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MATHS QUEST 12

Specialist
Mathematics

4TH EDITION

TI-NSPIRE C AS C ALCULATOR COMPANION

VCE M AT H EM AT I CS U N I T S 3 & 4

MATHS QUEST 12

Specialist
Mathematics
RAYMOND ROZEN | PAULINE HOLLAND | BRIAN HODGSON
HOWARD LISTON | JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS

4TH EDITION

TI-NSPIRE C AS C ALCULATOR COMPANION

First published 2013 by


John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
Typeset in 10/12 pt Times LT Std
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2013
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ISBN: 978 1 118 31811 9
978 1 118 31809 6 (flexisaver)
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Contents
Introduction

vi

CHAPTER 6

Integral calculus

CHAPTER 1

Coordinate geometry

15
21

Relations and regions of the


complex plane 27
CHAPTER 5

29

53

CHAPTER 9

Vectors

CHAPTER 4

Differential calculus

CHAPTER 8

Kinematics

CHAPTER 3

Complex numbers

CHAPTER 7

Differential equations

CHAPTER 2

Circular functions

37

63

CHAPTER 10

Vector calculus
CHAPTER 11

Mechanics

79

71

47

Introduction
This booklet is designed as a companion to Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics Fourth Edition.
It contains worked examples from the student text that have been re-worked using the TI-Nspire CX
CAS calculator with Operating System v3.
The content of this booklet will be updated online as new operating systems are released by Texas
Instruments.
The companion is designed to assist students and teachers in making decisions about the judicious use of
CAS technology in answering mathematical questions.
The calculator companion booklet is also available as a PDF file on the eBookPLUS under the
preliminary section of Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics Fourth Edition.

vi

Introduction

Chapter 1

Coordinate geometry
Worked example 4

Sketch the graph of y =

x2 + 2
including all asymptotes and intercepts.
3x

think
1

On a Graphs page, complete the entry


line as:
x2 + 2
f 1( x ) =
3x
then press ENTER .

To determine the equation of the oblique


asymptote,

Write/display

x2 + 2
into two functions.
3x
To do this on a Calculator screen press:
MENU b
2: Number 2
7: Fraction Tools 7
1: Proper Fraction 1
Complete the entry line as:
propfrac(f1(x))
then press ENTER .

divide y =

Write the equations of the asymptotes.

The equations of the asymptotes are:


1
x = 0 and y = x .
3

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry

To determine the turning points, press:


MENU b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1
MENU b
4: Calculus 4
1: Derivative 1
Complete the entry line as:
d

solve ( f 1( x )) = 0, x
dx

then press ENTER .

Solving

To find the y-coordinates of the stationary


points by substitution, complete the entry
lines as:

x=

f 1( 2 )

f 1( 2 )
Press ENTER after each entry.
Describe the nature and coordinates of
the stationary points, as deduced from the
graph.
Sketch the graph of y =

2 or x = 2.

The coordinates of the stationary points are:

2 2
Local minimum 2,

d x2 + 2

= 0 for x gives
dx 3 x

2 2
Local maximum 2,
3

x2 + 2.
3x

y
10

x = 0 (Asymptote)

10

0
5
10

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

1
y = x (Asymptote)
3
x
10

Worked example 12

Sketch the graph of

( x 1) 2 ( y 2) 2
+
= 1.
25
9

think
1

Write/display

Compare

( x 1)2 ( y 2)2
+
= 1 with
25
9

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
+
= 1.
a2
b2

h = 1, k = 2 and so the centre is (1, 2).


a2 = 25
b2 = 9
a=5
b=3

The major axis is parallel to the x-axis as


a > b.

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the x-axis for the ellipse are:
(a + h, k)
(a + h, k)

Vertices are:
(5 + 1, 2)
= (4, 2)

(5 + 1, 2)
= (6, 2)

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the y-axis for the ellipse are:
(h, b + k)
(h, b + k)

and
(1, 3 + 2)
= (1, 1)

(1, 3 + 2)
= (1, 5)

Find the x- and y-intercepts.


On a Calculator page, complete the entry
lines as:
( x 1)2 ( y 2)2

+
= 1, x y = 0
solve
25

9
( x 1)2 ( y 2)2

+
= 1, y x = 0
solve
25

9
Press ENTER after each entry.

The x-intercepts are:


35 5
3+5 5
, x =
3
3
The y-intercepts are:
x=

y=
6

10 6 6
10 + 6 6
, y =
5
5

To sketch the graph of the ellipse, on a


Graphs page press:
MENU b
3: Graph Entry/Edit 3
2: Equation 2
4: Ellipse 4

( x h )2 ( y k )2

+
=11
a2
b2
Complete as shown:
( x 1)2 ( y 2 )2
+
=1
52
32
Press ENTER after the entry, the
graph is shown.

1:

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry

Sketch the graph of the ellipse.

+ 66
0, 10

y
6
4

3 55 ,

(4, 2)

4
5

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

(1, 2)

0
2

(y 2)

+
=1
9

(1, 5)

66
0, 10

(x 1)2

25

(6, 2)

6 x

(1, 1)
3 + 55 ,

Worked example 13

Sketch the graph of

( x 2) 2 ( y + 4) 2
+
= 1.
9
16

think

Write/display

( x 2)2 ( y + 4)2
+
= 1 with
9
16
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
+
= 1.
a2
b2

h = 2, k = 4
So the centre is (2, 4).
a2 = 9
b2 = 16
a=3
b=4

Compare

The major axis is parallel to the y-axis as


b > a.

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the x-axis for the ellipse are:
(a + h, k)
(a + h, k)

Vertices are:
(3 + 2, 4)
= (1, 4)

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the y-axis for the ellipse are:
(h, b + k)
(h, b + k)

and
(2, 4 4)
= (2, 8)

(3 + 2, 4)
= (5, 4)
(2, 4 4)
= (2, 0)

Find the x- and y-intercepts.


On a Calculator page, complete the entry
lines as:
( x 2)2 ( y + 4)2

solve
+
= 1, x y = 0
9

16
( x 2)2 ( y + 4)2

+
= 1, y x = 0
solve
9

16
Press ENTER after each entry.

The x-intercept is x = 2.
The y-intercepts are:
y=
6

12 4

y=

12 + 5 .
3

To sketch the graph of the ellipse, on a


Graphs page press:
MENU b
3: Graph Entry/Edit 3
2: Equation 2
4: Ellipse 4
1:
Complete the entry line as:

( x 2 )2

2
y 4)
(
+
=1

32
42
then press ENTER .
Note that the viewing window has been
changed.

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry

Sketch the graph of the ellipse.

2
12 + 45

0,
3

1
2
4

12 45
0,
3

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

0 (2, 0)
123456 x
(1, 4)
(2, 4)

8 (2, 8)
10

(5, 4)
(x 2)2

(y + 4)

+
=1
16

Worked example 14

Sketch the graph of 5 x2 + 9(y 2)2 = 45.


think

Write/display

5x2 + 9(y 2)2 = 45

Rearrange and simplify by dividing both


sides by 45 to make the RHS = 1.

Simplify by cancelling.

Compare

Major axis is parallel to the x-axis as a > b.

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the x-axis for the ellipse are:
(a + h, k)
(a + h, k)

Vertices are:
(3 + 0, 2)
= (3, 2)

The extreme points (vertices) parallel to


the y-axis for the ellipse are:
(h, b + k)
(h, b + k)

and (0, 5 + 2)
or (0, 2 5 )

x 2 ( y 2)2
+
= 1 with
9
5
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
+
= 1.
a2
b2

5 x 2 9( y 2)2 45
+
=
45
45
45
2
2
x
( y 2)
+
=1
9
5
h = 0, k = 2 and so the centre is (0, 2).
b2 = 5 as a, b > 0
a2 = 9
a=3
b= 5

(3 + 0, 2)
= (3, 2)

(0, 5 + 2)
(0, 2 + 5 )

(0, 0.24)

(0, 4.24)

Find the x-intercepts.


On a Calculator page, complete the
entry line as:
solve(5 x 2 + 9( y 2)2 = 45, x ) | y = 0
then press ENTER .

x=
8

x=

3 5
5

To sketch the graph of the ellipse, on a


Graphs page press:
MENU b
3: Graph Entry/Edit 3
2: Equation 2
6: Conic 6
1:
Complete the entry line as:
5 x 2 + 0 xy + 9 y 2 + 0 x + 36 y + 9 = 0
then press ENTER .

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry

Sketch the graph of the ellipse.

y
6
(0, 2 + 5 ) 5x2 + 9(y 2)2 = 45
4
2 (0, 2)

(3, 2)
4 3 2
35
,
5

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

1
0

(3, 2)

0
1

2 (0, 2 5 )

4x

35
,
5

Worked Example 15

Sketch the graph of the relation described by the rule: 25x2 + 150x + 4y2 8y + 129 = 0.
Think
1

Write/Display

To locate the intercepts, on a Calculator


page, complete the entry lines as:
solve( 25 x 2 + 150 x + 4 y 2 8 y + 129 = 0, x )
|y=0
solve( 25 x 2 + 150 x + 4 y 2 8 y + 129 = 0, y )
|x=0
Make a record of the intercepts.

