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What is the difference between MCB, MCCB, ELCB, and RCCB

MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)

CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS



Rated current not more than 100 A.
Trip characteristics normally not adjustable.
Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
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MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker)

CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS



Rated current up to 1000 A.
Trip current may be adjustable.
Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
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Air Circuit Breaker

. semi conductors. Any mismatch between two currents flowing through phase and neutral detect by -RCD and trip the circuit within 30Miliseconed. The amount of current flows through the phase (line) should return through neutral. If a house has an earth system connected to an earth rod and not the main incoming cable.CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS     Rated current up to 10.  Specially modified RCCBs are available which will operate on normal ac and pulsating dc. These breakers interrupt the arc in a vacuum bottle. These can also be applied at up to 35. then it must have all circuits protected by an RCD (because u mite not be able to get enough fault current to trip a MCB)  RCDs are an extremely effective form of shock protection The most widely used are 30 mA (milliamp) and 100 mA devices. Top Vacuum Circuit Breaker CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS    With rated current up to 3000 A.000 A. Trip characteristics often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically controlled—some models are microprocessor controlled. Vacuum circuit breakers tend to have longer life expectancies between overhaul than do air circuit breakers. The most common is the half wave rectified waveform sometimes called pulsating dc generated by speed control devices. . computers and even dimmers.03 amps) is sufficiently small that it makes it very difficult to receive a dangerous shock. A current flow of 30 mA (or 0. Even 100 mA is a relatively small figure when compared to the current that may flow in an earth fault without such protection (hundred of amps) A 300/500 mA RCCB may be used where only fire protection is required. Limitation of RCCB  Standard electromechanical RCCBs are designed to operate on normal supply waveformsand cannot be guaranteed to operate where none standard waveforms are generated by loads.000 V. on lighting circuits. Often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant. where the breakers are arranged in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance. It trips the circuit when there is earth fault current. It detects by RCD. Top RCD (Residual Current Device / RCCB(Residual Current Circuit Breaker) CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS      Phase (line) and Neutral both wires connected through RCD. where the risk of electric shock is small. eg.

or the service fuse.. A current overload. So if you  touch live and neutral conductors at the same time (e. Neutral and Earth wire connected through ELCB. but more styles of disconnection are fitted into one package Top Difference between ELCB and RCCB .65msec Top RCBO (Residual Circuit Breaker with Overload)  It is possible to get a combined MCB and RCCB in one device (Residual Current Breaker with Overload RCBO). so the situation is unlikely to lead to catastrophe. Top ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker) CHAR ACT ER IS T ICS    Phase (line). RCD will not protect against live-neutral shocks. Nuisance tripping of RCCB: Sudden changes in electrical load can cause a small. In practice. especially in old appliances. and large television sets. Some types of computer equipment. the main MCB for the premises will probably trip. the RCD won’t trip. Operating Time of ELCB:     The safest limit of Current which Human Body can withstand is 30ma sec. It is a frequent cause of problems with novices to replace an MCB in a fuse box with an RCD. This may be done in an attempt to increase shock protection. but it may be inconvenient. that is. because the current in the live and neutral is balanced. Some equipment is notoriously `leaky’.g. they may well trip when the motor of an old freezer switches off. both terminals of a light fitting). cannot be detected. The Body current will be 500/230=460mA. or an overload). constant current flow to earth. Replacing an MCB with  an RCBO of the same rating is generally safe. generate a small.  It is now possible to get an MCB and and RCD in a single unit. ELCB is working based on Earth leakage current. RCD will not protect against a socket outlet being wired with its live and neutral terminalsthe wrong way round. are widely reported to cause problems. Hence ELCB must be operated in 30maSec/460mA = 0. RCDs are very sensitive and operate very quickly. RCDs don’t offer protection against current overloads: RCDs detect an imbalance in the live and neutral currents. you may still get a nasty shock. Suppose Human Body Resistance is 500Ω and Voltage to ground is 230 Volt.   RCD will not protect against the overheating that results when conductors are not properly screwed into their terminals. brief current flow to earth. and may be damaged. called an RCBO (see below). the principals are the same. If a live-neutral fault occurs (a short circuit. however large.

