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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)

Comparative Study on Use of Biodiesel (Methyl Ester Kusum


Oil) and Its Blends in Direct Injection CI Engine A Review
N. P. Rathod 1, S. M. Lawankar 2
1

M. Tech Student, Thermal Engineering (Part Time), GCOE Amravati


Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GCOE Amravati

Abstract--Due to the increase in cost and scarcity of


petroleum resources have promoted research in alternative
fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible
options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal
fats) are promising for substitutes of fossil diesel fuels.
Vegetable oil poses some problems when subjected to
prolonged usage in compression ignition engines because of
high viscosity as reported by different researchers.
The research on alternative fuels for compression
ignition engine has become essential due to depletion of
petroleum products and its major contribution for
pollutants, where vegetable oil promises best alternative fuel.
Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to
reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. But major
disadvantage of vegetable oil is its viscosity, which is higher
than that of mineral diesel. Hence neat vegetable oil does not
give better performance. In the present review paper
properties of methyl ester kusum oil and its blend with diesel
is compared with diesel and various vegetable oils. Various
fuel inlet temperatures, blending ratio, viscosity and various
loading conditions are some of the parameters that need to be
analyzed for better engine performance and reduced
emissions. In this study, a review of research papers on
various operating parameters have been prepared for better
understanding of operating conditions and constrains for
methyl ester kusum oil and its blends fuelled compression
ignition engine.

I. INTRDUCTION
The diesel engines dominate the field of commercial
transportation and agricultural machinery due to its ease of
operation and higher fuel efficiency. The consumption of
diesel oil is several times higher than that of petrol. Due to
the shortage of petroleum products and its increasing cost,
efforts are on to develop alternative fuels especially, to the
diesel oil for fully or partial replacement. It has been found
that the vegetable oils are promising fuels because their
properties are similar to that of diesel and are produced
easily and renewably from the crops.
In most of the developed countries, biodiesel is produced
from soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, peanut, etc., which are
essentially edible in Indian context. Among the various
vegetable oil sources, non-edible oils are suitable for
biodiesel production. Because edible oils are already in
demand and too expensive than diesel fuel. Among the
non-edible oil sources, Jatropha, karanjan, Mahua, Neems,
sal, kusum, Nahar, Rice bran and Tumba is identified as
potential biodiesel source and comparing with other
sources, which has added advantages as rapid growth,
higher seed productivity, suitable for tropical and
subtropical regions of the world.
Biodiesel is a chemically modified alternative fuel for
use in diesel engines, derived from vegetable oils and
animal fats. Biodiesel is produced commercially by the
transesterification of vegetable oils with alcohol. Methanol
or ethanol is the commonly used alcohols for this process.
These can also be produced from the biomass sources. The
direct use of alcohols as fuel causes corrosion of various
parts in the engine. The transesterification process solves
this problem. The carbon cycle of vegetable oils consists of
release and absorption of carbon dioxide. Combustion and
respiration process release carbon dioxide and crops for
their photosynthesis process absorb the carbon dioxide.
Thus, the accumulation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere
reduces. The carbon cycle time for fixation of CO2 and its
release after combustion of biodiesel is quite small (few
years) as compared to the carbon cycle time of petroleum
oils.

Keywords-- Vegetable oil, Kusum oil, Alternative Fuel,


Elevated temperature, CI Engine, Engine emission.

Nomenclture
CI Compression Ignition
COME Cotton seed oil methyl ester
KME Kusum oil methyl ester
CR Compression ratio
EGT Exhaust gas temperature
IT Injection timing
JOME Jatropha oil methyl ester
KOME Karanja oil methyl ester
MME Mahua oil methyl ester
RRO Raw rapeseed oil

