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Effect of Different Appeals of Advertisements on Brand Choice

Abstract
The basic purpose of this research is to find out the effect of different appeals of advertisement on brand
choice in beverages industry of Pakistan. Previously numbers of studies have been conducted by
researchers to identify the effect of celebrity, animation, jingles and product specifications in
advertisement. With the help of responses of 100 respondents that were used for analysis in this research
quantitative technique is implemented. To analyze viewers opinion descriptive statistics are used.
Sample of three advertisements of beverages were shown to respondents to get their response though
questionnaire. The results show that jingles in advertisements attract most number of respondents then
celebrity, products features and animations which shows negative effect in advertisements effective.

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
Television advertising is used to influence the perception of viewers to affect their brand choices.(Alba,
Hutchinson and Lynch, 1991).The effects in perceptions of viewers through commercial are import to
the extent that these effects influence viewers brand-choice process. Perceptions effected by Television
commercials may influence brand choice process directly or indirectly. Advertisers have done lot of
experiments to influence the perceptions of their target audience.
There are several options available for advertiser to influence viewers choice. Many TV
commercials feature catchy jingles, Brand ambassadors who could be a famous sports star, film star or
any famous celebrity that can also create a pull and increase brand awareness, Animations is also often
used in commercials, some advertisers highlight their products unique selling point and specifications
or features to get attention of viewer. Advertisers spend millions to develop attractive ideas using these
appeals to get attention of viewers.
Numerous researchers proved the effectiveness and positive influence by celebrity towards brand
choice of target audience. Researches also proved that celebrity in advertisement used to add value to
advertised brand besides increasing revenue of that brand.

Animations can enhance brands or products communicative powers to get attention of target
audience. Animation with good humorous affect and exciting storyline of commercial may increase
viewers attention towards advertisement. Many belief that using animation in advertising is just to
attract kids and to advertise in kids shows but it is a fact that advertisements featuring animated
characters attracts large number of adult viewers also. Featuring animated characters in advertisements
may be expensive initially but the main advantages of animation in advertisements are that it can be
enhanced easily; it can be editable and can be reformatted if needed. It also takes less time to develop
animated advertising then casting celebrity. Sometimes it is difficult to achieve certain types of appeals
using celebrity in advertisement; the animation may allow the advertiser to generate such appeals and to
get desire goals.
Another alternative way to make an advertisement effective is use of music, songs and jingles.
Jingles can gain viewers attention very effectively. Songs and jingles can cross to attain influence, and
raise the endurance of promotion after being a feature in viewers mind. Jingles are used by most
sensible advertisers throughout the World because people remember the words to Songs and tunes not
every time.
Another way to attract viewers through advertising is to show feathers of product and services in
advertisement. Advertisers highlight their products unique feathers that differentiate them from
competitors similar products. Some advertisers prefer to show their offers in details in advertisement
and some advertisers show usage details of their products to communicate target audience for better
understanding of consumers about products.
This study is to examine the effect of these different appeals of television advertisements on
viewers brand choice. This study considered one of very competitive and growing industries of Pakistan

that is beverages industries. This research provide idea to advertisers of beverages industry that which
appeal of advertisement get attention of target consumers of their brands and also the research provide
guideline to advertisers in allocation of their advertising budget.

1.2 Background
The advertising is growing rapidly in Pakistan and advertisers of different industries spend a good
amount of budget on advertising of their brands. According to Gallup advertisers in Pakistan spend Rs.
17.29 billion in year 2009-10 on advertisement of their product on TV which is 17% more as compared
to last years (2008-09) spending. Beverages industry of Pakistan shared 12% of television
advertisement in year 2009-10. Advertisers used number of different appeals to make their
advertisements attractive effective. Some of most commonly used tools are celebrity, animations, jingles
and product features. This research will identify that which appeal is most effective to use in
advertisement that will attract maximum target viewers and results best utilization of budget in
advertisement.
1.3 Research Problem
There are number of appeals in television advertisements that attract viewers attention and influence
their brand choice decision. The appeal could be celebrity, animation, jingles and product features or
specifications that we can see in every ad now days. Previous researches focused only single factor that
affects viewers brand choice decision.

Most of advertisers use more than one factor in their

advertisements to attract their potential audience these days. We need to identify that what is the effect
of these factors in an advertisement towards brand choice. Also we should identify that in Pakistan
which factor is more feasible for advertisers of beverages industry.

