A PLAY BY EDMUNDO FAROLAN Copyright April, 1996 SUMMARY Rizal is a historical drama of the life, loves and death of the national hero of the Philippines, Jose Rizal Alonso. The play begins and ends with his execution at Bagumbayan by a Spanish firing squad after he is condemned to death for treason. In-between, the play traces this Philippine patriot’s life--from his graduation at the Ateneo de Manila, his travels through Europe, his novels Noli me tangere and El Filibusterismo written during his sojourn there, his founding of the Liga Filipina which resulted in his exile to Dapitan, and finally his trial, condemnation and death. SET DESCRIPTION The set, not unlike the Shakesperean stage, would have two levels, allowing for multiple staging. The upper area will be used for balcony scenes, ship decks, and other scenes requiring upper level staging. The lower area of the stage will be utilized for street scenes, battle scenes, and ground level staging. There are no heavy backdrops or complicated scene changes; only a play of lights that fade in and fade out on different areas of the stage to distinguish scene changes, as well as music and sound effects to show a transition from one scene to another, or mood changes.



CHARACTERS (In the order of appearance)
Jose Rizal Alonso Spanish Officer Fr. Pablo Ramon, S.J. Mexican student Columbian student Peruvian student Crisostomo Ibarra Padre Damaso Don Anastasio (Tasio) Elias Maria Clara German lady (Rizal’s acquaintance) English lady (Rizal’s acquaintance) Graciano Lopez Jaena Servant Padre Florentino Simoun Reporters Andres Bonifacio Apolinario Mabini English lady (companion of Josephine Bracken) Josephine Bracken Parents (Dapitan) Governor General Blanco Generalisimo Aguinaldo Clerk of Court Military Judges Friar Judges Prosecuting Attorney Defense Attorney

Soldiers, Revolutionaries, etc.



RIZAL-Farolan PROLOGUE Screen in the background: ‘Bagumbayan, December 30, 1896’. Sound of marching drums fade in. Jose Rizal is blindfolded and has his hands tied behind his back. He faces a firing squad of Spanish soldiers. A friar is reading a prayer book and giving his last blessing to Rizal. SPANISH OFFICER: Alto!

Spanish soldiers aim at Rizal whose back is to the soldiers. SPANISH OFFICER: Fuego! The soldiers fire at Rizal who turns around and gets shot in front. He falls facing the sky. Drums are played as scene fades out. Scene 1 Screen flashes in the background: ‘Ateneo de Manila, March 1877. It is the old Ateneo Muncipal de Manila. Fr. Pablo Ramon, S.J., Rector of the Ateneo, is on an elevated platform. It is Rizal’s High School Graduation. Ramon is making an announcement in front of the whole student body. RAMON: And last but not least, Valedictorian with straight sobresalientes and the winner of the Drama contest for his play Consejo de los Dioses, Jose Rizal Alonso. Applause. Rizal ascends platform. RAMON: Enhorabuena, Pepe. RIZAL: Scene 2 The family--parents and relatives hug Rizal. Friends and students gather around Rizal after the graduation to congratulate him. A lot of improvised chatting. As they exit: FRIEND 1: Congratulations for the high marks, Pepe. Where are you going to university? RIZAL: Sto. Tomas. FRIEND 2: What will you be taking? RIZAL: Medicine. Lights fade out slowly as Rizal , family and friends exit, chitchatting. Scene 3 Screen fades in: ‘July, 1881. University of Sto. Tomas’. Rizal is on a lectern reciting his prizewinning poem “A la juventud filipina”. The poem may be read by the actor in its entirety or portions of it. It might be a good idea to start off in Spanish for the first few verses then in its English translation, then end in Spanish again. The following free English translation is my attempt to make the poem more contemporary: Gracias, padre.

!Alza tu tersa frente, 3

RIZAL-Farolan Juventud filipina, en este dia! Luce resplandeciente Tu rica gallardia, Bella esperanza de la Patria mia! Soar in your grandiose geniality Infusing noble thoughts, Lancing vigorously Faster than the wind Towards your glory! Throw away, Oh Filipino Youth, the heavy chains that weigh heavy on your poetic genius, and ascend on wings of fantasy To seek Olympus in the clouds And taste the nectar of sweet poetry as you alone can rival the celestial music of the melodious nightingale! Run towards the sacred flame of genius and with your magic brushes paint the beauty of Apollo’s beloved, the enchanting Phoebus. Dia, dia felice, Filipinas gentil para tu suelo! Al potente bendice, Que con amante anhelo La ventura te envia y el consuelo! Applause from audience. Fade out.

Scene 4 Screen: ‘ Madrid, 1884’ . The scene opens in a bar where students of the University of Madrid hang out. Rizal is drinking tinto(red wine) or cervezas with international students from South America. Rizal talks about the injustice of the Friars. The South Americans feel the same way with what’s happening in their countries. RIZAL: The Friars. They’re the cause of our ignorance. MEXICAN: What do you expect? They need to control the country. And what better way than to keep us ignorant? COLOMBIAN: The Jesuits are the worse. Those blackbirds in their black suits. They’re the devil incarnate. Everyone laughs.


RIZAL-Farolan RIZAL: I am a Jesuit graduate and that’s where I learned what Machiavellism is. There’s a term for them in one of our Philippine dialects: suitic from Jesuitic... PERUVIAN: What does it mean? RIZAL: Cheater! Everyone laughs. MEXICAN: Well, they have the best lands. RIZAL: Except for the Dominican friars. I was brought up by these two orders. First at the Ateneo under the Jesuits and then Medicine under the Dominicans at the University of Sto. Tomas. COLUMBIAN: That’s why you’re twice the rebel we all are. Laughter. RIZAL: Seriously now. What’s happening and why is all this happening? MEXICAN: Rizal, as though you don’t understand human nature. You, the poet, writer, doctor...are you blind to the meaning of greed? The greed that inhabits mankind in search for power and wealth? PERUVIAN: Here we are in Spain and we are talking against her. RIZAL: I love Spain; I just don’t like Spaniards. COLUMBIAN: Except for the women! ARGENTINIAN: Here, here! Para las mujeres de Espana! Everyone lifts their glasses. RIZAL: You latinos are going to turn me into a playboy! COLUMBIAN: Es la naturaleza latina! You should know that. You’re Filipino! RIZAL: Everyone stand up and toast to ourselves! MEXICAN: Brindis! ALL: A Filipinas y Latinoamerica! They drink and lights fade out.

Scene 5 Screen: ‘ Heidelberg, 1885’ . Rizal is writing Noli me tangere. Voice over excerpts of the Noli, in Spanish first, then in English, start off each of the scenes followed by actual dramatizations of these scenes, as though Rizal, as he writes, visualizes these scenes. A: Ibarra is in a carriage riding through Manila on his way to his home town, San Diego.


RIZAL-Farolan Voice over as Rizal writes, first in Spanish then in English and as voice over fades out, the scenes as described below are put in mise-en-scene : RIZAL (writing, voice over): El coche de Ibarra recorria parte del mas animado arrabal de Manila; lo que en la noche anterior le ponia triste, a la luz del dia le hacia sonreir a pesar suyo ( voice over fades out then fades in to English:) Ibarra rides off towards the square of San Gabriel, and is soon crossing one of the busiest districts of Manila. Ibarra on a carriage, smiling, as he looks out , as described by Rizal:) VOICE OVER (continuing):The hustle and bustle everywhere, so many carriages and cabs at a dash, Europeans, Chinese, and natives, each dressed after their own fashion, fruit pedlars, messengers, sporters stripped by the waist, foodshops, inns, restaurants, shops, carts pulled by carabaos, the noise, the incessant movement, the sun itself, a certain smell, the colours --he had almost forgotten what Manila was like. Voice over as these scenes go on as described... RIZAL (voice over): The streets had still not been paved. The sun shone two days in a row, and the streets dissolved into clouds of dust that covered everything,blinding passers-by and sending them into fits of coughing; it rains a day, and the streets become a marsh, gleaming at night with the reflected lanterns of carriages that splash mud on the pedestrians on the narrow sidewalks as far as five metres away. How many women had lost their embroidered slippers in the mud!(Women angry as they lose their slippers. In another part of the stage, prisoners fixing the roads described as follows:) In time the prisoners would show up to repair the streets; shavenmen wearing short-sleeved shirts and knee-length pants lettered and numbered in blue, chained in twos, rags wrapped around their ankles , burnt by the sun, driven to exhaustion by the heat, exertions, and the whips of the trusties who derived their peculiar pleasures from flogging their fellows. The prisoners are tall men with stern faces, who never smile but whose eyes flash when the whip falls on their shoulders. (A prisoner is whipped.) A passer-by tosses a cigar butt. It is picked up by the nearest prisoner and hidden in his straw helmet. The other prisoners watche the other passers-by with unfathomable looks. Ibarra absorbs the noise they make: the dull thud of rock being crushed to fill up the holes in the streets. Ibarra remembers a boyhood event: It had been high noon; the sun’s rays fell mercilessly. Under a poor shade of a lonely cart lay one of these unfortunates, unconscious, his eyes staring wide. Two of his fellows were silently putting together a bamboo litter, without anger, without sorrow, without impatience--that, it was said, was what the natives were like. You today, our turn tomorrow, they seemed to be telling themselves. People hurried by without a glance; the women passed, looked and went on their way; the sight was common enough, so common that hearts had grown calloused. The carriages rolled by, their varnished bodies gleaming in the rays of a brilliant sun in the cloudless sky. He alone, a boy of eleven, newly arrived in town, had been touched; he alone, he felt sure, had slept badly because of it. RIZAL VOICE OVER (as scene continues to be dramatized on stage): But that had been long ago. Turning his attention back to the city, Ibarra notices that the honest old pontoon bridge is gone. It had been a good bridge for all its faults, rising and falling with the tides of the river Pasig, which more than once had battered and destroyed it. The almond trees in the square of San Gabriel had not grown much, and were as thin as ever. The Escolta, the main business street, seemed to him less attractive than when he last seen it, in spite of a new building decorated with draped female figures, which had taken the place of a group of warehouses.


RIZAL-Farolan He found the new bridge more worthy of note, while the houses on the right bank of the river among bamboo clumps and groves, where the Escolta ended opposite the Island of Romero, reminded him of the chilly mornings when he paddled past them bound for the baths of Uli-Uli. He meets carriages drawn by the teams of magnificent ponies, carrying businessmen on their way to their offices, still half asleep, military men, Chinese in foolish and ridiculous postures, grave friars, canons, and in an open carriage, sees Father Damaso, himself, serious and frowning. Scene freezes as Damaso and Ibarra stare at each other from their carriages. Lights fade out from this scene. B. Lights fade in. We see Rizal writing as Voice over in Spanish then in English, as in Scene A above: RIZAL (voice over as he writes): Estamos a diez de noviembre, la vispera de la fiesta. Saliendo de la monotonia habitual, el pueblo se entrega a una actividad incomparable en la casa, en la calle, en la iglesia, en la gallera y en el campo: las ventanas se cubren de banderas y damascos de varios colores; el espacio se llena de detonaciones y musica; el aire se impregna y satura de regocijos... A lot of commotion. Townspeople are preparing for the Fiesta. Roosters are being prepared for tomorrow’s Cockfights, Bamboo archs being constructed, Food being prepared, etc. C. Old Tasio’s house. Ibarra goes through the garden of Don Anastasio and up the stairs to his room. Tasio is an old man, bent over, writing in his study. Collections of insects and leaves are hung on the walls among maps and old bookcases crammed with printed volumes and manuscripts in disarray. He is so absorbed in his writing he doesn’t notice Ibarra who as he is about to withdraw not wanting to disturb him. TASIO: (noticing Ibarra) Oh you’re here . IBARRA: I’m sorry ..you’re busy..I’ll come back another day. TASIO: It’s okay. I was doing a little writing, but there’s no hurry. I need a break anyway. Can I help you? IBARRA (approaching Tasio): Yes. (Noticing Tasio’s writing.) This is interesting. Are you working on hieroglyphics? TASIO (laughing): No. I use symbols when I write. IBARRA: But why should you bother writing in code? TASIO: So no one can read what I write. IBARRA (inquisitive): But why do you write if you don’t want to be read? TASIO: I’m not writing for this generation but for those yet to come. If this generation could read what I have written, my books will be burned, my whole life’s work. But future generations will decipher these characters and say: ‘Not everyone slept during the night of our forefathers!’ Contemplative pause. IBARRA: I came to talk to you about a matter of some importance. Yesterday afternoon... TASIO: (interrupting): They arrestd Elias.