To sketch the graph of the ellipse, on a


Graphs page press:
MENU b
3: Graph Entry/Edit 3
2: Equation 2
6: Conic 6
1:
Complete the entry line as:
25 x 2 + 0 xy + 4 y 2 + 0 x + 8 y + 129 = 0
then press ENTER .

Write the x-intercepts.

x=
x=

15 4

5
15

+4 6
5

Sketch the graph of the ellipse.

y
(3, 6)

(5, 1)
15 46 ,

(3, 1)

6
(1, 1)

3 1 0
4
(3, 4)

15 + 46 ,

x
0

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry 9

Worked Example 16

Determine the Cartesian equation of the curve with parametric equations x = 2 + 3 sin (t) and
y = 1 2 cos (t) where t R. Describe the graph and state its domain and range.
Think

Write/Display

Use a CAS calculator to sketch the graph


in a Graphs page, in parametric mode, by
completing the entry line as:
x1(t ) = 2 + 3 sin(t )

y1(t ) = 1 2 cos(t )

Then press ENTER .

Rewrite the parameters by isolating cos (t)


and sin (t).

y 1
x2
= sin (t) and = cos (t)
2
3

Square both sides of each equation then


add.

( x 2)2 ( y 1)2
= sin2 (t) + cos2 (t)
+
9
4
=1

Describe the relation.

This represents an ellipse with centre (2, 1).

The domain is the range of the parametric


equation x = 2 + 3 sin (t).

Domain is [2 3, 2 + 3] = [1, 5]

The range is the range of the parametric


equation y = 1 2 cos (t).

Range is [1 2, 1 + 2] = [1, 3]

10 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked Example 25

Express each of the following as partial fractions.


a

5 x 2 + 10 x 52
2 x3 5 x2 + 3 x + 7
b
( x 2)( x + 4)
x2 x 2

Think

a
&
b

Write/Display

On a Calculator page, press:


MENU b
3: Algebra 3
3: Expand 3
Complete the entry lines as:
5 x 2 + 10 x 52
expand
( x 2) ( x + 4)
2 x 3 5x 2 + 3x + 7
expand

x2 x 2
Press ENTER after each entry.

Write the answers.

5 x 2 + 10 x 52
2
2
=

+5
( x 2) ( x + 4) x + 4 x 2

2 x 3 5x 2 + 3x + 7
1
3
+ 2x 3
=
+
x2 x 2
x +1 x 2

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry 11

Worked Example 27

Sketch the graph of the function y =

x 2 5x + 6
.
x4

Think
1

Use a CAS calculator to express the


rational function as partial fractions by
completing the following steps. Press:
MENU b
2: Number 2
7: Fraction Tools 7
1: Proper Fraction 1
Complete the entry line as:
x 2 5x + 6
propFrac
x 4
then press ENTER .

Express the function as partial fractions.

Sketch the graphs of y1 = x 1


2
(asymptote) and y2 =
on the same
x

4
axes.

Write/Display

y=

2
+ x 1
x4
y
y1 = x 1
2
y2 = x
4

1 2 3 4

x=4
4

Determine any x-intercepts.

y = 0, x2 5x + 6 = 0
(x 2)(x 3) = 0
x = 2 and x = 3

Determine the y-intercept.

x = 0, y =

Add the two graphs by addition of ordinates


x 2 5x + 6
.
to obtain the graph of y =
x4

6
4
3
y=
2

(3, 0)

(2, 0)

y1 = x 1
2
y2 = x
4

0
(0,

32 )

1 2 3 4

2
y = x 1 + x
4

x=4

12 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Open a Graphs page, and complete the


entry lines as;
f 1( x ) = x 1
2
x4
f 3 ( x ) = f 1( x ) + f 2 ( x )
f 2( x ) =

then press ENTER .

Chapter 1 Coordinate geometry 13

ChapTer 2

Circular functions
Worked example 2

If cosec (x) = 43 and, 0 x 90, find x (to the nearest tenth of a degree).
Think
1

express the equation cosec (x) =


in terms of sin (x).

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1
Complete the entry line as

WriTe
4
3

cosec ( x ) =

1
4
=
sin( x ) 3

4
1
solve
= , x | 0 x 90
sin( x ) 3
Then press enTeR .
Alternatively, the three reciprocal
functions are built into the TI-nspire.
They can be accessed by the key, or
through the catalogue, or you can simply
use the letter keys and enter csc, sec or
cot as needed.
3

Write the solution.

Solving cosec (x) = 43 for


x [0,90], x = 48.5904

Round off the answer to 1 decimal place.

x = 48.6

ChapTer 2 Circular functions

15

Worked Example 12

Solve cosec (x) = 1.8 over the interval 0 x 4. Give your answer(s) correct to 2 decimal places.
Think

Write

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1
Complete the entry line as
solve (csc(x) = 1.8, x) | 0 x 4
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

Solving cosec (x) = 1.8 over the interval


0 x 4 gives

Round the answers to 2 decimal places.

x = 0.59, 2.55, 6.87, 8.84

16 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked Example 13

a Expand, and simplify where possible, each of the following.

i sin (x 2y)ii cos (x + 30)


b Simplify the expression sin (2x) cos (y) + cos (2x) sin (y).
Think

i On a Calculator page, press:


& MENU b
ii 3: Algebra 3

Write

i
&
ii

B: Trigonometry B
1: Expand 1
Complete then entry lines as
shown, then press ENTER .

Write the appropriate compoundangle formula.

Substitute A = 2x and B = y to
reveal the answer.

Alternatively, on a Calculator page,


press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
B: Trigonometry B
2: Collect 2
Complete the entry line as
tCollect(sin(2x)cos(y) + cos(2x)sin(y))
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

sin (A) cos (B) + cos (A) sin (B) = sin (A + B)


sin (2x) cos (y) + cos (2x) sin (y) = sin (2x + y)

sin (2x) cos (y) + cos (2x) sin (y) = sin (2x + y)

Chapter 2 Circular functions 17

Worked Example 15

Simplify:
a sin (270 C)b sec


.
2

Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
3: Algebra 3
3: Expand 3
Complete the entry lines as:
expand(sin (270 c), c)

,
expand sec
2

Write

a
&
b

Press ENTER after each entry.


Note: The calculator should be in
degree mode for the first expansion
above, and radian mode for the
second.
2

Express the answer as a reciprocal


function.

18 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

sec = cosec( )
2

Worked example 16

5
Find the exact value of cot
.
12
Think

WriTe

express

express cot in terms of its reciprocal,

use the appropriate compound-angle


formula to expand the denominator.

5

cot = cot +
4 6
12

5
as the sum of and .
6
4
12

express in simplest fraction form.

Simplify.

1
.
tan

tan
+
4 6
1

tan + tan
4
6


1 tan tan

4
6

1 tan tan
4
6

tan + tan
4
6
1
3
1

1 (1)
1+
1
1+

1
3
1
3

3 1
3
3 +1
3

3 1
3 +1

Rationalise the denominator.

( 3 1)( 3 1)
( 3 + 1)( 3 1)

Simplify.

3 2 3 +1
31

42 3
2
= 2 3
=

ChapTer 2 Circular functions

19

Note: It is possible to check the answer


using a calculator.
On a Calculator page, complete the entry
line as:
5
cot
12
then press enTeR .

20

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

ChapTer 3

Complex numbers
Worked example 1

Using the imaginary number i, write down an expression for:


16

Think

a
&
b

WriTe

Change the document settings to


Rectangular mode. To do this, press:
HOME c
5: Settings 5
2: Settings 2
2: Document Settings 2
Tab down to Real or Complex and
select Rectangular.

On a Calculator page, complete the


entry lines as:

a
&
b

16

5
Press ENTER after each entry.

ChapTer 3 Complex numbers

21

Worked Example 4

Simplify z = i4 2i2 + 1 and w = i6 3i4 + 3i2 1.


Think

Write

On a Calculator page, complete the entry


lines as:
i4 2i2 + 1
i6 3i4 + 3i2 1
Press ENTER after each entry.

Write the answer.

z=4
w = 8

Worked Example 5

Evaluate each of the following.


1 3 i i 2 i3
a Re(7 + 6i)b Im(10)c Re(2 + i 3i3)d Im

2
Think

Write

a , b , 1 On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
c &
2: Number 2
d

9: Complex Number Tools 9


2: Real Part 2 or
3: Imaginary Part 3
Complete the entry lines as:
real(7 + 6i)
imag(10)
real(2 + i 3i2)
1 3i i 2 i 3
imag

2
Press ENTER after each entry.
2

Write the answers.

a Re(7 + 6i) = 7
b Im(10) = 0
c Re(2 + i 3i3) = 2

1 3i i 2 i3
= 1

d Im

22 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked Example 10

Determine Re(z2w) + Im(zw2) for z = 4 + i and w = 3 i.


Think
1

On a Calculator page, complete the entry


lines as:
Define z = 4 + i
Define w = 3 i
Press ENTER after each entry.
Then press:
Menu b
2: Number 2
9: Complex Number Tools 9
2: Real Part 2
Complete the entry line as:
real(z2 w) + imag(z w2)
Then press ENTER .
Note: The imaginary part can be found in
the same menu as the real part.