1.4 Research Question


1.4.1 Primary Question
Q1) what is the effect of different appeals (Celebrity, animation, jingles and product specification or
features) of advertisement on brands choice?
1.4.2 Second Questions
Q2) which appeal of advertisement more helpful to get attention of viewers?
Q3) what appeals should an advertiser focus while allocating their advertisement budgets?

1.5 Objective of Research


1.5.1 Primary Objective
The objective of research is to study the effect of different appeals (celebrity, animation, jingles, product
specification or features) of television advertisement on consumers brand choice.
1.5.2 Secondary Objective

To identify the appeals that helps to gain attention of viewers.


To find out which appeals of advertisement anadvertisers allocate their advertising budgets and
prioritize that appeal for their TV advertisements.

1.6 Justification
There are ways to advertise a product or service. If advertiser selects TV as their advertising media then
they should know that in which appeal of TV commercial they need to spend their advertising budget to
get maximum attention of their target audience. Hence by utilizing their advertising budget effectively
they will achieve their objectives and save their resources.
1.7 Limitations
Due to cost and time limitations the research cannot be done for all industries of Pakistan and all over
Pakistan.
1.8 De-Limitations
We have considered advertisements of beverages industry of Pakistan in this research and research has
been conducted in Karachi.

Chapter 2
Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Background
2.1.1 Celebrity
Advertisers use celebrities in their advertisements to influence buying behaviors of viewers. Although
using celebrity in advertisement involve cost and risk but it is quiet common technique which
advertisers use in this era. After viewing their favorite or any famous celebrity in advertisements viewer
get inspiration with celebrity and try to follow them and celebrities message. Therefore advertisers use
celebrities in their advertisements to avail the opportunity that they can attract their target audience.
(Surana 2008)
2.1.2 Animations
Technology advancement likes development of computer software and digital devices have introduced
various useful tools for advertisers. According to number of professionals the human eye catch animated
appeals better as compared to non-animated. So animations in advertisements attract higher attentions of
viewers. The researchers also proved that the effect of animated characters in advertisements is positive
on viewers. In the result the attention generated by animation along with effective storyline in
advertisements influence the audiences choice behavior. (Haugtvedt, Machleit, & Yalch, 2005)
2.1.3 Jingles
Since the beginning when advertisers got technology of sound recording music has been key component
of advertisement. Advertisers use jingles, famous tones, background music and songs to influence
audience mood, to communicate their selling idea and to guide the emotions of audience. Many
professionals consider music in advertisement as capable tool for communication. The included music in

advertisement attracts attention of audience and put consumer in positive mood while listing and
viewing the message. Jingles are used by most sensible advertisers throughout the World because people
remember the words to Songs and tunes not every time. The influence through music, jingles and songs
to audience mood and attraction created by these factors will help brand recall while consumer is in
brand choosing position. (Shimp, 2010)
2.1.4 Product Specifications or Features
The effect of advertising on consumers choice is favorable. Consumer can get much information about
brands and products through advertising like prices, promotions, place or location of product availability
and product features. Consumer can compare advertised product with other similar products after
viewing the advertisements that a consumer cant without advertisements. Researchers proved that
consumers hold advertised products in their mind and dont think about more the products that are less
advertised. This support the idea to mention products specifications or unique features in
advertisements will safe viewers time and cost because they can get all desired information after
viewing the advertisement that a consumer need before making a purchase decision. (Trehan & Trehan,
2007)
2.2 Empirical Reviews
Non famous celebrity has more persuasive power then famous celebrity in purchase decision of
customer. Negative or positive information about celebrity impact on celebrity endorsement
effectiveness in advertising and negative information about celebrity will effect negatively on brand.
Advertisements featuring female athletes have increased in previous years and have significant impact
on viewer. (Gained &Rached, 2010), (Amos, Holmes &Strutton, 2008), (Stone, Joseph & Jones, 2003),
(Till &Shimp, 1998).