RIZAL-Farolan IBARRA (surprised): How did you know? TASIO: I saw the Muse of the Constabulary. IBARRA: Who’s that? TASIO: The Lieutenant’s wife. You didn’t invite her to your party, but everybody in town knows the story. She is shrewd and mean. She reads her husband’s official reports and instructions, and when he returned drunk, she lost no time in sending the sergeant and his squad out to your picnic, to spoil it and get even with you. Be careful. Eve was a good woman; she was made by God Himself. Dona Consolacion is a bad woman, or so they say, and nobody knows where she came from!.. To be good, a woman must have been, at least, some time, a virgin or a mother. IBARRA (smiling then draws some papers from his wallet): My late father was in the habit of asking your advice on certain matters. I have a plan which I must make sure will succeed. I want to build this school for my fiancee. (Shows the building plans to Tasio.) I’d like to know whom I should win over to make my plan succeed. You know everyone here. I’ve just arrived from abroad and I’m almost a stranger in my own country. TASIO (carefully examining the plans, his tears moist): You’re going to do what I once dreamed of doing--a poor madman’s dream! My advice to you is never to ask my advice! IBARRA looks surprised. TASIO: People will take you for a madman the way they did to me. People believe that those who don’t think as they do are crazy and that’s why they think me crazy. I’m grateful for it because the day I regain my reason according to their standards, they’ll take away the little freedom I have left as a rational being. And who knows! They may be right because I don’t think nor live according to their laws. My principles, my ideals are different. They think the Mayor is smart because he has never learned to do anything except serve chocolate to the parish priests and suffer Father Damaso’s bad temper. But now, look at him. He’s rich! So, everyone thinks: “There’s a man with brains! He started with nothing and now, he’s rich!” But look at me. I inherited wealth and rank; I spent my life studying; and now, I”m poor, unfit for any office. They all say “He’s a fool. He doesn’t know what’s happening” . The priest nicknames me “pseudo-intellectual” and suggests I’m realy a charlatan who’s showing off what I learned in the university. Maybe I’m really crazy and they are the sane ones. Who can tell? Pause. My second piece of advice is to consult the parish priest, the Mayor and all the persons of rank. Of course, they’ll give you bad advice--foolish, worthless--but you don’t have to follow it. Just pretend you’re following it; make them believe you’re doing what they want you to do. Pause. IBARRA: Your advice is good but difficult to follow. Must I carry out my plans under cover? Can’t what is good be done in spite of everything? Truth does not have to dress up like Error in order to prevail. TASIO (emphatic): But no one loves the naked truth! What you say is good in theory but it is feasible only in the dream-world of youth. Take the school master. He wanted to do good, with the sincerity of a child, and all he got was jeers and laughter. You tell me you’re a stranger in your own country. I believe you. You made a bad start the very day you arrived. You humiliated a friar who has a reputation among the townspeople of being saintly and wise. I hope to God you have not compromised your future! Just because the Dominicans and the Augustinians look down on the coarse habit of the Franciscans, their rope girdles and their open sandles; and just because a famous professor of the University of Santo Tomas once recalled that Pope Innocent 8

RIZAL-Farolan III had described the Rule of the Augustinians as more fit for pigs than for men, don’t imagine that all these friars will not join hands when the time comes to confirm what one of their procurators declared: “The lowest lay-brother is more powerful than the Government with all its soldiers.” Cave ne cadas. Beware lest you fall! Money talks, and the golden calf has many times ousted God from His altars, even in the days of Moses. IBARRA (amused, smiling): I am not so pessimistic. Life in my own country doesn’t seem to me to be that dangerous. I believe your fears are a little exaggerated, and I hope to be able to achieve all my objectives without meeting any serious opposition from them. TASIO: You will if the friars don’t help you. The friar will only have to hitch the rope round his waist or shake the dust from his habit. On the slightest pretext, the Mayor would then refuse you tomorrow what he grants you today. And no mother would allow her child to go to your school. IBARRA: I can’t believe the friars are so powerful as you make them out to be. Even supposing what you say is true, I should still have on my side all sensible people and the Government which has the best of intentions and high objectives, and openly seeks the good of the Philippines. TASIO (muttering): The government? The government, you say? However desirous it may be of improving the country for its own sake and that of the Mother Country, however much this or that official may remember the generous spirit of Ferdinand and Isabella and pledge himself to it, the Government itself sees nothing, hears nothing, and decides nothing except what the parish priest or the head of a religious order makes it to see, hear and decide. It is convinced that it rests on them alone; that it stands because they support it; that it lives because they allow it to live; and that the day they are gone, it will fall like a discarded pupet. The Government is intimidated with threats to raise the people against it, and the people cower at the Government’s armed forces. This is the basis of a strategy that is quite simple, but it works for the same reason that cowards in cemeteries take their own shadows for ghosts and the echoes of their own voices for calls from the dead. So long as the government does not deal directly with the people it will not cease to be a ward, and will live like those idiots who tremble at the sound of their keeper’s voice. The government does not plan a better future; it is only an arm, the convent is the head. Because of the inertia with which it allows itself to be dragged from failure to failure, it becomes a shadow, loses its identity, and, weak and incapable, entrusts everything to selfish interests. If you don’t believe me, compare our governmental system with that of the countries you have visited. IBARRA (interrupting): Oh, that’s too much. Surely it’s enough to satisfy us that our people do not complain or suffer like those of other countries, thanks to the Church and the benevolence of our rulers. TASIO: The people do not complain because they have no voice; they do not move because they are in a stupor. And you say that they do not suffer because you have not seen how their hearts bleed. But some day you will see and hear. Then woe unto those who draw their strength from ignorance and fanaticism, who take their pleasure in fraud, and who work under cover of night, confident that all are asleep. When the light of day reveals the monstruous creatrures of the night,the reaction will be terrifying. All the forces stifled for centuries, the poisons distilled drop by drop, all the repressed emotions, will come to light in a great explosion. Who shall then settle the accounts, such accounts as the peoples of the world have presented from time in those revolutions that history records in blood-stained pages? IBARRA: God, the government and the church will not allow such a thing to happen. The Philppines is religious and loves Spain. Of course there are abuses, there are shortcomings, I don’t deny it, but Spain is working out reforms to correct them. Spain is not egotistical. TASIO: I know, and that’s the worst of it. The reforms that come from above are disregarded by the lower bureaucracy because of greed and vice--the get-rich quick syndrome and the ignorance of the masses who allow all this to happen. Abuses aren’t corrected by a Royal 9

RIZAL-Farolan Decree if authorities do not watch over its implementation and if there is no freedom of speech to speak against these petty tyrants. Plans remain plans, abuses will continue, but the Minister in Spain, nevertheless, will sleep peacefully, thinking that these reforms are being implemented. Besides, if a high official comes with great and generous ideas, he immediately begins to hear the following comments : “Your Excellency doesn’t know the country, Your Excellency doesn’t understand the temperament of the natives, Your Excellency is spoiling them, Your Excellency will do well to to trust Mr. So and so, and so forth and so on, while behind his back, he is taken for a fool. And as his Excellency really does not know the country which he thought was somewhere in South America, aand besides has defects and weaknesses like any man, he finally allows himself to be convinced. His Excellency also must keep in mind that he sweated and suffered much to get this position, and that he’ll only be here for three years, and that he’s getting old and must think of his future rather than quixotic enterprises--a modest home in Madrid, a little townhouse in the country, a good pension to show forth in Court. These are the things he must work for in the Philippines. Let’s not ask for miracles. Let’s not expect the foreigner who comes only to make his fortune and then go home, to take an interest in the welfare of the country. What does he care about the blessings or the curses of a country which he does not know and where he has no memories or loved ones? To be satisfying, glory must ring in the ears of those we love, within the walls of our homes, in the air of our native country where we shall be laid to rest. We want glory to warm our graves, so that we may not be reduced to nothing and something of ourselves may yet remain. We cannot promise any of these things to those who come to guide our destinies. The worst of it is that, just when they have begun to learn what their duty is, it is time for them to leave. Fade out.

D. Fade in on another part of the stage. Ibarra is now with Elias. The dialogue starts in the original Spanish then into English: ELIAS: Solos, en verdad, somos nada; pero tomad la causa del pueblo. Unios al pueblo. No descigais sus voces. Dad ejemplo a los demas. Dad la idea de lo que se llama una patria! IBARRA: Lo que pide el pueblo es imposible; es menester esperar. ELIAS: Esperar! Wait? That’s all we do . Wait! We’ve waited enough. Waiting is suffering. IBARRA: I won’t be the one who’ll lead our people by force. Never! If ever I see our countrymen rising in arms, I’ll be on the Government’s side and fight back. I want what’s good for my country and that’s why I want to start a school. I want to do it through education, through intellectual progress and enlightenment, a cultural revolution, and not an armed revolution. ELIAS: But don’t you see? Without an armed revolution, we’ll never obtain freedom! IBARRA: But I don’t agree that freedom can be obtained that way. ELIAS: Without an armed revolution, there is no freedom. Without freedom, there is no enlightenment. You yourself admit you’ve been away too long and you hardly know what’s happening to our country. I can see it now. Battles begin with ideas that come down to the masses who have to shed their blood for the motherland. Don’t you see how everyone is awakening? The dreams of liberty and freedom have been with us for centuries! God will not abandon us. He has never abandoned other struggles of people in their struggle for liberty. And he will not abandon us. Fade out. Sound of drums in the blackout. 10


E. Fade in: sweet nostalgic music of ‘Canto de Maria Clara’: Dulces las horas en la propia patria Donde es amigo cuanto alumbra el sol; Vida es la brisa que en sus campos vuela, Grata la muerte y mas tierno el amor! Ardientes besos en los labios juegan, De una madre en el seno al despertar; Buscan los brazos a cenir el cuello, Y los ojos sonriense al mirar. Dulce es la muerte por la propia patria, Donde es amigo cuanto alumbra el sol; Muerte es la brisa para quien no tiene Una patria, una madre, y un amor. Sweet are the hours in one’s own motherland Where the sun shines friendly And the sweet breezes touch the fields Where death appeases and love is tender. Ardent kisses play on lips As one awakes on a mother’s bosom Arms embracing her neck Eyes smiling and beholding. Sweet it is to die for the motherland Where the sun shines friendly Where death is the wind for whom There is no country, no mother, no love. Maria Clara & Ibarra on the azotea. Background music: Melody of ‘Canto de Maria Clara’ as this scene progresses: MARIA CLARA: Has pensado siempre en mi? No me has olvidado en tantos viajes? Tantas grandes ciudades con tantas mujeres hermosas? IBARRA: Podria yo olvidarte? How can I forget you? How can I turn my back on a promise? A sacred promise I made to you? Do you remember that night? It was a stormy night. You saw me crying over my mother’s corpse. You came to me and put your hand on my shoulder. Your hand that I hadn’t touched for a long time. . . MARIA CLARA: And I said ‘You’ve lost your mother. I never had one.’ And I cried with you. IBARRA: You loved her. And she loved you like a daughter. MARIA CLARA: And it rained outside and there was lightning and thunder. IBARRA: But for me, it was music to my ears as I looked at the pale smile of my mother. Then I held your hand and I swore to love you, to make you happy, and now, I am renewing my vow to you. (Holds both hands. ) How can I ever forget you? You were always in my mind wherever I travelled. The picture of you in my mind was my consolation in those lonely times abroad. I imagined you running barefoot in the beaches of Manila, as you looked at the distant horizon, wrapped in the warm light of early dawn; in my thoughts, I heard you sing that nostalgic, melancholy tune that awoke sad memories in me, then happy memories of our childhood, our 11

RIZAL-Farolan games, and all those joyful moments in the pueblo. I always saw you as the spirit, the poetic reincarnation of my country, the beautiful, simple, innocent, loving daughter of that great country Mother Spain... Fade out. Fade in Maria Clara music with lyrics. After this chapter-scene, Rizal’s girl friend, a German fraulein calls him to bed. A little comic twist. FRAULEIN: Pepe, are you coming to bed? RIZAL: Yes, Greta, I’m coming.