Write the answer.

Write

Re(z2 w) + Im(zw2) = 37

Worked Example 12

Write down the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.


a 8 + 5ib 2 3i
Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
2: Number 2
9: Complex Number Tools 9
1: Complex Conjugate 1
Complete the entry lines as:
conj (8 + 5i)
conj (2 3i)
Press ENTER after each entry.

Write the answers.

Write

a8 5i
b 2 + 3i

Chapter 3 Complex numbers 23

Worked Example 16

If z = a + bi, find a and b such that


Think
1

5 z 15
= 4 3 i.
z1
Write

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
3: Algebra 3
C: Complex C
1: Solve 1
Complete the entry line as:
5z 15

= 4 3i, z
cSolve

z 1
Then press ENTER .

a is the real part of z, b is the


imaginarypart.

a = 2, b = 3

Worked Example 17

Find the modulus of the complex number z = 8 6i.


Think
1

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
2: Number 2
9: Complex Number Tools 9
5: Magnitude 5
Complete the entry line as:
|8 6i|
Then press ENTER .

Write the answer.

24 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Write

|z| = |8 6i| = 10

Worked Example 23

Express each of the following in polar form, r cis (), where = arg(z), < .
a z = 1 + ib z = 1 3 i
Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, complete the


entry line as:
1+i
Then press:
Menu b
2: Number 2
9: Complex Number Tools 9
6: Convert to Polar 6
Then press ENTER .

Write the answer.

Use the relationship rei = r cos () + ir sin


() to express the answer in the required
form. The calculator always gives in
principle valued form.

Write

a
&
b

For a , 1 + i = 2 cis
4

Key in 1 3i and repeat the above


procedure.
4

Write the answer.

For b , 1 3i = 2e

= 2cis
3

Chapter 3 Complex numbers 25

Worked Example 36

a If f(z) = z3 + 7z2 + 16z + 10, find all factors of f(z) over C.


b Factorise P(z) = z3 (3 i)z2 + 2z 6 + 2i.
Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
3: Algebra 3
C: Complex C
2: Factor 2
Complete the entry lines as
cFactor (z3 + 7z2 + 16z + 10, z)
cFactor (z3 (3 i)z2 + 2z 6 + 2i, z)
Press ENTER after each entry.

Write the answers in the required


form.

26 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Write

a
&
b

For a, the three factors of P(z) are


(z + 1), (z + 3 i) and (z + 3 + i)
For b, P( z ) = ( z 3 + i)( z + 2i)( z 2i)

CHAPTER 4

Relations and regions


of the complex plane
WORKED EXAMPLE 16

Express each of the following expressions in Cartesian form.


a Re(z + 5)
b Im(z 2 3i)
c | z 4 + 2i |
THINK

a , 1 On a Calculator page, complete the


entry lines as:
b
Define z = x + yi
&
Then press ENTER .
c
To answer part a press:

MENU b
2: Number 2
9: Complex Number Tools 9
2: Real Part 2 or
3: Imaginary Part 3 or
5: Magnitude 5
Complete the entry line as:
real(z + 5)
imag(z 2 3i)
| z 4 + 2i |
Press ENTER after each entry.
Write the answers.

WRITE

a,
b
&
c

For a , Re(z + 5) = x + 5.
For b , Im(z 2 3i) = y 3.
For c , | z 4 + 2i | = x 2 8 x + y 2 + 4 y + 20 .

CHAPTER 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

27

ChapTer 5

Differential calculus
Worked example 1

Differentiate the following expressions with respect to x.


4x
a y = tan (6 x)
b y = 2 tan
3
Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
1: Derivative 1
Complete the entry lines as:
d
(tan(6 x ))
dx

WriTe

a
&
b

d
4x
2tan
dx
3
Press enTeR after each entry.

Write the solutions.

For a,

d
6
[tan(6 x )] =
dx
[cos(6 x )]2

For b,

d
dx

2tan

4x =

3

3 cos

8
4x
3

ChapTer 5 Differential calculus

29

Worked Example 4

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 3x + cos (2x) + tan (x) where x =
Think
1

.
4

Write

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
9: Tangent Line 9
Complete the entry lines as:

tangentLine 3 x + cos(2 x ) + tan( x ), x ,

4
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

30 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Equation of the tangent is y = 3x + 1

Worked example 6

Find, using calculus, f ( x) if f ( x) is equal to:


a ecos (2x) + loge (x)

sin( x )
.
x

Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, complete the


entry line as:
f (x) : = ecos (2x) + ln(x)
Then press enTeR .
Note: The syntax used here is
another way of defining a function or
variable. You can use the Define or
Store methods if you prefer.

Complete the entry line as:

WriTe

a
&
b

d2
( f ( x ))
dx 2
Then press enTeR .

Write the solution.

The second derivative,


f '' ( x ) = [4sin 2 (2 x ) 4cos(2 x )]e cos (2 x )

1
x2

On a Calculator page, complete the


entry line as:
sin( x )
f (x) : =
x
Complete the entry line as:
d2
( f ( x ))
dx 2
Press enTeR after each entry.

ChapTer 5 Differential calculus

31

Write the solution.

You may rearrange the answer to


a form similar to that given in the
solution obtained manually as follows.
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
2: Factor 2
Then select and paste the previous
answer to obtain the entry line:

The second derivative,

cos ( x )
3
1
sin( x )
f ( x ) = 5
3
x
2

x2
4x

3
1
cos( x )
sin( x )
factor 5
3
x

4x 2
x2
Then press enTeR .
7

Write the solution.

The second derivative:


(3 4 x 2 ) sin( x ) 4 x cos ( x )
f ( x ) =
5
4x 2

Worked example 16

Find the equation of the normal to the curve with equation:


x
y = 2cos 1 at the point where x = 3 .
2
Think

32

On a calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
A: normalLine A
Complete the entry line as:
x

normalLine 2 cos1 , x , 3

2
Then press enTeR .

Write your solution in an appropriate


form.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

WriTe

The equation of the normal is y =

x
3

+ .
2 2 3

Worked Example 18

Find the antiderivative for each of the following expressions:


3
20
1
b
a
c
.
2
2
16 + x 2
25 x
49 x
Think

Write

a , 1 On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
b
4: Calculus 4
&
3: Integral 3
c

Complete the entry lines as:

1
dx

2
25 x
3

dx

2
49 x

20
dx

16 + x 2

Press ENTER after each entry.


Note: The calculator finds the second
form of the antiderivative in part b . Also,
it does not include the constant. You will
have to do that yourself.
2

Write your solutions, remembering to


include the constant of integration.

a
b
c

1
25

x2

x
dx = sin 1 + c
5

x2

x
dx = 3sin 1 + c
7

49

20
x
dx = 5tan 1 + c
4
16 + x 2

Chapter 5 Differential calculus 33

Worked Example 21

Differentiate the equation y2 + 3x2 = 4 to find


Think
1

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
E: Implicit Differentiation E
Complete the entry line as:
impDif (y2 + 3x2 = 4, x, y)
Then press ENTER .

Substitute for y as in part a (which


is preferable in this straightforward
equation) or continue to use the calculator
to make y the subject in the equation.
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1
Complete the entry line as:
Solve (y2 + 3x2 = 4, y)
Then press ENTER .

Express the domain, 3x2 4 0


shown in the screen in a more appropriate
form. Take care to change to < as y is in
the denominator in the solution.

Write your solution, remembering to


include the domain.

34 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

dy
in terms of x.
dx
Write

3
3

<x<

2 3
3

2 3
dy
3x
2 3
=
;
<x<
2
dx
3
3
4 3x

Worked Example 23

dy
For x2y2 + y = 2, find the gradient of the tangent,
, at the point (1, 2). Hence, determine the
dx
equation of the tangent at this point.
Think
1

Write

The gradient of the implicit function can


be found using a CAS calculator.
To do this, on a Calculator page, press:
Menu b
4: Calculus 4
E: Implicit Differentiation E
Complete the entry line as:
impDif (x2 y2 + y = 2, x,y)| x = 1 and
y = 2
Then press ENTER .

8
The gradient of the tangent at (1, 2) is .
Use this information and the general 3
equation of a straight line to determine the
equation of the tangent.

y y1 = m( x x1 )
8
y 2 = ( x 1)
3
8x 8
y+2=

3 3
8x 8
y=
2
3 3
8 x 14
y=

3
3

Chapter 5 Differential calculus 35

ChapTer 6

Integral calculus
Worked example 1

Find the antiderivative of the following expressions.


3 x2 + 1
a (x + 3)7
b 4x(2 x2 + 1)4
c
x3 + x
Think

a
&
b

WriTe

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
3: Integral 3
Complete the entry lines as:

a
&
b

( x + 3)7 dx
(4 x (2 x 2 + 1)4 ) dx

3x 2 + 1
dx
3
x +x

Press enTeR after each entry.


