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It consists of heart and blood vessels.

Heart: Lies behind the sternum and costal cartilages, extending from the
2nd to the 6th costal cartilages. About 2/3 of the heart lies to the left and 1/3
of the heart lies to the right of median plane.
The heart consists of 4 chambers; 2 atria and 2 ventricles:
A- Right Atrium: It receives the deoxygenated blood from all parts of the
body by 2 large veins (superior vena cava and inferior vena cava). It sends
its blood to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.
B- Right ventricle: It sends the deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary
valve to the pulmonary artery which divides into 2 branches for each lung
where oxygenation of blood occurs.
C- Left atrium: It receives the oxygenated blood from both lungs through 4
pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle via mitral valve.
D- Left ventricle: It pumps its oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
through the aortic valve, to the aorta and its branches.
So the heart contains 4 valves, they are: tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and
aortic valve.
So the right 1/2 of the heart contains deoxygenated (venous) blood while the
left 1/2 of the heart contains oxygenated (arterial) blood.
The heart is covered by 2 types of pericardia. Fibrous pericardium and serous

Circulation of the Blood

Lt. ventricle aortic valve aorta and its branches which supply upper and
lower parts of the body venous blood returns via S.V.C and I.V.C Rt.
atrium tricuspid valve Rt. ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary
trunk Rt. and Lt. pulmonary arteries to Rt. and Lt. lungs, where
oxygenation of blood occurs. The oxygenated blood returns via 4 pulmonary
veins Lt. atrium mitral valve Lt. ventricle.

Circulation of the Blood

There are 3 types of circulations:
A- Systemic circulation: It begins in the left ventricle where the
oxygenated blood passes through the aorta and its branches to reach all
the tissues of the body, where exchange of gases and materials occur. The
deoxygenated blood is collected by small veins, then by large veins and
finally by superior vena cava and inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
The blood passes from the right atrium to the right ventricle where this
circulation ends and a new cycle starts.
B- Pulmonary circulation: It starts from the right ventricle where the
venous blood passes through the pulmonary artery and its 2 branches to
reach both lungs, where exchange of gases occurs. The oxygenated blood
returns to the left atrium via the 4 pulmonary veins, then to the left
ventricle, where a new cycle occurs.
C- Portal circulation: The venous blood from stomach, spleen, pancreas
and intestine, is collected into the portal vein which enters the liver
(through the porta hepatis) and divides into many branches which end in
liver sinusoids. The blood leaves the liver sinusoids by the hepatic veins
which end in inferior vena cava, then to right atrium.

Blood Vessels
The artery is the blood vessels which carries the oxygenated blood from the
heart to the periphery. It carries oxygenated blood except the pulmonary
artery, which carries deoxygenated blood.
Big Arteries:
1- Aorta: It has three parts:
a- Ascending aorta: It gives right and left coronary artery which supply
the heart.
b- Arch of aorta: It gives three branches (brachiocephalic, left common
carotid and left subclavian arteries). The brachiocephalic divides into
right subclavian & right common carotid arteries. They supply head,
neck, brain & upper limb.
c- Descending aorta: It gives right and left posterior intercostals and
subcostal arteries). It is continued in the abdomen as abdominal aorta.

Blood Circulations

d- Arteries of abdomen and pelvis:

1- Abdominal aorta: It supplies the abdominal contents. It ends in the
abdomen at level of L4 by dividing into right and left common iliac arteries.
2- Common iliac artery: It divides into external and internal iliac
1- Internal iliac arteries: Supplies the pelvic viscera.
2-External iliac arteries: It continues in lower limbs as femoral arteries.

arteries of Head and Neck:

Arch of aorta
1-Subclavian artery: It lies in the root of the neck above the medial 1/2
of the clavicle. It continues in the arm as axillary artery.

2- Common carotid artery: ascends in the carotid sheath and at the

level of upper border of thyroid cartilage, it divides into external carotid
artery (outside the sheath) and internal carotid artery (inside the sheath).
a- External carotid artery: It supplies structures outside the skull.
b- Internal carotid artery: It enters the skull and supplies the
structures inside the skull as brain by cerebral arteries, eye ball by the
ophthalmic artery and pituitary gland by hypophyseal arteries.

Functions of artery :
1. It equalizes pressure in the communicating arteries.
2. It maintains the blood flow to an area or part if the main artery is
incompletely obstructed by formation of collateral circulation.

Arterial Anastomosis

The vein is a blood vessel which carries the blood from the periphery to
the heart. It carries deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary veins,
which carry oxygenated blood.
1- It has thin wall and wide lumen.
2- It does not pulsate.
3- It has low blood pressure.
4- Most of the veins especially those of the lower limbs contain valves
which prevent the reflux (back flow) of the blood by gravity.