254

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)
The experimental results of various researchers support
the use of biodiesel as a viable alternative to the diesel oil
for use in the internal combustion engines. It is also
important to note that most of the experiments conducted
on biodiesel are mainly obtained from refined edible type
oils only. The price of refined oils such as sunflower,
soybean oil and palm oil are high as compared to that of
diesel. This increases the overall production cost of the
biodiesel as well. Biodiesel production from refined oils
would not be viable as well as economical for the
developing countries like India. Hence, it is better to use
the non edible type of oils for biodiesel production. In
India, non-edible type oil yielding trees such as linseed,
castor, Karajan, neem, rubber, jatropha, kusum and cashew
are available in large number. The production and
utilization of these oils are low at present, because of their
limited end usage. Utilization of this oils/biodiesel as fuels
in internal combustion engines are not only reducing the
petroleum usage, but also improve the rural economy.
Efforts will be made here to produce biodiesel from typical
unrefined oil (kusum seed oil) and to use it as the fuel in
diesel engines.

Figure: Kusum Seeds

III. VEGETABLE O IL (METHYL E STER O F KUSUM O IL)


AS AN ALTERNATIVE F UEL
Vegetable oils mainly contain triglycerides (90% to
98%) and small amounts of mono and di-glycerides.
Triglycerides contain three fatty acid molecules and a
glycerol molecule. They contain signicant amounts of
oxygen. Commonly found fatty acids in vegetable oils are
stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid (Agarwal
D. and Agarwal A., 2007). Due to the agricultural origin,
they are able to reduce net CO2 emissions. They have a
reasonably high cetane number. The CO emission
decreased with preheating due to the improvement in spray
characteristics and better air fuel mixing. In principle,
vegetable oil is carbon neutral. Vegetable oil is
biodegradable, safe to store and transport due to high
boiling point and does not cause environmental or health
problems.
However, the high viscosity and poor volatility of
vegetable oil show difficulty in handling by the
conventional fuel injection system. Transesterification and
emulsification are found as effective methods for
improving performance and reducing emissions of a diesel
engine fuelled with vegetable oils. However,
transesterification is a more expensive, time consuming and
complex process due to the chemical and mechanical
processes involved. Emulsions can be made by mixing
water and surfactants with oil in a simple process.
However, making stable emulsions with suitable
surfactants is a difficult task. In addition to that use of
emulsions in diesel engines results in inferior performance
at part loads.

II. KUSUM SEEDS O IL


In the present review study, the kusum seed oil, a nonedible type vegetable oil is chosen as a potential alternative
for producing biodiesel and use as fuel in compression
ignition engines. The estimated availability of kusum seed
is about 25, 000 oil potential per tones per annum. In the
past Kusum oil was exported from India to Germany. This
market has now fallen away. Current (1979) production in
India is 4000-5000 tons. Kusum seed kernels (0.45 lacks of
tones of seed) contain 40.3% of yellowish brown colored
oil. The one or two almost round seeds some 1.5cm in
diameter and weighing between 0.5 and 1.0g. The weight
of 1000 seeds is 500-700 g. S. oleosa is widely in the subHimalayan region, chattishgar, throughout central and
southern India, Burma, Ceylon, Java and Timor. The oil
obtained from its seeds is called Kusum oil or Macassar oil
which is traditionally used for the cure of itch, acne, burns,
other skin troubles, rheumatism (external massage), hair
dressing and promoting hair growth. (Mallela et al, 2011.)

255

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)
Fuel preheating technique offers the advantage of easy
conversion of the normal diesel engine to work on heavy
fuels. It needs no modifications in the engine. Engine with
fuel preheating has indeed in principle superior
characteristics to that of normal fuel operation. The
experimental result as shown in fig. 1 shows The viscosity
decreases considerably as the temperature increases and are
close to diesel engine operation at about 120 C
(S.K.Acharya and Mohanty, 2009).

The important properties of biodiesel produced from


Schlichera oleosa methyl ester are quite close to that of
diesel. Hence the methyl esters of Schlichera oleosa methyl
ester can be a prospective fuel or performance improving
additive in compression ignition engines. Use of the
biodiesel as partial diesel substitute can boost the farm
economy, reduce uncertainty of fuel availability and make
farmers more self-reliant. Also, this help in controlling air
pollution to a great extent. (Mallela et al, 2011.)

