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# Dr.

## NAVALAR NEDUNCHEZHIYAN COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING
Tholudur,Cuddalore (Dt) 606 303.

QUESTIONBANK
SubjectCode/Subject: EC2255 / CONTROL SYSTEMS
Name :K.MANIKANDAN

## Designation: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

Dept : ECE

Semester

: IV

UNIT I
CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING
Basic Elements of Control System Open loop and Closed loop systems Differential equation
- Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational mechanical
systems - Block diagram reduction Techniques - Signal flow graph.
PART-A
1. The equivalent transfer function of three parallel blocks G1(s) =

, G2(s) =

(1 MARKS)
and G3(s) =

+
+

is

2. A feedback control system is shown in fig. The transfer function for this system is

G1G2
(A) 1 + H 1G1G2 G3
G 2 G3
(C) 1 + H 1G1G2 G3

G 2 G3
(B) G1 (1 + H 1G2 G3 )
G 2 G3
(D) G1 (1 + H 1G2 G3 )

## The input output relationship of this system is

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

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Control Systems

## 4. The closed loop gain of the system shown in fig.

(A) 2
(B) 6
(C) 6
(D) 2
5. The block diagrams shown in fig are equivalent if G is equal to

(A) s + 1
(B) 2
(C) s + 2
(D) 1
6. The transfer function C/R of the system shown in the fig.

G1 H 2
(A) H 1 (1 + G1G2 H 2 )
G2 G1
(C) 1 + H 1 H 2 G1G2

G1G2 H 2
(B) H 1 (1 + G1G2 H 2 )
G1G2
(D) H 1 (1 + G1G2 H 2 )

7. In the signal flow graph shown in fig. The sum of loop gain of non-touching loops is

## (A) t32t23 + t44

(B) t23t32 + t34t43
(C) t24t43t32 + t44
(D) t23t32 + t34t43 + t44
8. For the SFG shown in fig. the graph determinant is

## (A) 1 bc fg bcfg + cigj

(B) 1 bc fg cigj + bcfg
(C) 1 + bc + fg bcfg + cigj
(D) 1 + bc + fg cigj + bcfg
9. The sum of the gains of the feedback paths in the signal flow graph shown in fig.

## (A) af + be + cd + abef + bcde

(C) af + be + cd + abef + abcdef

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(B) af + be + cd
(D) af + be + cd + cbef + bcde + abcdef

Control Systems

## For this system the signal flow graph is

(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
11. The block diagram of a system is shown in fig. The closed loop transfer function of this system is

12. For the system shown in fig. Transfer function C(s) / R(s) is

## 13. In the signal flow graph shown in fig. The gain C / R is

(A) 44/23
(B) 29/19
(C) 44/19
(D) 29/11
14. The gain C(s) / R(s) of the signal flow graph shown in fig.

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Control Systems

## For system to be stable, the range of K is

(A) K > 1/54
(B) K < 3/40
(C) 1/54 < K < 3/40
(D) Unstable
17. The closed loop system shown in fig. become marginally stable if the constant K is chosen to be

(A) 30
(B) 30
(C) 10
18. The open-loop transfer function of aufbsystem is

(D) 10

## The closed loop system will be stable if the value of K is

(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
19. The closed loop transfer function for this system is

20. The feedback system is shown in fig. The poles location for this system is shown in fig. The value of K is

(A) 4
(C) 2
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(B) 4
(D) 2
Control Systems

Answers:
1
A
11
C

2
B
12
B

3
D
13
A

4
C
14
B

5
D
15
C

6
A
16
C

PART B

7
A
17
A

8
D
18
D

9
A
19
B

10
A
20
C

(2 Mark)

## 21. What is control system?

A system consists of a number of components connected together to perform a specific function. In a
system when the output quantity is controlled by varying the input quantity then the system is called control
system.
22. List the two major types of control systems?
Open loop systems
Closed loop systems
23. Define open loop and closed loop systems. (Nov-07)
The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity is called open loop
control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for correction.
The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to maintain the desired
output values are called closed loop control system.
24. What is a signal flow graph?
A signal flow graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous algebraic equations .By taking
Laplace Transform, the time domain differential equations governing a control system can be transferred to a set
of algebraic equations in s-domain.
25. Write the analogous electrical elements in force voltage analogy for the elements of mechanical
translational system. (Nov-09)
Force-voltage e
Velocity v-current i
Displacement x-charge q
Frictional co-efficient B-Resistance R
Mass M- Inductance L
Stiffness K-Inverse of capacitance 1/C
26. Write the analogous electrical elements in force current analogy for the elements of mechanical
translational system. (May-10)
Force-current i
Velocity v-voltage v
Displacement x-flux
Frictional co-efficient B-conductance 1/R
Mass M- capacitance C
Stiffness K-Inverse of inductance 1/L
27. State masons gain formula.
Masons gain formula states that the overall gain of the system as follows,
Overall gain, T = 1/ k Pk k
T = T(s) = Transfer function of the system.
K = Number of forward paths in the signal flow graph.
Pk = Forward path gain of Kth forward path.
= 1-[sum of individual loop gains] + [sum of gain products of all possible combinations of two non-touching
loops]-[sum of gain products of all possible combinations of three non-touching loops] +
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k = [ for that part of the graph which is not touching Kth forward path]
28. What is feedback?
The feedback is a control action in which the output is sampled and a proportional signal is given to input
for automatic correction of any changes in desired output.
29. Why is negative feedback invariably preferred in a closed loop systems?
The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any disturbance signals. Its also
has low sensitivity to parameter variations. Hence negative feedback is preferred in closed loop systems.
30. What are the components of feedback control system?
The components of feedback control system are plant, feedback path elements, error detector and
controller.
31. Define transfer function.(Nov-08)
The Transfer function of a system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of output to Laplace
transform of input with zero initial conditions. Its also defined as the Laplace Transform of the impulse response
of system with zero initial conditions.
32. What are the characteristics of negative feedback?
Accuracy in tracking steady state value.
Rejection of disturbance signals.
Low sensitivity to parameter variations.
Reduction in gain at the expense of better stability.
33. Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
Open loop
Closed loop
1.Innaccurate & unreliable
Accurate & reliable
2.Simple and economical