Scene 6 Screen: ‘Berlin, 1887’. Book launching of Noli me tangere. Literary people are gathered around congratulating Rizal. PUBLISHER: Ladies and gentlemen. May I have your attention? Noise dies down. PUBLISHER: I am proud to publish this excellent novel NOLI ME TANGERE from our Herr Doctor Jose Rizal who is, in our eyes, a son of Berlin, a son of Germany. Applause RIZAL (speaking in German): Danke, Herr Doktor. I am proud to be a son of Berlin, a son of Germany. (Applause.) I would like to read an excerpt of my novel, actually, the dedication To my Country. It is the nationalist fervor I had assimilated during my stay here in Germany. In this dedication, I talk of a cancer, a cancer that is eating up my country. The cancer of greed that the colonialists, particularly those of the religious orders, are inflicting on my countrymen. Reads. ‘In the midst of human ills, there is a cancer so malignant that just a slight contact irritates and causes very acute pains. How many times, dear Motherland, when I call you to mind, have I wanted to evoke you in the midst of these modern civilizations and compare you to them. But instead, your image appears to me afflicted with a social cancer. ‘Now, desirous of your well-being, which is also ours, and seeking the best cure, I shall do to you what the ancients did with their sick: expose you and your sickness on the steps of the temple so that each person who would pass by and pray to his god, would propose a remedy. ‘To this end, I shall attempt to recreate faithfully your condition; I shall lift part of the veil that covers the disease, sacrificing everything for the sake of truth, even my own ego, because as your son, I also suffer your cancer.’ 12


Fade out.

Scene 7 Screen: London, June, 1888. Rizal on his desk writing. He writes Mariano Ponce, a contributor of La Solidaridad in Barcelona. Voice over: Dear Mariano: I received your letter today. I’m sorry to hear La Solidaridad isn’t doing very well in Barcelona, and I can see your frustration. I know you haven’t had much success in your journalistic endeavours, but that doesn’t mean you should stop writing. Not all of us are born journalists or writers. For me, writing is secondary. What is important is to think and act correctly, work for a goal, and the pen is there to express all this. What one expects of a Filipino of our generation is not being a literati, but rather, being a good person, a good citizen who contributes to the progress of his country with his head, his heart, and perhaps our arms. We can and must work always with our heart; and with our arms, when the opportune moment comes. Now the principal instrument of the mind and the heart is the pen. Screen shows Rizal writing in Spanish while voice over English translation accompanies it. Ahora el instrumento principal del corazon y de la cabeza es la pluma; otros prefieren el pincel, otros el cincel; yo prefiero la pluma. Ahora, no nos parezca el instrumento como el objeto primordial; a veces con uno malo se hacen obras muy grandes, digalo el bolo filipino. A veces con una mala literatura pueden decirse verdades grandes. Yo no soy inmortal ni invulnerable, y mi mayor alegria seria verme eclipsado por una pleyade de paisanos a la hora de mi muerte, que si a uno le matan o le ahorcan, que le sustituyan veinte o treinta al menos para que se escarmienten de ir ahorcando o matando. Muchos no quieren quemar las hormigas porque dicen que mas se multiplican. Por que no seriamos hormigas? Voice-over accompaniment:



...Others prefer to express their thoughts and feelings through painting or sculpture; I prefer the pen. This instrument might not be of great consequence, although it could produce great works. Sometimes bad literature could express great truths. I’m not saying that I or my writings are literarily immortal and invulnerable. In fact, my greatest joy is to see myself eclipsed by innumerable countrymen at the hour of my death. If they kill or hand one patriot, let 20 or 30 take his place so that out of fear, the oppressors will stop the hangings and killings. They say ‘Don’t burn ants because the more they multiply’. I wish we were ants. Fade out Daytime. Piccadilly or Hyde Park, London. Improvisation of actors, as follows: Rizal meets an English lady in the Park. They become friends. Eventually, he has an affair with her. The scene could probably open in the Park and Rizal, in his poor English, is asking for directions. A conversation ensues where they plan to teach each other languages: She teaches Rizal English and Rizal teaches her Spanish and Tagalog. Words like ‘Amor’ ‘Mahal kita’, and other flirtations lead to their affair. Actors can improvise. Excellent challenge for actors. Scene 8 Screen: Barcelona, 1889. A banquet in honor of Rizal who is made honorary president of La Solidaridad. Marcelo del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and other Filipino patriots, members of the HispanoFilipino Association, who had gone to Spain to work for colonial reform, are present. Lopez Jaena, who is an accomplished orator, introduces Rizal. LOPEZ JAENA: It is with great honour that I present the honorary title of President of La Solidaridad to this emminent nationalist, creator of that scathing novel Noli me Tangere recently published and acclaimed in Germany. His ideals have inspired us to write what we have written in La Solidaridad, the very essence of Solidarity. Spanish provinces abroad, including the Philippines, have found in LA SOLIDARIDAD inspiration towards their legitimate aspirations for reform. They find in our publication solutions to the evils that wrack these suffering provinces abroad. Our publication, inspired by our compatriot Rizal’s novel Noli me tangere, exposes the gangrene that is corroding the societies of these provinces: the immorality in the administration of the justice system, our economy and our government, now a cause of worry by other countries of the world. Our goal is basically political, and it is not limited to any particular school of thought or system. All we seek is Spanish integrity in the Philippines, in particular. We seek reforms which are the natural aspirations of people of this age- a better life style, and not the brushing aside of politcians who answer: “We’ll see.” We want to give a helping hand to our motherland as well as other provinces in Latin America under Spain, indicating the problems we are undergoing and possible solutions that will lead to reforms. Let me now pass the lectern to our honorary president, Jose Rizal. Applause.


RIZAL-Farolan RIZAL: Muy amable, Graciano. Thank you. My dear countrymen: I am deeply honoured by the title you have bestowed on me as Honorary President of La Solidaridad. I hope it will fluorish in the months to come. I am impressed by the credentials of the members of the Editorial board. They have been well-selected, and I am sure that the goals of this publication under their guidance will surely be put into effect. Although I do not doubt that my advice would be useless (polite laughter frm members) the contribution of each member is doubtlessly invaluable. However, if your purpose in writing is just fill up a blank piece of paper, I might as well start off and write some vulgar observations which you all are familiar by now from my writings (laughter). Let me start off by saying that in new societies, there should rein a spirit of tolerance. Discussions should be dominated by a tendency towards reconciliation rather than the inimical spirit of opposition. No one should feel resentful for losing in a polemica. If an opinion is not accepted, the author, instead of feeling dejected, should wait for another occasion to bring out his viewpoint. The individual should not override the well-being of Society as a whole. His amor propio which is an expression of his subconscious individuality should not take over in discussions that are for the common good. That way, we won’t have hurt feelings and discontent. It would be a good idea to have in mind this formula when propositions, projects, etc. Are being prepared: This is our opinion if all the other members do not object. This formula or something similar to it should govern any discussion. I’ve seen too many discussions going awry because of ego trips. The decision of the majority must be sacred and unquestionable. There should be a sentiment of honour and good will. Don’t expect hopnours nor awards for what you do. Anyone who does his duty in the hope of getting an award afterwards will only be disappointed. It is human to never feel completely compensated for a job well done. And in order that no one feels discontent nor fully compensated for work done, it is better to just do your job and not expect anything in return. In a country like ours where injustice reins, it is better to remember that injustice is the prize of those who do their duty. Applause. Fade out. Scene 9 Screen: Brussels, 1890. Rizal is writing El Filibusterismo. As he writes, in a small corner of the stage, scenes from this novel are enacted in different areas of the stage: RIZAL (voice over): El Filibusterismo. Capitulo diecisiete. La feria de Quiapo. (Writing as voice over goes from Spanish to English; scenes are dramatized in different areas of the stage similar to Noli me tangere scenes above.) ‘La noche era hermosa y la plaza ofrecia un aspecto animadisimo. Aprovechando la frescura de la brisa y la esplendida luna de enero...people were crowding to amuse themselves, to see and be seen. A. One part of the stage is illuminated. It is the fiesta in Quiapo. Sets as described in the narration. Actors mime as Rizal describes what is happening:) RIZAL: ..Music and twinkling lanterns added to the festive mood. Long lines of stalls glittering with tinsel and couloured decorations displayed masks, coloured balls, tin toys, miniature trains and carts, mechanical horses, toy steamships with miniature boilers, Lilliputian porcelain wares, foreign dolls, blonde and smiling and beside them, native dolls, serious and pensive in aspect, like little ladies beside gigantic children. The beating of little drums, the toot-toot of tin horns, the nasal music of accordions and organs, combined in a carnival concert, and through it all the crowds came and went, shoving, stumbling, with their faces turned twards the stalls so that