Note: The calculator cannot
determine the solution for part c .
It simply returns the input you
entered. You will have to do this
problem manually. Also, it does not
include the constant for any of the
antiderivatives. ensure you include
the constant with your answers.

Write your solutions, remembering


to include the constant of integration.

Recognise that 3x2 + 1 is the


derivative of x3 + x. Let u = x3 + x.

Find

du
.
dx

( x + 3)8
+c
8
(2 x 2 + 1)5
4 x (2 x 2 + 1)4 dx = 5 + c

( x + 3)7 dx =

Let u = x3 + x.
du
= 3x 2 + 1
dx

ChapTer 6 Integral calculus

37

Worked Example 2

Antidifferentiate the following functions with respect to x.


x+3
2
3
a f ( x) = 2
b f ( x ) = ( x 1) cos( 3 x x )
( x + 6 x )3
Think

Write

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
3: Integral 3
Complete the entry line as:
x+3
dx
2
( x + 6 x )3
Then press ENTER .
The answer is in an equivalent but
more complex form than the solution
found manually.

Collect the terms in factorised


form over a common denominator as
follows:
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
2: Factor 2
Complete the entry line as
( x + 9)
1
1
+

factor
2
432( x + 6)
432 x 144 x 2
Then press ENTER .

(x

x+3
1
+c
dx = 2
3
4 x ( x + 6)2
+ 6x)

Write your solution, remembering to


include the constant of integration.

Express in integral notation.

Recognise that x2 1 is a multiple of


the derivative of 3x x3.

Let u = 3x x3.

Let u = 3x x3.

Find

du
.
dx

du
= 3 3x 2
dx
= 3(1 x2)
= 3(x2 1)

38 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

( x 2 1) cos(3x x 3 ) dx

Substitute u for 3x x3 and


( x 2 1) =

du
.
3 dx

So ( x 2 1) cos(3 x x 2 ) dx
1

du
dx
3 dx
cos u du
dx
=
3 dx
cos u
du
=
3
1
cos u du
=
3
= cos u

Antidifferentiate with respect to u.

Replace u with 3x x3.

sin

+c

sin(3 x

x3)

+c

Chapter 6 Integral calculus 39

Worked Example 7

Find the antiderivative of the following expressions.


x
2

a sin2

x
4

b 2 cos2
Think

Write

Express in integral notation.

x
Use identity 1 to change sin2 .
2

sin2 2 dx
= 12 [1 cos( x )] dx

1
2

[1 cos( x )] dx

Take the factor of 2 to the front of the


integral.

Antidifferentiate by rule.

= 12 [ x sin( x )] + c

Simplify the answer.

If you use a calculator for problems


such as these, you may find the
answer expressed in a form that is
different from the ones above.
The screen dump shows the result, in
the first line, of part a done using a
CAS calculator.
The compact form shown in the
second line can be obtained as
follows.
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
B: Trigonometry B
2: Collect 2
Complete the entry line as:

x 1
sin( x ) + c
2 2

x
x
x
tCollect sin cos
2
2
2
Then press ENTER .

sin2 2 dx =

x sin( x )
+c
2

Write your solution, remembering to


include the constant of integration.

Express in integral notation.

x
Use identity 2 to change cos2 .
4

2(

Simplify the integral.

1 + cos 2 dx

Antidifferentiate by rule.

x
= x + 2sin + c
2

40 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

2cos 4 dx

1
2

) 1 + cos 2x dx
x

Worked example 12

For each of the following rational expressions:


i express as partial fractions
ii antidifferentiate the result.
x+7
2x 3
a
b 2
( x + 2 )( x 3)
x 3x 4
Think

WriTe

a i 1 express the rational expression

as two separate fractions with


denominators (x + 2) and
(x 3) respectively.

x+7
a
b
=
+
( x + 2)( x 3) ( x + 2) ( x 3)

a( x 3) + b( x + 2)
( x + 2)( x 3)

express the partial fractions


with the original common
denominator.

equate the numerator on the


left-hand side with the righthand side.

so

Let x = 2 so that a can be


evaluated.

Let x = 2, and thus 5 = 5a

Solve for a.

Let x = 3 so that b can be


evaluated.

Solve for b.

Rewrite the rational expression


as partial fractions.

A CAS calculator can convert


expressions in partial fraction
form as follows.
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
3: expand 3
Complete the entry line as:

x + 7 = a(x 3) + b(x + 2)

a = 1
Let x = 3, and thus 10 = 5b
b=2
Therefore

1
x+7
2
=
+
( x + 2)( x 3) x + 2 x 3

x+7
expand
( x + 2)( x 3)
Then press enTeR .

10

ii 1 express the integral in partial

fraction form.

x+7
2
1
=

( x + 2)( x 3) x 3 x + 2

Write the answer.

Antidifferentiate by rule.

ii

x+7

(x + 2)(x 3) dx
1
2
=
x + 2 + x 3 dx

= loge (| x + 2 |) + 2 loge (| x 3 |) + c;
x R\{2, 3}

ChapTer 6 Integral calculus

41

( x 3)2

= loge
+ c; x R\{ 2, 3}
|
+
|
x
2

Simplify using log laws.

b i 1 Factorise the denominator.

2x 3
2x 3
=
x 2 3 x 4 ( x 4)( x + 1)

express the partial fractions


with denominators (x 4) and
(x + 1) respectively.

a
b
+
x 4 x +1

express the right-hand side


with the original common
denominator.

a( x + 1) + b( x 4)
( x 4)( x + 1)

equate the numerators.

So 2x 3 = a(x + 1) + b(x 4)

Let x = 4 to evaluate a.

Let x = 4,

Solve for a.

Let x = 1 to evaluate b.

Solve for b.

Rewrite the rational expression


as partial fractions.

ii 1 express the integral in its

partial fraction form.

a=1
Let x = 1, 5 = 5b
b=1
Therefore
ii

2x 3
1
1
=
+
x 3x 4
x 4 x +1
2

2x 3
dx
x 3x 4
2

42

5 = 5a

1 + 1 dx

x 4 x + 1

Antidifferentiate by rule.

= loge (| x 4 |) + loge (| x + 1|) + c

Simplify using log laws.

= loge (| x 4 |)(| x + 1|) + c; x R\{1, 4}


or loge (| x2 3x 4 |) + c; x R\{1, 4}

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked example 16

Evaluate the following definite integrals.


a

x2
dx
x2 + 5 x + 4

cos( x ) 1 + sin( x ) dx

Think

WriTe

x2

0 x 2 + 5x + 4 dx

Write the integral.

Factorise the denominator of the


integrand.

express in partial fraction form


with denominators x + 1 and x + 4.

a
b
+
x +1 x + 4

express the partial fractions with


the original common denominator.

a( x + 4) + b( x + 1)
x 2 + 5x + 4

equate the numerators.

Let x = 1 to find a.

Let x = 1, 3 = 3a
a = 1

Let x = 4 to find b.

Let x = 4, 6 = 3b
b=2

Rewrite the integral in partial


fraction form.

So

Consider:

x2
x2
=
x + 5 x + 4 ( x + 1)( x + 4)
2

x 2 = a(x + 4) + b(x + 1)

x2
dx
x 2 + 5x + 4
2

1
2
+
dx
x +1 x + 4

Antidifferentiate the integrand.

= [ loge (| x + 1 |) + 2loge (| x + 4 |)]20

10

evaluate the integral.

= [loge (3) + 2 loge (6)] [loge (1) + 2 loge (4)]


= loge (3) + 2 loge (6) 2 loge (4)

11

Simplify using log laws.

= 2 loge (1.5) loge (3)


= loge (2.25) loge (3)
= loge (0.75)
(or approx. 2.88)

12

You may attempt this problem using


a CAS calculator.
On a Calculator page, press
Menu b
4: Calculus 4
3: Integral 3
Complete the entry line as:

x2

( x 2 + 5 x + 4) dx

Then press enTeR .


Pressing Ctrl / enTeR will
give an approximate answer.
13

Write the solution.

x2
3
dx = loge
4
( x 2 + 5 x + 4)
2.88

ChapTer 6 Integral calculus

43

Write the integral.

cos( x ) 1 + sin( x ) dx

Let u = 1 + sin (x) to antidifferentiate.

Find

cos( x ) dx =

du
dx
dx

cos( x ) dx =

Change terminals by finding u

when x = 0 and x = .
2

When x = 0,

Simplify the integrand.

So

Let u = 1 + sin (x)


du
= cos( x )
dx

du
.
dx

When x =

, u = 1 + sin
2
2
=1+1
=2

2 1
u2
1
2 1
u2
1

du
dx
dx
du

3 2

Antidifferentiate the integrand.

= 23 u 2
1

evaluate the integral.

= 23 2 2 23 12

=
or
9

using CAS, press


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
3: Integral 3
Complete the entry line as:

cos( x ) 1 + sin( x ) dx

Then press enTeR .

44

u = 1 + sin (0)
=1

cos( x ) 1 + sin( x ) dx

=
=

du
dx
dx

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

4 2 2

3
3
4 22
3

Worked Example 19

Find the area bounded by the curves y = x2 2 and y = 2x + 1.