## Complex and costlier

3.The changes in output due to external disturbance The changes in output due to external disturbances
are not corrected automatically
are corrected automatically
4.They are generally stable
Great efforts are needed to design a stable system
34. Define non-touching loop.
The loops are said to be non-touching if they do not have common nodes.
35. Define linear system.
A system is said to be linear if it obeys the principle of superposition and homogeneity. The principle of
superposition states that the response of a system to a weighed sum of signal is equal to the corresponding
weighed sum of the responses of the system to each of the individual input signals.
36. What is time invariant system?
A system is said to be time invariant if its input output characteristics do not change with time. A linear
time invariant system can be represented by constant coefficient differential equations.
37. What is transmittance?
The transmittance is the gain acquired by the signal when it travels from one node to another node in
signal flow graph
38. What is source and sink?
Source is the input node in the signal flow graph and it has only outgoing branches.
Sink is an output node in the signal flow graph and it has only incoming branches.
39. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational system?
The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained by using three basic elements Mass, spring
and dashpot.
40. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational system?
The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained by using three basic elements Moment of
inertia J, dash-pot with rotational frictional coefficient B and torsional spring with stiffness K
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Control Systems

## 41. What is block diagram? (Nov-07)

A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component of
the system and shows the flow of signals. The basic elements of block diagram are block, branch point and
summing point.
42. What is the basis for framing the rules of block diagram reduction technique?
The rules for block diagram reduction technique are framed such that any modification made on the
diagram does not alter the input output relation.
43. What is servomechanism?
The servomechanism is a feedback control system, in which the output is mechanical position (or time
derivatives of position velocity and acceleration,)
44. Write the force balance equation of ideal mass element.
Let a force f be applied to an ideal mass M. The mass will offer an opposing force fm which is proportional
to acceleration.
f = fm = M d2x / dt2
45. Write the force balance equation of ideal dashpot.
Let a force f be applied to an ideal dashpot, with viscous frictional coefficient B. The dashpot will offer an
opposing force fb which is proportional to velocity.
f = fb = B dx / dt
46. Write the force balance equation of ideal spring.
Let a force f be applied to an ideal spring with spring constant K. The spring will offer an opposing force
fk which is proportional to displacement.
f = fk= Kx
47. Give the Advantages of signal flow graph?
Mansons gain formula the overall gain of the system can be computed easily.
This method is simpler than the tedious block diagram reduction techniques.
48. What are the basic properties of signal flow graph?
Signal flow graph is applicable to linear systems.
It consists of nodes and branches. A node is a point representing a variable or signal. A branch indicates
functional dependence of one signal on the other.
A node adds the signals of all incoming branches and transmits this sum to all outgoing branches.
Signals travel along branches only in the marked direction and is multiplied by the gain of the branch.
The algebraic equation must be in the form of cause and effect relationship.

PART C

(16 Mark)

49. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical system shown in fig and determine the
transfer function. (May-10)

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50. Determine the transfer function Y2(S)/F(S) of the system shown in fig. (Nov-08)

51. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical rotational system shown in fig. Draw the
Torque-voltage and Torque-current electrical analogous circuits.

52. Determine the overall transfer function C(S)/R(S) for the system shown in fig.

53. Obtain the closed loop transfer function C(S)/R(S) of the system whose block diagram is shown in fig.

54. For the system represented by the block diagram shown in fig. Determine C1/R1 and C2/R1.

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55. Find the overall gain C(s) / R(s) for the signal flow graph shown below. (May-10)

56. Find the overall gain of the system whose signal flow graph is shown in fig.

57. Draw a signal flow graph and evaluate the closed loop transfer function of a system whose block is
shown in fig. (Nov-06)

58. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical systems shown below. Draw the forcevoltage and force-current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh and node equations.

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UNIT II
TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

Time response analysis - First Order Systems - Impulse and Step Response analysis of second
order systems - Steady state errors P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using MATLAB
PART-A

(1 MARKS)

59. A system with gain margin close to unity or a phase margin close to zero is
(A) Highly stable.
(B) Oscillatory.
(C) Relatively stable.
(D) Unstable.
60. The overshoot in the response of the system having the transfer function
16 K/S (S2 + 2S + 16) for a unit-step input is
(A) 60%.
(B) 40%.
(C) 20%.
(D) 10%.
61. The damping ratio of a system having the characteristic equation S2+2S+8=0 is
(A) 0.353.
(B) 0.330.
(C) 0.300.
(D) 0.250.
62. The forward path transfer of ufb system is

The system is
(A) Stable.
(B) Unstable.
(C) Marginally stable.
(D) More information is required.
63. The open loop transfer function of a system is as

## The range of K for stable system will be

(A) K > 0.355
(B) 0.149 < K < 3/40
(C) 0.236 < K < 0.44
(D) K > 0.44
64. The input to a controller is
(A) Sensed signal.
(B) desired variable value.
(C) Error signal.
(D) servo-signal.
65. The unit-impulse response of a system starting from rest is given by C(t) = 1-e-2t for t 0 The transfer
function of the system is
1
2
(A)
(B)
1 + 2S
S +2
2
1
(C)
(D)
S ( S + 2)
S+2
66. Electrical time-constant of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is
(A) Equal to mechanical time-constant.
(B) Smaller than mechanical time-constant.
(C) Larger than mechanical time-constant.
(D) Not related to mechanical time-constant.
67. Peak overshoot of step-input response of an under damped second-order system is explicitly indicative
of
(A) Settling time.
(B) Rise time.
(C) Natural frequency.
(D) Damping ratio.
68. A unity feedback system with open-loop transfer function G(s) = 4/[s (s + p)] is critically damped. The
value of the parameter p is
(A) 4.
(B) 3.
(C) 2.
(D) 1.
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## The numbers of poles in RHP and in LHP are

(A) 4, 1
(B) 1, 4
(C) 3, 2
(D) 2, 3
70. For the System shown in fig. The number of poles on RHP, LHP and Imaginary axis are

(A) 2, 3, 0
(B) 3, 2, 0
(C) 2, 1, 2
(D) 1, 2, 2
71. A system is shown in fig. The rise time and settling time for this system is