Table 1
Raw oil and Blending of Methyl Ester of Kusum Fuel Properties.
(Mallela Gandhi, N. Ramu and S. Bakkiya Raj methyl ester
production from schlichera oleosa)
Density@4
0 oC
(Kg/m3)

Flash
point
(oC)

Fuel

Viscosit
y @ 40
o
C (cSt)

Fire
point
(oC)

Calorific
Values
(Kj/Kg)

B100%

14.2

850

150

157

41,650

B80%

12.03

840

109

117

41,720

B60%

9.73

830

88

93

41,790

B40%

8.00

820

85

89

41,860

B20%

3.33

809

80

84

41,930

Raw oil

40.36

860

225

231

38,140

Figure: Effect of temperature on viscosity of Kusum oil.

Of the several methods available for production of


biodiesel, transesterification of natural oils and fats is
currently the method of choice. The purpose of this method
is to lower the viscosity of the oil or fat. The main factor
affecting the transesterification are molar ratio of
glycerides to alcohol, catalyst, reaction temperature and
time and the contents of free fatty acids and water in the
oils and fats. The commonly accepted molar ratio of
alcohol to glycerides is 6:1(F.Ma, M.A.Hannal, 1999).
The result shows that, transesterification improved the
important fuel properties of the oil like specific gravity;
viscosity; flash point and acid value. The comparison
shows that the methyl ester has relatively closer fuel
properties to diesel than that of original unrefined
Schlichera oleosa(Kusum oil) seed oil. blends can be used
as the performance improver.

IV. COMPARISION O F P ROPERTIES OF D IESEL, VEGETABLE O ILS AND B IODIESELS


Table 2
Thermodynamic properties of diesel and vegetable oil
Properties

Diesel

Density (kg/m3)
Calorific value (kJ/kg)
Cetane number
Viscosity@40 oC
Oil content wt%
Flash point oC
Pour point oC

840
42490
45
3.05
85
-4

Karanja
Oil
938
38879
28.93
35.98
25-50
237
3

Mahua oil
924
37,614
40
39.45
35-50
276
14

Jatropha
oil
917
39071
23
35.98
20-60
229
4

256

Cottonseed
oil
909.5
39500
41.8
33.5
17-25
23
-4

Linseed
oil
923.6
39300
34.6
27.2
35-45
241
-15

Rapeseed
oil
911.5
39700
41.3
37
25-35
246
-31.7

Kusum
Oil
860
38140
40
40.36
25-36
225
--

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)
Table 3
Thermodynamic properties of biodiesel
Properties
Density (kg/m3)
Calorific
value(MJ/kg)
Cetane number
o

Viscosity@40 C

JOME
862-886

KOME
865-898

M0ME
828-865

COME
872-885

LOME
874-920

ASTM
870-900

KME
850-830

37.2-43

36-42.1

36.8-43

40.1-40.8

37.5-42.2

35.0-41.65

43-59

36-61

47-51

45-60

48-59

47 min

42-48

3-5.65

3.8-9.6

2.7-6.2

3.6-5.9

3.36-8.9

1.9-6

9-14.2

180-280

110-187

5-208

70-200

161-181

>130

~150

2-6

-6-10

1-6

-15-6

-18-14

-15 - 10

--

Flash point C
Pour point C

The main reason for this could be that percent increase


in fuel required to operate the engine is less than the
percent increase in brake power due to relatively less
portion of the heat losses at higher loads (Godiganur S
et.al, 2009).
For preheated neat Karanja oil fuel, brake specific fuel
consumption has high value at low speed but decreases as
the speed increases, and then it reaches the value to that of
a diesel fuel. For all fuel inlet temperatures, the specific
fuel consumption varies with increasing speed. The brake
specific fuel consumption becomes closer at the maximum
speed for both neat Karanja oil fuel and diesel fuel within
the speed range 1500 to 4000 rpm (Kadu S. and Sarda R.,
2010).