Think
1

Write

On a Calculator page,
complete the entry line as:
3

1 ( x 2 2 (2 x + 1)) dx

Then press ENTER .

State the solution.

The area bounded by the two curves is 10 3


square units.

Chapter 6 Integral calculus 45

ChapTer 7

Differential equations
Worked example 7

Find the general solution to

dy
1
= 2x +
.
dx
1 x2

Think
1

WriTe

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential equation Solver D
Complete the entry line as:

1
deSolve y = 2 x +
, x , y ,
2

1 x
then press enTeR .

The general solution is y = sin 1 (x) + x2 + c.

Write the solution.

Worked example 8

Find the particular solution to h(t) =

t
t2

+9

Think
1

where h(4) = 1.
WriTe

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential equation Solver D.
Complete the entry line as:

t
deSolve h' =
and h(4) = 1, t , h ,
2

t +9
then press enTeR .

Write the solution.

The particular solution is h(t ) = t 2 + 9 4.

ChapTer 7 Differential equations

47

Worked Example 10
x

Find the general solution to f ( x ) = e 2 2.


Think
1

Write

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential Equation Solver D
Complete the entry line as:
x

deSolve y = e 2 2, x , y ,

then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

The general solution is


x

y = 4e 2 x 2 + cx + d .

Worked Example 11

Find the particular solution to y(x) = 4 sin (2x + ) given that y(0) = 1 and y(0) = 4.
Think
1

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential Equation Solver D
Complete the entry line as:
deSolve(y = 4 sin (2x + ) and y(0) = 1
and y(0) = 4, x, y),
then press ENTER .

Write the solution. Note that it is different


from but equivalent to the solution found
manually.

48 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Write

The particular solution is


y = sin (2x) x + 4.

Worked example 13

Find general solutions for each of the following differential equations.


dy
=y
a
dx
b y(x) = tan (y)
Think

WriTe

On a Calculator page, press:


Menu b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential equation Solver D
Complete the entry line as:
deSolve(y = y, x, y),
then press enTeR .

Write the solution, making sure to


write the integration constant in a
conventional form.

express the derivative as

Invert both sides of the differential


equation.

Simplify

Let u = sin (y) to antidifferentiate


using the derivative present method.

Find

du
into
Substitute u and cos ( y) =
dy
the integral.

dy
.
dx

1
.
tan( y)

du
.
dy

The general solution is y = Aex.

y(x) = tan (y)


dx
= tan ( y)
dy
dx
1
=
,y0
dy tan( y)
=

cos( y)
sin( y)

cos( y)
dy
sin( y)
Let u = sin (y)
x=

du
= cos (y)
dy
x=

1 du
dy
u dy

Simplify the integrand.

du
u

Antidifferentiate by rule.

= loge (| u |) + c

Replace u by sin ( y).

x = loge (| sin (y) |) + c

10

Subtract c from both sides.

x c = loge (| sin (y) |)

11

express the equation in exponential


form.

e x c = | sin (y) |

ChapTer 7 Differential equations

49

50

12

Write the constant in a more suitable


form.

| sin (y) | = ecex

13

Remove the modulus sign and take


sin1 of both sides to make y the
subject.

sin (y) = ecex


y = sin1 (Ae x), where A = ec

14

State the solution.

Therefore, the general solution is y = sin1 (Ae x).

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked Example 14
1

a Find the particular solution of y = 1 y 2 if y(0) = 2 .

b State the largest domain for which the solution applies.


Think

a
&
b

On a Calculator page, complete the


entry line as:
1

deSolve y = 1 y 2 and y(0) = , x , y ,

2
then press ENTER .

The solution does not have y as the


subject. You can do this yourself
manually to obtain the solution.

Alternatively, you can use the solve


feature of the calculator as follows.
Press:
Menu b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1.
Complete the entry line as:

solve sin 1 ( y) = x , y ,

6
then press ENTER .

The domain, as given by the


calculator, has to be re-worked into
2

the form:
x .
3
3
However, although this is a valid
domain for the solution of the
trigonometric equation, the end
points of this domain are not valid
for the differential equation due to
the 1 y 2 term in the denominator.
Putting all of this together, write
down the correct domain.

Write

a
&
b

The particular solution is y = sin x + .


6

Domain is

<x< .
3
3

Chapter 7 Differential equations 51

Worked Example 24

Use the numerical integration method to find the value of y when x = 15 if


at x = 0.
Think

dy
= 2 x , given that y = 1
dx

Write
15

Substitute appropriate values and


expressions, a = 0, b = 1 and f(x) = 2x, in
the formula. On a Calculator page, press:
Menu b
4: Calculus 4

y(15) =

2 x dx + 1
0

F: Numerical Calculations F
3: Numerical Integral 3
Complete the entry line as:
nInt(2x,x,0,15) + 1,
then press ENTER .

Write the answer.

The value of y when x = 15 is 226.

Find the antiderivative of 2x.

y = x2 + c

Evaluate the constant by applying the


initial condition y(0) = 1.

y = x2 + 1

Substitute x = 15 and compare the new


answer to the previous one.

y = 225 + 1 = 226
The answers are the same.

52 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Chapter 8

Kinematics
Worked example 3

The position of a particle moving in a straight line is given by:


x(t) = 2t3 + t loge (t) 4, t > 0.
Find:
a the velocity at any time t
b the acceleration at any time t.
think

To determine the velocity at any


time, differentiate x with respect
to t, using a CAS calculator by
completing the following steps.
Define the function x(t). To do this,
on a Calculator page, press:
MENU b
1: Actions 1
1: Define 1
Complete the entry line as:
Define x(t) = 2t3 + t ln(t) 4
then press ENTER .

Differentiate x with respect to t.


To do this press:
MENU b
4: Calculus 4
1: Derivative 1
Complete the entry line as:
d
( x (t ))
dt
then press ENTER .

Write the solution using the correct


notation and variables.

Write

The velocity at any time is given as:


v(t) = loge (t) + 6t2 + 1.

Chapter 8 Kinematics

53

To determine the acceleration at any


time, differentiate the velocity with
respect to t. To do this, complete the
entry line as:
d
(ln(t ) + 6 t 2 + 1)
dt
then press ENTER .

Write the solution using the correct


notation and variables.

See the screen above.

The acceleration at any time is given as:


1
a(t ) = 12t + .
t

Worked example 4

Find the acceleration in terms of x if x(t) = sin (2t) cos (2t).


think

54

To find the acceleration given the


position, on a Calculator page, complete
the entry line as:
d2
(sin(2t ) cos(2t ))
dt 2
then press ENTER .
Note: The second derivative template is
located in the Maths expression template.

Write the solution in terms of x.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Write

a(t) = 4 cos (2t) 4 sin (2t)


a(t) = 4 (sin (2t) cos (2t))
But x = sin (2t) cos (2t)
a(x) = 4x

Worked Example 6

The acceleration of a particle moving in straight line is given by:


dv
= 5 e t 6 t + 4 cm/s2, where v is the velocity at any time.
dt
If the particle starts at the origin with a velocity of 1 cm/s, find:
a the velocity at any time t
b the displacement x (t) from the origin at any time t
c the displacement from the origin 1 second.
Think

a Solving the differential equation, to find

Write

the velocity press:


MENU b
4: Calculus 4
D: Differential Equation Solver D
Complete then entry line as:
deSolve ( v ' = 5et 6t + 4 and v ( 0 ) = 1, v , t )
then press ENTER .

b Solving the differential equation, to find


& the displacement press:
c MENU b

b
&
c

4: Calculus 4
D: Differential Equation Solver D
Complete then entry line as:
deSolve (x ' = 5et 3t 2 + 4t 5
and x ( 0 ) = 0, x , t )
then press ENTER .

To find the displacement after 1 second,


complete as shown.

Chapter 8 Kinematics 55

Worked Example 7

The acceleration of a body travelling in a straight line is given by:


a(t) = 6t 2 m/s2; when t = 0, x = 0 and v = 1.
a Find the displacement at any time t.
b Find the distance travelled in the first 3 seconds.
Think

Write

To find the displacement at any


time t, first find the velocity by
antidifferentiating a with respect
to t, using a CAS calculator by
completing the following steps.
To do this, on a Calculator page,
complete the entry lines as:
Define a(t) = 6t 2

(a(t)) dt

Press ENTER after each entry.


To find the constant of integration
complete the entry lines as:
Define v(t) = 3t2 2t + c
solve(v(0) = 1,c)
Press ENTER after each entry.
2

State the velocity at any time.

Antidifferentiate v to find the


displacement x by completing the
entry line as:

(3t

v(t) = 3t2 2t 1

2t 1) dt

then pressing ENTER .


The constant of integration can be
found by completing the entry lines
as:
Define x(t) = t3 t2 t + d
solve(x(0) = 0,d)
Press ENTER after each entry.

State the displacement at any time t.

To find when the object might have


changed direction, find t when v = 0.
Complete the entry lines as:
Define x(t) = t3 t2 t
Define v(t) = 3t2 2t 1
solve(v(t) = 0,t)
Press ENTER after each entry.
1
Since t , t = 1
3
Complete the entry lines as:
x(0)
x(1)
x(3)
Press ENTER after each entry.