## (A) 0.22s, 0.4s

(B) 0.4s, 0.22s
(C) 0.12s, 0.4s
(D) 0.4s, 0.12s
72. For a second order system settling time is Ts = 7 s and peak time is Tp = 3 s. The locations of poles are
(A) -0.97 j0.69
(B) -0.69 j0.97
(C) -1.047 j0.571
(D) -0.571 j1.047
73. For a second order system overshoot = 10% and peak time Tp = 5 s. The locations of poles are
(A) -0.46 j0.63
(B) -0.63 j0.46
(C) -0.74 j0.92
(D) -0.92 j0.74
74. For a second-order system overshoot = 12 % and settling time = 0.6s. The locations of poles are
(A) -9.88 j6.67
(B) -6.67 j9.88
(C) -4.38 j6.46
(D) -6.46 j4.38
75. A system has a damping ratio of 1.25, a natural frequency of 200 rad/s and DC gain of 1. The system is
(A) Over damped.
(B) Under damped.
(C) Critically damped.
(D) None of the above.
76. A system has a damping ratio of 1.25, a natural frequency of 200 rad/s and DC gain of 1. The response
of the system to a unit step input is
(A) 1 + 5/3 e-50t 2/3 e-150t
(B) 1 - 4/3 e-100t + 1/3 e-400t
(C) 1 + 1/3 e-100t 4/3 e-400t
(D) 1 + 2/3 e-50t 5/3 e-150t
77. The forward-path transfer of aufb control system is
The step, ramp, and parabolic error constants are
(A) 0, 1000, 0
(B) 1000, 0, 0
(C) 0, 0, 0
(D) 0, 0, 1000
78. The open-loop transfer function of aufb control system is

## The position, velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively

(A) 0, 0, 4K
(B) , k/8, 0
(C) 0, 4K,
(D) , , k/8

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Control Systems

Answers:
59
C
69
C

60
B
70
D

61
A
71
A

62
C
72
D

63
B
73
A

64
C
74
B

PART B

65
C
75
A

66
B
76
B

67
D
77
B

68
A
78
D

(2Mark)

## 79. What is time response?

The time response is the output of the closed loop system as a function of time. It is denoted by c(t). It is
given by inverse Laplace of the product of input of input and transfer function of the system.
The closed loop transfer function, C(s)/R(s) = G(s)/1+G(s) H(s)
Response in s-domain, C(s) = R(s) G(s)/1+ G(s) H(s)
Response in time domain, c(t) = 1 [C(s)] = 1 [R(s) G(s)/1+ G(s) H(s)]
80. What is transient and steady state response?
The transient response is the response of the system when the input changes from one state to another. The
response of the system as t is called steady state response.
81. What is step signal?
The step signal is a signal whose value changes from zero to A at t= 0 and remains constant at A for t>0.
82. What is ramp signal?
The ramp signal is a signal whose value increases linearly with time from an initial value of zero at t=0.the
ramp signal resembles a constant velocity.
83. What is a parabolic signal? (Nov-08)
The parabolic signal is a signal whose value varies as a square of time from an initial value of zero at
t=0.This parabolic signal represents constant acceleration input to the signal.
84. Define pole.
The pole of a function, F(s) is the value at which the function, F(s) becomes infinite, where F(s) is a
function of complex variable.
85. Define zero.
The zero of a function, F(s) is the value at which the function, F(s) becomes zero, where F(s) is a function
of complex variable.
86. What is an order of a system?
The order of a system is the order of the differential equation governing the system. The order of the
system can be obtained from the transfer function of the given system.
87. List the time domain specifications. (Nov-06)
The time domain specifications are
i. Delay time
ii. Rise time
iii. Peak time
iv. Peak overshoot
88. Define Delay time.
The time taken for response to reach 50% of final value for the very first time is delay time.
89. What is rise time and peak time? (Nov-06)
The time taken for response to rise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is rise time.
The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is peak time.
90. What is meant by steady state error? (Nov-07)
The steady state error is defined as the value of error as time tends to infinity. The steady state error is a
measure of system accuracy. These errors arise from the nature of inputs, type of system and from non-linearity
of system components.

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## 91. What are static error constants?

The Kp, Kv and Ka are called static error constants. These constants are associated with steady state error
in a particular type of system and for a standard input.
92. Give two advantages of generalized error co-efficient.
Steady state is function of time.
Steady state can be determined from any type of input
93. Define maximum (peak) overshoot, Mp. (May-07)
Peak overshoot is defined as the ratio of maximum peak value measured from the Maximum value to final
value
94. What is the need for a controller?
The controller is provided to modify the error signal for better control action
95. What are the different types of controllers? (May-08)
Proportional controller
PI controller
PD controller
PID controller
96. What is proportional controller?
It is device that produces a control signal which is proportional to the input error signal.
97. What is PI controller? (Nov-04)
It is device that produces a control signal consisting of two terms one proportional to error signal and the
other proportional to the integral of error signal.
98. What is PD controller?
PD controller is a proportional plus derivative controller which produces an output signal consisting of
two times -one proportional to error signal and other proportional to the derivative of the signal.
99. What is the significance of integral controller and derivative Controller in a PID controller?
The proportional controller stabilizes the gain but produces a steady state error. The integral control
reduces or eliminates the steady state error.
100. Why derivative controller is not used in control systems.
The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change of error signal and it does
not produce corrective measures for any constant error.
101. What is the drawback of static coefficients?
The main drawback of static coefficient is that it does not show the variation of error with time and input
should be standard input.
102. Define Delay time.
The time taken for response to reach 50% of final value for the very first time is delay time.
103. Define Settling time.
Settling time is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within specified error
104. What is the effect of PI controller on the system performance?
The PI controller increases the order of the system by one, which results in reducing the steady state error.
But the system becomes less stable than the original system.
105. What are the three constants associated with a steady state error?
Positional error constant
Velocity error constant
Acceleration error constant.

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PART C

(16Mark)

106. A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the response of the system
for unit step input?

107. (i) Measurements conducted on a Servomechanism show the system response to be c(t)=1+0.2 -60t 1.2 10 t. when subjected to a unit step. Obtain an expression for closed loop transfer function.
(ii). A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the response c (t) to the unit
step input? Given that =0.5.and also calculate rise time, peak time, Maximum overshoot and settling time.