RIZAL-Farolan collisions were f requent and comical. Coaches had to slow down and the coachmen had to incessantly shout Tabi! Tabi! Government employees, military personnel, friars, students, Chinese, girls with their mothers or aunts, exchanging greetings, winks from the men, and more or less cheerful comments. Scene and actors freeze. Lights fade out. Music stops abruptly. Another part of the stage is illuminated. It is a a secluded retreat house beside the sea. The open windows show the restless surface of the sea which merges with the horizon in the distance. Father Florentino, an old priest, is alone playing a grave and melancholy tune, long notes, prayerful but robust, on a reed organ to the accompaniment of the crashing waves and the moans of the melancholy woods. Servant enters. SERVANT: Father, Simoun wants to speak with you. The old priest goes to the next room, another area of the stage which is illuminated as he walks in. It is a well-aired room with a wooden floor made of broad and well-polished boards and furnished with a heavy armchair of an old-fashioned design, unvarnished and undecorated. There is a huge wooden bed with four posts holding the crown of the mosquito net. Beside it is a table littered with bottles, lint and bandages. A praying-desk at the foot of a crucifix and a small library suiggests this is the priest’s own room. The windows are wide open and we hear the sea’s laments. On the bed is Simoun who is really Ibarra (from Noli). His face, a hidden pain in the contortion of its features, a look of anxiety in his eyes, lips twisted in grimace. FLORENTINO: Are you in pain, Simoun? SIMOUN: Somewhat. But I’ll be all right. FLORENTINO (clasping his hands): My God, what have you done? What did you take? (Reaches towards one of the bottles.) SIMOUN: (grimace on his face) Useless. Nothing can be done. What else did you expect me to do? Not later than eight o’clock..dead or alive..dead, yes, but not alive. (Laughs but then starts grimacing in pain.) FLORENTINO: My God, why did you do this? SIMOUN: Compose yourself. What is done cannot be undone. Shakespeare. Didn’t Macbeth say that? (Snickers.) I must not fall alive into anyone’s hands, they might wrest my secret from me. Do not fret, don’t lose your head. There’s nothing you can do. Listen to me. Night is falling and there’s no time to lose. I must tell you my secret. I must give you my last will. It’s essential to me that you see my whole life. At this particular moment, I want to unburden myself. I want to resolve a doubt. You have such faith in God. I want you to tell me if there is a God. FLORENTINO: An antidote, Simoun. I have apomorphine, a quick emetic..(rummaging for the right bottle) ether, chloroform... SIMOUN: Useless, useless. Don’t lose time or I shall go with my secret. The old priest places the armchair at the head of the bed, sits and leans to listen to Simoun. I came back from Europe 13 years ago full of hope and happy illusions. I was going to marry the girl I loved. I was ready to do good and forgive all thos whod id me wrong so long as they left me in peace. But it was not to be that way. My enemies plotted against me. I lost my reputation, my position, love, prospects for the future, freedom..everything. I escaped death 16

RIZAL-Farolan only because of the heroism of a friend. But I swore revenge. With the money I had inherited, I fled the country and gone into trade. I took part in the Cuban wars, helping both sides but always to my advantage: trading guns and ammunition for my own personal gain. I met a major there and won his confidence by lending him money. We later became close friends and after a dint of bribes, I secured him an assignment in the Philippines where he was made a General and I used him as my tool for my personal revenge impelling him through his insatiable greed to commit all kinds of injustice against my enemies. FLORENTINO: God will forgive you, Simoun. He knows we are liable to deceive and be deceived. He has seen what you have suffered and in allowing you to be punished for your crimes by suffering death at the hands of the very men you instigated, we can see His infinite mercy. He has frustrated your plans, one after the other, even the best, first with the death of Maria Clara. Let us obey His will and give Him thanks. SIMOUN: In your opinion, it would be His will that these islands...(brief pause, hesitating) FLORENTINO (Finishing the question):... should continue in their miserable condition? I don’t know the answer. I can’t read the mind of God. But I know He has not forsaken those peoples that in times of decision have placed themselves in His hands and made Him the Judge of their oppression; I know that His arm has never been wanting when, with justice trampled and all other recourses at an end, the oppressed have taken up the sword nd fought for their homes, wives, children, and those inalienable rights that, in the language of the German poet Goethe, shine above us unbreakable and untouchable like the eternal stars. No, God is justice and He cannot abandon His own cause, the cause of freedom without which no justice is possible. SIMOUN (angry): Why then has He forsaken me? FLORENTINO (sternly): Because you chose a means of which He could not approve. The glory of saving a country cannot be given to one who has contributed to its ruin. You believed that what crime and inquity had stained and deformed, more crime nd more iniquity could cleanse and redeem. This was a mistake. Hate only creates monsters just as crime creates criminals. Only love can work wonders. Only virtue can redeem. If our country is some day to be free, it will not be through vice and crime, it will not be through the corruption of its sons who are deceived and bribed. Redemption presupposes virtue...virtue gives way to sacrifice which ultimately gives way to love. SIMOUN: Very well, I accept your explanation. I was wrong. But because I was wrong, did this God of yours deny freedom to my countrymen and spare others more evil than me? What is my crime compared to the crimes of those who govrn us? Why should this God of yours give more importance to my iniquities than to the cries of the innocent? Why did He not strike me down and then work towards the people’s victory? Why allow so many who are worthy and just to suffer and, without lifting a finger, find satisfaction in their sufferings? FLORENTINO: The just and the the worthy must suffer so that their ideas may be known and spread. The vessel must be shaken or broken to release the perfume. The stone must be struck to raise a spark. There is something providential in the persecution of tyrants, Simoun. SIMOUN: I knew that. That’s why I encouraged tyranny... FLORENTINO: Yes, my friend, but it was filth that spread more than anything else. You fomented social corruption without sowing a single idea. This fermentation of vices could inspire only nausea, and if anything had sprouted overnight it would have been only a toadstool because only toadstools grow spontaneously in garbage. Of course, the vices of government are fatal to it and kill it, but they alsokill the society in which they are bred. An immoral government is matched by a demoralized people; an administration wwithout conscience, by greedy and servile townsmen and outlaws and robbers in the mountains. The slave is the image of his master; the country, of its govrnment.


RIZAL-Farolan Pause. SIMOUN: Then, what’s to be done? FLORENTINO: Persevere and work hard. SIMOUN (sarcastic): Persevere and work hard! It’s easy to say when there is nothing to work for. If this God of yours requires such sacrifices from men who can scarcely be sure of the present and doubt there will be a future for them. (Pensive) If you had only seen what I had seen: unfortunate wretches suffering unspeakable tortures for crimes they never committed; fathers of families torn from their homes to work uselessly on highways that crumbled the next morning...bridges meant to be built only to bury their families in misery. Perseveramce! Work! Will of God! Persuade these people that they are murdered for their own salvation, that they work for the prosperity of their homes. Endure, persevere, suffer...what kind of God is that? FLORENTINO: A most just God, Simoun. A God who punishes our lack of faith, our vices, the little regard we have for dignity and the civic virtues. We tolerate vice and therefore become accomplices in it. Sometimes we go so far as to applaud it. It is only just tht we should suffer the consequences and that our children do the same. He is the God of freedom, Simoun. He makes us love it by weighing its yoke on our shoulders. Heis a God of Mercy and of justice who improves us through His punishments and grants happiness only to those who have merited it with their efforts. The school of suffering tempers the spirit. The fighting arena strengthens the soul. I do not mean to say that our freedom must be won at the point of a sword; the sword now counts for very little in the destinies of our times; but I do say that we must win our freedom by deserving it, by improving the mind and enhancing the dignity of the individual, loving what is just, what is good, what is great, to the point of dying for it. Whena people reach these heights, God provides the weapon, and the idols and the tyrants fall like a house of cards, and freedom shines in the first dawn. Our misfortunes are our own fault, let us blame nobody else for them. If Spain were to see us less tolerant of tyranny and readier to fight and suffer for our rights, Spain would be the first to give us freedom because, when the fruit of conception reaches the time of birth, woe to the mother that tries to strangle it! But as long as the Filipino people do not have the sufficient vigour to proclaim, head held high and chest bared, their right to a life of their own in human society, and to guarantee it with their sacrifices, with their very blood; as long as we see our countrymen feel privately ashamed, hearing the grown of their rebelling and protesting conscience, while in public they keep silent and even join the oppressor in mocking the oppressed; as long as we see them wrapping themselves up in their selfishness and praising with forced smiles the most despicable acts, begging with their eyes for a share of the booty, why give them independence? With or without Spain they would be the same, and perhaps worse. What is the use of independence if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow? And no doubt they will, because whoever submits to tyranny, loves it. Simoun, as long as our people are not prepared, and enter the struggle deceived or compelled, without a clear idea of wht they are to do, the best planned movements will fail and it is better that they shoulld fail. Why give the bride to the groom if he does not love her enough and is not ready to die for her? Long silence. Simoun takes Florentino’s hand and presses it. The priest waits for him to speak but Simoun is silent. Only the strong sound of the waves are heard through the window. He notices now that Simoun is still, his eyes closed, and his hand which had pressed his is now open and limp. For an instant he thinks that Simoun is asleep but observing no signs of breathing, he touches him gently and thenrealizes that he is dead and already turning cold. He feels his eyes moisten, and engrossed in his thoughts, whispers: (or this could be a voice over first in Spanish, then English, then towards the end, he can face the audience and say it as in a speech) FLORENTINO: (sadly) Donde esta la juventud que ha de consagrar sus rosadas horas, sus ilusiones y entusiasmo al bien de su patria? Donde esta la que ha de verter generosa su sangre para lavar tantas verguenzas, tantos crimenes, tanta abominacion? Pura y sin mancha ha de ser la victima para que el holocausto sea aceptable!...Donde estais jovenes, que habeis de encarnar en vosotros el vigor de la vida que ha huido de nuestras venas, la pureza de las ideas 18

RIZAL-Farolan que se ha manchado en nuestros cerebros y el fuego del entusiasmo que se ha apagado en nuestros corazones?...Os esperamos, oh jovenes, venid, que os esperamos! Quick blackout. Only the sound of the waves are heard in the dark.In the background, voiceover: Where are you, oh youth, who will dedicate your innocence, your idealism, your enthusiasm to the good of the country? Where are you who will give generously your blood to remove so much shame, crime, and abomination? Pure and immaculate must the victim be for the sacrifice to be acceptable. Where are you, young men and young women, who are to embody in yourselves the vigor of life that has been drained from our veins, the purity of ideals that have gone dry in our minds, and the fire of enthusiasm that is gone from our hearts? We await you, oh youth, come! We await you! (Repeated echoing of these last phrases as voiceover fades) Scene 10 Screen: Ghent, 1891. Bright lights come up. Newspaper boys shouting “Book launching of El Filibusterismo. International success.” In all languages. Screen displays flashes of International newspaper articles, headlines, praising this scathing novel. MULTIPLE SCENES on stage with different actors commenting about the novel in different languages to show this is an international bestseller. Again, actors improvise. The last scene shows Rizal in a press conference being interviewed by reporters: REPORTER 1: Doctor Rizal, how do you feel about the international success of your second novel? RIZAL: I’m happy it’s being read internationally. REPORTER 2: Do you think you’ll get into trouble with it? RIZAL: I am already in trouble. Laughter from reporters. REPORTER 3: Are you Simoun in this novel? RIZAL: Some of my ideas I’ve expressed through Simoun, as well as other characters like Padre Florentino, and the old philosopher, Tasio. REPORTER 4: Were you trying to symbolize Maria Clara as the new Philippines? RIZAL: If that’s how you want to interpret it. REPORTER 5: Was Maria Clara a personification of a real person you were in love with in your youth in the Philippines? RIZAL: Partly, yes. REPORTER 5: Why do you make fun of the friars in your novels? RIZAL: I don’t make fun of them. I use scathing satire perhaps as a tool to reflect their grotesquerie, as in Valle Inclan’s esperpentos or Quevedo’s satires on life. It’s a technique.