Information in Television Advertisements has reduced in China past nine years. Provision of information
and insignificant effect on consumers prestige or change.(Chan & Chan, 2005), (Ackerberg, 2003).
3D advertising is more effective and having more positive attitude towards brands then 2D advertising.
Recognition and ability to match cartoon characters and product has positive relationship with childs
age. (Li, Daugherty, &Biocca, 2002), (Mizerski, 1995).
There is no significant effect of brand placement in movies. (Lehu&Bressound, 2008).
There is need to employ global consumer culturing positioning in advertising. (Alden, Steenkamp,
&Batra, 1999).
(Hussainy, Riaz, Kazi, & Herani, 2008) studied impact of humorous and serious appeals in advertising
on viewers attention using secondary and primary data. Primary data has been collected through
questionnaire filled by 30 respondents. In the research viewers attention to advertisement, serious
appeals and humorous appeals were considered. The technique used was Chi-Square test and result
shows that humorous advertisements have higher attention than serious ads. They suggested that
advertisers may use humorous attentions in their products advertisement and they also suggested the
need to investigate either attention generated by humorous ads could affect the sales or not.
(Allan, 2008) explores the frequency of music placement in advertisements and also identified
relationship of advertised product and other various aspects of advertisements. Using content analysis.
In the research network, time, day, surrounding program, advertiser, voiceover, celebrity, humor,
animation, animals or people, gender, age and race were considered. The result shows that utilization of
music in advertisement can increase consumers involvement in advertisement. Further research
suggests that for future research need is to identify the how music quantity can be used in advertisement.
(Rodriguez, 2008) explores effect of brand endorsers on purchase intentions using questionnaire filled
from 200 respondents. In the research endorser type, message/endorser source credibility, attitude

towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and intentions to purchase were considered. Ttests and regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis and the result shows that endorsers in
advertisements significantly affect the purchase attentions and attitude of consumer towards the
advertisement. Result also showed the significant effect of culture in advertisements. Researcher also
suggests that further researchers have to consider the effect of TV advertisements and response of
different cultures towards endorsers in advertisements.
(Mehta, Chen, & Narasimhan, 2008) studied number of effects through advertising on brand choice
decisions using secondary data of sales of 5 brands from liquid detergent industry and purchasing data of
221 customers of liquid detergents. True qualities, Perceived quality, Perceived bias in advertisements,
Extent of ambiguity in consumption, Risk aversion, Total ad elasticity, Informative effect of
advertisements, Transformative effect of advertisements, Persuasive effect of advertisements,
Decomposing advertising effects, Effect of advertising power on advertising effects, advertising impact
on effects on competitive clout and vulnerability, Informative effects, Transformative effects, Impact of
Consumption Ambiguity on Advertising Effects were considered in research. Goodness of fit test was
used in the research. The result shows that advertising has significant effect along with informative and
transformative dimensions. They also suggested consider effects of advertising on profitability
enhancing.
(Smith, Chen, & Yang, 2008) studied how advertising creativity impact on hierarchy of effect using
questionnaire responded by 120 respondents. Outcome perspective recall, recognition, ad attitude, brand
attitudes, product evaluation, purchase intension, emotional reaction, process perspective attention,
motivation and depth of processing were considered. MANOVA analysis was used for hypothesis
testing. The findings showed that creativity in advertisement is an intermediary between advertisement
and Hierarchy of Effect and having significant effect on brand awareness and brand liking.

(Malaviya, 2007) investigates effectiveness of ads repetitions using questionnaire filled by 100
respondents. Product evaluation, types of elaborations, specific feature recall, category intrusions, brand
intrusions and cell size were considered in research. ANOVA analysis was used in research and the result
provide evidence of different effect on estimation and sort of explanation advertising message receives
affect evaluation of ad context. The researcher suggests to investigate the ad content restrained the
repetition effect and nature of ad context.
(Phillips & Lee, 2005) exploring Spokes-Characters on the Internet using content analysis. General
appearance, movement and sound and interactivity were considered in research. ANOVA analysis has
been used in research. The result showed that animated movement in spokes character on webs and
interaction of character with user has significant effect. They suggest that in future researchers should
consider other type of internet animation.
(Alpert, Alpert, & Maltz, 2005) examines the role of music in advertising influencing at purchase
occasion using questionnaire filled by 75 respondents. Impact on mood, attitude and purchase intentions
was considered in the research. Anova analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The result shows that
back ground music in the advertisements have significant effect on emotional response of audience.
They further suggest that research need to test music effect on mood and intentions for product for
which decision has already been made presence of music.
(ZHU & MEYERS-LEVY, 2005) investigates the effect of background music on product perception
using questionnaire responded by 127 respondents. In this research perception, hassle free service,
customer service, thoughts and recall were considered. T-test has been used to test the hypothesis and
result shows that music in ads give pleasure to viewer and it influence viewers perception. Further they
suggest that before selecting background music advertiser should consider the goal of music is to