56 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

x(t) = t3 t2 t
b

Therefore the body travels 16 m in the first three


seconds of motion.

Write the solution given that


Distance = |x(3) x(0)| + |x(1) x(0)|.

Solving v(t) = 0, for t gives

1
t = 0 as t
3
x(0) = 0
x(1) = 1
x(3) = 15
Distance = |x(3) x(0)| + |x(1) x(0)|
= 16
Therefore the body travels 16 m in the first
3 seconds of motion.

Chapter 8 Kinematics 57

Worked Example 9

A ball is thrown vertically upward from a platform 16 metres above the ground and has an initial
velocity of 24.5 m/s. Find:
a the maximum height above the platform that the ball reaches
b the time taken to reach the maximum height
c the time taken for the ball to fall to the ground from the maximum height
d the total time the ball is in the air
e the speed of the ball when it returns to the level of the platform
f the speed of the ball when it hits the ground.
Think

Sketch a diagram of the motion of


the ball.
Consider up to be positive and down
to be negative.

Write

v=0
a = 9.8 m/s2

Platform
t=0
16 m u = 24.5
Ground

At its maximum height the velocity


of the ball, v, is 0.

v = 0 at the balls maximum height.

List what is given and what has to be


found.

Given: u = 24.5
v = 0

a = 9.8
Require: s = ?

Select an appropriate formula.

v2 = u2 + 2as

Using the CAS calculator to solve


the equation for s, the displacement,
complete the entry line as:
solve(02 = 24.52 + 2 9.8 s,s)
then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

List the given information and what


has to found.

Select an appropriate formula.

58 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Solving 02 = 24.52 + 2 (9.8) s for


s gives s = 30.625 m.
Therefore, the maximum height reached above the
platform is 30.625 metres.
b

u = 24.5
a = 9.8
v=0
t=?
v = u + at

Using the CAS calculator solve the


equation for t.
Complete the entry line as:
solve(0 = 24.5 9.8 t,t)
then press ENTER .

State the solution.

Sketch another diagram for the ball


falling from its maximum height.

Solving 0 = 24.5 9.8 t for t gives t = 2.5.


Therefore, the ball takes 2.5 seconds to reach its
maximum height.
c

Max. height
u=0
30.625 m
Platform
a = 9.8 m/s2
16 m
Ground

List the given information and what


has to be found.
Both a and s are negative as their
direction is downwards.

Select an appropriate formula.

Using a CAS calculator to solve the


equation for t, complete the entry line
as:
1
solve(46.625 = 0 t + 2 9.8 t2,t)

Given: u = 0
a = 9.8
s = (30.625 + 16)
= 46.625
Require: t = ?
s = ut + 12 at 2

Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

Solving 46.625 = 0 (t) + 2 (9.8) t2 for t


gives t = 3.085.
Therefore, it takes approximately 3.085 seconds
for the ball to fall to the ground from its maximum
height.

Chapter 8 Kinematics

59

60

Add the time travelling up to the


time travelling down.

State the answer.

List the given information and what


has to be found.

Select an appropriate formula.

Using the CAS calculator to solve


the equation for v, complete the entry
line as:
solve(v2 = 02 + 2 9.8 30.625, v)
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

List the information and what has to


be found.

Select an appropriate formula.

Use the CAS calculator to solve for v.


Complete the entry line as:
solve(v2 = 02 + 2 9.8 46.625, v)
then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Total time = 2.5 + 3.085


= 5.585
Therefore, the ball is in the air for approximately
5.585 seconds.

u=0
a = 9.8
s = 30.625
v=?
v2 = u2 + 2as

Solving v2 = 02 + 2 9.8 30.625 for v gives


v = 24.5 or v = 24.5.
Since the object is travelling downward, v = 24.5.
Therefore, the speed of the ball when it returns to
the level of the platform is 24.5 m/s.
f

u=0
a = 9.8
s = 46.625
v=?
v2 = u2 + 2as

Solving v2 = 02 + 2 9.8 46.625 for v gives


v = 30.23 or v = 30.23.
Therefore, the ball hits the ground with an
approximate speed of 30.23 m/s.

Worked example 16

The acceleration of a particle travelling in a straight line is given by


velocity at any time t. At time t = 0, the body is at rest at the origin.
Find, as a function of time:
a the velocity
b the acceleration
c the position.
think

Write the acceleration as given.

Invert both sides of the differential


equation.

Express t in integral form.

Antidifferentiate the integrand, using


the CAS calculator.
Complete the entry line as:
1
dv
v +1
then press ENTER .
Given that t = 0 when v = 0, to find
the constant of integration, complete
the entry line as:
solve(0 = ln(| 0 + 1 |) + c,c)
then press ENTER .
Rearrange the equation to make v
the subject by completing the entry
line as:
solve(t = ln(| v + 1 |),v)
then press ENTER .

dv
= v + 1, where v is the
dt

Write

dv
= v +1
dt
dt
1
or
=
dv v + 1
t=

1
dv
v +1

Write the solution.

t=

1
dv = loge (| v + 1 |) + c
v +1

Solving 0 = loge (| 0 + 1 |) + c for c


gives c = 0.
So, t = loge (| v + 1 |)
Then, solving t = loge (| v + 1 |) for v
gives v = et 1 or v = et 1.
Since v = 0 when t = 0
Then v = et 1
b

Differentiate v with respect to t to


find the acceleration (or we could
substitute v into the original equation
for acceleration).

State the answer.

Express x as the antiderivative of v.

Antidifferentiate the integrand.

dv
dt
d (et 1)
a=
dt
a=

a = et
c

x=

(et 1) dt

x = et t + c

Chapter 8 Kinematics

61

62

Substitute t = 0 and x = 0, the initial


condition given.

When t = 0, x = 0
0 = e0 0 + c

Solve for c.

c = 1

State the answer.

x = et t 1

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Chapter 9

Vectors
Worked example 9

Find the unit vector in the direction of u


~:

a in the figure at right

~u

b in u = 2 i 3 j + 2 3 k .

think

Express the vector in component


form.

Compute the magnitude of the


vector, u.


Divide each component of the


original vector by the magnitude to
get u.


Comfirm that u has a magnitude of 1.




3j
~

6i~

Write

C (6, 3)

u = 6i + 3 j

 
u = 6 2 + 32

= 45
=3 5
6
3
u =
i+
j
3
5
3
5


=

2 5
5
i+
j
5  5 

u = x 2 + y2

20 5
=
+
25 25
=

25
25

=1

Chapter 9 Vectors

63

To find the unit vector in the direction


of u by using a CAS calculator,

complete
the following steps.
Define the vector u. To do this press:
MENU b 
1: Actions 1
1: Define 1
Complete the entry line as:

Define u = 2, 3,2 3

Then press ENTER .
Find the unit vector in the direction
of u .
To do this press:
MENU b
7: Matrix & Vector 7
C: Vectors C
1: Unit Vector 1
Complete the entry line as:
unitV(u)
Then press ENTER .
2

64

Write the unit vector in the direction


of u.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

2
3
2 3
u = i j +
k
5 
 5 5

Worked Example 15

Let u = 5 i + 2 j . Find a vector parallel to u such that the dot product is 87.




Think

Let the required vector v = ku.





Find the dot product of u . v.


 
Simplify.

Equate the result to the given dot product 87.

Solve for k.

Substitute k = 3 into vector v.



An alternative method is to use a CAS
calculator. Let the required vector v = ku.


Using a CAS calculator, define u and v by

completing the following steps. 
On a Calculator page, press:
MENU b
1: Actions 1
1: Define 1
Complete the entry line as:
Define u = [5,2]
 ENTER .
then press
Repeat for v = k [5,2]


10

Write

Let v = k (5i + 2 j)



= 5ki + 2 kj


u . v = (5i + 2 j).(5ki + 2 kj)
 




= 25k + 4k
= 29k
29k = 87
k=3
v = 15i + 6 j

 
u = 5i + 2 j



So v = k (5i + 2 j)




Using a CAS calculator solve u . v = 87 for


 Press:
k, by completing the followingsteps.
MENU b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1
After solve, then press:
MENU b
7: Matrix and Vector 7
C: Vector C
3: Dot Product 3
Complete the entry line as:
solve(dotP(u, v ) = 87, k )
then press ENTER .
Write the solution.

Solving u . v = 87 for k gives


 k = 3
Therefore,
v = 15i + 6 j

 

Chapter 9 Vectors 65

Worked Example 19

Determine the value of p if the following vectors are linearly dependent.


a = i + pj k, b = i + 3 j + 8 k and c = i j + 2 k
     

  


Think

Let a = mb + nc.




To solve this equation for m, n and


p define vectors a, b and c as shown
 

previously.
Then press:
MENU b
3: Algebra 3
1: Solve 1

Write

Leta = mb + nc
Solve a = mb + nc for m, n and p.




Complete the entry line as:


solve(a = m b + n c,{m, n, p})
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution.

Solving a = m b + n c for m, n and p gives:


m = 0.5
n = 1.5
p = 3

66 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

Worked example 21

Let u = 2 i + 3 j + k and v = 3 i + 2 j k.