108. (i) A unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function G(S) = 10/S(S+2). Find the rise
time, percentage over shoot, peak time and settling time.
(ii) A closed loop servo is represented by the differential equation (d2c/dt2) +8 (dc/dt) = 64 e Where c is the
displacement of the output shaft r is the displacement of the input shaft and e= r-c. Determine undamped
natural frequency, damping ratio and percentage maximum overshoot for unit step input.
109. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(S) = 10(S+2)/ S2 (S+1). Find (a)
position, velocity and acceleration error constants. (b) The steady state error when the input is R(S) where
R(S) =3/S 2/S2 +1/3S3
110. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with unity feedback system is G(S) = 10/ S (0.1S+1).
Evaluate the static error constants of the system. Obtain the steady state error of the system when
subjected to an input given Polynomial r (t) = a0 +a1t +a2 /2 t2
111. The unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function is G(S) = K / S(S+10).
Determine the gain K, so that the system will have a damping ratio of 0.5. For this value of K, determine
settling time, Peak overshoot and time to Peak overshoot for a unit-step input.
112. (i) For a servomechanisms with open loop transfer function (S) =10/(S+2) (S+3). What type of input
signal gives constant steady state error and calculate its value.
(ii) Find the static error coefficients for a system whose G(s) H(s) = 10/S (1+S) (1+2S) and also find steady
state error for r(t)=1+ t + t2/2.

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UNIT III
FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

Frequency Response - Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot - Frequency Domain specifications
from the plots - Constant M and N Circles - Nichols Chart - Use of Nichols Chart in Control
System Analysis. Series, Parallel, series-parallel Compensators - Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag
Compensators, Analysis using MATLAB.
PART-A

(1 MARKS)

## The position, velocity and acceleration error constants are respectively

(A) 0, 0, 250
(B) 50, 0, 0
(C) 0, 250,
(D) , 50, 0
114. The forward-path transfer function of a unity feedback system is

The system has 10% overshoot and velocity error constant Kv = 100. The value of K is
(A) 237 x 103
(B) 144
3
(D) 237
(C) 14.4 x 10
115. The forward-path transfer function of a unity feedback system is
The system has 10% overshoot and velocity error constant Kv = 100. The value of is
(B) 237
(C) 14.4 x 103
(D) 144
(A) 23.7 x 103
116. For the system shown in fig. the steady state error component due to unit step disturbance is 0.000012
and steady state error component due to unit ramp input is 0.003.The values of K1 and K2 are respectively

## (A) 16.4, 1684

(B) 1250, 2.4
(C) 125 x 103, 0.016
(D) 463, 3981
117. The transfer function for a single loop non unity feedback control system is

## The steady state error due to unit step input is

(A) 6/7
(B) 6/5
(C) 2/3
(D) 0
118. The forward path transfer function of aufb system is

## If a unit ramp is applied, the minimum possible steady-state error is

(A) 0.16
(B) 6.25
(C) 0.14
(D) 7.25
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## 119. The forward-path transfer function of aufb system is

The system has r(t) = t3 applied to its input. The steady state error is
(A) 4 x 10-4
(B) 0
(C)
(D) 2 x 10-5
120. A system has position error constant Kp = 3. The steady state error for input of 8tu(t) is
(A) 2.67
(B) 2
(C)
(D) 0
121. For ufb system shown in fig. the transfer function is

## If input is 30t2, then steady state error is

(A) 0.9375
(B) 0
(C)
(D) 64
122. The system shown in fig. has steady-state error 0.1 to unit step input. The value of K is

(A) 0.1
(B) 0.9
(C) 1
(D) 9
123. An under damped second order system having a transfer function of the form

## has a frequency response plot shown in fig. The system gain K is

(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 2
(D) 1/2
124. An under damped second order system having a transfer function of the form

has a frequency response plot shown in fig. The damping factor is approximately

(A) 0.6
(C) 1.8

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(D) 2.4

Control Systems

## (A) 0.5 rad/sec

(B) 0.707 rad/sec
(C) 1.732 rad/sec
(D) 2 rad/sec
126. The phase margin of a system with the open loop transfer function is

(A) 68.30
(B) 900
(C) 0
(D)
127. The gain-phase plots of open-loop transfer function of four different systems are shown in fig. The
correct sequence of the increasing order of stability of these four systems will be

(A) D, C, B, A
(C) B, C, A, D
128. The gain margin of the ufb system is

(B) A, B, C, D
(D) A, D, B, C

(A) 1.76 dB
(B) 3.5 dB
(C) 3.5 dB
(D) 1.76 dB
129. The open-loop transfer function of aufb system is

## The corner frequencies are

(A) 0 and 2
(B) 0 and 1
(C) 0 and 1
(D) 1 and 2
130. In the Bode-plot of a unity feedback control system, the value of magnitude of G(j) at the phase
crossover frequency is 1/2. The gain margin is
(A) 2
(B)1/2
(C)1/3
(D) 3
131. The transfer function of a system is given by
The Bode plot of this function is

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

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(A) 0.25
(B) 0.2
(C) 0
(D)
Answers:
113
B
123
A

114
C
124
B

115
D
125
B

116
C
126
D

117
C
127
B

118
A
128
B

PART B

119
A
129
D

120
C
130
A

121
A
131
D

122
D
132
A

(2Mark)

## 133. What is Bode plot?

The Bode plot is the frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A Bode plot consists of
two graphs. One is the plot of magnitude of sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The other is a plot of the
phase angle of a sinusoidal function versus log .
134. List the advantages of Bode plot.
(i) The magnitudes are expressed in db and so a simple procedure is available to add magnitude of each
term one by one.
(ii) The approximate bode plot can be quickly sketched, and the corrections can be made at corner
frequencies to get the exact plot.
(iii) The frequency domain specifications can be easily determined.
(iv) The bode plot can be used to analyze both open loop and closed loop system.
134. What is a Polar plot?
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(j) is a plot of the magnitude of G(j) versus the phase
angle/argument of G(j) on polar or rectangular co-ordinates as is varied from zero to infinity.
135. What is frequency response? (April-09)
A frequency response is a steady state output of the system, when the input to the system is a sinusoidal
signal.
136. List out the different frequency domain specifications?
The frequency domain specifications are
(i) Resonant peak.
(ii) Resonant frequency.
(iii) Cutoff rate.
(iv) Gain margin.
(v) Bandwidth.
(vi) Phase margin.
137. Define resonant Peak (r)? (Nov-08)
The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called resonant peak.
138. Define resonant frequency (f)? (Nov-09)
The frequency at which resonant peak occurs is called resonant frequency. The resonant peak is the
maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function.
139. What is bandwidth?
The bandwidth is the range of frequencies for which the system gain is more than -3 db. The bandwidth is
a measure of the ability of a feedback system to reproduce the input signal, noise rejection characteristics and rise
time.