influence target consumer only and the music is less critical to influence the target audience in
advertisement.
(Pieters & Wedel, 2004) investigates effect of brand, pictorial and text-size in advertisement on
viewers attention using questionnaire responded by 3600 respondents and infrared eye tracking
technique. Surface size, ad attentions, size of ad element was considered in research. Regression analysis
was used to test the hypothesis. The result shows that brand, pictorial and text size have significant
effect on advertisements attention. They suggested to identity the amount of attention required to effect
brand awareness and attitude.
(Stafford, Stafford, & Day, 2002) investigates the effects of spokesperson on perceptions of service
advertising using Contingency Approach. Consumer attitude, perceive credibility, ad affect,
trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise were considered in research. Factor analysis and
MANCOVA techniques were used. The result shows that advertiser can use spokes characters in some
services advertisements because it has significant effect on perceptions.
(Goldsmith, Lafferty, & Newell, 2000) explored The Impact of credibility of corporate and celebrity in
advertisements on consumer reaction using questionnaire filled by 151 respondents. In the research
corporate honesty, corporate expertise, endorser attractiveness, endorser honesty, endorser expertise,
attitude towards the ad, attitude towards the brand and purchase intensions were considered. Correlation
technique has been used to identify the relationship between variables. The result shows that corporate
credibility plays important role on consumers reaction to advertisement as credibility of celebrity do.
They suggest to considering differential effect of corporate credibility and celebrity credibility for
further researches.

(Rosbergen, Pieters, & Wedel, 1997) examined the amount of visual attention to advertising using
experiment tacking observation of 230 participants. In research usage, relevance, prior gaze duration,
attention, pleasure, familiarity, brand attitude, initial attention, risk probability and scanning were
considered. Regression technique has been used. In result researcher found that subjects remain involved
in head line, pictorial, pack shot and body text in advertisement. The research suggests that advertiser
can use researchs methodology to improve their ads.
(Callott & Lee, 1994) studied use of animation and animated spokes-characters in television
advertisements using content analysis in TV commercials. Level of animation (animated, non-animated,
or mixed live action and animation), product classification (durable, non- durable, service industry,
public service), and product name are considered. Cross-tabulation and chi-square techniques have been
used to assess the level of animation used in advertisement. The findings show that animation is
becoming more dominant in advertising.
(Tripp, Jensen, & Carlson, 1994) investigated the effect on consumer attitudes and intentions when a
celebrity endorsed in multiple products using questionnaire with the help of two different studies. In
study 1 Tapping perceived credibility, likability of celebrity, attitude towards ad, attitude towards brand
and purchase intentions were considered. MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs were two tests have been used in
the research. The results indicate that the celebrity in the ad affected perceptions of celebrity
characteristics while the test ad affected ad, brand, and purchase intentions. In study 2 was the
qualitative type of research in which interviews were conducted and result of interviews shows that the
multiple product endorsements indirectly effects on consumers' perceptions negatively. They also
suggest considering ad contents for future researchers.
(Dawar & Parker, 1994) investigated Consumers' Use of different product specification (Brand Name,
Price, Physical Appearance, and Retailer Reputation) as Signals of Product Quality using questionnaire

responded by 691 respondents. Nationality, ethno-geographic trade area, national behavioral clusters and
level of engagement in retail sector were considered. Analysis of variance, ANOVA and correlation were
used in the research. The result indicates that there is significant importance of brand name, price,
physical appearance and retailer reputation as signal of product quality. They suggest the need of
increasing number of samples and cultures/countries to explore further.
(Olney, Holbrook, & Batra, 1991) studies effect of ad content, emotions in ads and viewing time of ad
on consumer responses. The research considered viewing time, commercial appeals, and uniqueness in
ad, emotional aspects and ad contents as variables of the study. Regression technique has been used for
the research and the result shows that for a reasonably representative set of commercials, the emotional
dimensions, attitudinal components, and viewing behavior could be moderately well explained by
various aspects of advertising content.
(Kamins, Brand, Hoeke, & Moe, 1989) studied The Impact of Two-Sided versus One-Sided Celebrity
Endorsements on Advertising Effectiveness and Credibility. It is an experimental research considered
advertising evaluation, sponsor evaluation, purchase intensions, annual sales, number of employees,
types of business classification and proportion of companies. Multivariate Hotelling T2 and one tailed Ttest were used. The result shows that advertisements with two-sided celebrity endorsement have
significant effect on advertisement credibility. These findings suggest that to identify effectiveness of
two sided celebrity appeals on advertising strategy.
(Park & Young, 1986) examines The Impact Background Music on Brand Attitude of consumer using
questionnaire in which Cognitive Involvement, Music, and Brand Attitude Formation are considered.
Correlation and ANOVA technique have been used in the research. The result shows that ads perform
significant part in brands attitude formation in consumers mind. Also the researchers suggest that the

