You are on page 1of 4

JOINTS

Definition:
Joint is :
1)

Place of articulation
CLASSIFICATION

A) Structural Classification
According to the r type of material by which the articular bone are
united.
1.
Fibrous joints : Are united by fibrous tissue.
a)
Sutures
b)
Syndesmosis
c)
Gomphosis
2.
Cartilaginous joints: are united by hyaline or fibro-cartilage
a)
Primary or synchondrosis
b)
Secondary or symphysis
3.
Synovial joints : having joint or synovial cavity.
a)
Ball-and-socket or spheroidal joints.
b)
Saddle or sellar joint
c)
Condylar (Condyloid) or bicondylar joints
d)
Ellipsoid Joint
e)
Hinge Joint
f)
Pivot or Trochoid joint
g)
Plane Joint
B) Functional Classification (according to the degree of mobility)
1.
2.
3.
C)

Synarthrosis (Immovable) like fibrous joints


Amphiarthrosis (slight movement) like cartilaginous joints
Diarthrosis (freely movable) like synovial joints

Regional Classification
1.

Skull type : Immovable

2.
3.
D)

Vertebral type : Slightly movable


Limb type : Freely movable

Degree of Freedom : Number of axes at which the bone in a


joint can move.
The structural classification is most commonly followed.
FEATURES

A.

Fibrous Joints

1.
2.

B.

Bones are joined by fibrous tissue.


Are either immovable or permit slight degree of movement.
Types:
a) Suture peculiar to skull, and are immovable.
b) Syndesmosis. The bones are connected by interosseous
ligament. Example is the inferior tibiofibular joint.
c) Gomphosis (peg and socket joint). Example : tooth in its
socket.

Cartilaginous Joints

1.

Bones are joined by cartilage.


Two types:
a)
Primary Cartilaginous Joints (synchondrosis or hyaline
cartilage joints). The bones are united by a plate of hyaline
cartilage. The joint is immovable and strong and temporary in
nature. e.g. Joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing
long bone, costochondral, chondrosternal and spheno-occipital.
b)
Secondary Cartilaginous Joints (symphyses or
fibrocartila-ginous joints). The articular surfaces are covered by
a thin layer of hyaline cartilage, and united by a disc of
fibrocartilage. These joints are permanent and typically occur in
the median plane of the body, and permit limited movements.
Examples : Symphysis pubis, manubriosternal, and
interventerbral joints.

C.

Synovial Joint
1.
2.
3.

Most common in the body.


Most mobile type of joints.
The articular surfaces are covered with hyaline
(articular) cartilage.
4.
Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid. The cavity may
be partially or completely subdivided by an articular disc or
meniscus.
5.
The joint is surrounded by an articular capsule.
6.
Synovial membrane line whole of the interior of the
joint except for the articular surfaces.
7.
Synovial fluid or synovia secreted by the cells of the
synovial membrane.
8.
Capsular or true ligaments representing thickenings of
the fibrous capsule.
9.
Accessory ligaments which may be intra or extracapsular. Examples : plane, hinge, condylar, pivot,
ellipsoid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints.

Stability of (synovial) joints:


Factors maintaining stability at a joint
1. Muscles. The tone of different groups of muscles acting on the joint
is the most important and indispensable factor e.g. Knee, shoulder,
joint.
2. Ligaments are important in preventing any over-movement, and in
guarding against sudden accidental stresses.
3. Bones. Help in maintaining stability only in firm type of joint like
the hip and ankle.

Blood supply of synovial joint:


The articular and epiphysial branches given off the
neighbouring arteries form a periarticular arterial plexus in the
deeper parts of synovial membrane. (Arterial articular networks).
Articular veins are communi-cating veins.
Nerve supply of synovial joint:
The capsule and ligaments possess a rich nerve supply which
makes them acutely sensitive to pain. Articular nerves contain
sensory and autonomic fibres. Some of the sensory fibres are
proprioceptive in nature. These are sensitive to position and
movement, and are concerned with the reflex control of posture
and locomotion. Hilton's Law states that a motor nerve to the
muscle acting on joint tends to give a branch to that joint (capsule)
and another branch to the skin covering the joint.