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## 140. Define Cut-off rate? (May-05)

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut-off is called cut-off rate. The cut-off rate indicates the
ability to distinguish the signal from noise.
141. Define Gain Margin? (May-06)
The gain margin, Kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of the open loop transfer function at
phase cross over frequency.
Gain margin Kg = 1 / | G(j) | = pc
142. Define Phase and Gain cross-over frequency? (Nov-06)
The gain cross-over frequency is the frequency at which the magnitude of the open loop transfer function
is unity.
The phase cross-over frequency is the frequency at which the phase of the open loop transfer function is 180.
143. What is phase margin?
The phase margin, is the amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to
bring the system to the verge of instability.
144. Define Corner frequency? (May-07)
The magnitude plot can be approximated by asymptotic straight lines. The frequencies corresponding to
the meeting point of asymptotes are called corner frequency. The slope of the magnitude plot changes at every
corner frequencies.
145. What are M and N circles?
The magnitude of closed loop transfer function with unit feedback will be in the form of circle in complex
plane for each constant value of M. The family of these circles is called M circles.
Let N = tan where is the phase of closed loop transfer function with unity feedback. For each constant value
of N, a circle can be drawn in the complex plane. The family of these circles is called N circles.
146. What is a Nichols plot?
The Nichols plot is a frequency response plot of the open loop transfer function of a system. It is a graph
between magnitude of G(j) in db and the phase of G(j) in degree, plotted on a ordinary graph sheet.
147. What is Nichols chart?
The Nichols chart consists of M and N contours superimposed on ordinary graph. Along each M contour
the magnitude of closed loop system, M will be a constant. Along each N contour, the phase of closed loop
system will be constant. The ordinary graph consists of magnitude in db, marked on the y-axis and the phase in
degrees marked on x-axis. The Nichols chart is used to find the closed loop frequency response from the open
loop frequency response.
148. How is the Resonant Peak (Mr), resonant frequency (Wr )and band width determined from Nichols
chart?
(i) The resonant peak is given by the value of .contour which is tangent to G(j ) locus.
(ii) The resonant frequency is given by the frequency of G(j ) at the tangency point.
(iii) The bandwidth is given by frequency corresponding to the intersection point of
G(j ) and 3dB M-contour.
149. What are the advantages of Nichols chart? (Nov-08)
The advantages are:
i) It is used to find the closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency response.
ii) Frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
iii) The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.

PART C

(16 Mark)

150. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross over
frequencies. G(S) = 10/ S (1+0.4S) (1+0.1S)
151. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is G(S) = 1/ S (1+S) (1+2S). Sketch the
Polar plot and determine the Gain margin and Phase margin.
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152. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain
margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 0.75(1+0.2S) / S (1+0.5S) (1+0.1S)
153. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain
margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 10(S+3) / S(S+2) (S2+4S+100)
154. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase
cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 10(S+2) (S+4) / S (S2-3S+10)
155. Construct the polar plot for the function GH(S) =2(S+1)/ S2. Find Gain cross over frequency, Phase
cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.
156. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross over
frequencies G(S) =KS2 / (1+0.2S) (1+0.02S).Determine the value of K for a gain cross over frequency of 20
rad/sec.
157. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function .and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase
cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.
G(S) = 400/ S (S+2) (S+10)
158. A unity feedback system has open loop transfer function G(S) = 20/ S (S+2) (S+5).Using Nichols chart.
Determine the closed loop frequency response and estimate all the frequency domain specifications.
159. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain
margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 10(1+0.1S)/ S (1+0.01S) (1+S).
160. Draw the Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S) H(S) =K / S (S+2)
(S+10). Determine the range of K for which closed loop system is stable.
161. Construct Nyquist plot for a feedback control system whose open loop transfer function is given by
G(S) H(S) =5/ S(1-S).Comment on the stability of open loop and closed loop transfer function.
162. Sketch the Nyquist plot for a system with the open loop transfer function G(S) H(S) =K (1+0.5S) (1+S)
/ (1+10S) (S-1). Determine the range of values of K for which the system is stable.

UNIT IV
STABILITY ANALYSIS

Stability, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus, Stability,
Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram - Nyquist Stability Criterion - Relative
Stability, Analysis using MATLAB
PART-A

(1 MARKS)

163. The Nyquist plot of a open-loop transfer function G(j) H(j) of a system encloses the (-1, j0) point.
The gain margin of the system is
(A) Less than zero
(B) greater than zero
(C) Zero
(D) infinity
164. Consider the Bode plot of aufb system shown in fig.

## The damping ratio is

(A) 0.063
(C) 0.483

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(B) 0.179
(D) 0.639

Control Systems

165. If the gain margin of a certain feedback system is given as 20 dB, the Nyquist plot will cross the
negative real axis at the point
(A) s = - 0.05
(B) s = - 0.2
(C) s = - 0.1
(D) s = -0.01
166. Consider an ufb system whose open-loop transfer function is

## The Nyquist plot for this system is

(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
167. A unity feedback system has open-loop transfer function. The Nyquist plot for the system is

(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
168. A unity feedback system has open-loop transfer function. The phase crossover and gain crossover
frequencies are

## (A) 1.414 rad/sec, 0.57 rad/sec

(B) 1.414 rad/sec, 1.38 rad/sec
(C) 0.707 rad/sec, 0.57 rad/sec
(D) 0.707 rad/sec, 1.38 rad/sec
169. A unity feedback system has open-loop transfer function. The gain margin and phase margin are

## (A) -3.52dB, -168.50

(B) -3.52dB, 11.60
(C) 3.52dB, -168.50
(D) 3.52dB, 11.60
170. The first two rows of Rouths tabulation of a third order equation are as follows.
S3 2 2
S2 4 4
This means there are
(A) Two roots at S = j and one root in right half S -plane
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## (B) Two roots at S = j2 and one root in left half S -plane

(C) Two roots at S = j2 and one root in right half S -plane
(D) Two roots at S = j and one root in left half S plane
171. A closed-loop system has the characteristic function (S2 4) (S+1) + K(S1) = 0. Its root locus plot
against K is

(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
172. A system with zero initial conditions has the closed loop transfer function. The system output is zero at
the frequency

## (A) 0.5 rad/sec

(B) 1 rad/sec
(C) 2 rad/sec
(D) 4 rad/sec
173. Figure shows the root locus plot (location of poles not given) of a third order system whose open loop
transfer function is

(A)

K
S3

(B)

K
S ( S + 1)