ads contribute in brand attitude formation in two ways. One is communicating the key concept of
commercial and also contributes to create positive attitude formation towards ad.
(Mitchell, 1986) explored The Effect Components of Advertisements on Brand Attitudes and Attitude
Toward the Advertisement using experimental research data. Attitude towards brand, attitude towards
advertisement and behavioral intentions were considered in the research. ANOVA analysis technique has
been used and result shows that components of advertisements have significant effect on brand attitude
and attitude towards advertisement. Further researcher suggests that individuals may have different
attitudes towards brand researchers need to assume these differences.
(Mackenzie, 1986) studied The Role of Attention in Intermediating the Effect of Advertising on
Attribute Importance using questionnaire filled by 31 respondents. Ad characteristics, Response factor,
Recipient characteristics, Attributes were considered in research. Regression analysis and Chi-Square
analysis were used to test the hypothesis. The result shows that attentions play significant role in
mediating the impact of advertisement on perceptions. Researcher also suggests identifying moderating
factors between attention and importance.
(Brucks, Mitchell, & Staelin, 1984) examined the effect of product information in advertising. Two
different types of analyses were used to accomplish these goals. The first is an input-output analysis to
examine the effect of the different nutritional information formats on product beliefs and evaluations.
The second involves a model to examine the moderating effects of nutritional knowledge. Perceived
product class beliefs, nutrition brand beliefs, Recall of the information, Measures of other product
attribute beliefs and purchase intentions and Tests of nutritional knowledge have been considered in the
study. ANOVA was used to determine the different message levels had an effect. The findings show that
no statistically significant differences were found for absolute nutritional content (ANC) or any of the
other variables for advertisements. However, for three of the five products for the conditions significant

differences were found on the absolute nutritional content (ANC) variable, which used the easy-to-read
format. The results of this study also indicated that the subjects did not use the amount of nutritional
information presented as a simplifying cue in making nutritional evaluations. The study also suggests
that individuals perception could vary according to different condition and situation so the researcher
should be directed at understanding which contextual cues individuals use in selecting between different
information processing strategies. They also suggest that the knowledge of nutrition information is a
multi-dimensional knowledge therefore in future researches the researcher should consider the different
dimensions of knowledge of nutrition information.
(Gorn, 1982) studies Music effect in Advertising on brand choice using questionnaire filled by 244
respondents. The study considered attention towards product information in the message and direct
change in attitude of viewer. Classical conditioning approach has been used in the study with the help of
two experiments. The result of experiment one suggest that the association between product and music
can affect product preferences. The result of second experiment suggest that when a viewer is in
decision making mode can be affected by information that a commercial contains and if the viewer is not
in decision making situation the decision is not affected by information that a commercial contains.
Researcher also suggests that large number of audience may be in non-decision making situation while
watching the television. Reaching the audience through emotionally touching background features may
make difference in decision making.
(Moschis & Moore, 1982) studied The Effect of Television Advertising using questionnaire filled by
683 respondents. Consumers role perceptions, consumer activity, materialism and sex-role conception
were considered in research. Correlation has been used to measure the effect of television advertising.
Result shows that television advertising viewing and all four variables are partially correlated and they
suggested the need of short term and long term effect of advertisement differently.