RIZAL-Farolan REPORTER 6: The friars in the Philippines and other religious orders won’t like it, would they? RIZAL: In my novels, I do not satirize or comment against all religious orders, or religion, or friars. I was educated by the Jesuits who form part of a religious order. You can also read that in my novels, Father Florentino is a priest and he plays a key role, symbolic, if you want to call it that, in the shaping of the youth of the land. I’m just trying to say that ...yes, there were those religious orders or some priests, particularly in small parishes outside of Manila, who did abuse their powers...took advantage of the young women in their parishes, was greedy,gluttonous, etcetera and used their ecclesiastical powers to take advantage of my people. These are the people I attack in my novels. No more questions, thank you. As lights fade out, reporters still asking questions as Rizal exits. Blackout. Sound of drums and somber music reflecting Rizal’s approaching fate: his death. Scene 11 Screen: Hong Kong, June 1892 RIZAL (writing): The decision I’m going to make is a risky one. But I thought about it well. Screen flashes: Manila, July 1892 He stands up and addresses members of the Liga Filipina. This transition should show that from his thoughts and letter in Hong Kong, he now delivers the speech in Manila. RIZAL: I know that coming back to Manila was a decision you oppose. But you don’t know the sentiments of my heart. You see, I can’t go on living knowing that my countrymen suffer injustice and persecution because of my cause. I can’t go on living seeing my brothers and their families persecuted like criminals. I prefer to face death and my happiness is seeing the freedom of these innocent people who are unjustly persecuted. Applause. Comments “Here, here!” from audience. I know that for now, the future of my country gravitates towards me; that if I die, others will live, and consequently, many will long for this. Reaction from audience: “No”, “Don’t say that”, “It’s not true, Don Jose”, etc. I understand your concern. But what else can I do? I have my conscience to answer to. I’ve got obligations to families who are suffering because of me, to my own family, my parents, whose painful sighs reach my soul. I know that I alone even to the point of my death, will make these families of my countrymen restore the happiness they so richly deserve, giving back to them the peace of their homes. I have nothing left but my parents. But my country has many patriots who can take my place and still be at an advantage. Reaction: But we need you, sir, etc. Thank you. Let me just explain that I do want to show those who put aside patriotism that we all here know what it is to die for our country. It is a right, it is a duty. It is our conviction. Warm applause What matters death if one dies for what he loves, for his country, for the ones he loves? Reaction: applause, “Yes, yes”, etc. If I only knew that I was the only pillar supporting Philippine politics, and if I was truly convinced that my countrymen would use my services, then I would have doubts. But I am convinced that 20

RIZAL-Farolan there are other patriots who can take my place with better advantage. In fact, there are others among you who think that I have gone over board and my services are no longer needed and that I should be reduced to inaction. Reaction from audience: ‘Who?’ “No one among us” “Of course not”..Everyone looks at each other, some guilty faces in the audience. I have always loved my country, and I am sure that I will always love her upto the last minute of my life. My future, my life, my joys, all these I have sacrificed for love of country. However my luck turns out, I will die blessing her and wishing for the dawn of her redemption! Applause from members of the Liga: Mabini, Bonifacio, etc. Rizal then is approached by Bonifacio. RIZAL: We have to wait and try through peaceful reform. BONIFACIO (impatient): I’m tired of waiting! We’ve been waiting and suffering all these years! RIZAL: We can’t win victories through violence. We have to educate our people and let them attain liberty through peaceful negotioations. BONIFACIO: You know we’ve been patient enough. You tried through LA SOLIDARIDAD in Spain. What did it bring us? Nothing. All your speeches and writings on reform fell on deaf ears! RIZAL: I can’t allow you to do this. Why shed blood? Give hisotry time; let’s work together. Give me one last chance. Silence. BONIFACIO: All right. I’ll stay low. But I know it’s not going to happen. I, however, respect you and I’ll give you time to try again through peaceful means. But if it doesn’t work, revolution is inevitable. RIZAL: I understand. Fade out. Drums. Lights on Apolinario Mabini who follows up on Rizal’s ideas in the Liga: Mabini, on wheelchair, gives a speech in front of members of the Philippine League for Reforms . The actor can start off first in Spanish, then continue in English: MABINI: Muchos hablan de libertad sin comprenderla; muchos creen que, en teniendo libertad, ya se puede obrar sin freno, lo mismo para el bien que para el mal, lo cual es un grandisimo error. La libertad es solo para el bien y jamas para el mal; va siempre de acuerdo con la razon y la conciencia recta y honrada del individuo. El ladrom cuando roba no es libre, pues que se deja arrastrar por el mal, se hace esclavo de sus propias pasiones; y cuando lo encerramos, lo castigamos precisamente porque no quiere emplear la verdadera libertad. La libertad no quiere decir que no obedezcamos a nadie, pues precisamente no exige que ajustemos nuestra conducta a la accion directora de la razon y reguladora la justicia. La libertad dice que no obedezcamos a cualquiera persona; pero si, manda que obedezcamos siempre a la que hemos puesto y reconocido como la mas apta para dirigirnos, pues de esre modo obdeceriamos a nuestra propia razon. Un ejercito que se desbanda, desobediciendo a sus jefes, falta a la verdadera libertad porque perturba el orden e infringe la disciplina, que la razon misma


RIZAL-Farolan ha impuesto; es decir, que varios hombres juntos no harian nada sin unidad de movimiento ni de fin, si cada uno tirara por su lado. Many talk of freedom without understanding what it means. Many think that in having freedom, you can do anything you want, whether it’s good or whether it’s bad. This is a big mistake. Freedom is only for the good and never for the bad. It always agrees with reason and the right and honorable conscience of the individual. A thief when he steals isn’t free at all. He is being dragged by wrongdoing and he becomes a slave of his own passions. When we put him to jail, we punish him precisely because he refuses to act in accordance to true freedom. Freedom doesn’t mean we don’t have to obey anyone. What it means is we have to conduct ourselves in accordance to reason and justice. Freedom means that we just don’t obey anybody. But it obliges us to obey whomsoever we place in authority because we have chosen that individual as the right person to guide us. That way, we are obeying reason and our own conscience. An army that breaks up because it does not obey its leaders lacks true freedom because the soldiers go against discipline which is precisely what reason has imposed on them. In other words, individuals acting on their won will not obtain anything because without unity, the end will not be met. Applause. Shouts. Commotion. The guardias civiles raid the meeting and Rizal and other members are arrested. Bonifiacio escapes and starts his underground resistance movement: The Katipunan. Actors improvise secret meetings. Scene 12 Court scene. Rizal in front of a military judge. JUDGE: You have been found guilty of illegal meetings with members of your subversive group, the Liga Filipina. This is a very serious offense. Let this serve as a warning. You are hereby sentenced to do community service in the town of Dapitan, in the province of Zamboanga, Mindanao, for an indefinite period of time. Court is adjourned. He pounds on gavel. Fade out.



Scene 1 Screen: Dapitan, 1892-96. A. Voice over in Spanish. On the Screen as the Spanish voice over is read is my English translation of Rizal’s poem, Mi Retiro. The description of where Rizal lives in Dapitan--a small hut by the sea, by the mountains, etc. is reflected on stage by the scenery described in the poem. Rizal is standing looking at the view. The scne has to be poetic, as poetic and lyrical as this poem. Director is free to use multimedia effects as this poem is read: RIZAL: (VOICE OVER) Su techo es fragil nipa, su suelo debil cana, sus vigas y columnas maderas sin labrar: nada vale, por cierto, mi rustica cabana; mas duerme en el regazo de la eterna montana, y la canta y la arrulla noche y dia la mar. Un afluente arroyuelo, que de la selva umbria desciende entre penascos, la bana con amor, y un chorro le regala por tosca caneria que en la callada noche es canto y melodia y nectar cristalino del dia en el calor. Si el cielo esta sereno, mansa corre la fuente, su citara invisible tanendo sin cesar; pero vienen las lluvias, e impetuoso torrente penas y abismos salta, ronco, espumante, hirviente, y se arroja rugiendo frenetico hacia el mar. Del perro los ladridos, de las aves el trino, del kalaw la voz ronca solos se oyen alli; no hay hombre vanidoso ni importuno vecino que se imponga a mi mente, ni estorbe mi camino; solo tengo las selvas y el mar cerca de mi. El mar, el mar es todo! Su masa soberana los atomos me trae de entes que lejos son; me alienta su sonrisa de limpida manana, y cuando por la tarde mi fe resulta vana encuentra en sus tristezas un eco el corazon. De noche es un arcano!...Su diafano elemento se cubre de millares y millares de luz; la brisa vaga fresca, reluce el firmamento, las olas en suspiros cuentan al manso viento historias que se pierden del tiempo en el capuz. Diz que cuentan del mundo la primera alborada, del sol el primer beso que su seno encendio, cuando miles de seres surgieron de la nada y el abismo poblaron y la cima encumbrada 23

RIZAL-Farolan y do quiera su beso fecundante estampo. Mas cuando en noche obscura los vientos se enfurecen y las inquietas olas comienzan a agitar, cruzan el aire gritos que el animo estremecen, coros, voces que rezan, lamentos que parecen exhalar los que un tiempo se hundieron en el mar. Entonces repercuten los montes de la altura, los arboles se agitan de confin a confin; aullan los ganados, retumba la espesura, sus espiritus dicen que van a la llanura llamados por los muertos a funebre festin. Silba, silba la noche, confusa aterradora; verdes, azulles llamas en el mar vense arder; mas la calma renace con la proxima aurora y pronto una atrevida barquilla pescadora las fatigadas olas comienza a recorrer. Asi pasan los dias en mi oscuro retiro, desterrado del mundo donde un tiempo vivi; de mi rara fortuna la Providencia admiro: guijarro abandonado que el musgo solo aspiro para ocultar a todos el don que tengo en mi! Vivo con los recuerdos de los que yo he amado y oigo de vez en cuando sus nombres pronunciar: unos estan ya muertos, otros me han olvidado; mas que importa?...Yo vivo pensando en el pasado y lo pasado nadie me puede arrebatar. El es mi fiel amigo que nunca me desdora que siempre alienta el alma cuando triste la ve, que en mis noches de insomnio conmigo vela y ora conmigo, y en mi destierro y en mi cabana mora, y cuando todos dudan solo el me infunde fe. Veo brillar el cielo tan puro y refulgente como cuando forjaba mi primera ilusion; el mismo soplo siento besar mi mustia frente, el mismo que encendia mi entusiasmo ferviente y hacia hervir la sangre del joven corazon. Yo respiro la brisa que acaso haya pasado por los campos y rios de mi pueblo natal; acaso me devuelva lo que antes le he confiado: los besos y suspiros de un ser idolatrado, las dulces confidencias de un amor virginal! Al ver la misma luna, cual antes argentada, la antigua hipocondria siento en mi renacer; despiertan mil recuerdos de amor y fe jurada... un patio, una azotea, la playa, una enramada, silencios y suspiros, rubores de placer... Mariposa sedienta de luz y de colores, sonando en otros cielos y en mas vasto pensil, 24

RIZAL-Farolan deje, joven apenas, mi patria y mis amores, y errante por doquiera sin dudas, sin temores, gaste en tierras extranas de mi vida el abril. Y despues, cuando quise, golondrina cansada, al nido de mis padres y de mi amor volver, rugio fiera de pronto violenta turbonada: vense rotas mis alas, deshecha la morada, la fe vendida a otros y ruinas por doquier. Lanzado a una pena de la patria que adoro, el porvenir destruido, sin hogar, sin salud, venis a mi de nuevo, suenos de rosa y oro, de toda mi existencia el unico tesoro, creencias de una sana, sincera juventud. Ya no sois como antes, llenas de fuego y vida brindando mil coronas a la inmortalidad; algo serias os hallo; mas vuestra faz querida si ya no es tan risuena, si esta descolorida en cambio lleva el sello de la fidelidad. Me ofreceis; oh ilusiones! La copa del consuelo, y mis jovenes anos a despertar venis: gracias a ti, tormenta; gracias, vientos del cielo, que a buena hora supisteis cortar mi incierto vuelo, para abatirme al suelo de mi natal pais. Cabe anchurosa playa de fina y suave arena y al pie de una montana cubierta de verdor, plante mi choza humilde bajo arboleda amena, buscando de los bosques en la quietud serena reposo a mi cerebro, silencio a mi dolor. ENGLISH ON SCREEN (author’s free translation): Its roof fragile nipa, its floor soft bamboo Its rafters and columns coarse lumber My rustic, humble hut worth nothing But it sleeps in the bosom of an eternal mountian And sings to the sea night and day. A flowing rivulet descends among crags Bathing the somber forest with love, A stream flows through wild reeds singing a melody in the silent nights crystallline nectar in the heat of the day. If the sky is serene, the stream runs tamely, Its invisible cithara chanting ceaselessly; but when the impetuous rains and torrents come, it rushes, hoarse, foaming and seething against rocks and abysses and plunges frantically against the sea. I have the forests and the sea surrounding me. Dogs barking,the cheerful trilling of the birds, The hoarse voice of the kalaw are the only sounds I hear. There are no vain or curious neighbours around 25