(C)

K
S ( S 2 + 1)

(D)

K
S ( S 2 1)

174. A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function, G(s) =

(A)

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K
. The root locus plot is
S2

(B)

Control Systems

(C)
(D)
175. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
2( S + )
G(s) =
S ( S + 2)( S + 10)
Angles of asymptotes are
(A) 600, 1200, 3000
(B) 600, 1800, 3000
(C) 900, 2700, 3600
(D) 900, 1800, 2700
176. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
2( S + )
G(s) =
S ( S + 2)( S + 10)
Intercepts of asymptotes at the real axis is
10
(A) 6
(B)
3
(C) 4
(D) 8
177. A unity feedback system has an open-loop transfer function of
10000
G(s) =
S ( S + 10) 2
Determine the magnitude of G (j) in dB at an angular frequency of = 20 rad/sec.
(A) 1 dB
(B) 0 dB
(C) 2 dB
(D) 10 dB
178. A unity feedback system has an open-loop transfer function of
10000
G(s) =
S ( S + 10) 2
The phase margin in degrees is
(A) 900
(B) 36.860
(C) 36.860
(D) 900
179. The term reset control refers to
(A) Integral control
(B) Derivative control
(C) Proportional control
(D) none of the above
180. If stability error for step input and speed of response be the criteria for design, the suitable controller
will be
(A) P controller
(B) PI controller
(C) PD controller
(D) PID controller
1 + 0.5S
181. The transfer function
represent a
1+ S
(A) Lag network
(B) Lead network
(C) Laglead network
(D) Proportional controller
182. A lag compensation network
(a) Increases the gain of the original network without affecting stability.
(b) Reduces the steady state error.
(c) Reduces the speed of response
(d) Permits the increase of gain of phase margin is acceptable.
In the above statements, which are correct?
(A) a and b
(B) b and c
(C) b, c, and d
(D) all
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Answer:
163
A
173
C

164
B
174
A

165
C
175
C

166
C
176
B

167
A
177
B

168
C
178
C

PART B

169
D
179
A

170
D
180
D

171
A
181
A

172
A
182
D

(2Mark)

## 183. Define stability.

A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBIO stability if every bounded input results in a bounded output.
184. What is nyquist contour?
The contour that encloses entire right half of S plane is called nyquist contour.
185. State Nyquist stability criterion. (Nov-07)
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the nyquist contour in the Splane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the contour in clockwise direction as many times as the number of right
half S-plane poles of G(s),the closed loop system is stable.
186. Define Relative stability. (May-07)
Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system; it is an indication of strength or degree of
stability.
187. What will be the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic equation are lying on
imaginary axis?
If the root of characteristic equation lies on imaginary axis the nature of impulse response is oscillatory.
188. What is the relationship between Stability and coefficient of characteristic polynomial?
If the coefficient of characteristic polynomial are negative or zero, then some of the roots lie on the
negative half of the S-plane. Hence the system is unstable. If the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial are
positive and if no coefficient is zero then there is a possibility of the system to be stable provided all the roots are
lying on the left half of the S-plane.
189. What is Routh stability criterion?
Routh criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in
the first column of the routh array is positive. If this condition is not met, the system is unstable and the number
of sign changes in the elements of the first column of routh array corresponds to the number of roots of
characteristic equation in the right half of the S-plane.
190. What is limitedly stable system?
For a bounded input signal if the output has constant amplitude oscillations, then the system may be stable
or unstable under some limited constraints such a system is called limitedly stable system.
191. In routh array what conclusion you can make when there is a row of all zeros?
All zero rows in the routh array indicate the existence of an even polynomial as a factor of the given
characteristic equation. The even polynomial may have roots on imaginary axis.
192. What is a principle of argument?
The principles of arguments states that let F(S) are analytic function and if an arbitrary closed contour in a
clockwise direction is chosen in the S-plane so that F(S) is analytic at every point of the contour. Then the
corresponding F(S) plane contour mapped in the F(S) plane will encircle the origin N times in the anti clockwise
direction, where N is the difference between number of poles and zeros of F(S) that are encircled by the chosen
closed contour in the S-plane.
193. What are the two segments of Nyquist contour?
i. An finite line segment C1 along the imaginary axis.
ii. An arc C2 of infinite radius.

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## 194. What are root loci? (Nov-08)

The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain is varied from 0 to
infinity are called root loci.
195. What is a dominant pole?
The dominant pole is a pair of complex conjugate pole which decides the transient response of the system.
In higher order systems the dominant poles are very close to origin and all other poles of the system are widely
separated and so they have less effect on transient response of the system.
196. What are the main significances of root locus?
i. The root locus technique is used for stability analysis.
ii. Using root locus technique the range of values of K, for as stable system can be determined.
197. What are break away and break in points?
At break away point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex plane. At break in
point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane. To find the break away or break in points, form a
equation for K from the characteristic equation and differentiate the equation of K with respect to s. Then find the
roots of the equation dK/dS = 0. The roots of dK/dS = 0 are break away or break in points provided for this value
of root the gain K should be positive and real.
198. What are asymptotes? How will you find angle of asymptotes?
Asymptotes are the straight lines which are parallel to root locus going to infinity and meet the root locus
at infinity.
Angles of asymptotes = 180(2q + 1)/(n-m)
q= 0,1,2, .(n-m)
n-number of poles.
m-number of zeros.
199. What is centroid?
The meeting point of the asymptotes with the real axis is called centroid. The centroid is given by
Centroid = (sum of poles sum of zeros) / (n-m)
n-number of poles.
m-number of zeros.
200. What is magnitude criterion?
The magnitude criterion states that s=sawill be a point on root locus if for that value of S, magnitude of
G(S)H(S) is equal to 1.
|G(S)H(S)| = K(product of length of vectors from open loop zeros to the point s=sa)/ (product of length of vectors
from open loop poles to the point s=sa) = 1.
201. What is angle criterion?
The angle criterion states that s=sawill be the point on the root locus if for that value of S the argument or
phase of G(S)H(S) is equal to an odd multiple of 180.
(Sum of the angles of vectors from zeros to the point s=sa)- (Sum of the angles of vectors from poles to the point
s=sa) = 180(2q + 1)
202. How will you find the root locus on real axis?
To find the root loci on real axis, choose the test point on real axis. If the total number of poles and zeros
on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the test point lie on the root locus. If it is even
then the test point does not lie on the root locus.
203. What is characteristic equation?
The denominator polynomial of C(S)/R(S) is the characteristic equation of the system.
204. How the roots of characteristic are related to stability?
If the root of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of the system is not
bounded. Hence the system will be unstable. If the root has negative real parts then the impulse response is
bounded. Hence the system will be stable.