Chapter 3
Methodology
3.1 Research Methodology
Three types of methodologies are there that are exploratory research, descriptive research and
explanatory research.
Our research methodology is descriptive research. Descriptive research method is most commonly used
method; the descriptive research is used to find out the reason of something happening. The purpose and
research question of this study indicate us that the nature of this research is descriptive because the tool
used to collect the data is questionnaire.
3.2 Research Approach
We have two types of research approaches to conduct the research qualitative and quantitative research.
The relationship among dependent and independent variables can be find out with help of quantitative
research. In quantitative research we use numeric and statistical data to determine the relationship
between variables. It can be done through large scale surveys using questionnaire and historical
statistics. Qualitative research is a study of opinions, behaviors and experiences. These data collection
method is in depth interviews of participants.
In this research we adopt qualitative research method since in this research we are determining
the relationship between a dependent variable (Brand Choice) and four independent variables that are
jingles, animations, celebrity and product specifications and features.
3.3 Sample Selection
The random sampling of TV viewers of Karachi who used to watch TV advertising regularly and make
daily purchasing decisions.

3.4 Sample Size


Sample size for the research is 122 from Karachi. Since it is not possible to collect data from whole
country and larger sample size.
3.5 Data Collection
We have to sources to collect data for research that are secondary source and primary source. For this
research the source used to collect data is primary source because television viewer has been directly
approached to collect the data.
3.6 Research Instrument
The instrument used to collect the data is Questionnaire having liquored scaling technique.
3.7 Statistical Tool
After collection of data regression and correlation method are used in SPSS software for implementation
of data and to check the significant of variables.
3.8 Source of Data
Data is collected from television viewers of Karachi who take their purchase decisions in their daily life.
3.9 Data Collection Technique
Data collection technique is questionnaire having liquored scaling.
3.11 Variables
There are five variables in this research:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Brand Choice
Animations in advertisements
Jingles in advertisements
Celebrity in advertisements
Product features or product specifications in advertisements

3.12 Model
Y = + 1A + 2J + 3C + 4F +
Whereas
Y = Brand Choice
= constant
1 = coefficient of animations
A = Animations
2 =coefficient of jingles
J = Jingles
3 = coefficient of celebrity
C = celebrity
4 = coefficient of features
F = product features
= error

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS

In this chapter analysis of empirical data collected has been disused. To identify the effect of different
appeals of advertisements on brand choice empirical data analysis has been conducted. In this chapter
detail of samples, description and samples analysis has been included on behalf of different appeals and
correlation analysis between them. With the help of research analysis through SPSS (statistical software)
the analysis and result has been interpreted in this chapter.
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
To explain the data and its essential features descriptive statistics are applied. For quantitative
explanation in manageable form descriptive statistics are applied (Yin, 1994). Descriptive statistics helps
researcher to summarize huge amount of data in simplified form. There are two parts of descriptive
analysis Univariate and Bivariate. Calculation across cases of single variable at single occasion included
in univariate analysis. Distribution, dispersion and central tendency are main characteristics of a single
variable. To express the characteristics of some social phenomenon bivariate descriptive analyses are
used and establishing similarities or differences between characteristics of categories bivariate
descriptive analysis being used.
4.1.1. Demographic Data
Mathematical and statistical study of human populations distribution according to composition, size and
altitude is called demographic data. Government, marketing researchers and opinion researchers use
demographic data to conduct their researches. To understand the distribution of respondents according to
their demographics the demographic statistics have been used in this research that are occupations, level
of income, job category and age. In this section the result of descriptive analysis have measured with
interpretation of results. Below is table containing statistics of demographic data with their category and
percentages.
Table 4.1: Demographics Data Analysis

Category

Frequency

Percent

18-25

33

33

26-35

31

31

36-45

24

24

46-55

Above 55

Total

100

100

Male

74

74

Female

26

26

Total

100

100

Diploma

Graduate

68

68

Post Graduate

31

31

Total

100

100

Less than 20000

51

51

20001-40000

43

43

Above 80000

Total

100

100

Age Category

Gender

Qualification

Monthly Income

Four categories are mentioned in above table that is age, gender, qualification and income. According to
respondents age the most number of respondents are aged from 18 years to 25 years. Those are 33% of
total population. According to gender distribution the male respondents are 74 out of 100 that show
74% of population are representing males. 68% respondents are graduates according to distribution of

qualification. Highest numbers of respondents are earning less than Rs. 20,000 as mentioned in above
table that are representing 51% of population.

4.1.2. Frame work


Response of 100 respondents was obtained through questionnaire in which respondents were allowed to
give their answer on a scale of 1 to 5 in which 1 is denoted by strongly disagreed and 5 was denoted by
strongly agreed. Descriptive statistics with statistics summary represents the distribution over
describing, is known as measure of central tendency and measure of dispersion. Mean value is the most
fitting measure of central tendency for interval data and standard deviation is the most fitting measure of
dispersion for interval data.