RIZAL-Farolan to disturb my activities. The sea, the sea is everything! Its sovereign mass brings to me the atoms of beings far, far away its crystal-clear morning smile cheers me and in the afternoon when my confidence is at a low it finds a hopeful echo in my heart. The night ‘tis mysterious. Translucent, it explodes innumerable lights. Fresh breeze, shining firmament, sighing waves telling tales lost in the mantle of time. They tell of the world’s first dawn, the sun’s first kiss lighting up the bosom of the universe; they tell of the thousands of beings surging from nothingness, populating abysses and lofty summits. But when dark night comes, the winds turn furious and the restless waves churn; the air is filled with cries that make the spirit shudder: voices in unison, praying, lamenting voices exhaling from those drowned at sea. The mountains echo their loftiness, trees animated animals restless, thickets resounding,spirits saying to the plains they go, beckoned by the dead to a funeral feast. Whistle, oh confused terrigying night! Green, blue flames of the burning sea! Then, suddenly, the soft hush of calm reborn with coming dawn as a brave fisherman in his diminutive boat crosses the weary waves. Thus do the days pass in my retreat Exiled from the world where once I lived; Abandoned boulder to whose moss I alone confide Concealing from others the gift I have within me, Thanking God for the uniqueness of my destiny. I live with the memories of those I love At times I hear their names: already some are dead, Others have forgotten me. But what does it matter? I live thinking of the past no one can take from me. Faithful are friends who don’t dishonour me Who encourage the soul when ‘tis sad Who in sleepless nights remembr and pray for me in my exile; and when all doubt, he alone instills faith. Already I have faith and I hope that the day will shine when ideas shall vanquish brutal force, that after strife and agony, a sonorous voice happier than mine will sing the song of triumph! I behold the pure and refulgent sky as I did in my youth, my first illusion, 26

RIZAL-Farolan kissing my withered brow the same kindling of fervent enthuse, youth’s heart seething . I breathe the breeze passing perchance through fields and rivers of my hometown. It may perhaps return to me what one day to it I confided: the kisses and the sighs of an adored being, the sweet secrets of a viriginal love. I behold the same silvery moon, The old melancholy in me I feel reborn Awakened are thousands of memories of love and pledges... a courtyard, a porch, the seashore, the silence and the sighs, the blushes of pleasure. Oh, I, a butterfly thirsty for light and colors, dreaming of other skies and gardens I left my loves, my country, while scarcely a youth, roaming everywhere, without doubt, without fears, spending my life in the spring of foreign lands. And afterwards I, a tired swallow, chose to return to the nest of my parents and my love, suddenly a fierce and violent thunderstorm raged, broken are my wings, my abode in shambles, faith sold to others, ruins everywhere. Cast against a rock of a country I adored, the future destroyed, no home, no honor, you come to me anew rosy and golden as in the dreams of my youth....Oh motherland! You are my entire existence, my only treasure, restoring agains the faith of my lost youth. No longer are you as you were then, full of fire and life, offering a thousand crowns to immortality; now I find you somber, your smile thwarted, no longer effulgent, yet bearing the marks of constancy. You offered me illusions in my young awakening years that cup of solace roused in my youth. Thank you, tempest! Thank you, winds of heaven! You knew when to stop my uncertain flight and return me home to my native land. Beside wide seashores sands smooth and fine Beside the greenness at the foot of the mountain I build my humble hut beneath a pleasant grove Seeking serene quietude from the forests Resting my thoughts, silencing my pains. Scene 2. Scene shows Rizal treating patients in his clinic in the town of Dapitan. An elderly lady is accompanied by a younger lady : this is Josephine Bracken. LADY: Your reputation travels worldwide, Doctor. I heard about your expertise in ophtamology. This lady I met in Hong Kong was impressed by you. I went to Manila to look for you and they said you moved to Dapitan. 27


RIZAL: I’m happy you found me. (Looks at Josephine) And may I help you? LADY (smiling): I’m sorry. I forgot to introduce you. This young lady is Josephine Bracken who has been accompanying me in my search for you. RIZAL (flirting): You’re very beautiful. JOSEPHINE (blushing): You’re too kind, doctor. RIZAL: How long will you ladies be in town? LADY: I was thinking of leaving as soon as I finish my consultation with you. The next ferry to Manila leaves in two days. RIZAL: (looking at the blushing Josephine) I think you should stay longer. Enjoy the beaches of Dapitan. I would like to invite you to be my guests. I have a humble home beside a beach and a mountainside.. LADY: You’re too kind, doctor but.. RIZAL: I insist... LADY: Well, if you insist...Josephine? JOSEPHINE: I don’t mind. I would be interested in exploring the area. I love nature, and I find the flora and fauna here very interesting. RIZAL: Then it’s settled. Miss Bracken, please excuse me. He leads the lady into his inner clinic for her checkup. B: In the forest with the sea in the background. Sound of birds. JOSEPHINE: The flora and fauna here is amazing. (Pause. Sound of bird.) What is that hoarse sound? RIZAL (laughing): That bird is called KALAW. This is his habitat. He looks at her, amused at her innocent expression. JOSEPHINE: This is wonderful. I wish I could stay longer, but my friend has to leave for England, and must get to Hong Kong by next week to catch her ship. And I must accompany her. RIZAL: That’s sad. JOSEPHINE: Why do you say that? RIZAL: I’ll miss you. Your presence this past week filled my moments of loneliness. Will you come back? JOSEPHINE: I don’t know. I’ll write. RIZAL: (holding her hand tenderly) Thank you. I look forward to seeing you again. FADE OUT.


RIZAL-Farolan FADE IN. Rizal waving goodbye to Josephine and the elderly lady as they board their ferry back to Manila. Voice over as Rizal waves: Josefina, Josefina, Que a estas playas has venido Buscando un hogar, un nido, Como errante golondrina; Si tu suerte te encamina A Shanghai, China o Japon No te olvides que en estas playas Late por ti un corazon. Josephine, Josephine; you have come to these shores in search of a home, a nest, like a wandering swallow; If luck takes you to Shanghai, China or Japan, don’t forget that on these shores a heart throbs for you. FADE OUT. FADE IN: 1893. In a schoolhouse. Rizal is surrounded by children and their parents, Spaniards and Filipinos. Many are Spanairds married to Filipinos. PARENT 1: This is a noble effort on your part, doctor. RIZAL: We must educate the youth of our land. They will one day be the leaders of tomorrow. PARENT 2: I’m happy that we have someone like you here in Dapitan. You have brought enlightenment to these dark parts of the Philippines. RIZAL: I enjoy it here. With my profession as a doctor and now an educator, I’m kept pretty busy. PARENT 3: Congratulations and thank you. A teacher gathers the children together and they sing a Spanish song as lights fade out. FADE IN: 1895. In Rizal’s home in Dapitan. Rizal is writing. Josephine Bracken enters. Rizal turns. Surprise in his face. Stands. Silence as both stare into each other’s eyes. JOSEPHINE: I’m back. RIZAL: I hope for good. JOSEPHINE: For good! Rizal approaches Josephine and kisses her passionately.FADE OUT FADE IN: Late 1895. Josephine is reading a letter. Rizal enters. RIZAL: Is everything all right? JOSEPHINE: I have to leave, Pepe. 29


RIZAL: Why? Are you unhappy here? JOSEPHINE: It’s not that. It’s a family matter. I have to return to Ireland. RIZAL: Are you leaving me? JOSEPHINE: I miss my folks. I love you. I’ll be back. Don’t worry. RIZAL (smiling sadly, approaching her): Josephine, Josephine you’ve come to these shores searching for a home, a nest, like a wandering swallow... JOSEPHINE (embracing Rizal): That was a beautiful poem you wrote about me, Pepe. I’ll never forget you... RIZAL: Don’t forget that on these shores throbs my heart for you. Fade out. FADE IN: Early 1896. Visit from Bonifacio. He is accompanied by two other katipuneros. BONIFACIO: The time is ripe, doctor. I’m tired of waiting. It’s time to rise in arms. RIZAL: What arms? Your bolos? How can your bolos fight against the arms and ammuniton of the Spaniard? Be patient. Prepare well. BONIFACIO: We have been preparing. We are going to get the Spanish garrison in Balintawak, then move towards Malacanang. RIZAL: I’m still against this. BONIFACIO: But we need your leadership. RIZAL: I’ve always been against revolution and violence, you know that. My kind of revolution has always been a peaceful one. You know that from last we talked 4 years ago. BONIFACIO: I gave you time! Look what they’ve done to you. Exiled you to this god-forsaken place in the middle of nowhere. And now you’re all meek and humble. Where was that fire that raged in your heart four years ago? You inspired all of us and now you’re putting us down. The country is falling apart, and it’s time to make our move! RIZAL: I’m sorry to disappoint you, Andres. I’m leaving the country in June. I’ve accepted a medical position in Cuba. BONIFACIO : What? When we need you here the most and you’re leaving? What kind of a patriot are you? RIZAL: You’ll never understand my way of looking at things. BONIFACIO: And you call yourself a patriot? Turning your back to our country? RIZAL: I love my country, Andres. More than you know. Later, you will understand why I’m doing what I’m doing. BONIFACIO: Later, you say. When it’s too late!


RIZAL-Farolan (Bonifacio storms out of Rizal’s house with his two companions. in the blackout.) Scene 3 July 31, 1896. Rizal standing on deck of ship facing audience. Voice over: Canto del viajero Hoja seca que vuela indecisa Y arrebata violento turbion, Asi vive en la tierra el viajero Sin norte, sin alma, sin patria ni amor. Busca ansiosa doquiera la dicha, Y la dicha se aleja fugaz: Vana sombra que burla su anhelo! Por ella el viajero se lanza a la mar! Impelido por mano invisible Vagara de confin en confin; Los recuerdos le haran compania De seres queridos, de un dia feliz. Una tumba quiza en el desierto Hallara, dulce asilo de paz: De su patria y del mundo olvidado... Descanse tranquilo, tras tanto penar! Y le envidian al triste viajero, Cuando cruza la tierra veloz... Ay! No saben que dentro del alma Existe un vacio do falta el amor! Volvera el peregrino a su patria, y a sus lares tal vez volvera Y hallara por doquier nieve y ruina, Amores perdidos, sepulcros, no mas. Ve, viajero, prosigue tu senda, Extranjero en tu propio pais; Deja a otros que canten amores, Los otros que gocen; tu vuelve a partir. Ve, viajero, no vuelvas el rostro, Que no hay llanto que siga al adios; Ve viajero, y ahoga tus penas; Que el mundo se burla de ajeno dolor. ENGLISH (on screen): Dry leaf in uncertain flight seized in a violent storm, Thus lives the traveller on this earth With no direction, no soul, no country, no love. He seeks happiness everywhere 31 Quick fadeout. Drums beating

RIZAL-Farolan And happiness moves away fleeting His shadow mocking at his yearning Because of her the traveler goes to sea! Bound by an invisible hand He wanders from sea to sea: Memories of loved ones, Memories of happiness, Keep him company. Perhaps he finds a desert tomb Sweet haven of peace Away from his country, all the world forgotten Where he can rest in peace after so much suffering. The sad traveler is envied as he swiftly voyages, Ah! They know not that in his soul An emptiness of lost love lurks. The traveller shall to his home and country return To find nothing more than snow and ruin, Death and lost loves. Go, traveler, follow your course, A stranger in you own homeland! Let others sing of love, Let others sing songs of joy! But you again go away. Go, traveler, don’t look back, For there are no tears to follow your goodbye; Go, traveler, and drown your sorrows, For the world mocks at the sufferings of another.