 
 
Find:
a the scalar resolute of v on u

b the vector resolute of v parallel
to u, namely v

 to u, namely

c the vector resolute of v perpendicular
v .



think

To find the scalar resolute of v



on u, find u.


Using a CAS calculator, define v and
u as shown previously and find u by

completing
the entry line as: 
unitV(u)
Then press ENTER .

Write u .


To find u . v (the scalar resolute of v



 use CAS to
on u), first

define w = u .
 the dot product u . v,
Then, to find
complete the entry line as:  
dotP(w,v)
Then press ENTER .

Write the scalar resolute of


v on u.



Write

u =


u . v =
 

14
3 14
14
i+
j+
k
7 
14  14 

14
14

Chapter 9 Vectors

67

To find the vector resolute of v



parallel to u (that is, (u . v )u) using




CAS, complete the entry line as
follows:
dotP(w,v) w
Then press ENTER .

Write the vector resolute of v parallel



to u.


c To find the vector resolute of v

perpendicular to u (that is, v  (u . v )u)


 the entry
 line
  as:

using CAS, complete
1
v
7

3
14

14

then press ENTER .


Write the solution in an appropriate form.

68

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

1
1
3
(u . v )u = i
j k
   7  14  14 
c

20
31
13
v (u . v )u =
i+
j k
    7  14  14 

Worked Example 25

Let a particles position as a function of time be given by u = 2 cos ( ti ) + 3 sin ( t j ). Find the



equation of the path and sketch its graph.
Think

Write

Express the i and j components of u in




terms of their functions.

In this case, first eliminate the constants in


front of the trigonometric functions.

x = 2 cos (t)
y = 3 sin (t)
x
= cos (t)
2
y
= sin (t)
3

Square both sides of the equation.

x2
= cos2 (t)
4
y2
= sin2 (t)
9

Add the 2 equations.

Use the trigonometric identity


cos2 () + sin2 () = 1.

Use CAS to sketch the graph using the


parametric equations.
On a Graphs page, press:
MENU b
3: Graph Entry/Edit 3
3: Parametric 3
Complete the entry line as shown:
x1(t ) = 2 cos(t )

x 2 y2
+
= cos2 (t) + sin2 (t)
4
9
x 2 y2
+
=1
4
9

y1(t ) = 3sin(t )
0 t 6.28 tstep = 0.13
then press ENTER .

This is the equation of an ellipse of centre


(0, 0) where a = 2 and b = 3.

Chapter 9 Vectors 69

Chapter 10

Vector calculus
Worked example 3

An object has a position vector, in metres, r ( t ) = (3 t 2 sin ( t )) i + ( e t + 2 t ) j ; t 0 seconds.





a Find the velocity vector v( t ).

b Find the velocity of the object at t = 2 s.
c Find the speed of the object at t = 2 s.
d Find the average velocity in the first 2 seconds of the bodys motion.
think

Define the position vector, r ( t ). To



do this press:
MENU b
3: Actions 3
1: Define 1
Then complete as shown, then press
ENTER .
To find v ( t ). To do this press:
 b
MENU
4: Calculus 4
1: Derivative 1
Complete the entry line as:
d
( r ( t ))
dt

Write the solution using correct


vector notation.

Substitute t = 2

Write the solution using correct


vector notation.

Write

v ( t ) = ( 6t cos ( t )) i + ( e t + 2 ) j



b

1
v ( 2 ) = (12 ) i + 2 2 j
e 



Chapter 10 Vector calculus

71

72

To find the speed, find the norm of


the vector.

State the speed correct to 2 decimal


places.

The average velocity in the first


r ( 2) r ( 0 )
2 seconds, is 

20

State the average velocity

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

The speed of the object is 9.05 m/s.


d

vav = 6 i + 1.567 j




Worked example 5

A body moves in such a way that its position vector in metres at an instant t seconds is given by:
1
1


r ( t ) = 15 t t 2 + 1 i + 12 t t 3 j, t 0.

2
3 



Find:
a the velocity vector v( t )

b the acceleration vector
a( t )

c the angle between the velocity
vector and the acceleration vector of the body at a time t = 1 s, to
the nearest degree
d the time when the body has an acceleration of magnitude 9.8 m/s2.
think

Write

Differentiate r, the position vector, with a



respect to t, using
a CAS calculator by
completing the following steps.
Define the position function r (t ). To do

this press:
MENU b
1: Actions 1
1: Define 1
Complete the entry line as:
1
1
Define r (t ) = 15t t 2 + 1,12t t 3
2
3

then press ENTER .


To find v (t ) differentiate r with respect


to t, press:
MENU b
4: Calculus 4
1: Derivative 1
Complete the entry line as:
d
(r (t ))
dt
then press ENTER .

Write the solution using correct


vector notation.

To find the acceleration vector a(t )


complete the following steps. 
Define the velocity function v (t ), by
completing the entry line as: 

dr
v (t ) = 
dt

v (t ) = (15 t ) i + (12 t 2 ) j



b

Define v (t ) = [15 t ,12 t 2 ]


Then press ENTER .
Differentiate v (t ) with respect to t, by
 entry line as:
completing the
d
( v (t ))
dt
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution using correct


vector notation.

a(t ) =

a(t ) =


dv

dt
i 2tj



Chapter 10 Vector calculus

73

To find the angle between the


velocity and acceleration vectors,
complete the following steps.

Define the acceleration function


a(t ) = [ 1, 2t ]
Calculate the velocity vector
when t = 1, by finding v(1) and the
acceleration vector when t = 1, by
finding a(1).
Calculate the magnitude of vectors
v(1) and a(1)
by completing the entry lines as:
norm([14, 11])
norm([1, 2]).
Press ENTER after each entry.
Calculate the dot product a(1) . v (1)


(Refer to the previous chapter,
Vectors, to review the dot product.)
2

The angle, , between the two


vectors v(1) and a(1) is found using


the equation
a(1) . v (1) = a(1) v (1) cos( )




This can be done by hand or using
the calculator.
Write the solution using correct
vector notation.

v (1) =14 i + 11 j



a(1) = i 2 j



a(1) . v (1)
cos( ) = 

a(1) v (1)


v(1) = 317

a(1) = 5

a(1) . v (1) = 36


36
cos( ) =
317 5

= 155 to the nearest degree.


The angle between the two vectors is
approximately 155.

74

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

d State the acceleration a(t ) at any time, t.

Find the magnitude ofthe acceleration at


any time, t.
Use the CAS calculator to solve for t
when the acceleration is equal to 9.8 m/s2.
Complete the entry line as:

solve

a(t ) = i 2tj



a(t ) = 1 + 4t 2


1 + 4t 2 = 9.8, t
Then press ENTER .
Note: Only positive solutions for t are
allowed.

Solving 1 + 4t 2 = 9.8 for t gives t 4.87, t 0.


When t = 4.87 s the magnitude of the acceleration
is 9.8 m/s2.

Chapter 10 Vector calculus 75

Worked Example 10

An object is thrown off a building


(t = 0 s) on a windy day. The acceleration of the object in m/s2

1
i 9.8 e 10 j . At a time, t = 1, the object has a velocity in m/s of v(1) = 2 i 3 j .
is given by a( t ) = 12





The building is 50 m above the ground and hence the initial position of the object is taken to be
r = 0 i + 50 j .
 What
 is the initial acceleration of the object?
a
b Determine the velocity vector v( t ) for all times t 0.
c Determine the position vector r ( t ) for all times t 0.


Think

Define the acceleration function a(t ),


by completing the entry line as: 
t
1

Define a(t ) = , 9.8e 10



12

Then press ENTER .


Substitute t = 0 into a(t ) to find the
initial acceleration. 

Write the solution

The velocity vector is found by


integrating the acceleration a(t ) with

respect to time.

The vector constant of integration


must be found. To do this using the
CAS calculator, define the velocity
vector v (t ) by completing the entry
line as:

Write

1
a(0) = i 9.8 j
2


b

t
t

Define v (t ) = + m,98e 10 + n
12


Then press ENTER .

State the integrand and the velocity


vector v (t ) with the vector constant

of integration
expressed as mi + nj
 

76 Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

v (t ) = a(t ) dt + c



t
t
10
v (t ) = i + 98e j + mi + nj
12 

 


Evaluate the vector constant of


integration using the fact that
v (1) = 2 i 3 j .

 
Complete the entry line as:
solve( v (1) = [2, 3],{m, n})
Then press ENTER .

State the values of m and n and the


velocity vector.

Redefine the velocity vector v (t ) with


the correct values of m and n.

The position vector r (t ) is found



by integrating the vector
v (t ) with

respect to time.

State the integrand and the position


vector r (t ), with the vector constant

of integration
expressed as pi + qj
 

The vector constant of integration


must be found. To do this using the
CAS calculator, define the position
vector r (t ) by completing the entry
line as:
Define

23
and n = 91.674
12
t

t 23
v (t ) = + i + 98e 10 91.674 j

12 12 



m=

r (t ) = v (t ) dt + d



t
2

23
t

r (t ) = + t + p i + 980e 10 91.674t + q j
24 12




t
t 2 23

r (t ) = + t + p, 980e 10 91.674t + q
24
12


Then press ENTER .