Table 4.2: Frame work of all variables


Descriptive Statistics
Std.

BRAND CHOICE
CELEBRITY
JINGLE
ANIMATION
PRODUCT
SPECIFICATION

Mean

Deviation

3.3967
3.5639
3.6153
3.8302
3.5000

.33103
.36288
.61110
.63461
.49547

100
100
100
100
100

The means, standard deviation, and number of respondents in the survey are mentioned in above table.
That shows the animation has highest mean value that is 3.83 followed by jingles at 3.62.
4.3. Reliability analysis:
Reliability analysis is applied to check the reliability of data through which we can indentify that our
data is either reliable for research or not. In reliability analysis to find the internal reliability of
instrument Cronbachs alpha is used. The value of Cronbachs alpha must be greater than 0.7 to qualify
the reliability test.

Table 4.3: Reliability Statistics


Cronbach's

Alpha
.706

Items
5

of

In above table the number of items measured for reliability analysis are mentioned in column N which
are 5 and the value of cronbachs alpha is 0.706 (70.6%) which shows that our data is reliable.
4.4. Inferential analysis
Making conclusions, predictions, recommendation with the help of information collected through
research are dealt in inferential analysis (McQuitty and Peterson, 2000). On the basis of probabilities
observed in analysis used to make judgments between different groups are done with the help of

inferential statistics. So, inferential statistics are used to interpret our data to suggest or recommend our
findings in general conditions (McQuitty and Peterson, 2000). Also, inferential analysis in about making
decisions for a relationship whether to ignore measures of associations or influence during a process and
it should be taken seriously. Inferential statistics can also give details to show one theory more precise
than the other.
4.5 Multiple Regression
Multiple regressions is a statistical method to find out relationship between one dependent variable
depending on more than one independent variables. Social and natural sciences researches use multiple
regressions very frequently in research. Regression analysis transmits method for analysis and modeling
of various variables and with help of these systems researcher to spotlight the relationship between
multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. Particularly, regression analysis also explains
researchers about the changes in the values of dependent variable which occurs due to change in values
of any one independent variable and remaining independent variables remain unchanged at same time.
The variations of the dependent variable around the regression function are also explained by regression
analysis and it can be explicated through probability distribution. Generally Regression analysis is used
to understand the relationship of dependent variable and independent variable that is which independent
variable is connected with the dependent variable. Structure of relationships also discovered through
regression analysis. Regression analysis can also be used to determine about fundamental relationship
occurs among dependent variable and independent variable.
Table 4.5: Regression Coefficient
Model

VIF

R2

(Constant)
CELEBRITY
JINGLE
ANIMATION
PRODUCT SPECIFICATION

1.672
.262
.306
-.234
.166

3.122
2.359
3.901
-2.582
3.447

.002
.020
.000
.011
.001

.552

29.15

3.142
4.427
6.370
1.095

Table 4.5 shows statistics of all variable both independent and dependent variables with their beta value,
co-linearity value, significant value. The value of shows us the nature of relationship between
dependent and independent variables. The positive value of means there is positive relationship
between independent and dependent variable. In above table celebrity, jingle, product specifications
have positive impact on brand choice and animation has negative impact on brand choice. value is
used to form regression equation which is:
Brand Choice decision = 1.672 (constant) + 0.262 (celebrity) + 0.306 (jingle) 0.234 (animation) +
0.166 (product specification)
The t value in table 4.5 shows the relative importance of each variable in above model. P value shows
significance of each variable. In above table values of all variable are less than 0.05 which means each
variable has significant effect on brand choice decision of viewers. VIF value shows the coefficient of
multiple co-linearity which means variables are greatly connected with each other. When two variables
are highly correlated it means both variable are showing same phenomenon and both are showing same
information. Multi co-linearity exists when the value of VIF is greater than 10. In above table the VIF
value for all variables are less than 10 it means change in value of any variable does not affect on values

of other variables. Value of R2 in above table shows adequacy of model with is 0.552 that shows
independent variable (celebrity, jingles, animation and product specifications) can predict 55.2% of
variance in dependent variable (brand choice).

