Steyn, 15-23;
wit t e is op of Camrai, 26;
ordained priest, 33, n.;
at Paris, 33-40;
return to Camrai, 41;
troules at Paris, 42-47;
correspondence wit Battus, 48-58;
visit to Tourne ens, 54;
at Louvain, 61;
in England, 62-86;
at Orleans, 92;
views on war, 118, 128;
goes to Italy, 125;
Doctor's degree, 128;
in Bologna, 130-135;
life at Venice, 137-143;
at Padua, 144;
at Siena, 146;
at Rome, 146-156;
Englis residence (1509-1514), 179-217;
correspondence wit Ammonius, 187-192;
"Professor" at Camridge, 193-195;
literary work in England, 197-217;
letter to Servatius, 218-224;
journeys, 226-231, 241-246;
at Basel, 232-240;
called to Ingolstadt and elsew ere, 247;
offered a is opric, 248;
called to Paris, 248-253;
made councillor of C arles V., 253-255;
settles at Louvain, 264;
is view of t e Reform, 285-288;
view of indulgences, 292;
letter to Wolsey, 298-301;
to Campeggio, 302;
to Leo X., 303-307;
to Alert of Mainz, 309-319;
to Hoogstraaten, 326-329;
removal to Basel, 347;
letter to Laurinus, 347-361;
visit to Constance, 352;
contest wit Hutten, 362-378;
t e free-will controversy, 383-401;
t e Euc arist controversy, 407-418;
relations wit Berquin, 428-432;
life at Basel, 441-443;
goes to Freiurg in Breisgau, 444;
relation to Augsurg Diet, 444-448;
uys a ouse, 449;
is place in t e Index, 454, 455;
return to Basel, 456;
deat , 457-459;
last will, 460;
final estimate of, 460-463
Ernest of Bavaria, invites Erasmus to Ingolstadt, 247
Esc enfeld (Cinicampius), 243;
letter from Erasmus, 246, 247

Euc arist, istory of, 407;

Lut er's view, 407-409;
Erasmus on, 409-418
_Expostulatio cum Erasmo_ of Hutten, 366-372
Familiar Colloquies, 420-423;
attacked y t e Soronne and y Lut er, 424;
condemned at Paris and in England, 433
Ferdinand of Spain, 119
Fis er, Roert, 63
Francis I., King of France, calls Erasmus to Paris, 248-253
_Fratres Collationarii_, 10
Frederic t e Wise, Elector of Saxony, letter to, 325;
interview wit , 326;
imperial candidate, 344
Free will, t e prolem of, 381-384;
essay on, 384, 387-397;
Lut er on, 398-401
Freiurg in Breisgau, residence at, 441-456
Froen, Jo n, first acquaintance wit Erasmus, 232;
c aracter, 233-235
Froen, Jo n Erasmius, 421
Gaguinus, 41
Gerard, fat er of Erasmus, 4
Ger ardt of Nymwegen, 428
Goclenius, Conrad, letters to, 4, 267, 458
Gouda, life at, 5
Grey, T omas, 43
Grimani, Cardinal, 151;
receives Erasmus, 154-156;
letter to, 224
Grocyn, William, 64, 81
Groot, Gerard, 8
Grunnius, Lamertus, letter to, xiv, 4, 11, 19, 21, 130;

reply of, 132

Hedio, Caspar, letter to, 379
Hegius, Alexander, 6
Hermann, William, 23, 47
's Hertogenosc (Bois-le-Duc), sc ool at, 8
Hoogstraaten, Jaco, letter to, 326-329
Hutten, Ulric von, 361-363;
controversy wit Erasmus, 363-378;
letter from, 364;
t e _Expostulatio_, 366-372;
Erasmus' _Spongia_, 372-378
"Index," papal, 454, 455
Indulgences, Lut er's T eses on, 289-291;
Erasmus on, 292, 293
Ing irami, Tommaso, 149
Ingolstadt, call to, 247
Institution of C ristian Marriage, 433-435
_Institutio Principis C ristiani_, 255-262;
its teac ing, 286
Italy, life in, 125 _sqq._
, cllqy  Ersms, 35-40
Jerme, St., editin , 68, 205
Jnn  Spin, 119
Kempis, Thms, 8
Lscris, Jhnnes, 143;
letter t, 265

Lsc, Jhn, letter t, 417, 418

Lrins, Mrcs, letters t, 254, 347-361
Lee, Edwrd, 427
Le X., dedictin  New Testment t, 271;
letter t, 302
Lincre, Thms, 64, 81, 199
Lvin, lie t, 61, 264
Ldwi the Bvrin, emperr, 276
Lther, Mrtin, clled t Wittenber , 280;
his erly develpment, 280-283;
Theses, 289-291;
letter rm, 294;
letter t, 295-297;
his views disclimed, 298 _sqq._;
Leipzi Dispttin, 307, 337;
brns the ppl bll nd cnn lw, 337;
writin s  1520, 338;
cnrnts the rdicl prty, 339-341;
t Wrms, 345, 346;
letter n ree will, 384-386;
tretise, _de serv rbitri_, 398-401
Lther nd Ersms cmpred, 282, 283
Mcchivelli, Niccl, _Il Principe_, 256
Mnis, Peter, letter t, 1
Mrbr Cnerence, 408
Mr ret, mther  Ersms, 4
Mr ret  Astri, re ent  the Netherlnds, 405
Mximilin  Germny, 119
Melnchthn, Philip, clled t Wittenber , 280;
letter t, 325
Mre, Thms, 64;
irst meetin with Ersms, 77, 78;
intrdces Ersms t the ryl children, 79;
Utpi, 257
Mntjy, Lrd, ppil  Ersms, 43;
invites him t En lnd, 62;
secnd invittin (1509), 179-183
Mnzer, Thms, 340, 362, 398

