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Designing Yagi-Uda Antenna Fed by Microstrip Line

and Simulated by HFSS


Hassan Karbalaee

Mohammad Reza Salehifar

Saeed Soleimany

Shahed University
Tehran Iran
H79_karbalaee@yahoo.com

Islamic Azad University


Science and Research Branch
Tehran Iran
Mr_salehifar@yahoo.com

Islamic Azad University


Qazvin Branch
Qazvin - Iran
Saeed.soleimany@gmail.com

Abstract- In this article, we have proposed a novel Yagi antenna


that has both compactness of resonant antenna and broadband
characteristics of traveling-wave radiators. It is fabricated on
dielectric substrate with a microstrip (MS) feed. The top layer
consists a microstrip feed, a broadband microstrip-to-coplanar
stripline (CPS) transition and two diopole-elements, one of them
which is driver element is fed by CPS, and the second is director.
The metal underside is a microstrip ground which serves as a
reflector element and cancels using reflector dipole. This antenna
is constructed on low cost substrate with 1.56mm thickness and
.
. The simulated bandwidth is about 35% and its gain
is more than 5dB.
Fig.1 Three elements Yagi Uda antenna

Keywords: Yagi-Uda antenna, HFSS, microstrip


I.

INTRODUCTION

Yagi-Uda first recalls television antenna installed on the roofs.


An example of three elements antenna is shown in Fig.1. The
optimal spacing in order to maximum directivity (about
15dB) between driver and reflector is about 0.15 and the rate
between driver and director is about 0.25 . Generally, the
reflector is 5% or more longer than resonant length of driver,
similarly the director is shorter. In General, for antenna with
three or more elements, the driver with a length less than 2
(0.45
0.49 ) will resonate while the directors length is
about (0.4
0.45 ). Typically the distance between
directors is (0.3
0.4 ) which is not necessary be similar for
optimal design [1].
II. YAGI ANTENNA BASED ON MICROSTRIP AND COPLANAR
FEEDING

In order to increase the distance of communications, reducing


interferences coming from other wireless system also to
provide wider bandwidth, the use of printed dipole antenna is
highly recommended [2]. Our antenna schematic which is
shown in Fig.2 is designed for performing in UHF band with
about 500~800 MHz bandwidth. Microstrip feeding has this
benefit that the dielectric used in its construction is virtually
a mechanical protective.

A printed dipole (driver) is used in order to create


mode
mode that is
surface wave with the least unintended
effective in Cross-Polarization level determining. In this plan,
the director in addition directs the waves of antenna towards
the endfire direction, simultaneous is involved as a impedance
matching element and the groundplane of the microstrip line
on the feeding port of CPS acts as a reflector. Entirely these
cases lead to compression circuit and compatibility with each
MMIC circuit based on microstrip [3].
First, feeding lines and antenna is designed, simulated and
optimized with HFSS software and finally a practical model is
made.
III. MICROSTRIP LINE AND POWER DIVIDER DESIGN

Microstrip line is designed with 50 impedance. There are


specific software to calculate the line parameters such as
TX Line, that each calculation methods differ from each other.
Also by referring to microstrip line equations [4], we can
separately achieve these line parameters :
W=2.94mm ,
3.13 ,
84.78
In order to convert MS to CPS for feeding antenna is
required transmitted power from 50 line divide between
two50 lines. For this reason we need a impedance
transformer, is shown in Fig.3 .

978-1-4673-1740-5 /12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

Fig.3 A. The quarter wave converter with 2 ports


B. The quarter wave converter with 3 ports

Fig.2 Microstrip Yagi antenna schematic

This is a quarter wave converter for matching 25 to 50 .


By referring to converters formulas [5] :

This cause odd mode as a dominant mode in coupled


microstrip line therefore feeding for CPS will be balanced. In
order to the least effect on the phase and amplitude of the
signal in 90 bends, we use mitred bends. The distance
between cut away point and outer corner of the un-mitred
bend is :
y=0.42mm
This value is obtained by using formulas presented in
reference [6].
V. COPLANAR STRIP LINE AND COUPLED MICROSTRIP

So transformer characteristic impedance with


4 length
equal to 35.35 . By referring to [4]:
W=5.08mm
Of course with connecting three 50 lines to this transformer,
its size needs to resize. In this process, we assumed width and
length transformer as variable elements and set some
parameters of simulation in HFSS as follows :
(width)
(length)
Solution frequency=2.1GHz
Maximum Number of Passes=15
Minimum Number of Passes=3
Minimum Number of Converged Passes=2

0.02
New dimensions of simulation are:
5.2
20.2
In Fig.4 S parameter curve is drawn from simulation which
shows the lowest return loss in 2GHz .
IV. 180 DELAY LINE

By using the balun phase shifter to generate a 180 phase


difference between the coupled microstrip lines at the
working frequency, the correct excitation to the antenna is
provided [2]. It is done with selecting proper length for ,
in Fig.2 such that
4

Since CPS line dose not accept even mode, playing as open
circuit for even mode of coupled microstirp line and allows us
to negate unintended excited even mode in couple line. 100
line with W=5.17mm and L=0.6mm is calculated by formula
No.7.
The connected coupled MS to CPS line is designed for 50
characteristic impedance. Based on [7] formula, will be
obtained:
W=2.94mm , S=0.6mm
Coupled line width is considered as equal as 50 MS line
width because of having the same mitred bends. Fig.5 is
equivalent circuit of odd mode excitation demonstrator.
VI. RADIATOR ELEMENT