V. RESULTS & D ISCUSSION


5.1. Effect of Brake Power on Performance Parameter
5.1.1. Brake thermal efficiency
The brake thermal efficiency of CI engine is lower than
that of the corresponding diesel fuel at all the engine speed.
Thermal eciency of preheated Jatropha oil was found
slightly lower than diesel. The possible reason may be
higher fuel viscosity. Higher fuel viscosity results in poor
atomization and larger fuel droplets followed by inadequate
mixing of vegetable oil droplets and heated air. However,
thermal eciency for preheated Jatropha oil was higher
than unheated Jatropha oil. The reason for this behavior
may be improved fuel atomization because of reduced fuel
viscosity (Agarwal D. and Agarwal A., 2007).
The variation of Brake Thermal efficiency for injection
pressure (IP) of 200 bar and 225 bar with load for different
fuel blends. In both cases brake thermal efficiency is
increased due reduced heat loss with increase in load. But
considering the viscosity, B20 is the better option and this
value is comparable with the maximum brake thermal
efficiency for diesel (28.2% and 27.4% for 200bar &
225bar). Also it is found that brake thermal efficiency for
biodiesel in comparison to diesel engine is a better option
for part load on which most engine runs (Lohit N.et.al.,
2012).

5.1.3. Exhaust gas temperature


Experimental study of preheated Jatropha oil shows the
variation of exhaust gas temperature for diesel and Jatropha
oil (unheated and preheated). Result shows that the exhaust
gas temperature increases with increase in brake power for
each fuel. Highest value of exhaust gas temperature of 389
o
C was observed with the PJO100 and lowest was achieved
with JO (Jatropha oil) of about 345oC whereas the
corresponding value with diesel was found to be 359 oC
(Agarwal D. and Agarwal A., 2007).
The variation of exhaust temperature with brake power
for Diesel and other oils in the test engine. Exhaust
temperature of Neem, Mahua and Castor are almost same
as that of diesel in the mid range of load. This is an
indication of lower exhaust loss and could be possible
reason for higher performance. Exhaust temperature of
Linseed is much higher than diesel (M.C.Navindgi et.al,
2012).

5.1.2. Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake-specific fuel consumption is the ratio between
mass fuel consumption and brake effective power, for a
given fuel, it is inversely proportional to thermal efficiency.
An experimental study on mahua oil methyl ester-diesel
blends shows that the BSFC was found to increase with
increasing proportion of biodiesel in the fuel blends with
diesel, whereas it decreases sharply with increase in load
for all fuels.

5.2. Effect of Brake Power on Emission Characteristic


Due to agricultural origin, vegetable oils are able to
reduce net CO2 emissions. It is proved that blend of
Karanja oil up to 20% gives lower CO emissions than
diesel.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)
Blends higher than 20% showed higher CO emissions
compared to mineral diesel at high engine load (Agarwal
A. and K. Rajamanoharan, 2009). Due to the high
viscosity, the air-fuel mixing process is affected by the
difficulty in atomization and vaporization of Karanja oil
and blends. The resulting locally rich mixtures cause more
incomplete combustion products such as CO, HC and PM
because of lack of oxygen. Higher the engine load, richer
air-fuel mixture is burned, and thus more CO is produced.

The high viscosity of the RRO causes poor spray


characteristics, forming locally rich air-fuel mixtures
during the combustion process thus leading to CO
formation. CO emission was decreased for all test fuels
with preheating due to the improvement in spray
characteristics and better air-fuel mixing. When preheated,
CO emissions were decreased by 20.59%, 16.67% and
25.86% for DF, O20 and O50, respectively (Hazar H. and
Aydin H., 2010).
Preheated Jatropha oil shows marginal increase in CO2
emission compared to diesel fuel. Unheated fuel operation
gives higher CO2 emissions compared to preheated fuels.
At lower loads, CO emissions were nearly similar but at
higher loads, CO emissions were higher for Jatropha oil
compared to that of diesel. This is possibly a result of poor
spray atomization and non-uniform mixture formation with
Jatropha oil. For preheated jatropha oil blends CO2
emissions for lower blend concentrations were close to
diesel. (Agarwal D. and Agarwal A., 2007)