Chapter 10 Vector calculus

77

78

Use r (0) = 0 i + 50 j to solve the vector




 do this, complete
constants p and q. To
the entry line as:
solve(r (0) = [0, 50],{p, q})
then press ENTER .

State the values of p and q and the


position vector.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

p = 0 and q = 1030
t

t 2 23
r (t ) = + t i + 980e 10 91.674t + 1030 j
24 12 



CHAPTER 11

Mechanics
WORKED EXAMPLE 5

In a science laboratory a 1.0-kg mass is suspended


by two taut strings as shown at right. The tension
forces in string 1 and
string 2 are A and B respectively.
 vector
 diagram showing all three forces which
a Draw a force
act on the 1.0-kg mass.
b By resolving vectors into i and j components find the


magnitudes of A and B respectively.


THINK

The mass has three forces acting


on it: the weight force vertically
downwards and the two tension
forces. One tension force acts
horizontally the second acts at an
angle of 42 to the horizontal.
Draw the force vector diagram.

The weight vector can be written


as g j.

The first tensile force can be written
as Ai .


4
5

String 1
42

j
~
~i

1.0-kg mass

WRITE

String 2

~B

~i

A
~

42

j
~

W
~ = g~

W = g j


A = Ai



The second tensile


force can be resolved as
B = B cos(42 ) i + B sin(42 ) j



Express the resultant force, R, as the

sum of the three forces.

B = B cos(42 ) i + B sin(42) j




Set the sum of the three vectors to


zero in accordance with Newtons
third law.

But R = 0 i + 0 j




R = ( A B cos(42 )) i + ( B sin(42 ) g) j




CHAPTER 11 Mechanics

79

80

Use CAS to solve the vector


equation.
First define the vector R, by
completing the entry line as:
Define r = [a b cos (42),
b sin (42) 9.8]
Then press ENTER .

To solve the equation complete the


entry line as:
solve(r = [0, 0], {a, b})
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution correct to 1 decimal


place, showing the correct units.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

A = 10.9 N

B = 14.6 N


WORKED EXAMPLE 6

John Wiley & Sons Australia/Jennifer Wright

j
A car of mass 800 kg is parked in a street which has an angle of elevation
~
of 15. The i direction is parallel down the street and the j direction is
 to the street.

perpendicular
~i
15
The car is subject to three forces, namely its weight, W , the normal
 applied force of the
reaction force, N , of the road acting on the car and the

brake (this is actually
a static friction force) F.
 forces, W , N and F, acting on the car, taking the car
a Draw a vector diagram indicating the three

 
as a particle.
b What is the magnitude of the resultant force R?
 express it as a vector using i j notation.
c Resolve the weight, W , into its components and

 
d Calculate the magnitude of N, the normal contact force, and the magnitude of the
applied force

of the brake, F.


j
~

15

~i

15
THINK

Draw the force vector diagram.

The car is in equilibrium since it is


stationary.

Apply Newtons First Law of Motion:


the resultant force, R, must be zero.

Therefore, the magnitude of the
resultant force, R, is zero.

A stationary car parked on a street


will have a vertical weight force, a
normal reaction force and a static
frictional force resisting its sliding or
rolling down the street.

Draw a diagram showing the


resolution of the weight, W , into
 j.
components parallel to i and



WRITE

N
~

j
~
~i

~F
15
W
~

R=0

R=0N
c

j
~
~i

15
15
Wy
W
~

The component of W parallel to i , Wx ,




is W sin (15).

Wx

F = 207g

CHAPTER 11 Mechanics

81

82

Substitute W = 800g and evaluate.

The component of W parallel to j, Wy



is W cos (15).

Substitute W = 800g and evaluate.

Express W in vector notation.




The components of the net forces


parallel to the i and j vectors are


both zero.

Use CAS to solve for F and N by


completing the entry line:
solve([207 g f, n 773 g] = [0, 0],
{ f, n})
Then press ENTER .

Write the solutions for F and N.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

= 800g sin (15)i



207gi

Wy = W cos (15)
= 800g cos (15) j

773g j

W = Wx i + Wy j



W = 207gi 773g j



d (207 g F ) i + ( N 773g) j = 0 i + 0 j


 


F = 207g
N = 773g

WORKED EXAMPLE 11

A skier of mass 60 kg begins a ski run from the top of a mountain down an 18 slope. A constant
friction force of 37 N acts on the skier as he descends.
a Draw a vector force diagram depicting the three forces which act on the skier.
b Write the equation of motion using Newtons Second Law of Motion.
c Determine the magnitude of the normal contact force and the acceleration of the skier.
d If there were no frictional force present, find the acceleration of the skier.
THINK

a Three significant forces act on the skier: the

WRITE

weight force W , the normal reaction force N


 friction F .

and the force of


j
~

~N
~F

Mass = 60 kg
~i
18
W
~

Use Newtons second law.

The vector W is to be resolved into


componentsparallel to i and j.



We know that m = 60 and ay = 0.

But:
W = 60 9.8 = 584N
F = 37N
= 18

Use CAS to solve the vector equation,


R = 60 ai + 0 j , by completing the entry
 as: 

line
solve([60 9.8 sin (18) 37, n 60
9.8 cos (18)] = [60 a, 0], {n, a})
Then press ENTER .

Write the solutions correct to


2decimal places, with the correct
units.

R = ma


R = (W sin( ) F ) i + ( N W cos( )) j



R = max i + ma y j



R = 60 ax i + 0 j



W = 584N
F = 37N
= 18

N = 559.22 N
a = 2.41 m/s2

CHAPTER 11 Mechanics

83

84

To find the acceleration when no


d
frictional force is present, edit the
resultant force equation by completing
the entry line:
solve([60 9.8 sin (18), n 60 9.8
cos (18)] = [60 a, 0], {n, a})
Then press ENTER .

Write the solution, with the correct units.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

a = 3.03 m/s2

WORKED EXAMPLE 15

35kg
25kg
Two carts connected by a light, inextensible rope are being accelerated
Tractor
across a tarmac by a tractor. The leading card (CartL) has a mass of
35 kg; the trailing cart (CartT) has a mass of 25 kg. The coefficient
CartT CartL
of friction on the tarmac is = 0.20. The tractor exerts a pulling force
of 190 N on the cart of mass 35 kg, as shown at right. The breaking
tension in the rope is 150 N.
a Draw a force vector diagram for each of the two masses.
b Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of the two carts.
c Calculate the tension in the rope which connects the two masses.
d If the two masses are to be accelerated at a higher rate, what is the greatest acceleration of the
carts before the rope breaks?
THINK

Each cart can be represented as a


particle with its own set of forces
acting.

WRITE

N
~1
(CartT)
T
~

F1
~

The trailing cart (CartT) will have


four forces acting on it. These forces
are the normal contact force, N1; the

weight force, W1; the force of friction,

F1; and the tensile force, T , acting to
 right.

the

W
~1
Mass 1 = 25 kg

The leading cart (CartL) will have


five forces, namely the normal
contact force, N 2; the weight force,
W2; the frictionand tensile forces,
F2 and T , acting to the left; and the

force
of the tractor, A, acting towards

the right.

N2
~
~F2

A
~ (Cart )
L

~T
W
~2
Mass 2 = 35 kg

R = (T F1 ) i + ( N1 25g) j



= 25ai + 0 j


N1 25g = 0

Use Newtons second law to write


the equation of motion for CartT.

Equate the j components of the


equation. 

Solve for N1.

N1 = 25g

Find the friction force acting on


CartT using F1 = N1.

F1 = N1
= 0.2(25g)
= 5g

Equate the i components of the


equation ofmotion.

Substitute F1 = 5g into the equation


and call it equation 1.

T 5g = 25a

Use Newtons second law to write


the equation of motion for CartL.

CartL:

Equate the j component of the equation.



Solve for N2.

9
10

Find the friction force F2 acting on


CartL.

CartT:

T F1 = 25a
[1]

R = (190 F2 T ) i + ( N 2 35g) j



= 35ai + 0 j


N2 35g = 0
N2 = 35g
F2 = 0.2(35g)
= 7g

CHAPTER 11 Mechanics

85

11

Equate the i components of the


equation ofmotion for CartL.

190 F2 T = 35a

12

Substitute F2 = 7g into the equations


and call it equation 2.

190 7g T = 35a

13

Use CAS to solve equations 1 and 2,


by completing the entry line as:
solve(t 5 9.8 = 25 a and
190 7 9.8 t = 35 a, {t, a})
then pressing ENTER .

14

Write the solution.

c Write the solution.


d

86

To find the maximum acceleration


substitute T = 150 into equation 1.

Solve for a.

State the solution.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics

[2]

a = 1.2 m/s2, correct to 1 decimal place.


c

T = 79 N correct to the nearest whole number.


Therefore the tension in the rope is 79 N.
Substitute T = 150 into equation 1:
150 5g = 25a
a = 4.04
The maximum acceleration of the carts before the
rope breaks is 4.04 m/s2.