instantly.00001 amps will trip it. but the thing is connectivity is difference. while the fuse requires 300 amps. These devices measured the voltage on the earth conductor. If the fuse has had a couple of overloads before (which may not even have been noticed) this is much more likely. the MCB requires a current of 128 amps. Many people think that if the current exceeds the nominal current.   The fuse clearly requires more current to blow it in that time. ELCB is the old name and often refers to voltage operated devices that are no longer available and it is advised you replace them if you find one.    The easy way to tell an old voltage operated trip is to look for the main earth wire connected through it. As a result. It is these properties that have made the RCD more popular than its rivals. The speed of the MCB tripping will vary with the degree of the overload. have very different properties. In general for consumer units a 6KA fault level is adequate whereas for industrial boards 10KA fault capabilities or above may be required. which is intended to operate when the fault reaches a predetermined level and to trip the MCB within one tenth of a second. even though their nominal currents are similar. ELCB is working based on Earth leakage current. to be sure of tripping in 0. Both the neutral and phase currents are different that means current is flowing through the Earth. RCCB will only have the line and neutral connections. This is normally called the rated current or nominal current.04 To 5 Sec Type D 10 To 20 times full load current 0.  The capability of the MCB to operate under these conditions gives its short circuit rating in Kilo amps (KA). a 30-amp fuse will trip when carrying 30 amps. Top Fuse and MCB characteristics  Fuses and MCBs are rated in amps. For example. because fundamentally Phase current is equal to the neutral current in single phase. right? This is not true. earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs) were widely used about ten years ago. The amp rating given on the fuse or MCB body is the amount of current it will pass  continuously. For 32Amp MCB and 30 Amp Fuse.   The fuse and the MCB. That’s why RCCB can trip when the both currents are deferent and it withstand up to both the currents are same. a current of 30. the use of ELCBs is no longer recommended. The problem is that ELCBs need a sound earth connection. as does the equipment it protects. This explains why fuses can sometimes ‘blow’ for no obvious reason . the device will trip. There is a small likelihood that in the course of. The second characteristic is the magnetic fault protection.04 To 3 Sec The third characteristic is the short circuit protection.04 To 13 Sec Type C 5 To 10 times full load current 0. a month. RCD does not necessarily require an earth connection itself (it monitors only the live and neutral). The voltage type only detects earth faults that flow back through the main earth wire so this is why they stopped being used.In addition it detects current flows to earth even in equipment without an earth of its own. if this voltage was not zero this indicated a current leakage to earth.  This means that an RCD will continue to give shock protection in equipment that has a faulty earth. But RCCB is not having sensing or connectivity of Earth.   Finally both are working for same. but notice how much bigger boththese currents are than the ’30 amps’ marked current rating.  RCCB or RCD is the new name that specifies current operated (hence the new name to distinguish from voltage  operated).1 seconds. The level of this magnetic trip gives the MCB its type characteristic as follows:  Type Tripping Current Operating Time Type B 3 To 5 time full load current 0. Top MCB Selection  The first characteristic is the overload which is intended to prevent the accidental overloading of the cable in a no fault situation. which is intended to protect against heavy faults maybe in thousands of amps caused by short circuit faults. The new RCCB is best because it will detect any earth fault. For example. So if the rating is 30 amps. say. This is usually achieved by the use  of a thermal device in the MCB.

a modern PVC-insulated cable will stand a 50% overload for an hour. so it seems reasonable that the fuse should as well. Characteristics Max Rated Current Tripping Characteristics Fuse (HRC) MCB MCCB ACB VCB ELCB RCCB . If the fuse is marked ’30 amps’. how can we justify calling it a ’30 amp’ fuse? The answer is that the overload characteristics of fuses are designed to match the properties of modern cables. but it will actually stand 40 amps for over an hour. For example.