Table 4.6: Correlation


Correlations

BRAND
CHOICE

PRODUCT

AVERAGE CELEBRITY JINGLE ANIMATION SPECIFICATION


BRAND CHOICE

1.000

.609

.290

-.244

.415

CELEBRITY
JINGLE
ANIMATION
PRODUCT

.609
.290
-.244

1.000
.043
-.559

.043
1.000
.698

-.559
.698
1.000

.190
.105
-.118

.415

.190

.105

-.118

1.000

SPECIFICATION

Table 4.6 shows correlation between all variables. Dependent variable (brand choice) is 0.609 correlated
with celebrity with is strong positive relationship between brand choice and celebrity. Value of

correlation between brand choice and jingle is 0.290 with shows positive weak relation shipment
between celebrity and jingle. The value of correlation between brand choice and animation is -0.244
which shows there is negative weak relationship between brand choice and animation and finally the
relationship between product specification and brand choice is positive with is moderate relationship
with correlation value of 0.415. for celebrity the correlation between celebrity is weak positive.
Correlation between celebrity and animation is moderate negative relation and correlation between
celebrity and product specification is weak positive correlation. Correlation between jingle and
animation is strong positive correlation and correlation between jingle and product specification is weak
positive correlation and correlation between animation and product specification is week negative
relationship.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclusion
The section discusses the finding and conclusions are based on to investigate how the respondents are
influenced by different appeals of advertisements on brand choice. The basic purpose of this research is
to explore that which appeals of advertisement gain most attention of viewers. The appeals of television
advertisements used in research are celebrity, jingles, animations and product specifications. Which are
most commonly used appeals in advertisements these days. The industry selected for research is
beverages industry of Pakistan because advertisements of different products of beverages industry are
growing frequently in Pakistan.
Table 4.5 shows, all four appeals commonly used by advertisers have significant effect of viewers brand
choice decision. The value of unstandardized Jingles in advertisements are most effective to get attention
of viewers and to affect their brand choice decision. After jingle animations are second appeals that
effect viewers brand choice decision but its value is negative that means increase in animation in
advertisements will decrease the brand choice decision because too much advertisement may get
childish impact on advertisement. The respondents of our research are above 18 in age therefore they

advertiser cannot attract their attention with childish effect in advertisement. Celebrity is followed by
animation and product specifications are at last.
Table 4.6 shows that relationship between celebrity and brand choice decision is most strong as
compared to other independent variables related with dependent variable, further relationship followed
by product specifications, jingles and animation with negative relation and all four variables affects
significantly on each other.
5.2.1 Implications and Recommendations
Beverages industry is growing quickly in Pakistan, companies are introducing new brands in market. To
penetrate in market and to get attention of consumer. Marketers use different tools for marketing of their
brands. One of more common tool is advertising. In advertising selection of right appeals that attract the
viewer to choose advertised brand is very important. The purpose of this research is to identify that
which appeal of advertisement is more effective to get attention of consumer and to affect their brand
choice decisions. This research also help advertiser allocate their advertising budget on most effective
appeal to make their advertisement effective.
After conducting the research we can conclude that jingles in advertisement are most effective appeal
that can attract target viewers. Advertiser can concentrate on inclusion of catchy jingles in their
advertisements to make them effective. Animations are also creating some attraction in advertisement
but increased number of advertisement can effect negatively on brand choice decision of viewer. So
advertiser has to be careful about inclusion of animated characters and other graphics. Since this
research has conducted on beverages industry. The products like juices, carbonated drinks and tea does
not contain much different features like electronic items, communication devices and other products
therefore mentioning features in advertisement may not make any difference in advertisement. Use of

celebrity in advertisement is also necessary now days but featuring any famous celebrity could be
expensive and affect the advertising budget. Advertiser can feature non famous celebrity in their
advertisement instead of famous one that will save their budget and also previous researches proved that
non famous celebrities are more effective then famous one.

5.2.2 Future Recommendation:


This research has few limitations; the research was conducted in Karachi only due to time and cost
restrictions and the industry for research was beverages industry. There are many other growing
industries also in which competitors try to influence consumers brand choice decisions through
television advertisements. Researchers in can research on other industries like telecom industry,
appliances industry and other FMCG products. In future researcher can also consider different
geographical areas to explore the effect of different appeals on advertisments. Researcher can also work
to identify either attraction created through television advertisement with help of different appeals
effects on product sales or not.