Initial dimensions antenna are chosen such as normal yagi


mentioned in introduction. Main part of antenna , reflector,
which located on back of the board as a finite ground plane,
driver feeding by CPS and director are designed in HFSS. For
a 100 input impedance, the best response for much
bandwidth will be obtained with these dimensions:
5.3
,
67.7
5.3
,
33.9
19.5
,
19
,
35.2
VII. RADIATOR ELEMENT

With connecting the feeding part to radiator elements Fig.6


will be obtained. Since this step is the last one in this
simulation and need more accuracy, the type of solution in

Table 1. Final antenna dimensions based on mm


2.94
0.6
5.3
5.2
0.6
22.09
5.55
67.7
5.3
26.75
33.9
2.94
2.94
5.3
9.78
35.2
19.5
9.09
19
2.94

Fig4. Simulated S parameter of power divider

Fig5. Equivalent circuit of odd mode excitation

HFSS is chosen DRIVEN MODE and the antenna will be


located in an air box that really makes radiation boundary;
while the distance between cubic surfaces and antenna is more
than . The input port is LUMPED PORT type with 50
characteristic impedance and also INTEGRATION LINE is
drawn from MS line to ground. SOLUTION FREQUENCY is
considered 2.1GHz for better accuracy. Other parameters are
the same as part III.
After the latest optimization on all of dimensions specially
dimensions of antenna and CPS line to achieve the lowest
return loss, the following results for antenna dimensions is
obtained that its details are shown in Table 1.

Fig6. Equivalent circuit of odd mode excitation

VIII. SIMULATION AND PRACTICAL TEST RESULTS

According to the simulation, the antenna has a bandwidth


10
about 37% that is shown in Fig.7 . The input
(
impedance in Fig.8 shows the antenna in this bandwidth has a
good matching.
The antenna patterns in
90 ,
0 planes in Fig.9 and
also the obtained gain from simulation in bandwidth range in
Fig.10 are shown.
As those Figures show, at the center frequency (2GHz) of
bandwidth , gain is 5.4dB and Front to back Ratio is 13dB. Also
Fig11,12 illustrate in HPBW range, Cross Polarization Surface
is lower than -24dB and this is so desirable.

Fig7. Simulated Return Loss of Antenna

According to these results, an example of antenna was


made that its measurement results in Fig13,14 shows a little
difference between simulation and reality; the following
reasons can be outlined for this difference:
Using non-professional version of HFSS
Style of connecting the connector and solder

IX. CONCLUSION

This configuration of printed Yagi-Uda antenna is designed


and demonstrated. The optimal dimensions of the antenna are
obtained by HFSS simulation. Even with thicker board by
, the dimensions will be shorter. With good
greater
characteristics such as wide bandwidth and suitable FTBR,
Cross Polarization and gain , it should find wide applications
in wireless systems such as WLANs or GSM. Despite using
only one director, it has more gain and a wider bandwidth
compared to similar designed antennas. For more gain, adding
parasitic elements to the basic antenna structure or using
antenna arrays is recommended. If we use a printed dipole
with arms in both sides of dielectric substrate in opposite
directions, and feeding by a transmission line, placed on both
sides of the substrate[7][8], the balun phase shifter is deleted
and final antenna size is reduced. Also the gain is increased
but the bandwidth is slightly decreased.

Fig10. Simulated Gain in Bandwidth Range

Fig11. Simulated Radiation Pattern in H plane


Fig8. Simulated Input Impedance of Antenna

Fig9. Simulated Radiation Pattern

Fig12. Simulated Radiation Pattern in E plane

Fig13. Measured Radiation Pattern for

Fig14. Measured Radiation Pattern for

90

X. REFERENCES
[1] Warren L. Stutzman, Gary A. Tiele, Antenna Theory and Design ,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1997.
[2] E. A vila-Navarro, J. A. Carrasco, and C. Reig, Printed dipole antennas
for personal communication systems, ,IETE Technical Review, vol. 27, no.
4, pp. 286292, 2010.
[3] W.R.Deal, Noriaki Kaneda, James Sor,Yongxi Qian and T.Itoh, A New
Quasi Yagi Antenna for Planar Active Antenna , IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory and Techniques., vol. 48, no.6, June 2000 .
[4] Rajeh Mongia, Inder Bahi, Prakash Bhartia, RF and Microwave
Coupled-Line Circuits , Artech House, 1999 .
[5] Peter A.Rizzi, Microwave Engineering , Prentice Hall, 1987.
[6] E.H.Fooks, R.A.Zakarevicius, Microwave Engineering Using Microdtrip
Circuits , Prentice Hall, 1989.
[7] A.cheldavi, G. Rezai Rad, Introduction to Electromagnetic
Compatibility , Iran University of Science & Technology, 2004.
[8] E. A vila-Navarro , C. Reig,Directive Microstrip Antennas for Specific
Below 2.45 GHz Applications , Hindawi Publishing Corporation
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation ,Volume 2012