Scene 4. Screen: August, 1896. A. Scene opens with Bonifacio and the members of the Katipunan. This is the historic ‘Cry of Balintawak’. Red flags of the Katipunan and the katipuneros staging this historic scene. Tableau of Bonifacio and his bolo and the KKK flag as the scene ends. B. Governor General Blanco declaring state of War (one area of stage) & Aguinaldo (another part of the stage) responding: Lights fade in on Blanco’s area. BLANCO: (reading) I, Ramon Blanco y Erenas, Marquis de Pena y Plata, Governor and Captain General of the Philippines, availing myself of the powers vested in me, and as a result of the acts of rebellion during the last few days at different points in the territory of this province, seriously disturbing peace and order, make it imperative that severe measures be taken to suppress any insurrection, do hereby order: Article 1: The provinces of Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas are declared to be in a state of war.


RIZAL-Farolan Article 2: By virtue of this decree, any person accused of crimes contrary to public order, treason, acts which endanger the peace and independence of the State or against the form of government, offenses against or disrespect to the authorities and their agents, and ordinary crimes committed during a rebellion or uprising, shall be subject to martial law. Article 3: Those guilty of open rebellion and the crimes defined in the foregoing article, either of those provided for in the Code of Military Justice, shall be tried immediateley by the proper Council of War. Article 4. All leaders of the uprising or rebellion, whenever caught “in flagrante” shall be given an immediate trial. Article 5. Those who are found on, or who had been at the scene of an action, audience who are captured fleeing, or in hiding, after having been with the rebels, shall be treated as presumably guilty of the crimes mentioned in the foregoing article. Article 6. The Council of War established in the respective cases by the Code of Military Justice shall be of competent jurisdiction to take cognizance of the trials instituted on account of the commission of any of the crimes mentioned. Article 7. Rebels who shall surrender to the authorities before the expiration of 48 hours after the publication of this proclamation, shall be exempt from the penalty for insurrection, excepting the leaders of the rebellious groups and those who are accomplices in said crimes. The leaders referrred to shall be pardoned the penalty which they may have incurred if they surrender within the period fixed upon, and the next low penalty in its minimum of medium degree shall be imposed. Article 8. Participants in the rebellion only who shall surrender within the period mentioned without having committed any acts of violence, as well as those who, having bound themselves to continue to the end, should denounce it in time to avoid the consequences shall be exempt from any penalty. Article 9. Every suspicious group which may be formed shall be resolutely dispersed by force; such persons who do not surrender being arrested and held subject to the orders of the government. Article 10. The administrative and judicial civil authorities shall continue to act in all matters within their jurisdiction, which do not refer to public order, confining themselves with regard to the latter, to the powers which the military authorities may issue or delegate to them, being obliged in either case to inform the latter at once of any news or information which may come to their knowledge. Signed, in Manila, the 30th day of August in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety six. Blackout. Drumbeats. Fade in another part of the stage. AGUINALDO (in his balcony of his home in Kawit, Cavite addressing the citizens of the town): My fellow countrymen. I am very sorry to inform you that on August 30, 1896, Don Ramon Blanco, Captain and Govenor General of the Philippines, declared war against eight Tagalog provinces, namely, Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. Because of this, I am inviting you to join me in rising against Spain and break the chains of slavery that have bound us with her all these hundred years. (Applause, shouts.) As an answer to this delcaration of war, we started to rebel against his tyrannical race, and I am very glad to inform you that the towns of Cavite el Viejo, Noveleta, and San Francisco de Malabon are already free and the government is now in the hands of Filipinos. Here in Cavite el Viejo, we 33

RIZAL-Farolan succeeded in disarming the civil guards, and the provincial command at Noveleta is already in our hands. So I am inviting all of you to follow suit. Do all you can to overpower the enemy. Remember that the strength of our army will depend upon your cooperation. I am confident that your patriotic hearts will heed this call of our Motherland. Conquer your foes there, but try not to kill anyone, especially if he is Filipino. I believe this is the only way by which our Mother Country can be freed from slavery. The Philippines presents today a spectacle without precedent in her history: the conquest of her liberty and her independence, the most noble and lofty of her rights--a heroism which will place her on the same level as civilized nations inspire them. We know that real progress in a people is based upon liberty and independence. Hence, this right inspires the most noble and sublime emotions which a citizen can feel--feeling them he should not yield to the fear that our interests or our families may suffer, nor should he tremble at shedding blood to break the chains of slavery, which we have dragged for three hundred years of tyranny and abuse. A proof of the truth is this: that the revolution is found on justice and right, as shown by all civilized nations, for none of them will allow the slightest encroachment upon the merest hand’s breath of their domain without pouring out the last drop of blood in defense of the integrity of the nation. Citizens of the Philippines: we are no savage people; let us try to follow the example of the civilized nations of Europe and America; the time has come to shed the last drop of our blood to conquer our beloved liberty. The Spaniards, conquerors of this our adored land, accuse us of ingratitude and tell us that we should repay them for opening our eyes by placing their yoke on our neck. It is a false argument by which they desire to deceive us. For the civilization introduced by Spain during her three centuries in these lands is superficial and at the bottom, a mere fraud, since her effort has been to keep the masses in ignorance, destroying or quenching the center of real light which has slowly begun to burn in the hearts of a handful of Filipinos, who merely on account of their intelligence are now victims of the persecutions of the government. The results are these deportations, decrees of exile, and other acts of tyranny which for some years have been carried on here. Tell me--have we not paid a full measure for our great advancement during the three centuries in which Spain has used our blood and our sweat? Spain, who is not satisfied with her shameful exploitation of us, spits in our face and calls us carabaos, lazy creatures, apes, and other shameful names! Disgusted reactions from the audience: “Down with the Spaniards!”, etc. People of the Philippines! The hour has come to shed our blood to conquer our rights and liberties. Let us band ourselves around the flag of the revolution whose motto is Liberty, Equality, Fraternity! Applause. Shouts. A central committee of the revolution composed of six members and a President will be charged with the continuation of the war, will organize an army of thirty thousand men, with rifles and cannon, for the defense of the pueblos and the provinces which adhere to the new Republican Governemnt, which will establish order while the revolution sspreads through all the islands of the Philippines. The form of the government will be like that of the United States of America, founded upon the most rigid principles of liberty, fraternity, and equality. Every town which adheres to the cause of the revolution will be defended and protected by the revolutionary army against attack of the enemy. Applause. Shouts. “Liberty, Fraternity, equality!” 34


FADEOUT. C. Different areas of the stage light up showing Aguinaldo’s Armed Revolution against Spain. Multiple battle scenes on stage showing confrontation between Spanish soldiers and Aguinaldo’s revolutionaries. Alternating victories and defeats between Aguinaldo and Spanish troops. Scene 5. Screen: Barcelona, October 3, 1896. Actors mime the following subscenes a & b to the beat of drums: A. Rizal arrives in Barcelona but is immediately detained by Spanish authorities . He is put in a Barcelona prison awaiting his departure to the Philippines. B. Rizal is returned to ship enroute to Manila as a prisoner.

Scene 6. Screen: Manila, November 3, 1896. To the accompaniment of drums, actors mime all of this scene: Rizal, in chains, escorted by soldiers, arrives in Manila and immediately brought to Fort Santiago to be encarcerated. Movement from upper stage (ship) to bottom part of stage (Fort Santiago).

Scene 7. Screen: November 20, 1896. Court Martial of Rizal begins. The ambience in this scene is that of a mock trial. Everybody knows Rizal is going to be found guilty. Even his defense attorney knows it’s a losing cause. Friars are present and called as witnesses. They denounce his two novels as treason to God and country. Day 1. CLERK OF C0URT: All rise! A tribunal of 6 judges enter. Two of them are Friars. The other four, including the Chief Judge, are military. They take their places. All sit after the judges sit. CHIEF JUDGE: Will the defendant rise? Rizal and his lawyer stand. CHIEF JUDGE: Jose Rizal Alonso, you are being tried for treason. How do you plead? RIZAL: Not guilty, your honor. CHIEF JUDGE: (to the prosecution and defense attorneys)Your opening statements.


RIZAL-Farolan PROSECUTOR: (addressing the tribunal)Your honors. We have before you a man known for his sedition. He has incited the rebellion of August 1896, inspiring his fellow men through his rebellious novels, Noll me tangere and El Filibusterismo. Let me put these two novels as Exhibit a & b. While in Spain, in the name of reform, he has incited his countryment there, Marcelo de Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena and others towards rebellious activities in the form of publications such as La Solidaridad, a seditious anti-Spanish publication, denouncing the friars of this land and mocking the government of Spain in the Philippine Islands. I put as exhbit C a copy of La Solidaridad, where the author has published an article denouncing the friars of the islands. When he returned to the Philippines, despite his exile to Dapitan, he continued influencing such rebels as the katipunero Andres Bonifacio through a subversive organization he formed, La Liga Filipina, which eventually led to the insurrection four months ago. Your honors. The case is obvious. Let this trial be swift. The defendant is obviously a premeditated murderer of state policies, as well as an anti-friar propagandist. His activities are blatantly seditious, and the only punishment for his acts of treason is public execution. Thank you. JUDGE I: Attorney for the defense. DEFENSE ATTORNEY: Your honors. Dr. Rizal has dedicated his life to enhancing a better way of life for his people. His novels, activities with La Solidaridad, and other writings were written to awaken Spain to the abuses of Spanish authorities, especially the friars, here in the archipielago. He loves Spain; he is not in any way anti-Spanish. His anti-friar writings were directed only to a handful of friars who had abused and taken advantage of their positions to exploit Filipino women and the ignorance of the Filipino masses. His love for Spauin and the Philippines is expressed in Ibarra’s words in his novel Noli me tangere, Chapter 26: “God, the Government and the Church will not allow (a revolution) to happen. The Philippines is religious and loves Spain, and she will realize how much the Mother Country is doing for her. Of course, there are abuses and shortcomings, but Spain is working out reforms to remedy them.” Your honors, is this not a sincere attempt of Dr. Rizal to reach out to Spain to simply ask for reforms for abuses committed here? How can this be called treasonous or seditious? Thank you. JUDGE 2: It is almost 12, and the trial is adjourned for ten a.m. tomorrow. CLERK: All rise. All rise as the judges leave. Fade out. Day 2. The scene opens with everyone in their places. JUDGE 2: Prosecution, you may call your witness. PROSECUTOR: I only have one witness, your honors. Jose Rizal Alonso! Rizal approaches the witness stand. CLERK : Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? RIZAL (one hand on bible, the other hand raised): I do. PROSECUTOR: Your name and occupation.