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## 205. What is the necessary condition for stability?

The necessary condition for stability is that all the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial be positive.
The necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in the first column of the routh array
should be positive.
206. What are the requirements for BIBO Stability?
The requirement of the BIBO stability is that the absolute integral of the impulse response of the system
should take only the finite value.
207. What is auxiliary polynomial?
In the construction of routh array a row of all zero indicates the existence of an even polynomial as a
factor of given characteristic equation. In an even polynomial the exponents of S are even integers or zero only.
This even polynomial factor is called auxiliary polynomial. The coefficients of auxiliary polynomial are given by
the elements of the row just above the row of all zeros.
208. What are the effects of adding a zero to a system? (May-10)
Adding a zero to a system increases peak overshoot appreciably.

PART C

(16 Mark)

209. (i) Using Routh criterion determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation is
S4+8S3+18S2+16S+5 =0.
(ii) F(S) = S6 +S5-2S4-3S3-7S2-4S-4 =0.Find the number of roots falling in the RHS plane and LHS plane.
210. A unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function G(S) = K / S (S2+4S+13). Sketch
the root locus.
211. Sketch the root locus of the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S) = K / S (S+2) (S+4). Find
the value of K so that the damping ratio of the closed loop System is 0.5
212. A unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function G(S) = K (S+9) / S (S2+4S+11).
Sketch the root locus.
213. Sketch the root locus of the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S) = K / S (S+4) (S2+4S+20).
214. A Unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function G(S) = K (S+1.5) / S (S+1)
(S+5).Sketch the root locus.
215. Draw the Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S) = K / S (S+2) (S+10).
Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is stable.
216. Sketch the Nyquist Plot for a system with the open loop transfer function G(S) H(S) = K (1+0.5S) (1+S)
/ (1+10S) (S-1). Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is stable.
217. Construct Nyquist Plot for a system with the open loop transfer function G(S) H(S) = 5 / S (1S).Comment on the stability of open loop and closed loop system.
218. By Nyquist stability criterion determine the stability of closed loop system, whose open loop transfer
function is given by, G(S) H(S) = (s+2)/(s+1)(s-1).
219. (i) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S5+S4+2S3+2S2+3S+5=0. Comment on the location of the roots of characteristic equation.
(ii) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S7+9S6+24S4+24S3+24S2+23S+15=0.

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UNIT V
STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

State space representation of Continuous Time systems State equations Transfer function from
State Variable Representation Solutions of the state equations - Concepts of Controllability and
Observability State space representation for Discrete time systems. Sampled Data control
systems Sampling Theorem Sample & Hold Open loop & Closed loop sampled data
systems.
PART-A

(1 MARKS)

## 220. Derivative control

(A) has the same effect as output rate control
(B) reduces damping
(C) is predictive in nature
(D) increases the order of the system
221. The transfer function of a compensating network is of form (1 + Ts) / (1 + Ts). If this is a phaseLag
network, the value of should be
(A) greater than 1
(B) between 0 and 1
(C) exactly equal to 1
(D) exactly equal to 0
222. While designing controller, the advantage of polezero cancellation is
(A) The system order is increased
(B) The system order is reduced
(C) The cost of controller becomes low
(D) Systems error reduced to optimum levels
223. For an electrically heated temperature controlled liquid heater, the best controller is
(A) Singleposition controller
(B) Twoposition controller
(C) Floating controller
(D) Proportionalposition controller
224. In case of phaselag compensation used is system, gain crossover frequency; band width and
undamped frequency are respectively
(A) decreased, decreased, decreased
(B) increased, increased, increased
(C) increased, increased, decreased
(D) increased, decreased, decreased
225. The correct sequence of steps needed to improve system stability is
(A) reduce gain, use negative feedback, insert derivative action
(B) reduce gain, insert derivative action, use negative feedback
(C) insert derivative action, use negative feedback, reduce gain
(D) use negative feedback, reduce gain, insert derivative action.
226. In a derivative error compensation
(A) damping decreases and setting time decreases
(B) damping increases and setting time increases
(C) damping decreases and setting time increases
(D) damping increases and setting time decreases
227. An ONOFF controller is a
(A) P controller
(B) PID controller
(C) integral controller
(D) non linear controller
228. Consider the system shown in fig. The controllability matrix is

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## (A) Controllable and observable

(B) Controllable only
(C) Observable only
(D) None of the above
231. Consider the system shown in fig.The controllability matrix for this system is

## 233. Consider the system shown in fig.The system is

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## (A) Controllable and observable

(B) Controllable only
(C) Observable only
(D) None of the above
234. The pollzero configuration of a phaselead compensator is given by

(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
235. The polezero plot given in fig. is that of a

## (A) PID controller

(B) PD controller
(C) Integrator
(D) Laglead compensating network
236. A Lag network for compensation normally consists of
(A) R, L and C elements
(B) R and L elements
(C) R and C elements
(D) R only
237. A second order system with no zeros has its poles located at 3 + j4 and 3 j4 in the S-plane. The
undamped natural frequency and the damping ratio of the system are respectively.
(A) 5 rad/sec and 0.60
(B) 3 rad/sec and 0.60
(C) 5 rad/sec and 0.80
(D) 3 rad/sec and 0.80
238. The characteristic equation of a feedback control system is given by (s2+4s+4)(s2+11s+30)+Ks2+4K = 0
where K < 0 . In the root locus of the this system, the asymptotes meet in S-plane at
(A) (- 9.5, 0)
(B) (-5.5, 0)
(C) (-7.5, 0)
(D) None of the above
K
239. For the certain unity feedback system G(s) =
the Nyquist plot is
S ( S + 1)(2S + 1)(3S + 1)

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Answers:
220
B
230
C

221
B
231
B

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222
B
232
A

223
C
233
A

224
D
234
A

225
D
235
D

226
D
236
C

227
D
237
A

228
B
238
C

229
A
239
A

Control Systems

PART B

(2 Mark)