5.2.1. Unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emission


For preheated jatropha oil HC emissions are lower at
partial load, but tend to increase at higher loads for all
fuels. This is due to lack of oxygen resulting from engine
operation at higher equivalence ratio. Preheated jatropha oil
produced lower HC emissions compared to Jatropha oil but
higher than diesel fuel (Agarwal D. and Agarwal A., 2007).
An experimental study on mahua oil methyl ester shows
decrease in the HC emission level with blends of methyl
ester of mahua oil as compared to pure diesel fuel. There is
a reduction from 74 ppm to 50 ppm at the maximum power
output of 96 kW. These reductions indicate that more
complete combustion of the fuel takes place and thus, HC
level decreases signicantly (Godiganur S et.al, 2009).

5.2.4. Smoke emission


Smoke emission using Jatropha oil was greater than that
of diesel. Heating the Jatropha oil result in lower smoke
emission compared to unheated oil but it is still higher than
diesel (Agarwal D. and Agarwal A., 2007).
For preheated RRO blends the smoke emissions
decrease with the preheating. The most sufficient decreases
were observed for rapeseed oil blends. The lowest smoke
densities were obtained with preheated O50 and O20. The
average smoke densities were decreased by 9.4%, 20.1%
and 26.3% for DF, O20 and O50, respectively. This may be
due to the reduction in viscosity and subsequent
improvement in spray (Hazar H. and Aydin H., 2010).

5.2.2. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission


NOx emissions are extremely undesirable. Three
conditions which favor NOx formation are An
experimental study on preheating raw rapeseed oil shows
that the NOx emission increases with the increase in the
fuel inlet temperature. The average NOx emission was
increased by 19%, 18% and 15% using DF, O20 and O50,
respectively. The increase in NOx with preheating may be
attributed to the increase in the combustion gas temperature
with an increase in fuel inlet temperature (Hazar H. and
Aydin H., 2010).
The increase in NOx emissions with preheated COME
may due to various reasons, such as improved fuel spray
characteristics, better combustion of biodiesel due to its
high oxygen content and higher temperatures in the
cylinder as a result of preheating. The NOx emission for
COME increases approximately 11.21-39.1% as compared
to diesel fuel. The maximum increase in NOx emissions
were obtained in the case of COME 90 (Karabektas M.
et.al. 2008)

VI. CONCLUSION
Based on the comparative study of the reviewed paper
for the performance and emissions of vegetable oil (Bio
diesel), it is concluded that the vegetable oil represents a
good alternative fuel for diesel and therefore must be taken
into consideration in the future for transport purpose. Thus
a number of conclusions are drawn from the studies of
various experimental results. Thermal efficiency, and
exhaust temperature increases while other performance
parameter like BSFC is decreased for preheated vegetable
oil fuelled engine compared to unheated vegetable oil.
Except NOx the other emission characteristics such as HC,
CO and CO2 are decreased due to preheating of the fuel.
Preheating by exhaust gases could be one feasible solution
to overcome the problem of high viscosity which is being
the major cause of many problems identied by several
researchers.

5.2.3. Carbon mono-oxide (CO) and CO2 emissions


Preheating of raw rapeseed oil shows the effect on CO
emission. CO emission of RRO blends was not sufficiently
lower than those of DF.

258

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013)
[8]

Straight vegetable oils have the potential to reduce NOx


emissions which is one of the major concerns of the world
today. Thus straight vegetables and their blends fuelled
engines have a great capability to be comparable to that of
diesel fuel. To reach the optimum performance further
research can be carried out in this eld.
In the present paper the important properties of biodiesel
produced from Schlichera oleosa methyl ester are quite
close to that of diesel. Hence the methyl esters of
Schlichera oleosa methyl ester can be a prospective fuel or
performance improving additive in compression ignition
engines.

[9]

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