RIZAL-Farolan RIZAL: Dr. Jose Rizal y Alonso, Doctor of Medicine. PROSECUTOR: Dr. Rizal, are you the author of these two novels, Noli me tangere and El Filibusterismo? (Shows both novels.) RIZAL: Yes sir. PROSECUTOR: How would you translate Noli me tangere? RIZAL: Touch me not. PROSECUTOR: Why did you call your novel thus? RIZAL: I was referring to a certain group of people who were considered untouchables. PROSECUTOR: Untouchables? Why? RIZAL: Because whatever they did, the law couldn’t touch them. They got away with anything. PROSECUTOR: And who are these untouchables? RIZAL: A few members of a religious order in the Philippines. Commotion. The chief judge says “Order in the court!” The two friar-judges whisper to each other, and turn pale. PROSECUTOR: Going to your second novel, El filibusterismo. Why did you entitle it such? It sounds subversive. RIZAL: It means that. Commotion. People nodding their heads as though saying Rizal is being suicidal. PROSECUTOR: So, you do admit being seditious. RIZAL: The novel is fiction. I am referring to a fictitious situation where subversiveness is the theme. PROSECUTOR: It is disguised as fiction. In my opinion, you are reflecting real people, including yourself as traitor and a subversive! RIZAL: That is your opinion, sir. PROSECUTOR: It is my opinion and the opinion of a great many people, Dr. Rizal. You are condemning yourself with your writings. (To the Defense Attorney) Your witness. DEFENSE ATTORNEY: No questions. CHIEF JUDGE: If there are no more questions of this witness, we will adjourn for the day. You may step down Dr. Rizal. Rizal takes his place. CHIEF JUDGE: Before the summation tomorrow, the judges in this tribunal will have a chance to cross-examine Dr. Rizal. Court is adjourned till 10 tomorrow morning. Day 3.


RIZAL-Farolan Scene opens as in previous scene. Everyone is in his place. CHIEF JUDGE: (to the prosecution and defense): Are you ready for your summations? PROSECUTION & DEFENSE: We are, your honor. CHIEF JUDGE: Before we go to that, the members of the tribunal would like to ask Dr. Rizal a few questions. Dr Rizal, you are still under oath. Please take the stand. Rizal takes the witness stand. FRIAR JUDGE 1: Dr. Rizal, in your novels, particularly Noli me tangere, you refer to two friars, Fr Damaso and Fr Salvi. Were you basing these two charcters on true-to-life members of a religious order? RIZAL: Yes, your honor. FRIAR JUDGE 2: Who were they? RIZAL: They were a number of friars I had met through the years. They did not represent two particular friars. I made up these two characters based on a number of members of different religious orders whom I had the opportunity to get acquainted with or know about from friends and family. FRIAR JUDGE 1: You describe them quite negatively in your novels. You make fun of the friars who are representatives of God to save mankind from the devil! Let me read a passage from Noli, chapter 11, even the title and subtitle are subversive: “The bosses”, you call us! Then, as a subtitle, you say “Divide and Rule--Machiavelli”. Here is how you describe Fr Salvi and Fr Damaso: “...Fr Salvi was most assiduous; when he preached..he was very fond of preqching..he had all the doors of the church closed like Nero who did not allow anyone to leave the theatre while he sang...” Laughter from the audience. CHIEF JUDGE: (hitting his gavel) Order, order! FRIAR JUDGE 1: And sarcastically you go on to say “...but Father Salvi did it for the good, and Nero to the detriment of souls... Snickers from audience. FRIAR JUDGE 2: In this same chapter, you make it appear that the friars inflicted cruelty out of sadism. You say: “FATHER SALVI PUNISHED THE FAULTS OF HIS SUBORDINATES WITH FINES AND FLOGGED THEM ONLY RARELY, UNLIKE FATHER DAMASO WHO HAD FIXED EVERYTHING WITH BLOWS OF HIS FIST AND STICK, DELIVERED WITH A GUFFAW...ONE COULD NOT THINK BADLY OF FR DAMASO BECAUSE OF THIS; HE WAS CONVINCED THAT ONE COULD DEAL WITH NATIVES ONLY WITH BLOWS, A FELLOW FRIAR HAD SAID SO IN A BOOK, AND FATHER DAMASO BELIEVED IT BECAUSE HE NEVER CONTRDICTED THE PRINTED WORD, TO THE DISCOMFORT OF MANY. Audience laughs again. CHIEF JUDGE: Order, order! FRIAR JUDGE 1: This is outrageous, a contempt against the servants of God on earth.


RIZAL-Farolan FRIAR JUDGE 2: I have nothing more to add. This is obviously a blatant attempt against morality and the commandments of God. CHIEF JUDGE: You may step down, Dr. Rizal. Rizal steps down. CHIEF JUDGE: Summations. PROSECUTOR (very confident): Your honors. There is really nothing else to add. You yourselves have cross-examined the witness and from his own mouth, he confesses being a subversive he says, in the “guise of fiction”. What fiction? He himself admits his characters are based on true characters. What else, your honors, but to sentence this man to death the sooner the better before he causes any more trouble in our land? Sits. DEFENSE: Let me reiterate my opening statements. Dr Jose Rizal is not guilty of treason. On the contrary, he is a patriot. What he has done is open people’s eyes to the abuses committed on his people. He has to be commended for his action, not berated. He has made aware of the cancer that is corroding our society because of the licentiousness and immorality that these socalled servants of God who, instead of uplifting the Filipino people to the levels of true spiritualism, are soffocating them with physical abuse, and exploiting them to satisfy their greed and lust. Rizal only did what he did because of his true spirit of patriotism. Audience applauds. CHIEF JUDGE: Order, order. Having heard the summations, we, members of the tribunal will recess and meet tomorrow to give our verdict. Court is adjourned till 10 tomorrow morning. Scene 8. Screen: December 29, 1896. Same scene as above. A courthouse in Fort Santiago, Intramuros. The tribunal of judges, some composed of Dominican friars. The sentence is read. Rizal is found guilty of treason and sentenced to death the next day at dawn at Bagumbayan. CLERK OF COURT: All rise. The judges take their places. All sit. CHIEF JUDGE: Will the defendant rise? Rizal rises. CHIEF JUDGE: Dr Jose Rizal Alonso, the tribunal finds you guilty of treason. Before sentence is passed, do you have anything to say? RIZAL: Yes, your honor. Moment of silence. When I was abroad, I was told by my countrymen not to return. That it was better for me to remain in exile because surely, death would be inevitable. Even before you pass your sentence, I already know that death is the only sentence for treason. But I am ready to die for love of 39

RIZAL-Farolan country. Death, the passage towards my country’s birth. Death, because in dying I will see my countrymen freed from this bondage, this slavery that has dominated us for four centuries. I love Spain, but the Spaniards who came to rule my country did not respect the laws of humanity. They came in the spirit of barbarism, and not civilization. They came to rape and pillage the culture that once was pristine. Let my martyrdom like the martyrdom of Fathers Burgos, Gomez and Zamora in 1872 to whom my second novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated, spark more patriots who will take my place. Viva Filipinas! Viva la libertad! AUDIENCE: Viva, viva! JUDGE: (with gavel) Order, order! Guards, clear the court! Clear the court! Riot ensues. The civil guards come and drag away the rioteers. Once the court is cleared, CHIEF JUDGE speaks: CHIEF JUDGE: Dr. Rizal, a rebel to the end. It is the decision of this tribunal to sentence you to public execution tomorrow at dawn in Bagumbayan. (Hurriedly) Court is adjourned! Drums. Guards put shackles on Rizal and take him out. His atorney is also arrested and dragged away. Scene 9. Evening, December 29, 1896. Rizal writes his ‘Ultimo Adios’ and hides his poem in a lamp which he gives to his sister, Trinidad, before he is executed. Voice over of Ulltimo Adios first in Spanish then in English and it continues on to the next scene, the final scene, where it echoes in Spanish: ‘Morir es descansar’. Again, English is my own free verse translation from the original: Voice over, low keyed: Adios, patria adorada, region del sol querida, Perla del mar de Oriente, nuestro perdido eden, A darte voy alegre, la triste mustia vida; Y fuera mas brillante, mas fresca, mas florida, Tambien por ti la diera, la diera por tu bien. Screen flashes scenes as they are described in the poem as voice over continues, and Rizal writing: In fields of battle, my countrymen fight deliriously, Giving their lives with no regrets, with no doubts. The place of death matters not: in glory, on the scaffold, on open fields in combat, or even cruel martyrdom. ‘Tis all the same if they fight for home and country. I die at the burst of dawn. Oh, Motherland, if you need to tint the dawn with reddish hue, pour my blood to gild her with a reflection of nascent light! My dreams of youth were to behold you one day, Oh Jewel of the Orient Sea, 40

RIZAL-Farolan Your dark eyes with no tears, Your brow with no wrinkles, Your cheeks unblushing, Your head held high, proud and majestic. Dream of my life, Oh Motherland, my ardent desire... My soul that soon will depart cries “Hail to thee!” Oh, ‘tis magnificent to fall to give you flight! To die to give you life, to die under your sky, To sleep eternallly beneath your enchanted soil. If some day, you should see through the thick grass A simple, humble flower sprouting over my sepulchre, Pluck it and raise it to your lips to kiss my soul! Then I will feel on my brow beneath the cold tomb The warmth of your tenderness, the warmth of your breath. Let the moon see me with its serene and gentle light; Let the dawn radiate its fleeting splendour; Let the winds wail their murmuring melancholy; And if a bird descends from the sky and alights on my cross, Let it sing its canticle of peace. Let the scorching sun dry the rains And restore the sky to its blueness. Let a countryman cry over my grave And during serene afternoons when someone prays for me Pray too, Oh Motherland, that I may rest in God. Pray for all who died without fortune, For those who, tormented, suffered painfully; For our poor mothers who cry bitterly for us; For orphans and widows, for tortured prisoners, And pray for yourself, Oh Motherland, that one day, You willl see yourself redeemed. When the cemetery is shrouded with night’s darkness. And only the dead keep vigil, Do not disturb their mysterious sleep. Perhaps you might hear the strings of a cithar or harp: It is I, dear Motherland, singing a song to you! When my tomb is forgotten With no cross or stone to mark its place, Let a countryman plow and scatter it with his hoe. And my ashes, before they return to nothingness, Let it form into dust to lie on your soil. Then it no longer matters that I am forgotten: I will be part of you--your space, your valleys, your sphere; I shall be even more vibrant: aroma, light, color, song, whisper, sighs-Constantly repeating the essence of my faith! Oh, adored Motherland! Sorrow of my sorrows! Dear Philippines, listen to my last goodbye! I leave everything behind: my parents, my loved ones. I go where there are no slaves, Where executioners and oppressors there are none, Where faith does not kill, 41

RIZAL-Farolan Where He who reigns is God. Goodbye, dear parents, dear brothers and sisters, fragments of my soul, Childhood friends, Give thanks that I rest from this weary day, Goodbye, dulce extranjera, my beloved, my friend, my joy Goodbye, dear countrymen To die is to rest Morir es descansar Voice over echoing repeatedly: Morir es descansar!

EPILOGUE. The scene opens exactly as in the Prologue, where Rizal is marched in to be executed. The only difference would be this time the drums are accompanied by background Voice over of ‘Ultimo Adios’ which stops abruptly after “Morir es descansar” which echoes on and on when the shots are fired. Shots echo throughout the theater. All freeze. Quick blackout in silence.