## 240. Define state variable.

The state of a dynamical system is a minimal set of variables (known as state variables) such that the
knowledge of these variables at t-t0 together with the knowledge of the inputs for t > t0, completely determines the
behavior of the system for t > t0
241. Write the relationship between z-domain and s-domain.
All the poles lying in the left half of the S-plane, the system is stable in S-domain. Corresponding in Zdomain all poles lie within the unit circle.
242. What are the methods available for the stability analysis of sampled data control system?
The following three methods are available for the stability analysis of sampled data control system
Juris stability test.
Bilinear transformation.
Root locus technique.
243. What is the necessary condition to be satisfied for design using state feedback?
The state feedback design requires arbitrary pole placements to achieve the desire performance. The
necessary and sufficient condition to be satisfied for arbitrary pole placement is that the system is completely state
controllable.
244. What is controllability? (May-09)
A system is said to be completely state controllable if it is possible to transfer the system state from any
initial state X(t0) at any other desired state X(t), in specified finite time by a control vector U(t).
245. What is observability? (Nov-09)
A system is said to be completely observable if every state X(t) can be completely identified by
measurements of the output Y(t) over a finite time interval.
246. Write the properties of state transition matrix.
The following are the properties of state transition matrix
1. (0) = eAx0 = I (unit matrix).
2. (t) = eAt = (e-At)-1 = [(-t)]-1.
3. (t1+t2) = eA(t1+t2) = (t1) (t2) = (t2) (t1).
247. Define sampling theorem. (Nov-09)
Sampling theorem states that a band limited continuous time signal with highest frequency fm, hertz can be
uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the sampling rate Fs is greater than or equal to 2fm samples per
second.
248. What is sampled data control system?
When the signal or information at any or some points in a system is in the form of discrete pulses, then the
system is called discrete data system or sampled data system.
249. What is Nyquist rate?
The Sampling frequency equal to twice the highest frequency of the signal is called as Nyquist rate.
fs=2fm
250. What is similarity transformation?
The process of transforming a square matrix A to another similar matrix B by a transformation P-1AP =
B is called similarity transformation. The matrix P is called transformation matrix.
251. What is meant by diagonalization?
The process of converting the system matrix A into a diagonal matrix by a similarity transformation using
the modal matrix M is called diagonalization
252. What is modal matrix?
The modal matrix is a matrix used to diagonalize the system matrix. It is also called diagonalization
matrix.
If A = system matrix. M = Modal matrix
And M-1=inverse of modal matrix.
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## Then M-1 AM will be a diagonalized system matrix.

253. How the modal matrix is determined?
The modal matrix M can be formed from eigenvectors. Let m1, m2, m3 . mn be the eigenvectors of the
th
n order system. Now the modal matrix M is obtained by arranging all the eigenvectors column wise as shown
below.
Modal matrix, M = [m1, m2, m3 . mn].
254. What is the need for controllability test?
The controllability test is necessary to find the usefulness of a state variable. If the state variables are
controllable then by controlling (i.e. varying) the state variables the desired outputs of the system are achieved.
255. What is the need for observability test?
The observability test is necessary to find whether the state variables are measurable or not. If the state
variables are measurable then the state of the system can be determined by practical measurements of the state
variables.
256. State the duality between controllability and observability.
The concept of controllability and observability are dual concepts and it is proposed by kalman as
principle of duality. The principle of duality states that a system is completely state controllable if and only if its
dual system is completely state controllable if and only if its dual system is completely observable or vice versa.
257. How will you find the transformation matrix, Po to transform the state model to observable phase
variable form?
Compute the composite matrix for observability,Q0
Determine the characteristic equation of the system |I -A |=0.
Using the coefficients a1,a2,.an-1 of characteristic equation form a matrix, W.
T
Now the transformation matrix, P0 is given by P0=W Q0 .
258. What is the pole placement by state feedback?
The pole placement by state feedback is a control system design technique, in which the state variables are
used for feedback to achieve the desired closed loop poles.
259. What is state diagram? (May-10)
The state diagram describes the relationship among the state variables and provides physical interpretation
of the state variables.
260. State the condition for controllability by Gilberts method.
Case (i) when the eigen values are distinct.
Consider the canonical form of state model shown below which is obtained by using the transformation X=MZ.
= Z + U
Y = Z + DU
Where, = M-1 AM; = CM, = M-1B and M = Modal matrix.
In this case the necessary and sufficient condition for complete controllability is that, the matrix must have no row
with all zeros. If any row of the matrix is zero then the corresponding state variable is uncontrollable.
Case (ii) when eigen values have multiplicity
In this case the state modal can be converted to Jordan canonical form shown below
= JZ + U
Y=Z + DU
Where, J = M-1AM
In this case the system is completely controllable; if the elements of any row of that correspond to the last row of
each Jordan block are not all zero.
261. State the condition for observability by Gilberts method.
Consider the transformed canonical or Jordan canonical form of the state model shown below which is obtained
by using the transformation, X =MZ
= Z + U
Y=Z + DU
(Or)
= JZ + U
Y=Z + DU
where = CM and M = modal matrix.
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Control Systems

The necessary and sufficient condition for complete observability is that none of the columns of the matrix be
zero. If any of the column is of has all zeros then the corresponding state variable is not observable.
262. What is the need for state observer?
In certain systems the state variables may not be available for measurement and feedback. In such
situations we need to estimate the un-measurable state variables from the knowledge of input and output. Hence a
state observer is employed which estimates the state variables from the input and output of the system. The
estimated state variable can be used for feedback to design the system by pole placement.
PART C

(16 Mark)

263. a. Explain the importance of controllability and observability of the control system model in the design
of the control system.
b. Explain the solution for state equation for discrete time system.
264. Explain sampling theorem and Sample & Hold operation briefly.
265. Explain stability analysis of sampled control system and Jurys stability.
266. Explain state space representation for discrete time system.
267. Explain state space representation for continuous time system.
268. a. Explain the solution for state equation for discrete time system.
b. Explain Jurys stability test.
269. Given the transfer function of a system, determine a state variable representation for the system Y(S) /
U(S) = 1/ (S+2) * (S+3) * (S+4)
270. Determine the state variable representation of the system whose transfer function is given as Y(S) /
U(S) = 2S2+8S+7 / (S+2)2 *(S+1)
271. Discuss the advantage of state space techniques over the transfer function techniques of analyzing the
control system.
272. Explain the procedure of deriving the state space representation of a system whose
dynamics has
been expressed in the form of a differential equation.
273. Test the controllability & observability of the system whose state space representation is given as,

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Control Systems