Msrs, Mrcs, 143, 144

Neenr, Cnt , 244
New Testment, Greek, editin be n in En lnd, 200-204;
dedicted t Ppe Le X., 271;
third editin, 351
_Oplenti srdid_, cllqy n lie t Venice, 138-142
Orlens, lie t, 92
Pce, Richrd, t Ferrr, 145
Pd, lie t, 144
Prphrses  the New Testment, 424-426
Pris, niversity r nistin, 34;
lie in, 33-40, 42-47, 248-253
Prvs, Willim (Gillme Petit), 248, 249
Pl III., ppe, crrespndence with, 457
Pl IV., ppe, Index , 454, 455
Pelicns, Cnrd, letters t, 416, 417
Philip  Br ndy, pne yric n, 116-121
Pirkheimer, Biliblds, letters t, 413, 414
Pis IV., ppe, Index , 455
Pncher, Stephen, Bishp  Pris, 250, 253
Ppes, hmnistic, 273
_Prprti d Mrtem_, 452, 453
Prise  Flly, mtive , 158;
nlysis , 159-175;
pl y t Drpis, 176-178
Rphel, Crdinl  St. Ger e, 226
Reli is Pil rim e, the, 215, 216

Rechlin, Jhn, 236-239, 310, 320

Rhenns, _see_ Bets
Riri, Relle, crdinl, 151
Rme, lie in, 150-156
Scli er, Jlis Csr, criticises Ersms, 137, 235
"_Senex ille_," 42-46
Schmlklden, Le e , 445
Servtis, cmpnin  Ersms t Steyn, 23;
prir  Steyn, letter rm Ersms, 218-224
Sien, visit t, 146
Sintheim, Jhn, 6
Srbnne, the, ttcks the Cllqies, 424, nd the Prphrses, 432
"Spirit," the, 388, 389;
Lther n, 399
_Spn i dverss sper ines Htteni_, 372-378
Stndnch, Jhn, 35
Steyn, mnstery t, 14-20;
lie t, 15-23
Strmer, Heinrich, letter t Spltin, 459
Stnic, Jmes Lpez, 355, 404, 427
The Tre Wy  Pryer, 437-440
Trnehens, visit t, 54
Tnstll, Cthbert, 263, 264
Utpi  Thms Mre, 257, 261
Utrecht, lie t, 5

Vll, Lrentis, 204

Veere, Ann, Mrchiness , 48;
visit  Ersms t, 54;
letter t, 59, 60;
mrri e , 61
Venice, lie t, 137-143
Vlzis, letter t, 111-115
Wrhm, Willim, Archbishp  Cnterbry, jins in cllin
Ersms t En lnd, 183;
ives him the "livin "  Aldin tn, 184-186;
chrcter, 226, 454
Wessel, Jhn, 8
Winckel, Peter, ncle nd rdin  Ersms, 5, 7, 9
Wittenber University nded, 280
Wittenhers, Nichls, prir  Steyn, 222
Wlsey, Thms, letter t, 298
Wrms, Diet t, 345, 346;
Edict , 346

Trnscriber's nte
Obvis printer errrs hve been silently crrected. Ori inl
spellin ws kept. Vrint spellin s were mde cnsistent when 
predminnt s e ws nd.
Illstrtins hve been sli htly mved s tht they d nt brek
p pr rphs while reminin clse t the text they illstrte.
Chpter hedin s nd illstrtin cptins hve been hrmnized
nd mde cnsistent s tht the sme expressins pper bth in
text nd in the lists  Cntents nd  Illstrtins.
The llwin emendtins were mde:
P e 12: "text" replced by "pretext" (this ives Ersms 
pretext r n sslt).
P e 39: "Icthyph i" replced by "Ichthyph i" (he brrwed
his illstrtin directly rm the _Ichthyph i_).
P e 54: "nir" replced by "nire" ( reerence t his _bte
P e 91: Ftnte lbel [51]: lctin cnjectred, nt nd
in the ri inl.
P e 94, nte 53: "p. 486-99" replced by "p. 48 & _._" (See
p. 48 & _._)

P e 195, nte 91: "p. 50 8 _._" replced by "p. 50 & _._"

(by Mr. Mllin er in his Histry  the University 
Cmbrid e, p. 50 & _._)

End  Prject Gtenber 's Desideris Ersms  Rtterdm, by Ephrim Emertn

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Vlnteers nd inncil spprt t prvide vlnteers with the
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